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Sample records for negative absolute temperatures

  1. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  2. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  3. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  4. Negative absolute temperature for motional degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Ronzheimer, J P; Schreiber, M; Hodgman, S S; Rom, T; Bloch, I; Schneider, U

    2013-01-04

    Absolute temperature is usually bound to be positive. Under special conditions, however, negative temperatures-in which high-energy states are more occupied than low-energy states-are also possible. Such states have been demonstrated in localized systems with finite, discrete spectra. Here, we prepared a negative temperature state for motional degrees of freedom. By tailoring the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we created an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold bosons at negative temperature that is stable against collapse for arbitrary atom numbers. The quasimomentum distribution develops sharp peaks at the upper band edge, revealing thermal equilibrium and bosonic coherence over several lattice sites. Negative temperatures imply negative pressures and open up new parameter regimes for cold atoms, enabling fundamentally new many-body states.

  5. Numerical evidence of drift term in two-dimensional point vortex system at negative absolute temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsuyanagi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The drift term appearing in an anaylitically obtained kinetic equation for a point vortex system is evidenced numerically. It is revealed that the local temperature in a region where the vortices are frequently transported by the diffusion and the drift terms characterizes system temperature and its sign is definitely negative. Simulation results clearly show a ransport process of the vortices by the diffusion term (outside the clumps) and the drift term (inside the clumps), which gives a key mechanism of the self-organization, i.e., condensation of the same-sign vortices.

  6. The Stumbling Block of the Gibbs Entropy: the Reality of the Negative Absolute Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Dragoş-Victor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second Tisza-Callen postulate of equilibrium thermodynamics states that for any system there exists a function of the system extensive parameters, called entropy, defined for all equilibrium states and having the property that the values assumed by the extensive parameters in the absence of a constraint are those that maximize the entropy over the manifold of constrained equilibrium states. Based on the thermodynamic evolution of systems which (in the Boltzmann description have positive and negative temperatures, we show that this postulate is satisfied by the Boltzmann formula for the entropy and may be violated by the Gibbs formula, therefore invalidating the later. Vice versa, if we assume, by reductio ad absurdum, that for some thermodynamic systems the equilibrium state is determined by the Gibbs’ prescription and not by Boltzmann’s, this implies that such systems have macroscopic fluctuations and therefore do not reach the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  7. Evaluation of the absolute regional temperature potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Shindell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Absolute Regional Temperature Potential (ARTP is one of the few climate metrics that provides estimates of impacts at a sub-global scale. The ARTP presented here gives the time-dependent temperature response in four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N and 60–90° N as a function of emissions based on the forcing in those bands caused by the emissions. It is based on a large set of simulations performed with a single atmosphere-ocean climate model to derive regional forcing/response relationships. Here I evaluate the robustness of those relationships using the forcing/response portion of the ARTP to estimate regional temperature responses to the historic aerosol forcing in three independent climate models. These ARTP results are in good accord with the actual responses in those models. Nearly all ARTP estimates fall within ±20% of the actual responses, though there are some exceptions for 90–28° S and the Arctic, and in the latter the ARTP may vary with forcing agent. However, for the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes in particular, the ±20% range appears to be roughly consistent with the 95% confidence interval. Land areas within these two bands respond 39–45% and 9–39% more than the latitude band as a whole. The ARTP, presented here in a slightly revised form, thus appears to provide a relatively robust estimate for the responses of large-scale latitude bands and land areas within those bands to inhomogeneous radiative forcing and thus potentially to emissions as well. Hence this metric could allow rapid evaluation of the effects of emissions policies at a finer scale than global metrics without requiring use of a full climate model.

  8. An All Fiber White Light Interferometric Absolute Temperature Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonggon Harrison Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author of this article proposed a new signal processing algorithm for an all fiber white light interferometer. In this article, an all fiber white light interferometric absolute temperature measurement system is presented using the previously proposed signal processing algorithm. Stability and absolute temperature measurement were demonstrated. These two tests demonstrated the feasibility of absolute temperature measurement with an accuracy of 0.015 fringe and 0.0005 fringe, respectively. A hysteresis test from 373K to 873K was also presented. Finally, robustness of the sensor system towards laser diode temperature drift, AFMZI temperature drift and PZT non-linearity was demonstrated.

  9. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  10. Absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2004-01-01

    We overview mechanisms of absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field irradiated with microwaves and provide plausible explanations of the features observed in recent experiments related to the so-called zero-resistance (zero-conductance) states.

  11. Absolute instability from linear conversion of counter-propagating positive and negative energy waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, A.N.; Brizard, A.J.; Morehead, J.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tracy, E.R. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The resonant interaction of a negative-energy wave with a positive-energy wave gives rise to a linear instability. Whereas a single crossing of rays in a nonuniform medium leads to a convectively saturated instability, we show that a double crossing can yield an absolute instability.

  12. Fast, computer supported experimental determination of absolute zero temperature at school

    OpenAIRE

    Pędziwiatr, Antoni T.; Bogacz, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    A concept of absolute temperature is discussed and a simple method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented - based on gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and computer data acquisition system Coach. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air and extrapolating it to zero pressure it is possible to obtain a reasonable value of absolute zero temperature. It is a convincing and straightforward method to enhance understanding the concept of temperature and suppor...

  13. Existing conditions of full bandgaps and absolute negative refraction in metallic-dielectric photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Jian-Wen; Hu Xin-Hua; Wang He-Zhou

    2007-01-01

    This paper has theoretically studied the characteristic frequencies of band structures in two-dimensional metallicdielectric photonic crystals. It is demonstrated that a large filling fraction benefits the existence of absolute photonic band gap, while a smaller filling fraction benefits an absolute negative refraction band. In addition, it also finds that the relation between the cut-off frequency of E-polarized wave and the filling fraction exceeding 10% is content with a linear increasing function, whose coefficients are exponential to the normalized lattice constant. These investigations have significant implications for tuning the operational frequencies to desired applications and manufacturing photonic crystals.

  14. Atomic Gases at Negative Kinetic Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    We show that thermalization of the motion of atoms at negative temperature is possible in an optical lattice, for conditions that are feasible in current experiments. We present a method for reversibly inverting the temperature of a trapped gas. Moreover, a negative-temperature ensemble can be coole

  15. Zero field entanglement in dipolar coupling spin system at negative temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Gregory B.; Meerovich, Victor M.; Sokolovsky, Vladimir L.

    2013-01-01

    A dipolar coupled spin system can achieve internal thermodynamic equilibrium states at negative absolute temperature. We study analytically and numerically the temperature dependence of the concurrence in a dipolar coupled spin-1/2 system in both non-zero and zero fields and show that, at negative temperatures, entangled states can exist even in zero magnetic field.

  16. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  17. Optimal control with absolutely continuous strategies for spectrally negative Levy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kyprianou, Andreas E; Perez, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years there has been renewed interest in the classical control problem of de Finetti for the case that underlying source of randomness is a spectrally negative Levy process. In particular a significant step forward is made in an article of Loeffen where it is shown that a natural and very general condition on the underlying Levy process which allows one to proceed with the analysis of the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is that its Levy measure is absolutely continuous, having completely monotone density. In this paper we consider de Finetti's control problem but now with the restriction that control strategies are absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure. This problem has been considered by Asmussen and Taksar, Jeanblanc and Shiryaev and Boguslavskaya in the diffusive case and Gerber and Shiu for the case of a Cramer-Lundberg process with exponentially distributed jumps. We show the robustness of the condition that the underlying Levy measure has a completely monoton...

  18. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 14, Gases, The Gas Laws, and Absolute Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the fourteenth lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to gases, gas laws, and absolute temperature. The topics are concerned with the kinetic theory of gases, thermometric scales, Charles' law, ideal gases, Boyle's law, absolute zero, and gas pressures. The…

  19. Nonlinear response of inertial tracers in steady laminar flows: differential and absolute negative mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Sarracino, A; Puglisi, A; Vulpiani, A

    2016-01-01

    We study the mobility and the diffusion coefficient of an inertial tracer advected by a two-dimensional incompressible laminar flow, in the presence of thermal noise and under the action of an external force. We show, with extensive numerical simulations, that the force-velocity relation for the tracer, in the nonlinear regime, displays complex and rich behaviors, including negative differential and absolute mobility. These effects rely upon a subtle coupling between inertia and applied force which induce the tracer to persist in particular regions of phase space with a velocity opposite to the force. The relevance of this coupling is revisited in the framework of non-equilibrium response theory, applying a generalized Einstein relation to our system. The possibility of experimental observation of these results is also discussed.

  20. Electrical measurement of absolute temperature and temperature transients in a buried nanostructure under ultrafast optical heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Hu, X. K.; Liebing, N.; Böhnert, T.; Costa, J. D.; Tarequzzaman, M.; Ferreira, R.; Sievers, S.; Bieler, M.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    We report absolute temperature measurements in a buried nanostructure with a sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. For this purpose, we take advantage of the temperature dependence of the resistance of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) as detected by a fast sampling oscilloscope. After calibrating the measurement setup using steady-state electric heating, we are able to quantify temperature changes in the MTJ induced by femtosecond optical heating of the metal contact lying several 100 nm above the MTJ. We find that a femtosecond pulse train with an average power of 400 mW and a repetition rate of 76 MHz leads to a constant temperature increase of 80 K and a temporally varying temperature change of 2 K in the MTJ. The maximum temperature change in the MTJ occurs 4 ns after the femtosecond laser pulses hit the metal contact, which is supported by simulations. Our work provides a scheme to quantitatively study local temperatures in nanoscale structures and might be important for the testing of nanoscale thermal transport simulations.

  1. Negative Temperature Coefficient in Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenson, I. A.; Sergeev, Gleb B.

    1984-05-01

    A systematic analysis of reactions whose rate decreases with increase of temperature is presented. The possibility of a negative temperature coefficient in the elementary reactions is examined from the standpoint of the transition state theory and of collision theory. The mechanisms of complex reactions in which the temperature dependence of the rate is anomalous are discussed, and possible reasons for the anomaly are examined. The bibliography contains 175 references.

  2. Electrical Noise and the Measurement of Absolute Temperature, Boltzmann's Constant and Avogadro's Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an apparatus capable of measuring absolute temperatures of a tungsten filament bulb up to normal running temperature and measuring Botzmann's constant to an accuracy of a few percent. Shows that electrical noise techniques are convenient to demonstrate how the concept of temperature is related to the micro- and macroscopic world. (CW)

  3. Fast, Computer Supported Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Bogdan F.; Pedziwiatr, Antoni T.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and fast experimental method of determining absolute zero temperature is presented. Air gas thermometer coupled with pressure sensor and data acquisition system COACH is applied in a wide range of temperature. By constructing a pressure vs temperature plot for air under constant volume it is possible to obtain--by extrapolation to zero…

  4. Statistical mechanics of negative temperature states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. C.; Joyce, G.

    1973-01-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional interacting line vortices is identical to that of the two-dimensional electrostatic guiding center plasma. Both are Hamiltonian systems and are therefore susceptible to statistical mechanical treatments. The predictions of the microcanonical ensemble are explored for this system. Interest focuses primarily on the regime of total positive interaction energy, which should be above the Onsager negative temperature threshold. Calculations of the probability distribution for a component by means of the central limit theorem are carried out in the manner of Khinchin. The probability distribution of a component reduced to the usual Gibbs distribution in the regime of positive temperatures, and is still explicitly calculable for negative temperatures. The negative temperature states are neither quiescent nor spatially uniform. Expressions for the temperature are explicitly provided in terms of the total particle energy and particle number. A BBGKY hierarchy can be derived for both temperature regimes. Numerical simulations involving solutions of the equations of motion of 4008 particles are presented.

  5. Physical understanding of negative bias temperature instability below room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoli; Liao, Yiming; Yan, Feng; Zhu, Chenxin; Shi, Yi; Guo, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    The physical mechanism of VT degradations under negative bias temperature stress below room temperature has been studied for SiO2 and plasma nitrided oxide (PNO-based) pMOSFETs. It is found that VT degradations in both devices exhibit strong dependence on the electric field and temperature. The analysis shows that this strong dependence follows multi-phonon field-assisted tunneling theory, which indicates the inelastic hole trapping mechanism in the low temperature negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). On the other hand, by applying a low temperature sweeping technique, the energy distribution of these NBTI-induced hole traps below room temperature is indentified. The energy distribution of hole traps has two obvious peaks, one in the lower and one in the upper half of the silicon band gap. Both peaks gradually develop with increasing the stress time and temperature. We attempt to compare the energy profile for SiO2 and PNO devices to identify the trap precursors in NBTI below room temperature.

  6. Absolute scaling law for temperature data in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the hierarchical-structure (H-S) model, this paper further explores the most intensive intermittent structure of Rayleigh-Bénard convection at the high Ra numbers proportional to temperature. With respect to the discovery and by means of the scale, both of Bolgiano, there are two regions of the structure holding the absolute scaling law given by Ching’s paper. Through theoretic analysis of data, this paper indicates that the regions act as two local intensive intermittent structures, by which the statistical absolute scaling performance of region is induced, rather than the statistical result of the entire time series in belief since 1941. In terms of statistical theory, the local structure in fluid, therefore, is the essence governing the absolute scaling performance of region, especially in high intensity.

  7. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, S; Fessey, J; Gerbaud, T; Alper, B; Beurskens, M N A; de la Luna, E; Sirinelli, A; Zerbini, M

    2012-12-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron temperature is determined from the measurements. The current state of the interferometer hardware, the calibration setup, and the analysis technique for calibration and plasma operation are described. A new, full-system, absolute calibration employing continuous data acquisition has been performed recently and the calibration method and results are presented. The noise level in the measurement is very low and as a result the electron cyclotron emission spectrum and thus the spatial profile of the electron temperature are determined to within ±5% and in the most relevant region to within ±2%. The new calibration shows that the absolute response of the system has decreased by about 15% compared to that measured previously and possible reasons for this change are presented. Temperature profiles measured with the Michelson interferometer are compared with profiles measured independently using Thomson scattering diagnostics, which have also been recently refurbished and recalibrated, and agreement within experimental uncertainties is obtained.

  8. Time-Series Modeling and Prediction of Global Monthly Absolute Temperature for Environmental Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Liming; YANG Guixia; Eric VAN RANST; TANG Huajun

    2013-01-01

    A generalized,structural,time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature,one of the most important environmental parameters,using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach.Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset,the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record.Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal,involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method,respectively,while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal,involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models.A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years.The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors,suggesting that DSC models,when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models,can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (~10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  9. Temperature dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction of ozone with dimethyl sulfide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-tao; ZHANG Yu-jie; MU Yu-jing

    2007-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of ozone with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in a 200-L Teflon chamber over the temperature range of 283-353 K. Measurements were carried out using DMS in large excess over ozone of 10 to 1 or greater. Over the indicated temperature range,the data could be fit to the simple Arrhenius expression as KDMS = (9.96±3.61)×10-11exp(-(7309.7±1098.2)/T)cm3/(molecule·s). A compared investigation of the reaction between ozone and ethene had a kc2H4 value of(1.35±0.11)×10-18 cm3/(molecule·s) at room temperature.

  10. An absolutely calibrated effective temperature scale from the InfraRed Flux Method

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, L; Melendez, J; Bessell, M; Asplund, M

    2010-01-01

    Various effective temperature scales have been proposed over the years. Despite much work and the high internal precision usually achieved, systematic differences of order 100 K (or more) among various scales are still present. We present an investigation based on the Infrared Flux Method aimed at assessing the source of such discrepancies and pin down their origin. We break the impasse among different scales by using a large set of solar twins, stars which are spectroscopically and photometrically identical to the Sun, to set the absolute zero point of the effective temperature scale to within few degrees. Our newly calibrated, accurate and precise temperature scale applies to dwarfs and subgiants, from super-solar metallicities to the most metal-poor stars currently known. At solar metallicities our results validate spectroscopic effective temperature scales, whereas for [Fe/H]<-2.5 our temperatures are roughly 100 K hotter than those determined from model fits to the Balmer lines and 200 K hotter than t...

  11. Is absolute noninvasive temperature measurement by the Pr[MOE-DO3A] complex feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, M; Findeisen, M; Schmidt, W; Frenzel, T; Wlodarczyk, W; Wust, P; Felix, R

    2000-02-01

    Recently, the feasibility of the praseodymium complex of 10-(2-methoxyethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane-1,4,7-tr iacetate (Pr[MOE-DO3A]) for non-invasive temperature measurement via 1H spectroscopy has been demonstrated. Particularly the suitability of the complex for non-invasive temperature measurements including in vivo spectroscopy without spatial resolution as well as first spectroscopic imaging measurements at low temporal resolution (> or = 4 min) and high temporal resolution (breath hold, approximately 20 s) has been shown. As of today, calibration curves according to the particular experimental conditions are necessary. This work aims to clarify whether the Pr[MOE-DO3A] probe in conjunction with 1H-NMR spectroscopy allows non-invasive absolute temperature measurements with high accuracy. The measurement results from two different representative media, distilled water and human plasma, show a slight but significant dependence of the calibration curves on the surrounding medium. Calibration curves in water and plasma were derived for the temperature dependence of the chemical shift difference (F) between Pr[MOE-DO3A]'s OCH3 and water with F = -(27.53 +/- 0.04) + (0.125 +/- 0.001) x T and F = -(27.61 +/- 0.02) + (0.129 +/- 0.001) x T, respectively, with F in ppm and T in degrees C. However, the differences are minuscule even for the highest spectral resolution of 0.001 ppm/pt, so that they are indistinguishable under practical conditions. The estimated temperature errors are +/- 0.18 degrees C for water and +/- 0.14 degrees C for plasma and with that only slightly worse than the measurement accuracy of the fiber-optical temperature probe (+/- 0.1 degrees C). It can be concluded that the results obtained indicate the feasibility of the 1H spectroscopy method in conjunction with the Pr[MOE-DO3A] probe for absolute temperature measurements, with a maximum accuracy of +/- 0.2 degrees C.

  12. Lifespan metabolic potential of the unicellular organisms expressed by Boltzmann constant, absolute temperature and proton mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2016-12-01

    The unicellular organisms and phages are the first appeared fundamental living organisms on the Earth. The total metabolic energy (Els, J) of these organisms can be expressed by their lifespan metabolic potential (Als, J/kg) and body mass (M, kg): Els =Als M. In this study we found a different expression - by Boltzmann's constant (k, J/K), nucleon mass (mp+, kg) of protons (and neutrons), body mass (M, kg) of organism or mass (Ms) of biomolecules (proteins, nucleotides, polysaccharides and lipids) building organism, and the absolute temperature (T, K). The found equations are: Els= (M/mp+)kT for phages and Els=(Ms/mp+)kT for the unicellular organisms. From these equations the lifespan metabolic potential can be expressed as: Als=Els/M= (k/mp+)T for phages and Als=Els/M= (k/3.3mp+)T for unicellular organisms. The temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential (Als/T, J/K.kg) is equals to the ratio between Boltzmann's constant and nucleon mass: Als/T=k/mp+ for phages and Als/T=k/3.3mp+ for unicellular organisms. The numerical value of the k/mp+ ratio is equals to 8.254×103 J/K.kg, and the numerical value of k/3.3mp+ ratio is equal to 2.497×103 J/K.kg. These values of temperature-normated lifespan metabolic potential could be considered fundamental for the unicellular organisms.

  13. Kelvin Absolute Temperature Scale Identified as Length Scale and Related to de Broglie Thermal Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrab, Siavash

    Thermodynamic equilibrium between matter and radiation leads to de Broglie wavelength λdβ = h /mβvrβ and frequency νdβ = k /mβvrβ of matter waves and stochastic definitions of Planck h =hk =mk c and Boltzmann k =kk =mk c constants, λrkνrk = c , that respectively relate to spatial (λ) and temporal (ν) aspects of vacuum fluctuations. Photon massmk =√{ hk /c3 } , amu =√{ hkc } = 1 /No , and universal gas constant Ro =No k =√{ k / hc } result in internal Uk = Nhνrk = Nmkc2 = 3 Nmkvmpk2 = 3 NkT and potential pV = uN\\vcirc / 3 = N\\ucirc / 3 = NkT energy of photon gas in Casimir vacuum such that H = TS = 4 NkT . Therefore, Kelvin absolute thermodynamic temperature scale [degree K] is identified as length scale [meter] and related to most probable wavelength and de Broglie thermal wavelength as Tβ =λmpβ =λdβ / 3 . Parallel to Wien displacement law obtained from Planck distribution, the displacement law λwS T =c2 /√{ 3} is obtained from Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution of speed of ``photon clusters''. The propagation speeds of sound waves in ideal gas versus light waves in photon gas are described in terms of vrβ in harmony with perceptions of Huygens. Newton formula for speed of long waves in canals √{ p / ρ } is modified to √{ gh } =√{ γp / ρ } in accordance with adiabatic theory of Laplace.

  14. Absolute scaling law for temperature data in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the hierarchical-structure (H-S) model, this paper further explores the most intensive in-With respect to the discovery and by means of the scale, both of Bolgiano, there are two regions of the structure holding the absolute scaling law given by Ching's paper. Through theoretic analysis of data, this paper indicates that the regions act as two local intensive intermittent structures, by which the statistical absolute scaling performance of region is induced, rather than the statistical result of the entire time series in belief since 1941. In terms of statistical theory, the local structure in fluid, therefore, is the essence governing the absolute scaling performance of region, especially in high intensity.

  15. Experimental confirmation of the gravitation force negative temperature dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, A L

    2011-01-01

    The experiment with weighing PZT-piezoelectric ceramics, heated up by a high-frequency signal for the temperature of 1.6 C is briefly described. The negative change of piezoelectric ceramics weight having relative value of is confidently registered. The sign and the order of the value of relative temperature change of piezoelectric ceramics weight correspond to the measurements of weight of non-magnetic metal bars which were conducted earlier. What is emphasized as expedient for development of physics of gravitation is conducting similar measurements with use of various materials as samples and in a wide range of temperatures.

  16. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron tempe

  17. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  18. Negative Bias Temperature Instability "Recovery" under Negative Stress Voltage with Different Oxide Thicknesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yan-Rong; MA Xiao-Hua; HAO Yue; ZHU Min-Bo; TIAN Wen-Chao; ZHANG Yue

    2011-01-01

    Different phenomena are observed under negative gate voltage stress which is smaller than the previous degradation stress in PMOSFETs with different oxide thicknesses. We adopt the real time method to make a point of the drain current to study the degradation and recovery of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). For the device with thin oxide, recovery phenomenon appears when smaller negative voltage stress was applied, due to the more influencing oxide charges detrapping effects than the interface states. For the device with thick oxide, not recovery but degradation phenomenon comes forth. As many charges are trapped in the deeper position and higher energy level in the oxide, these charges can not be detrapped. Therefore, the effect of the charge detrapping is smaller than that of the interface states in the thick oxide. The degradation presents itself during the 'recovery' time.

  19. Statistical mechanics of 'negative temperature' states. [for plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Joyce, G.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of the dynamics of a two-dimensional guiding center plasma, recently shown by Taylor and McNamara (1971) to be identical to the dynamics of the discrete vortex model of Onsager (1949). A semirigorous application of the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics to the guiding center plasma (or equivalently, the line vortex system) is presented. An adaptation of the apparatus of the theory of probability is attempted, in the form given by Khinchin (1949) to obtain ensemble-average predictions for the states of the guiding center plasma. Interest focuses primarily on the regime in which the interaction energy is high enough to be above the Onsager 'negative temperature' threshold.

  20. Nuclear ferromagnetism and superconductivity at negative nuclear temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dyugaev, A M; Vider, P

    2001-01-01

    The quantitative theory of effects of the ferromagnetism on the metal superconductivity is proposed with an account of the spin-spin electron-nuclear interaction. The nuclear ferromagnetism at the negative temperatures, when the nuclear magnetization is directed against the external magnetic field, does not suppress but rather facilitates the superconductivity. The critical magnetic field of the Be metals and TiH sub 2 sub . sub 0 sub 7 hydrate may by one order exceed the critical field of the nonmagnetic superconductor

  1. Absolute cross sections of ozone at atmospheric temperatures for the Wulf and the Chappuis bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helou, Z. El; Churassy, S.; Wannous, G.; Bacis, R.; Boursey, E.

    2005-06-01

    Ozone absorption constitutes a variable background against which measurement of pollution is observed from satellites by the solar occultation technique. The temperature-altitude gradient of ozone spans the range 180-340K. Laboratory measurements of ozone absorption at temperatures across this range are needed to calibrate spectroscopic remote sensing, but have yielded results in substantial disagreement with each other. This paper presents the first measurements of the variation of absorption cross-sections of ozone at temperatures from 144to300K over the 9250-18 500cm-1 spectral region.

  2. Model of discontinuous plastic flow at temperature close to absolute zero

    CERN Document Server

    Marcinek, Dawid Jarosław; Sgobba, Stefano

    In the present study cryogenic tensile tests performed on different materials (316LN, JK2LB) were used. The discontinuous plastic flow phenomenon was analysed, in order to develop a constitutive model of serrated yielding as a support for analysis of structural materials at low temperatures. Devices and structures, cooled be means of liquid helium, operate at the temperatures equal or lower than 4.2 K, which for the examined materials is below the transition threshold between screw and edge dislocations. It is considered a threshold for the appearance of DPF consisting in cyclic drop of load followed by deformation jumps and generation of heat. Temperature oscillations resulting from the thermodynamic instability in stainless steel can be of the order of dT = 40 K, which is exceptionally dangerous for superconducting cables. Suitably calibrated numerical algorithm allows prediction of the behaviour of the material subjected to deformation at low temperatures. The issues presented in the present study are curr...

  3. Relationship dynamic viscosity and inverse absolute temperature to the concentrated solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Stanciu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presets the study of the rheological characteristics of the concentrated polyethylene-polypropylene copolymer solutions over the temperature range of 313-363 K and for shear rates between 3 and 1312 s-1. The measurements were performed on a Haake VT 550 rotational rheometer with a HV1 sensor. The rheology of the concentrated solutions is influenced by the shear rate, temperature and concentration of the tested copolymer. We have used a successful model that describes the rheological behaviour of the concentrated solutions in comparison to other models that do not consider the copolymer’s concentration. The parameter A reaches a peak for the 10% solution and a minimum for the 3% solution. The parameter B displays close values for all of the studied solutions.

  4. Monte Carlo Sampling of Negative-temperature Plasma States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Krommes; Sharadini Rath

    2002-07-19

    A Monte Carlo procedure is used to generate N-particle configurations compatible with two-temperature canonical equilibria in two dimensions, with particular attention to nonlinear plasma gyrokinetics. An unusual feature of the problem is the importance of a nontrivial probability density function R0(PHI), the probability of realizing a set {Phi} of Fourier amplitudes associated with an ensemble of uniformly distributed, independent particles. This quantity arises because the equilibrium distribution is specified in terms of {Phi}, whereas the sampling procedure naturally produces particles states gamma; {Phi} and gamma are related via a gyrokinetic Poisson equation, highly nonlinear in its dependence on gamma. Expansion and asymptotic methods are used to calculate R0(PHI) analytically; excellent agreement is found between the large-N asymptotic result and a direct numerical calculation. The algorithm is tested by successfully generating a variety of states of both positive and negative temperature, including ones in which either the longest- or shortest-wavelength modes are excited to relatively very large amplitudes.

  5. CMOS temperature sensor using a resistively degenerated common-source amplifier biased by an adjustable proportional-to-absolute-temperature voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Lue; Fu, Chien-Cheng; Yu, Chi; Hao, Yi-Fan; Shi, Jian-Liang; Lin, Chen-Fu; Liao, Hsin-Hao; Tsai, Hann-Huei; Juang, Ying-Zong

    2014-01-01

    A high-linearity CMOS temperature sensor with pulse output is presented. The temperature core is a resistively degenerated common-source amplifier which gate is biased by a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltage generator. The source resistor is made of polysilicon which resistance has a PTAT characteristic. The current flowing through the resistor exhibits a PTAT characteristic with high linearity of 99.99% at least for a temperature range from 0 to 125 °C. The PTAT voltage generator can be adjusted by a bias voltage Vb and hence the PTAT current can also be adjusted by the Vb. The PTAT current is mirrored to an added current controlled oscillator which output pulse frequencies also exhibit a PTAT characteristic. For the chip using the 0.35 µm process, the plots of measured pulse frequencies against temperature exhibit the sensitivity of 2.30 to 2.24 kHz/°C with linearity of more than 99.99% at the Vb of 1 to 1.2 V.

  6. A variable temperature EPR study of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) single crystal at 170 GHz: zero-field splitting parameter and its absolute sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sushil K; Andronenko, Serguei I; Chand, Prem; Earle, Keith A; Paschenko, Sergei V; Freed, Jack H

    2005-06-01

    EPR measurements have been carried out on a single crystal of Mn(2+)-doped NH(4)Cl(0.9)I(0.1) at 170-GHz in the temperature range of 312-4.2K. The spectra have been analyzed (i) to estimate the spin-Hamiltonian parameters; (ii) to study the temperature variation of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameter; (iii) to confirm the negative absolute sign of the ZFS parameter unequivocally from the temperature-dependent relative intensities of hyperfine sextets at temperatures below 10K; and (iv) to detect the occurrence of a structural phase transition at 4.35K from the change in the structure of the EPR lines with temperature below 10K.

  7. Absolute advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA country is said to have an absolute advantage over another country in the production of a good or service if it can produce that good or service using fewer real resources. Equivalently, using the same inputs, the country can produce more output. The concept of absolute advantage can a

  8. Absolute Viscosities of Vegetable Oils at Different Temperatures and Shear Rate Range of 64.5 to 4835 s−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the effect of higher shear rates (64.5 to 4835 s−1 on the absolute viscosities of different vegetable oils at different temperatures (26 to 90°C. The absolute viscosities of the different vegetable oils were determined using a Lamy Viscometer RM100, a rotating viscometer with coaxial cylinder. The torque of each sample at different temperatures was recorded at different shear rates. Based on the rheograms (plot of mean shear stress against shear rate, all of the vegetable oils studied were found to be Newtonian fluids. Rice bran oil was the most viscous (0.0398 Pa·s at 38°C while walnut oil was the least viscous (0.0296 Pa·s at 38°C among the oils studied. The higher shear range used did not significantly affect the absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils at the different temperatures. The absolute viscosities of the vegetable oils decreased with increasing temperature and can be fitted with an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies for the different vegetable oils ranged from 21 to 30 kJ/mole. The peanut and safflower oils had the highest and lowest activation energies, respectively. This means that greater energy was needed to effect a viscosity change in the peanut oil.

  9. A novel method to determine the electron temperature and density from the absolute intensity of line and continuum emission: application to atmospheric microwave induced Ar plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanova, E.; Palomares, J. M.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; van der Mullen, J. J. A. M.

    2009-08-01

    An absolute intensity measurement (AIM) technique is presented that combines the absolute measurements of the line and the continuum emitted by strongly ionizing argon plasmas. AIM is an iterative combination of the absolute line intensity-collisional radiative model (ALI-CRM) and the absolute continuum intensity (ACI) method. The basis of ALI-CRM is that the excitation temperature T13 determined by the method of ALI is transformed into the electron temperature Te using a CRM. This gives Te as a weak function of electron density ne. The ACI method is based on the absolute value of the continuum radiation and determines the electron density in a way that depends on Te. The iterative combination gives ne and Te. As a case study the AIM method is applied to plasmas created by torche à injection axiale (TIA) at atmospheric pressure and fixed frequency at 2.45 GHz. The standard operating settings are a gas flow of 1 slm and a power of 800 W; the measurements have been performed at a position of 1 mm above the nozzle. With AIM we found an electron temperature of 1.2 eV and electron density values around 1021 m-3. There is not much dependence of these values on the plasma control parameters (power and gas flow). From the error analysis we can conclude that the determination of Te is within 7% and thus rather accurate but comparison with other studies shows strong deviations. The ne determination comes with an error of 40% but is in reasonable agreement with other experimental results.

  10. Decoherence at absolute zero

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature envir...

  11. Temperature rise of He Ⅱ forced flow and its negative Joule-Thomson effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu; JU Yong-lin; ZHENG Qing-rong; LU Xue-sheng; GU An-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The temperature rise of He Ⅱ transfer system due to the negative Joule-Thomson (JT) effect is one of the major problems in the He Ⅱ forced flow system design. Negative Joule-Thomson effect of the He Ⅱ forced flow was analyzed and calculated in this paper. The temperature rise due to the heat leak along the transfer pipeline was calculated by the simplified equation and was modified by considering the negative Joule-Thomson effect. The modified results were compared with the temperature rise obtained by non-linear differential equations with consideration of the pressure gradient. The results show that the pressure gradient has strong effect on the temperature distribution. The modified results are in good agreement with the values calculated by the complicated equation, which verifies the effectiveness of the simplified equation in calculating the temperature rise when the negative JT effect of He Ⅱ is known.

  12. Absolute Summ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Hawking, et al., human consciousness, buttressed by findings of neuroscience, may have to be considered in our models. Predictability, as A. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics. We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ. The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy (see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism). Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley 200,000 years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do. .

  13. Negative temperature coefficient of the action of DDT in a sense organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercken, J. van den; Akkermans, L.M.A.

    1972-01-01

    DDT induced repetitive spontaneuos activity inthe afferent nerve fibers of the lateral-line organ of the clawed toad, Xenopus laevis. The action of DDT increased markedly with lowered temperature. This temperature-effect was easily reversible. The results demonstrate that DDT has a definite negative

  14. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.

    2015-07-01

    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  15. [New potentials for monitoring the temperature and the relative and absolute humidity of the air-oxygen mixture during the prolonged artificial ventilation of newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, O B; Efimov, M S

    1998-01-01

    A new HTM-902 monitor (UCCP, Germany/Serviceinstrument, Russia) was used for continuous measurements of the temperature and relative and absolute humidity of inspired gas during prolonged mechanical ventilation in 86 neonates with respiratory failure caused by the respiratory distress syndrome (n = 42), meconium aspiration syndrome (n = 28), and congenital pneumonia (n = 16). All measurements were performed with a special probe connected to the inspiratory contour through a standard adapter close to the patient's T-piece. The monitor helped maintain the optimal values of the inspired gas conditioning during assisted ventilation of the neonates. The optimal relationships between gas temperature and humidity can be attained only with humidifiers with a servocontrol of temperature and heated wire inside the inspiratory circle tube. For maintaining adequate humidity of inspired gas after any changes in the ventilator flow rate or in the temperature inside the incubator, the heating power of the humidifier had to be corrected. However, even with servocontrolled humidifiers and humidity regulation, an increase of temperature inside the incubator over 35 degrees C made impossible the maintenance of the inspired gas humidity at the level of 96-100% with its temperature at the level of the patient's T-piece no higher than 37 degrees C.

  16. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Keiji; Yasugi, Takuya; Majima, Yatsuse; Sakai, Kenji; Kiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-05-01

    To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth's magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS), an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2) temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  17. Absolute-magnetic-field measurement using nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor with second-harmonic and liquid-nitrogen-temperature operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Tsukada

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To detect the absolute magnetic field, such as the earth’s magnetic field, a linear magnetic response, a zero point, and thermal stability are required. We thus propose an operating method and sensor probe consisting of a nanogranular in-gap magnetic sensor (GIGS, an operational amplifier integrated circuit, and a modulation coil. The sensor probe was operated in second-harmonic mode at a liquid-nitrogen (Liq. N2 temperature. When an AC magnetic field was applied to GIGS, the second-harmonic signal was generated and modulated by the outer magnetic field to be measured. After lock-in detection, the modulated output signal showed good linearity and a zero point. Moreover, higher sensitivity and low noise with low thermal fluctuation was obtained by the cooling at Liq. N2 temperature.

  18. Effects of Temperature, Relative Humidity, Absolute Humidity, and Evaporation Potential on Survival of Airborne Gumboro Vaccine Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Dijkman, R.; Fabri, T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2012-01-01

    Survival of airborne virus influences the extent of disease transmission via air. How environmental factors affect viral survival is not fully understood. We investigated the survival of a vaccine strain of Gumboro virus which was aerosolized at three temperatures (10°C, 20°C, and 30°C) and two rela

  19. Current Sharing inside a High Power IGBT Module at the Negative Temperature Coefficient Operating Region

    CERN Document Server

    Asimakopoulos, Panagiotis; Bongiorno, M; Thiringer, T

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the current sharing effect of a high power Soft Punch Through IGBT module in the Negative Temperature Coefficient region. The unbalanced current sharing between two of the substrates is demonstrated for different current and temperature levels and its impact on the thermal stressing of the device is evaluated. The results indicate that the current asymmetry does not lead to a significant thermal stressing unbalance between the substrates.

  20. Negative thermal expansion and anomalies of heat capacity of LuB50 at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, V V; Zhemoedov, N A; Matovnikov, A V; Mitroshenkov, N V; Kuznetsov, S V; Bud'ko, S L

    2015-09-28

    Heat capacity and thermal expansion of LuB50 boride were experimentally studied in the 2-300 K temperature range. The data reveal an anomalous contribution to the heat capacity at low temperatures. The value of this contribution is proportional to the first degree of temperature. It was identified that this anomaly in heat capacity is caused by the effect of disorder in the LuB50 crystalline structure and it can be described in the soft atomic potential model (SAP). The parameters of the approximation were determined. The temperature dependence of LuB50 heat capacity in the whole temperature range was approximated by the sum of SAP contribution, Debye and two Einstein components. The parameters of SAP contribution for LuB50 were compared to the corresponding values for LuB66, which was studied earlier. Negative thermal expansion at low temperatures was experimentally observed for LuB50. The analysis of the experimental temperature dependence for the Gruneisen parameter of LuB50 suggested that the low-frequency oscillations, described in SAP mode, are responsible for the negative thermal expansion. Thus, the glasslike character of the behavior of LuB50 thermal characteristics at low temperatures was confirmed.

  1. New Calibrations of Pulsational Absolute Magnitudes of Field RR Lyrae Stars Using Revised Dependencies of Temperatures, Masses, and Periods on Metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, A

    2004-01-01

    The pulsational method to estimate the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars is updated with new data on field-star metallicities by Layden, a new calibration of the (B-V)_0-temperature correlation from recent atmospheric models by Bell and Tripicco, and new mass estimates by Bono et al. New linear and non-linear calibrations of M_V(RR)=f([Fe/H]) are derived that depend on the nature of the adopted envelope in a diagram of log period versus metallicity fitted to the shortest period field variables in each metallicity range, together with the stated assumptions on the colour of the stars at that envelope. These new cali- brations are compared with a recent non-linear calibration by Caputo et al. The theoretical luminosity zero points for each of the three new calibrations derived here agree with each other to within 0.1 mag over the metallicity range of -1.0>[Fe/H]>-2.0. Comparison with the empirical absolute magnitude calibra- tion of M_V(RR)=+0.52 at [Fe/H]=-1.5 by Clementini at al. from RR Lyraes in LMC als...

  2. Absolute Generalized Oscillator Strength Profile of Negative Ion Resonance at 8.9eV in C2F6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-Wei; GENG Zhen-Duo; ZHANG Yan-Song; K. T. Leung

    2005-01-01

    @@ A temporary negative ion resonance at 8.gev in C2F6 has been clearly identified using angle-resolved electronenergy loss spectroscopy at 2.5kev impact energy, and can be attributed to electron capture into 12a1u, 12a1g, 22a2u, and 12eg virtual molecular orbitals.

  3. Large diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Willits, Neil H; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal variation in dengue virus transmission in northwestern Thailand is inversely related to the magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations, although mean temperature does not vary significantly across seasons. We tested the hypothesis that diurnal temperature fluctuations negatively influence epidemiologically important life-history traits of the primary dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), compared with a constant 26 degrees C temperature. A large diurnal temperature range (DTR) (approximately equals 18 degrees C daily swing) extended immature development time (>1 d), lowered larval survival (approximately equals 6%), and reduced adult female reproductive output by 25% 14 d after blood feeding, relative to the constant 26 degreesC temperature. A small DTR (approximately equal 8 degrees C daily swing) led to a negligible or slightly positive effect on the life history traits tested. Our results indicate that there is a negative impact of large DTR on mosquito biology and are consistent with the hypothesis that, in at least some locations, large temperature fluctuations contribute to seasonal reduction in dengue virus transmission.

  4. Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Laura E; Miller, Steve J; Peavey, Lindsey E; Bradley, Darcy; Gentry, Rebecca R; Startz, Richard; Gaines, Steven D; Lester, Sarah E

    2016-08-17

    Temperature variation within a year can impact biological processes driving population abundances. The implications for the ecosystem services these populations provide, including food production from marine fisheries, are poorly understood. Whether and how temperature variability impacts fishery yields may depend on the number of harvested species and differences in their responses to varying temperatures. Drawing from previous theoretical and empirical studies, we predict that greater temperature variability within years will reduce yields, but harvesting a larger number of species, especially a more functionally diverse set, will decrease this impact. Using a global marine fisheries dataset, we find that within-year temperature variability reduces yields, but current levels of functional diversity (FD) of targeted species, measured using traits related to species' responses to temperature, largely offset this effect. Globally, high FD of catch could avoid annual losses in yield of 6.8% relative to projections if FD were degraded to the lowest level observed in the data. By contrast, species richness in the catch and in the ecosystem did not provide a similar mitigating effect. This work provides novel empirical evidence that short-term temperature variability can negatively impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, but that FD can buffer these negative impacts.

  5. A density-functional study of the phase diagram of cementite-type (Fe,Mn)3C at absolute zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Appen, Jörg; Eck, Bernhard; Dronskowski, Richard

    2010-11-15

    The phase diagram of (Fe(1-x) Mn(x))(3)C has been investigated by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations at absolute zero temperature. The atomic distributions of the metal atoms are not random-like as previously proposed but we find three different, ordered regions within the phase range. The key role is played by the 8d metal site which forms, as a function of the composition, differing magnetic layers, and these dominate the physical properties. We calculated the magnetic moments, the volumes, the enthalpies of mixing and formation of 13 different compositions and explain the changes of the macroscopic properties with changes in the electronic and magnetic structures by means of bonding analyses using the Crystal Orbital Hamilton Population (COHP) technique.

  6. Measurement of Gas Temperature in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source by Wavelength-Modulated Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Kisaki, M.; Tsumori, K.; NIFS-NBI Team

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of the energy distribution of hydrogen atom is important and essential to understand the production mechanism of its negative ion (H-) in cesium-seeded negative ion sources. In this work, we evaluated the temperature of atomic hydrogen in the large-scale arc-discharge negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS by wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy. The laser beam was passed through the adjacent region to the grid electrode for extracting negative ions. The frequency of the laser was scanned slowly over the whole range of the Doppler width (100 GHz in 1s). A sinusoidal frequency modulation at 600 Hz with a width of 30 GHz was superposed onto the slow modulation. The transmitted laser was detected using a photodiode, and its second harmonic component of the sinusoidal modulation was amplified using a lock-in amplifier. The obtained spectrum was in good agreement with an expected spectrum of the Doppler-broadened Balmer- α line. The estimated temperature of atomic hydrogen was approximately 3000 K. The absorption increased with the arc-discharge power, while the temperature was roughly independent of the power. This work is supported by the NIFS Collaboration Research Program NIFS13KLER021.

  7. New experimental methodology, setup and LabView program for accurate absolute thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity measurements between 25 and 1600 K: application to pure copper, platinum, tungsten, and nickel at very high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadlia, L; Gasser, F; Khalouk, K; Mayoufi, M; Gasser, J G

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we describe an experimental setup designed to measure simultaneously and very accurately the resistivity and the absolute thermoelectric power, also called absolute thermopower or absolute Seebeck coefficient, of solid and liquid conductors/semiconductors over a wide range of temperatures (room temperature to 1600 K in present work). A careful analysis of the existing experimental data allowed us to extend the absolute thermoelectric power scale of platinum to the range 0-1800 K with two new polynomial expressions. The experimental device is controlled by a LabView program. A detailed description of the accurate dynamic measurement methodology is given in this paper. We measure the absolute thermoelectric power and the electrical resistivity and deduce with a good accuracy the thermal conductivity using the relations between the three electronic transport coefficients, going beyond the classical Wiedemann-Franz law. We use this experimental setup and methodology to give new very accurate results for pure copper, platinum, and nickel especially at very high temperatures. But resistivity and absolute thermopower measurement can be more than an objective in itself. Resistivity characterizes the bulk of a material while absolute thermoelectric power characterizes the material at the point where the electrical contact is established with a couple of metallic elements (forming a thermocouple). In a forthcoming paper we will show that the measurement of resistivity and absolute thermoelectric power characterizes advantageously the (change of) phase, probably as well as DSC (if not better), since the change of phases can be easily followed during several hours/days at constant temperature.

  8. RESEARCHES REGARDING USE OF TEXTILE MATERIALS FOR THERMAL INSULATION AT NEGATIVE TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSUB Andrei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thermal insulation in negative temperature acts to reduce heat flow to the cooled space or to objects that have a temperature below ambient temperature. To achieve economic operation of the space to be cooled insulation thickness and quality is an important factor. In this article we want to compare three products used in thermal insulation at negative temperatures: expanded polystyrene, non-woven and wool coats. The materials will be tested with a mechanical vapor compression refrigerator capable of producing temperatures in the range +4 .. -35 ° C, managed by a programmer Dixel capable of recording values between +40. .. -60 °C. Refrigeration insulation enclosure was made with 100 mm expanded polystyrene. On one side of the enclosure will be a cut of 250 * 250 mm, chosen in a central position where the material will be introduced to be tested. The dimensions of the samples are 250 * 250 * 60 mm. To check the insulation properties of materials it will be used a temperature logger capable of recording with two probes temperatures between +125...-40° C. One of the probes will be inserted inside the refrigerator and the second probe will be positioned to the outside of the test material adhered to an aluminum plate, in order to read a average temperature. The difference in thickness of the insulation shall be filled with non-woven material. Hardening the assembly will be made using a 6 mm thick OSB board. The materials will be tested in an identical ambient temperature and humidity.

  9. Fabrication of Continuous Fire Wire Detection Sensor usingNegative Temperature Coefficient Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Singla

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-based spinel semiconducting ceramic was mixed with lanthanum oxide powderand the mixture was characterised for the reproducible negative temperature coefficient (NTCof resistance behaviour. The same mixture was used for the fabrication of 15 m long continuousthermal detector.  The addition of La2O3 leads to decrease in thermistor constant and activationenergy values, thus giving freedom to fabricate thermal sensors for various temperatureapplications. A 3 m long continuous thermal detector for application in the temperature range275 - 350 oC was fabricated and later coupled to form a continuous unit of 15 m length.

  10. Consistent negative response of US crops to high temperatures in observations and crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Bernhard; Archontoulis, Sotirios; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Rolinski, Susanne; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Wang, Xuhui; Schlenker, Wolfram; Frieler, Katja

    2017-04-01

    High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day above 30°C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions. Declines observed in irrigated areas, or simulated assuming full irrigation, are weak. This supports the hypothesis that water stress induced by high temperatures causes the decline. For wheat a negative response to high temperature is neither observed nor simulated under historical conditions, since critical temperatures are rarely exceeded during the growing season. In the future, yields are modelled to decline for all three crops at temperatures above 30°C. Elevated CO2 can only weakly reduce these yield losses, in contrast to irrigation.

  11. Consistent negative response of US crops to high temperatures in observations and crop models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Bernhard; Archontoulis, Sotirios; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Khabarov, Nikolay; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Rolinski, Susanne; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Wang, Xuhui; Schlenker, Wolfram; Frieler, Katja

    2017-01-01

    High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day >30 °C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions. Declines observed in irrigated areas, or simulated assuming full irrigation, are weak. This supports the hypothesis that water stress induced by high temperatures causes the decline. For wheat a negative response to high temperature is neither observed nor simulated under historical conditions, since critical temperatures are rarely exceeded during the growing season. In the future, yields are modelled to decline for all three crops at temperatures >30 °C. Elevated CO2 can only weakly reduce these yield losses, in contrast to irrigation.

  12. Temperature effect on negative bias-induced instability of HfInZnO amorphous oxide thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Chang, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Wandong; Park, Jae Chul; Song, Ihun; Kim, Chang Jung; Jung, U. In; Park, Byung-Gook

    2011-02-01

    Negative bias-induced instability of amorphous hafnium indium zinc oxide (α-HIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) was investigated at various temperatures. In order to examine temperature-induced effects, fabricated TFTs with different combinations of gate insulator and gate metal were stressed by a negative gate bias at various temperatures. As a result, it is proved that negative bias-induced hole-trapping in the gate insulators and temperature-enhanced electron injection from the gate metals occurs at the same time at all temperatures, and the instability of HIZO TFT is more affected by the dominant factor out of the two mechanisms.

  13. Ion-acoustic solitons in negative ion plasma with two-electron temperature distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Chawla, J. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Ion-acoustic solitons in a warm positive and negative ion species with different masses, concentrations, and charge states with two electron temperature distributions are studied. Using reductive perturbation method, Korteweg de-Vries (KdV) and modified-KdV (m-KdV) equations are derived for the system. The soliton solution of the KdV and m-KdV equations is discussed in detail. It is found that if the ions have finite temperatures, then there exist two types of modes, namely slow and fast ion-acoustic modes. It is also investigated that the parameter determining the nature of soliton (i.e., whether the system will support compressive or rarefactive solitons) is different for slow and fast modes. For the slow mode, the parameter is the relative temperature of the two ion species; whereas for the fast mode, it is the relative concentration of the two ion species. At a critical concentration of negative ions, both compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist. The amplitude and width of the solitons are discussed in detail at critical concentration for m-KdV solitons. The effect of the relative temperature of the two-electron and cold-electron concentration on the characteristics of the solitons are also discussed.

  14. Contributed Review: Absolute spectral radiance calibration of fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometers using a coiled-coil irradiance standard lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 252-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen

  15. Broad negative thermal expansion operation-temperature window in antiperovskite manganese nitride with small crystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Tan[1,2; Rongjin Huang[1; Wei Wang[1; Wen Li[1,2; YuqiangZhao[1,2; Shaopeng Li[1,2; Yemao Han[1,2; Chuanjun Huang[1; Laifeng Li[1

    2015-01-01

    Using spark plasma sintering (SPS), Mn3Cu0.6Ge0.4N crystallites have been fabricated with different crystallite sizes, and their magnetic properties and thermal behaviors were systemically investigated. With decreasing crystallite size, the magnetic transition becomes increasingly slow, accompanied by broadening of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) operation-temperature window. The NTE operation-temperature window for the 12-nm crystallite sample reaches at 140 K, which is about 75% larger than that of the 74-nm crystallite sample. The magnetic properties and NTE operation-temperature window can be tuned by varying the crystallite size. This discovery will promote an even wider range of practical applications in precision devices.

  16. Direct Experimental Evidence of Hole Trapping in Negative Bias Temperature Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xiao-Li; LIAO Yi-Ming; YAN Feng; SHI Yi; ZHANG Guan; GUO Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in ultrathin-plasma-nitrided-oxide (PNO) based p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor Reid effect transistors (pMOSFETs) is investigated at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 470 K. It is found that the threshold voltage VT degradation below 290 K is dominated by the hole trapping process. Further studies unambiguously show that this process is unnecessarily related to nitrogen but the incorporation of nitrogen in the gate dielectric increases the probability of hole trapping in the NBTI process as it introduces extra trap states located in the upper half of the Si band gap. The possible hole trapping mechanism in NBTI stressed PNO pMOSFETs is suggested by taking account of oxygen and nitrogen related trap centers.%Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in ultrathin-plasma-nitrided-oxide (PNO) based p-type metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (pMOSFETs) is investigated at temperatures ranging from 220 K to 470 K.It is found that the threshold voltage VT degradation below 290 K is dominated by the hole trapping process.Further studies unambiguously show that this process is unnecessarily related to nitrogen but the incorporation of nitrogen in the gate dielectric increases the probability of hole trapping in the NBTI process as it introduces extra trap states located in the upper half of the Si band gap.The possible hole trapping mechanism in NBTI stressed PNO pMOSFETs is suggested by taking account of oxygen and nitrogen related trap centers.Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is one of the most important reliability research topics in modern CMOS technologies.Although it has been known for forty years,the degradation mechanism is still under debate and is of great interest.The negative bias temperature (NBT) degradation has been largely attributed to two different traps.One is the interface states due to Pb centers,resulting from the dissociation of Si-H bonds.[1,2

  17. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  18. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  19. Gate-tuned negative differential resistance observed at room temperature in an array of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Tran Thi Thu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Masataka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Kimura, Yasuo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Mizugaki, Yoshinao

    2017-04-01

    We fabricated a single-electron (SE) device using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Drain, source, and gate electrodes on a SiO{_2}/Si substrate were formed using electron beam lithography (EBL) and thermal evaporation of Au. Subsequently, solutions of 3-nm-diameter and 5-nm-diameter Au NPs were dropped on the device to make current paths through Au NPs among the electrodes. Measurements of the device exhibited negative differential resistance (NDR) in the current-voltage characteristics between the drain and source electrodes at room temperature (298 K). The NDR behavior was tuned by applying a gate voltage.

  20. Direct Experimental Evidence of Hole Trapping in Negative Bias Temperature Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-Li; Liao, Yi-Ming; Yan, Feng; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Guan; Guo, Qiang

    2011-10-01

    Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in ultrathin-plasma-nitrided-oxide (PNO) based p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (pMOSFETs) is investigated at temperatures ranging from 220K to 470K. It is found that the threshold voltage VT degradation below 290 K is dominated by the hole trapping process. Further studies unambiguously show that this process is unnecessarily related to nitrogen but the incorporation of nitrogen in the gate dielectric increases the probability of hole trapping in the NBTI process as it introduces extra trap states located in the upper half of the Si band gap. The possible hole trapping mechanism in NBTI stressed PNO pMOSFETs is suggested by taking account of oxygen and nitrogen related trap centers.

  1. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; De Schrijver, A; Leroux, O; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2014-02-01

    Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11,943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur.

  2. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Temperature-tunable lasing in negative dielectric chiral nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ri-Na; Wu, Jie; Wu, Xiao-Jiao; Dai, Qin

    2015-05-01

    In this work, negative dielectric nematic liquid crystal SLC12V620-400, chiral dopant S811, and laser dye DCM are used to prepare dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystal laser sample. In order to investigate temperature-tunable lasing in negative dielectric chiral nematic liquid crystal, we measure the transmission and lasing spectrum of this sample. The photonic band gap (PBG) is observed to red shift with its width reducing from 71.2 nm to 40.2 nm, and its short-wavelength band edge moves 55.3 nm while the long-wavelength band edge only moves 24.9 nm. The wavelength of output laser is found to red shift from 614.4 nm at 20 °C to 662.8 nm at 67 °C, which is very different from the previous experimental phenomena. The refractive indices, parallel and perpendicular to the director in chiral nematic liquid crystal have different dependencies on temperature. The experiment shows that the pitch of this chiral nematic liquid crystal increases with the increase of temperature. The decrease in the PBG width, different shifts of band edges, and the red shift of laser wavelength are the results of refractive indices change and pitch thermal elongation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378042), the Outstanding Young Scholars Growth Plans of Colleges and Universities in Liaoning Province, China (Grant No. LJQ2013022), the Science and Technology Research of Liaoning Province, China (Grant No. L2010465), the Open Funds of Liaoning Province Key Laboratory of Laser and Optical Information of Shenyang Ligong University, China.

  4. Effects of temperature and discharge parameters on ozone concentration of negative corona discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-jun; SHENG Lian-xi; XU De-xuan

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of the ozone generation and the heating power, corona wire surface temperature, discharge electrode and netting electrode was studied during the negative corona discharge. The experimental results showed that the ozone concentration reduced with applied voltage decrease. With heating power increase, the ozone concentration of unit current decreased at exponential rate and it almost change no longer over 0.40 W. Under given temperature, the lower the applied voltage was, the smaller the ozone concentration was; while under given applied voltages, only over 11 kV could decrease with the surface temperature increase. The ozone concentration decreased with the lengthening of corona wire, and could reduced to 10 ppb under experimental condition of 14.2 kV; it also decreased with the shortening of wire diameter,and could decrease 67% at best in the given condition. Moreover, it decreased with the increasing size of netting electrode mesh. At the anion current of 1.65 μA, the ozone concentration of 5.0 × 5.0 cm2 is only 41% of that of 3.3 × 3.3 cm2 .

  5. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m(-2), i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  6. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Negative bias temperature instability induced single event transient pulse narrowing and broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjun, Chen; Shuming, Chen; Bin, Liang; Biwei, Liu

    2010-12-01

    The effect of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on a single event transient (SET) has been studied in a 130 nm bulk silicon CMOS process based on 3D TCAD device simulations. The investigation shows that NBTI can result in the pulse width and amplitude of SET narrowing when the heavy ion hits the PMOS in the high-input inverter; but NBTI can result in the pulse width and amplitude of SET broadening when the heavy ion hits the NMOS in the low-input inverter. Based on this study, for the first time we propose that the impact of NBTI on a SET produced by the heavy ion hitting the NMOS has already been a significant reliability issue and should be of wide concern, and the radiation hardened design must consider the impact of NBTI on a SET.

  8. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Kato, S; Miyamoto, T; Nishiura, M; Tsumori, K; Matsumoto, Y; Kenmotsu, T; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Sasao, M; Wada, M; Yamaoka, H

    2014-02-01

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  9. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H., E-mail: nakano@nifs.ac.jp; Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 5095292 (Japan); Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K. [Graduate school of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 0608628 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  10. Negative bias temperature instability of SiC MOSFET induced by interface trap assisted hole trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Tyng; Hung, Chien-Chung; Hung, Hsiang-Ting; Lee, Chwan-Ying; Lee, Lurng-Shehng; Huang, Yao-Feng; Hsu, Fu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) characteristics of 4H-SiC metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP). The shift of threshold voltage approached saturation with time, and the different magnitude of mid-gap voltage shift with different starting biases observed in capacitance-voltage (CV) curves taken from MOSCAP and MOSFET suggested that the hole trapping was the primary mechanism contributing to the NBTI in this study. The trend of mid-gap voltage shift with starting bias and threshold voltage shift with stress bias showed steep change before -10 V and approached saturation after -10 V which can be explained by a process where the hole trapping was assisted by positively charged interface states. The positively charged interface states may have acted as an intermediate state which reduced the overall energy barrier and facilitated the process of hole trapping. The split-CV sweeps with 0 s and 655 s of hold time were essentially overlapped which was consistent with the time evolution characteristic of hole trapping and supported the interface trap assisted hole trapping mechanism.

  11. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  12. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-12-15

    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  13. Absolute neutrino mass update

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.

  14. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  15. Absolute Standards for Climate Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, J.

    2016-10-01

    In a world of changing climate, political uncertainty, and ever-changing budgets, the benefit of measurements traceable to SI standards increases by the day. To truly resolve climate change trends on a decadal time scale, on-orbit measurements need to be referenced to something that is both absolute and unchanging. One such mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) that will measure a variety of climate variables with an unprecedented accuracy to definitively quantify climate change. In the CLARREO mission, we will utilize phase change cells in which a material is melted to calibrate the temperature of a blackbody that can then be observed by a spectrometer. A material's melting point is an unchanging physical constant that, through a series of transfers, can ultimately calibrate a spectrometer on an absolute scale. CLARREO consists of two primary instruments: an infrared (IR) spectrometer and a reflected solar (RS) spectrometer. The mission will contain orbiting radiometers with sufficient accuracy to calibrate other space-based instrumentation and thus transferring the absolute traceability. The status of various mission options will be presented.

  16. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  17. The warmer the weather, the more gram-negative bacteria - impact of temperature on clinical isolates in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schwab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the relationship between average monthly temperature and the most common clinical pathogens causing infections in intensive care patients. METHODS: A prospective unit-based study in 73 German intensive care units located in 41 different hospitals and 31 different cities with total 188,949 pathogen isolates (102,377 Gram-positives and 86,572 Gram-negatives from 2001 to 2012. We estimated the relationship between the number of clinical pathogens per month and the average temperature in the month of isolation and in the month prior to isolation while adjusting for confounders and long-term trends using time series analysis. Adjusted incidence rate ratios for temperature parameters were estimated based on generalized estimating equation models which account for clustering effects. RESULTS: The incidence density of Gram-negative pathogens was 15% (IRR 1.15, 95%CI 1.10-1.21 higher at temperatures ≥ 20°C than at temperatures below 5°C. E. cloacae occurred 43% (IRR=1.43; 95%CI 1.31-1.56 more frequently at high temperatures, A. baumannii 37% (IRR=1.37; 95%CI 1.11-1.69, S. maltophilia 32% (IRR=1.32; 95%CI 1.12-1.57, K. pneumoniae 26% (IRR=1.26; 95%CI 1.13-1.39, Citrobacter spp. 19% (IRR=1.19; 95%CI 0.99-1.44 and coagulase-negative staphylococci 13% (IRR=1.13; 95%CI 1.04-1.22. By contrast, S. pneumoniae 35% (IRR=0.65; 95%CI 0.50-0.84 less frequently isolated at high temperatures. For each 5°C increase, we observed a 3% (IRR=1.03; 95%CI 1.02-1.04 increase of Gram-negative pathogens. This increase was highest for A. baumannii with 8% (IRR=1.08; 95%CI 1.05-1.12 followed by K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and E. cloacae with 7%. CONCLUSION: Clinical pathogens vary by incidence density with temperature. Significant higher incidence densities of Gram-negative pathogens were observed during summer whereas S. pneumoniae peaked in winter. There is increasing evidence that different seasonality due to physiologic changes underlies

  18. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  19. Absolute biological needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  20. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  1. Photosynthetic temperature responses of tree species in Rwanda: evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in montane rainforest climax species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårhammar, Angelica; Wallin, Göran; McLean, Christopher M.; Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Hasper, Thomas B.; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of photosynthetic metabolism to temperature has been identified as a key uncertainty for projecting the magnitude of the terrestrial feedback on future climate change. While temperature responses of photosynthetic capacities have been comparatively well investigated in temperate species, the responses of tropical tree species remain unexplored. We compared the responses of seedlings of native cold-adapted tropical montane rainforest tree species to exotic warm-adapted plantation species, all growing in an intermediate temperature common garden in Rwanda. Leaf gas exchange responses to CO2 at different temperatures (20 - 40 C) were used to assess the temperature responses of biochemical photosynthetic capacities. Analyses revealed a lower optimum temperature for photosynthetic electron transport rates than for Rubisco carboxylation rates, along with lower electron transport optima in the native cold-adapted than in the exotic warm-adapted species. The photosynthetic optimum temperatures were generally exceeded by daytime peak leaf temperatures, in particular in the native montane rainforest climax species. This study thus provides evidence of pronounced negative effects of high temperature in tropical trees and indicates high susceptibility of montane rainforest climax species to future global warming. (Reference: New Phytologist, in press)

  2. Do high temperatures enhance the negative effects of ultraviolet-B radiation in embryonic and larval amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley A. Alton

    2012-07-01

    For the embryos and tadpoles of amphibian species, exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR can be lethal, or cause a variety of sublethal effects. Low temperatures enhance the detrimental effects of UVBR and this is most likely because the enzyme-mediated processes involved in the repair of UVBR-induced damage function less effectively at low temperatures. Whether these repair processes are also impaired, and thus the negative effects of UVBR similarly enhanced, at high temperatures is not known, but is an ecologically relevant question to ask given that organisms that inhabit environments where the temperature fluctuates widely on a daily timescale are likely to experience high doses of UVBR when temperatures are high. Here we examined the thermal-dependence of UVBR effects in the context of an ecologically-relevant fluctuating UVBR and temperature regime to test the hypothesis that exposure to peak UVBR levels while the temperature is high (35°C is more detrimental to embryonic and larval Limnodynastes peronii than exposure to peak UVBR levels while the temperature is moderate (25°C. Embryos exposed to peak UVBR levels at 35°C hatched 10 h later than those exposed to peak UVBR levels at 25°C and, as tadpoles, were smaller and consequently swam more slowly but, in an environment with predators, exhibited no difference in survival time. There was also no effect of experimental treatment on the hatching success of embryos, nor on the post-hatch survival of tadpoles. These findings, therefore, are not sufficiently strong to support our hypothesis that high temperatures enhance the negative effects of UVBR in embryonic and larval amphibians.

  3. Using low-contrast negative-tone PMMA at cryogenic temperatures for 3D electron beam lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauber, Peter; Schmidt, Ronny; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Heuser, Tobias; Gschrey, Manuel; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2016-05-13

    We report on a 3D electron beam lithography (EBL) technique using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the negative-tone regime as a resist. First, we briefly demonstrate 3D EBL at room temperature. Then we concentrate on cryogenic temperatures where PMMA exhibits a low contrast, which allows for straightforward patterning of 3D nano- and microstructures. However, conventional EBL patterning at cryogenic temperatures is found to cause severe damage to the microstructures. Through an extensive study of lithography parameters, exposure techniques, and processing steps we deduce a hypothesis for the cryogenic PMMA's structural evolution under electron beam irradiation that explains the damage. In accordance with this hypothesis, a two step lithography technique involving a wide-area pre-exposure dose slightly smaller than the onset dose is applied. It enables us to demonstrate a >95% process yield for the low-temperature fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  4. The role of photoionization in negative corona discharge: The influences of temperature, humidity, and air pressure on a corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H. Y.; Lu, B. X.; Wang, M.; Guo, Q. F.; Feng, Q. K.

    2017-10-01

    The swarm parameters of the negative corona discharge are improved to calculate the discharge model under different environmental conditions. The effects of temperature, humidity, and air pressure are studied using a conventional needle-to-plane configuration in air. The electron density, electric field, electron generation rate, and photoelectron generation rate are discussed in this paper. The role of photoionization under these conditions is also studied by numerical simulation. The photoelectrons generated in weak ionization region are proved to be dominant.

  5. Toward absolute chemical composition distribution measurement of polyolefins by high-temperature liquid chromatography hyphenated with infrared absorbance and light scattering detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dean; Shan, Colin Li Pi; Meunier, David M; Lyons, John W; Cong, Rongjuan; deGroot, A Willem

    2014-09-02

    Chemical composition distribution (CCD) is a fundamental metric for representing molecular structures of copolymers in addition to molecular weight distribution (MWD). Solvent gradient interaction chromatography (SGIC) is commonly used to separate copolymers by chemical composition in order to obtain CCD. The separation of polymer in SGIC is, however, not only affected by chemical composition but also by molecular weight and architecture. The ability to measure composition and MW simultaneously after separation would be beneficial for understanding the impact of different factors and deriving true CCD. In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography (2D) was coupled with infrared absorbance (IR5) and light scattering (LS) detectors for characterization of ethylene-propylene copolymers. Polymers were first separated by SGIC as the first dimension chromatography (D1). The separated fractions were then characterized by the second dimension (D2) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with IR5 and LS detectors. The concentrations and compositions of the separated fractions were measured online using the IR5 detector. The MWs of the fractions were measured by the ratio of LS to IR5 signals. A metric was derived from online concentration and composition data to represent CCD breadth. The metric was shown to be independent of separation gradients for an "absolute" measurement of CCD breadth. By combining online composition and MW data, the relationship of MW as a function of chemical composition was obtained. This relationship was qualitatively consistent with the results by SEC coupled to IR5, which measures chemical composition as a function of logMW. The simultaneous measurements of composition and MW give the opportunity to study the SGIC separation mechanism and derive chain architectural characteristics of polymer chains.

  6. Temperature driven quenches in the Ising model: appearance of negative Rényi mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Márton; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2017-06-01

    We study the dynamics of the transverse field Ising chain after a local quench in which two independently thermalised chains are joined together and are left to evolve unitarily. In the emerging non-equilibrium steady state the Rényi mutual information with different indices are calculated between two adjacent segments of the chain, and are found to scale logarithmically in the subsystem size. Surprisingly, for Rényi indices α>2 we find cases where the prefactor of the logarithmic dependence is negative. The fact that the naively defined Rényi mutual information might be negative has been pointed out before, however, we provide the first example for this scenario in a realistic many-body setup. Our numerical and analytical results indicate that in this setup it can be negative for any index α>2 while it is always positive for α2 the calculated prefactors show some universal features: for example, the same prefactor is also shown to govern the logarithmic time dependence of the Rényi mutual information before the system relaxes locally to the steady state. In particular, it can decrease in the non-equilibrium evolution after the quench.

  7. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...

  8. The Oxidation of a Gasoline Surrogate in the Negative Temperature Coefficient Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    used to model homo- geneous charge compression ignition ( HCCI ) engines with reason- able success [25]. The initial conditions for the surrogate mixture...Owens b a Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875, USA b Department...critical for solving the problem of knock in spark igni- tion engines and for the development of Low Temperature Com- bustion engine technologies such as

  9. Room temperature performance of 4 V aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered lithium-doped carbon negative electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Sho; Yamamoto, Rie; Sugimoto, Shigeyuki; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    Water-stable multi-layered lithium-doped carbon (LixC6) negative electrode using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) polymer electrolyte containing N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI) ionic liquid was developed. Electrochemical properties at 60 °C of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using activated carbon positive electrode and a multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode (LixC6 | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP) without PP13TFSI exhibited performance similar to that using Li anode (Li | PEO-LiTFSI | LTAP). A drastic decrease in ESR was achieved by the addition of PP13TFSI to PEO-LiTFSI, allowing room temperature operation. The ESR of the multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C was 801 Ω cm2, which is 1/6 the value of the multi-layered Li negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI (5014 Ω cm2). Charge/discharge test of the aqueous hybrid supercapacitor using multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI at 25 °C afforded specific capacity of 20.6 mAh (g-activated carbon)-1 with a working voltage of 2.7-3.7 V, and good long-term capability up to 3000 cycles. Furthermore, an aqueous hybrid supercapacitor consisting of a high capacitance RuO2 nanosheet positive electrode and multi-layered LixC6 negative electrode with PEO-LiTFSI-PP13TFSI showed specific capacity of 196 mAh (g-RuO2)-1 and specific energy of 625 Wh (kg-RuO2)-1 in 2.0 M acetic acid-lithium acetate buffered solution at 25 °C.

  10. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  11. Colossal negative thermal expansion with an extended temperature interval covering room temperature in fine-powdered Mn0.98CoGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianchao; Tong, Peng; Zhang, Kui; Tong, Haiyun; Guo, Xinge; Yang, Cheng; Wu, Ying; Wang, Meng; Lin, Shuai; Chen, Li; Song, Wenhai; Sun, Yuping

    2016-12-01

    MnM'X (M' = Co, Ni; X = Ge, Si, etc.) alloys usually present a large volumetric change during the Martensitic (MA) transformation. This offers a great opportunity for exploring new negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials if the temperature interval of NTE can be extended. Here, we report colossal NTE in fine-powdered Mn0.98CoGe prepared by repeated thermal cycling (TC) through the MA transition or ball milling. Both treatments can expand the MA transformation, and thus broaden the NTE temperature window (ΔT). For the powders that have gone through TC for ten times, ΔT reaches 90 K (309 K-399 K), and the linear expansion coefficient (αL) is about -141 ppm/K, which rank among the largest values of colossal NTE materials. The difference between two kinds of treatments and the possible mechanisms of the extended MA transformation window are discussed based on the introduced strain.

  12. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  13. Gyrokinetic Statistical Absolute Equilibrium and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Zhou Zhu and Gregory W. Hammett

    2011-01-10

    A paradigm based on the absolute equilibrium of Galerkin-truncated inviscid systems to aid in understanding turbulence [T.-D. Lee, "On some statistical properties of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical fields," Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)] is taken to study gyrokinetic plasma turbulence: A finite set of Fourier modes of the collisionless gyrokinetic equations are kept and the statistical equilibria are calculated; possible implications for plasma turbulence in various situations are discussed. For the case of two spatial and one velocity dimension, in the calculation with discretization also of velocity v with N grid points (where N + 1 quantities are conserved, corresponding to an energy invariant and N entropy-related invariants), the negative temperature states, corresponding to the condensation of the generalized energy into the lowest modes, are found. This indicates a generic feature of inverse energy cascade. Comparisons are made with some classical results, such as those of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima in the cold-ion limit. There is a universal shape for statistical equilibrium of gyrokinetics in three spatial and two velocity dimensions with just one conserved quantity. Possible physical relevance to turbulence, such as ITG zonal flows, and to a critical balance hypothesis are also discussed.

  14. Absolute airborne gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Henri

    This work consists of a feasibility study of a first stage prototype airborne absolute gravimeter system. In contrast to relative systems, which are using spring gravimeters, the measurements acquired by absolute systems are uncorrelated and the instrument is not suffering from problems like instrumental drift, frequency response of the spring and possible variation of the calibration factor. The major problem we had to resolve were to reduce the influence of the non-gravitational accelerations included in the measurements. We studied two different approaches to resolve it: direct mechanical filtering, and post-processing digital compensation. The first part of the work describes in detail the different mechanical passive filters of vibrations, which were studied and tested in the laboratory and later in a small truck in movement. For these tests as well as for the airborne measurements an absolute gravimeter FG5-L from Micro-G Ltd was used together with an Inertial navigation system Litton-200, a vertical accelerometer EpiSensor, and GPS receivers for positioning. These tests showed that only the use of an optical table gives acceptable results. However, it is unable to compensate for the effects of the accelerations of the drag free chamber. The second part describes the strategy of the data processing. It is based on modeling the perturbing accelerations by means of GPS, EpiSensor and INS data. In the third part the airborne experiment is described in detail, from the mounting in the aircraft and data processing to the different problems encountered during the evaluation of the quality and accuracy of the results. In the part of data processing the different steps conducted from the raw apparent gravity data and the trajectories to the estimation of the true gravity are explained. A comparison between the estimated airborne data and those obtained by ground upward continuation at flight altitude allows to state that airborne absolute gravimetry is feasible and

  15. Absolutely Indecomposable Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Göbel, Rüdiger

    2007-01-01

    A module is called absolutely indecomposable if it is directly indecomposable in every generic extension of the universe. We want to show the existence of large abelian groups that are absolutely indecomposable. This will follow from a more general result about R-modules over a large class of commutative rings R with endomorphism ring R which remains the same when passing to a generic extension of the universe. It turns out that `large' in this context has the precise meaning, namely being smaller then the first omega-Erdos cardinal defined below. We will first apply result on large rigid trees with a similar property established by Shelah in 1982, and will prove the existence of related ` R_omega-modules' (R-modules with countably many distinguished submodules) and finally pass to R-modules. The passage through R_omega-modules has the great advantage that the proofs become very transparent essentially using a few `linear algebra' arguments accessible also for graduate students. The result gives a new constru...

  16. Absolute polarimetry at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, H; Bravar, A; Bunce, G; Dhawan, S; Eyser, K O; Gill, R; Haeberli, W; Huang, H; Jinnouchi, O; Makdisi, Y; Nakagawa, I; Nass, A; Saitô, N; Stephenson, E; Sviridia, D; Wise, T; Wood, J; Zelenski, A

    2007-01-01

    Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy of $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} < 5%$. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features \\textit{proton-proton} elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power $A_N$ of this process has allowed us to achieve $\\Delta P_{beam}/P_{beam} =4.2%$ in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of $A...

  17. Temperature dependences of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} resistivity in terms of the negative-U centers model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryshev, S V; Bobyl, A V; Tsendin, K D [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Kapustin, A I, E-mail: sergey.v.baryshev@gmail.com, E-mail: kapustinalex@yandex.ru [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 195251 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    The temperature dependence of the normal-phase resistivity {rho}(T) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) is analyzed by using the Boltzmann equation for holes in the {tau}-approximation, in which the dependence of the relaxation time on energy and temperature {tau}({epsilon}, T) is due to acoustic phonons. The temperature dependence of the chemical potential {mu}(T) and effective carrier mass m* {approx} 10-100 free electron masses, obtained by fitting to the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient in terms of the negative-U centers model, are used to calculate {rho}(T). The results obtained are compared with experimental data. It is shown that they are consistent over a wide range of doping levels x and coincide in absolute magnitude, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} {Omega} cm. In addition, the slope ratio of the dependence of the normal-phase {rho}(T) on the size of the x-ray coherent-scattering region and on the oxygen content is calculated for a set of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films.

  18. Temperature dependences of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} resistivity in terms of negative-U centers model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baryshev, S. V.; Kapustin, A. I.; Bobyl, A. V.; Tsendin, K. D. (Materials Science Division); (Ioffe Physical-Technical Inst. of the Russian Academy Sciences)

    2011-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the normal-phase resistivity {rho}(T) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) is analyzed by using the Boltzmann equation for holes in the {tau}-approximation, in which the dependence of the relaxation time on energy and temperature {tau}({epsilon}, T) is due to acoustic phonons. The temperature dependence of the chemical potential {mu}(T) and effective carrier mass m* {approx} 10-100 free electron masses, obtained by fitting to the temperature dependence of the Hall coefficient in terms of the negative-U centers model, are used to calculate {rho}(T). The results obtained are compared with experimental data. It is shown that they are consistent over a wide range of doping levels x and coincide in absolute magnitude, {rho} {approx} 10 - 4-10 - 3 {Omega} cm. In addition, the slope ratio of the dependence of the normal-phase {rho}(T) on the size of the x-ray coherent-scattering region and on the oxygen content is calculated for a set of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films.

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korstanje, Ron; Ryan, Jennifer L; Savage, Holly S; Lyons, Bonnie L; Kane, Kevin G; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment affecting behavior and measurements. In the current study, we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the elevated nocturnal concentrations of glucose into the diabetic range days before elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured) and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body temperature with a steady decline of the body temperature with diabetes development. Taken together, this technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of the disease trajectory of diabetes in mouse models, including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly used in patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  20. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  1. Absolute Gravimetry in Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, B. R; TImmen, L.; Gitlein, O.

    The Fennoscandian postglacial uplift has been mapped geometrically using precise levelling, tide gauges, and networks of permanent GPS stations. The results identify major uplift rates at sites located around the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. The vertical motions decay in all directions...... motions) has its major axis in the direction of southwest to northeast and covers a distance of about 2000 km. Absolute gravimetry was made in Finland and Norway in 1976 with a rise-and fall instrument. A decade later the number of gravity stations was expanded by JILAg-5, in Finland from 1988, in Norway...... from 1991, and in Sweden from 1992. FG5 was introduced in these three countries in 1993 (7 stations) and continued with an extended campaign in 1995 (12 stations). In 2003 a project was initiated by IfE, Hannover to collect observations simultaneously with GRACE on an annual cycle. New instruments were...

  2. Optical tweezers absolute calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Dutra, R S; Neto, P A Maia; Nussenzveig, H M

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers are highly versatile laser traps for neutral microparticles, with fundamental applications in physics and in single molecule cell biology. Force measurements are performed by converting the stiffness response to displacement of trapped transparent microspheres, employed as force transducers. Usually, calibration is indirect, by comparison with fluid drag forces. This can lead to discrepancies by sizable factors. Progress achieved in a program aiming at absolute calibration, conducted over the past fifteen years, is briefly reviewed. Here we overcome its last major obstacle, a theoretical overestimation of the peak stiffness, within the most employed range for applications, and we perform experimental validation. The discrepancy is traced to the effect of primary aberrations of the optical system, which are now included in the theory. All required experimental parameters are readily accessible. Astigmatism, the dominant effect, is measured by analyzing reflected images of the focused laser spo...

  3. Absolute multilateration between spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelaner, Jody; Wadsworth, William; Azini, Maria; Mullineux, Glen; Hughes, Ben; Reichold, Armin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental effects typically limit the accuracy of large scale coordinate measurements in applications such as aircraft production and particle accelerator alignment. This paper presents an initial design for a novel measurement technique with analysis and simulation showing that that it could overcome the environmental limitations to provide a step change in large scale coordinate measurement accuracy. Referred to as absolute multilateration between spheres (AMS), it involves using absolute distance interferometry to directly measure the distances between pairs of plain steel spheres. A large portion of each sphere remains accessible as a reference datum, while the laser path can be shielded from environmental disturbances. As a single scale bar this can provide accurate scale information to be used for instrument verification or network measurement scaling. Since spheres can be simultaneously measured from multiple directions, it also allows highly accurate multilateration-based coordinate measurements to act as a large scale datum structure for localized measurements, or to be integrated within assembly tooling, coordinate measurement machines or robotic machinery. Analysis and simulation show that AMS can be self-aligned to achieve a theoretical combined standard uncertainty for the independent uncertainties of an individual 1 m scale bar of approximately 0.49 µm. It is also shown that combined with a 1 µm m‑1 standard uncertainty in the central reference system this could result in coordinate standard uncertainty magnitudes of 42 µm over a slender 1 m by 20 m network. This would be a sufficient step change in accuracy to enable next generation aerospace structures with natural laminar flow and part-to-part interchangeability.

  4. Widespread negative correlations between black spruce growth and temperature across topographic moisture gradients in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe; Johnstone, Jill F.

    2014-05-01

    The responses of tree growth to recent climate warming may signal changes in the susceptibility of forest communities to compositional change and consequently impact a wide range of ecosystem processes and services. Previous research in the boreal forest has largely documented negative growth responses to climate in forest species and habitats characteristic of drier conditions, emphasizing the sensitivity of drier or warmer landscape positions to climate warming. In this study, we explored relationships between climate and tree-ring growth of black spruce, a dominant tree species typical of cool and moist habitats in the boreal forests of North America. We assessed how these responses varied with stand characteristics and landscape position across four different regions in Alaska and Yukon Territory. Approximately half of the trees measured across regions and topographic gradients exhibited reduced radial growth in response to warm temperatures in the previous growing season and current spring, which we interpret as a signal of drought stress. Although we found considerable variation in the growth responses of individual trees within sites, landscape position and stand characteristics were weak predictors of this variability, explaining ≦̸12% of the variation in any region. Our results indicate that future warming, particularly in spring, is likely to result in drought stress and a reduction of black spruce radial growth independent of region, landscape position, or stand characteristics. The occurrence of negative growth responses to temperature, even in cool and moist habitats, suggests that drought stress limitations may be more widespread in the northern boreal forest than previously anticipated, indicating broad sensitivity of ecosystem processes and services to climate change across a diverse range of habitat types.

  5. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Peterson, Dr. Brian [University of Edinburgh; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Northrop, Dr. William [University of Minnesota

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  6. Determination of Absolute Zero Using a Computer-Based Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple computer-based laboratory experiment for evaluating absolute zero in degrees Celsius, which can be performed in college and undergraduate physical sciences laboratory courses. With a computer, absolute zero apparatus can help demonstrators or students to observe the relationship between temperature and pressure and use…

  7. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  8. Investigation of negative bias temperature instability dependence on fin width of silicon-on-insulator-fin-based field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Chadwin D., E-mail: chadwin.young@utdallas.edu; Wang, Zhe [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Neugroschel, Arnost [Department of Electrical and Computer Enginering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Majumdar, Kausik; Matthews, Ken; Hobbs, Chris [SEMATECH, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    The fin width dependence of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) of double-gate, fin-based p-type Field Effect Transistors (FinFETs) fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers was investigated. The NBTI degradation increased as the fin width narrowed. To investigate this phenomenon, simulations of pre-stress conditions were employed to determine any differences in gate oxide field, fin band bending, and electric field profile as a function of the fin width. The simulation results were similar at a given gate stress bias, regardless of the fin width, although the threshold voltage was found to increase with decreasing fin width. Thus, the NBTI fin width dependence could not be explained from the pre-stress conditions. Different physics-based degradation models were evaluated using specific fin-based device structures with different biasing schemes to ascertain an appropriate model that best explains the measured NBTI dependence. A plausible cause is an accumulation of electrons that tunnel from the gate during stress into the floating SOI fin body. As the fin narrows, the sidewall device channel moves in closer proximity to the stored electrons, thereby inducing more band bending at the fin/dielectric interface, resulting in a higher electric field and hole concentration in this region during stress, which leads to more degradation. The data obtained in this work provide direct experimental proof of the effect of electron accumulation on the threshold voltage stability in FinFETs.

  9. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......, increasing the temperature has positive impact as the best degradation was obtained at 55 °C. In contrast to the known influence of the temperature on the chemical reactions, in case of the nanofibrous morphology, the temperature has negative impact as the experimental work indicated that the optimum...... the molecules escape from the active thin film surrounding the photocatalyst. Overall, this study shows that the nanofibrous morphology strongly enhances the surface activity of the photocatalyst which generates negative influence of the temperature....

  10. Notes on absolute Hodge classes

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, François

    2011-01-01

    We survey the theory of absolute Hodge classes. The notes include a full proof of Deligne's theorem on absolute Hodge classes on abelian varieties as well as a discussion of other topics, such as the field of definition of Hodge loci and the Kuga-Satake construction.

  11. Communication: Rigorous quantum dynamics of O + O2 exchange reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface substantiate the negative temperature dependence of rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqin; Sun, Zhigang; Jiang, Bin; Xie, Daiqian; Dawes, Richard; Guo, Hua

    2014-08-28

    The kinetics and dynamics of several O + O2 isotope exchange reactions have been investigated on a recently determined accurate global O3 potential energy surface using a time-dependent wave packet method. The agreement between calculated and measured rate coefficients is significantly improved over previous work. More importantly, the experimentally observed negative temperature dependence of the rate coefficients is for the first time rigorously reproduced theoretically. This negative temperature dependence can be attributed to the absence in the new potential energy surface of a submerged "reef" structure, which was present in all previous potential energy surfaces. In addition, contributions of rotational excited states of the diatomic reactant further accentuate the negative temperature dependence.

  12. Negative magnetoresistance temperature dependence induced by current-pumped nuclear spin polarization at the ν =2/3 quantum Hall state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shibun; Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Terasawa, Daiju; Fukuda, Akira; Sawada, Anju

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the huge longitudinal resistance (HLR) at which the magnetoresistance of the ν =2/3 fractional quantum Hall state (QHS) is increased with dynamic nuclear spin polarization. We measure the magnetoresistance temperature dependence in the resistively saturated HLR by increasing the temperature of the sample rapidly in order to prevent relaxation of the nuclear spin polarization. The obtained results indicate that the magnetoresistance decreases as the temperature increases. The Hall resistance in the HLR is also measured and found to exhibit a plateau close to a quantized value. We discuss the negative magnetoresistance temperature dependence with a stripe-shaped domain state deformed by the nuclear spin polarization.

  13. A temperature-insensitive cladding-etched Fiber Bragg grating using a liquid mixture with a negative thermo-optic coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Kim, In Soo; Lee, Cherl-Hee; Lee, Jonghun

    2012-01-01

    To compensate for the temperature dependency of a standard FBG, a cladding-etched FBG immersed with a liquid mixture having a negative thermo-optic coefficient is presented, and its characteristics are investigated. The Bragg wavelength of the cladding-etched FBG is shifted counter to the direction of the Bragg wavelength shift of a conventional FBG according to the mixing ratio of glycerin to water; thus, the temperature-dependent Bragg wavelength shift was almost compensated by using a liquid mixture of water (50%) and glycerin (50%) having the negative thermo-optic coefficient of -5 × 10(-4) °C(-1).

  14. Numerical simulation of temperature field and thermal stress field in silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode irradiated by multipulsed millisecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhi; Jin, Guangyong; Tan, Yong; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Laser induced morphological damage have been observed in silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode. This paper adopted the methods of the theoretical calculation and finite element numerical simulation to model, then solved the temperature field and thermal stress field in silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode irradiated by multipulsed millisecond laser, and researched the features and laws of the temperature field and thermal stress field. As for the thermal-mechanical problem of multipulsed millisecond laser irradiating silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode, based on Fourier heat conduction and thermoelasticity theories, we established a two-dimensional axisymmetric mathematical model .Then adopted finite element method to simulate the transient temperature field and thermal stress field. The temperature dependences of the material parameters and the absorption coefficient were taken into account in the calculation. The results indicated that there was the heat accumulation effect when multipulsed millisecond laser irradiating silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode. The morphological damage threshold were obtained numerically. The evolution of temperature at the central point of the top surface, the temperature distribution along the radial direction in the end of laser irradiation and the temperature distribution along the axial direction in the end of laser irradiation were considered. Meanwhile, the radial stress, hoop stress, axial stress on the top surface and the R=500μm axis were also considered. The results showed that the morphological damage threshold decreased with the increased of the pulse number. The results of this study have reference significance of researching the thermal and thermal stress effect evolution's features when multipulsed millisecond laser irradiating silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode, then revealing the mechanism of interactions between millisecond laser and

  15. Temperature Increase Negatively Affects the Fatty Acid Bioconversion Capacity of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Linseed Oil-Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellery, Julie; Geay, Florian; Tocher, Douglas R; Kestemont, Patrick; Debier, Cathy; Rollin, Xavier; Larondelle, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is meant to provide fish rich in omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA). This objective must be reached despite (1) the necessity to replace the finite and limited fish oil in feed production and (2) the increased temperature of the supply water induced by the global warming. The objective of the present paper was to determine to what extent increased water temperature influences the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-derived diet. Fish were fed two diets formulated with fish oil (FO) or linseed oil (LO) as only added lipid source at the optimal water temperature of 15°C or at the increased water temperature of 19°C for 60 days. We observed that a temperature increase close to the upper limit of the species temperature tolerance range negatively affected the feed efficiency of rainbow trout fed LO despite a higher feed intake. The negative impact of increased water temperature on fatty acid bioconversion capacity appeared also to be quite clear considering the reduced expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 in liver and intestine and the reduced Δ6 desaturase enzymatic activity in intestinal microsomes. The present results also highlighted a negative impact of increased temperature on the apparent in vivo enzymatic activity of Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases of fish fed LO. Interestingly, this last parameter appeared less affected than those mentioned above. This study highlights that the increased temperature that rainbow trout may face due to global warming could reduce their fatty acid bioconversion capacity. The unavoidable replacement of finite fish oil by more sustainable, readily available and economically viable alternative lipid sources in aquaculture feeds should take this undeniable environmental issue on aquaculture productivity into account.

  16. Increased [CO2] does not compensate for negative effects on yield caused by higher temperature and [O3] in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2011-01-01

    significantly enhanced in one of the four cultivars studied. Increased [O3] did not have significant effects on any of the cultivars. In general, the negative effects of a 5 °C temperature elevation on yield could not be compensated by elevated [CO2], when simultaneously applied in multifactor treatments...

  17. From Hubble's NGSL to Absolute Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, Don

    2012-01-01

    Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R-l000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Each spectrum covers the wavelength range, 0.18-1.00 microns. The library can be viewed and/or downloaded from the website, http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/stisngsll. Stars in the NGSL are now being used as absolute flux standards at ground-based observatories. However, the uncertainty in the absolute flux is about 2%, which does not meet the requirements of dark-energy surveys. We are therefore developing an observing procedure that should yield fluxes with uncertainties less than 1 % and will take part in an HST proposal to observe up to 15 stars using this new procedure.

  18. Absolute zero and the conquest of cold

    CERN Document Server

    Shachtman, Tom

    2000-01-01

    In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in "high-tech" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest frontiers in physics, with scientists creating useful particles Einstein only dreamed of. Tom Shachtman shares a great scientific adventure story and its characters' rich lives in a book that has won a grant from the prestigious Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Absolute Zero is for everyone who loves history and science history stories, who's eager to explore Nobel Prize-winning physics today, or who has ever sighed with pleasure ...

  19. Absoluteness or relativity of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion ­ billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker ­ more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.

  20. Database applicaton for absolute spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy

    2002-12-01

    32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.

  1. Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: A multi-model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems (drylands) may dominate the trajectory of biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux over the coming century. Accordingly, understanding dryland CO2 efflux controls is important for understanding C cycling at the global-scale: key unknowns regarding how temperature and moisture interact to regulate dryland C cycling remain. Further, the patchiness of dryland vegetation can create ‘islands of fertility’, with spatially heterogeneous rates of soil respiration (Rs). At our study site in southeastern Utah, USA we added or removed litter (0 to 650% of control) in paired plots that were either associated with a shrub or with interspaces between vascular plants. We measured Rs, soil temperature, and water content (θ) on eight sampling dates between October 2013 and November 2014. Rs was highest following monsoon rains in late summer when soil temperature was ~30°C. During mid-summer, Rs was low, associated with high soil temperatures (>40°C), resulting in an apparent negative temperature sensitivity of Rs at high temperatures, and positive temperature sensitivity at low-moderate temperatures. We used Bayesian statistical methods to compare multiple competing models capturing a wide range of hypothesized relationships between temperature, moisture, and Rs. The best fit model indicates apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration at high temperatures reflects the control of soil moisture – not high temperatures – in limiting Rs. The modeled Q10 ranged from 2.7 at 5°C to 1.4 at 45°C. Litter addition had no effect on temperature sensitivity or reference respiration (Rref = Rs at 20°C and optimum moisture) beneath shrubs, and little effect on Rref in interspaces, yet Rref was 1.5 times higher beneath shrubs than in interspaces. Together, these results suggest reduced Rs often observed at high temperatures in drylands is dominated by the control of moisture, and that variable litter inputs – at least over the short

  2. Gibberellins negatively regulate low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation in a HY5/HYH-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhongjuan; Liu, Rongzhi; Hao, Hualing; Bi, Yurong

    2011-05-01

    Low temperature could significantly induce anthocyanin accumulation in the presence of light. Recently, two bZIP transcription factors LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and HOMOLOG OF HY5 (HYH) were identified to play an important role in the process of low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation. However, the mechanism by which HY5/HYH regulates anthocyanin accumulation under low temperature still remains unclear. Here, we found that the gibberellins (GAs) could decrease but PAC (endogenous GAs biosynthesis inhibitor) increase the low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation, implying that GAs signaling may involve in this process. Furthermore, the transcript levels of GA2ox1, encoding a major member of bioactive GAs-deactivating enzymes, were significantly up-regulated by low temperature in a HY5/HYH-dependent manner. Moreover, hy5hyh mutant was insensitive to PAC in enhancing anthocyanin accumulation under low temperature. From these data we propose that, together with HY5/HYH, GA signaling may play an important role during low temperature-induced anthocyanin accumulation.

  3. Nitrogen Addition Exacerbates the Negative Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Moss

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Yang Liu; Chun-Yi Lei; Wei-Qiu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Global environmental changes are leading to an increase in localized abnormally low temperatures and increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is a phenomenon recognized worldwide. Both low temperature stress (LTS) and excess N induce oxidative stress in plants, and excess N also reduces their resistance to LTS. Mosses are primitive plants that are generally more sensitive to alterations in environmental factors than vascular species. To study the combined effects of N deposition and LTS on carbon (...

  4. Absolute luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hopchev, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC running at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer'' scan method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using both proton-gas and proton-proton interactions. The beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. We describe both methods and compare the two results. In addition, we present the techniques used to transport the absolute luminosity measurement ...

  5. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  6. Temperature Dependence of Electroresistivity, Negative and Positive Magnetoresistivity of Graphite/Diamond Nanocomposites and Onion-Like Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    of graphite/diamond nanocomposites (GDNC) and onion-like carbon (OLC) prepared by vacuum annealing of nanodiamond (ND) at various fixed temperatures...properties of carbon materials is of interest due to wide practical applications and provides information on their structural perfection and

  7. Ion temperature profiles in front of a negative planar electrode studied by a one-dimensional two-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-wall transition is studied by a one-dimensional steady state two-fluid model. Continuity and momentum exchange equations are used for the electrons, while the continuity, momentum exchange, and energy transport equation are used for the ions. Electrons are assumed to be isothermal. The closure of ion equations is made by the assumption that the heat flux is zero. The model equations are solved for potential, ion and electron density, and velocity and ion temperature as independent variables. The model includes coulomb collisions between ions and electrons and charge exchange collisions between ions and neutral atoms of the same species and same mass. The neutral atoms are assumed to be essentially at rest. The model is solved for finite ratio ɛ = /λ D L between the Debye length and λD and ionization length L in the pre-sheath and in the sheath at the same time. Charge exchange collisions heat the ions in the sheath and the pre-sheath. Even a small increase of the frequency of charge exchange collisions causes a substantial increase of ion temperature. Coulomb collisions have negligible effect on ion temperature in the pre-sheath, while in the sheath they cause a small cooling of ions. The increase of ɛ causes the increase of ion temperature. From the ion density and temperature profiles, the polytropic function κ is calculated according to its definition given by Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)]. The obtained profiles of κ indicate that the ion flow is isothermal only in a relatively narrow region in the pre-sheath, while close to the sheath edge and in the sheath it is closer to adiabatic. The ion sound velocity is space dependent and exhibits a maximum. This maximum indicates the location of the sheath edge only in the limit ɛ → 0 .

  8. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Hartmann, J.

    2011-08-01

    A monochromator integrating-sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been developed to calibrate standard radiation thermometers in terms of the absolute spectral radiance responsivity, traceable to the PTB cryogenic radiometer. The absolute responsivity calibration has been improved using a 75 W xenon lamp with a reflective mirror and imaging optics to a relative standard uncertainty at the peak wavelength of approximately 0.17 % ( k = 1). Via a relative measurement of the out-of-band responsivity, the spectral responsivity of radiation thermometers can be fully characterized. To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer is used to measure Au and Cu freezing-point temperatures and then to compare the obtained results with the values obtained by absolute methods, resulting in T - T 90 values of +52 mK and -50 mK for the gold and copper fixed points, respectively.

  9. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  10. Nitrogen Addition Exacerbates the Negative Effects of Low Temperature Stress on Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Moss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Yang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental changes are leading to an increase in localized abnormally low temperatures and increasing nitrogen (N deposition is a phenomenon recognized worldwide. Both low temperature stress (LTS and excess N induce oxidative stress in plants, and excess N also reduces their resistance to LTS. Mosses are primitive plants that are generally more sensitive to alterations in environmental factors than vascular species. To study the combined effects of N deposition and LTS on carbon (C and N metabolism in moss, two moss species, Pogonatum cirratum subsp. fuscatum, and Hypnum plumaeforme, exposed to various concentrations of nitrate (KNO3 or ammonium (NH4Cl, were treated with or without LTS. C/N metabolism indices were then monitored, both immediately after the stress and after a short recovery period (10 days. LTS decreased the photosystem II (PSII performance index and inhibited non-cyclic photophosphorylation, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and glutamine synthetase activities, indicating damage to PSII and reductions in C/N assimilation in these mosses. LTS did not affect cyclic photophosphorylation, sucrose synthase, sucrose-phosphate synthase, and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting a certain level of energy and C skeleton generation were maintained in the mosses to combat LTS; however, LTS inhibited the activity of glycolate oxidase. As predicted, N supply increased the sensitivity of the mosses to LTS, resulting in greater damage to PSII and a sharper decrease in C/N assimilation. After the recovery period, the performance of PSII and C/N metabolism, which were inhibited by LTS increased significantly, and were generally higher than those of control samples not exposed to LTS, suggesting overcompensation effects; however, N application reduced the extent of compensation effects. Both C and N metabolism exhibited stronger compensation effects in H. plumaeforme than in P. cirratum subsp. fuscatum. The

  11. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Jara, María Elisa; Seguel, Mylene E; Torres, Rodrigo; Alarcon, Emilio; Lee, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19 °C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the

  12. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio H Manríquez

    Full Text Available The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39 °S to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm and temperature (15 and 19 °C levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15 °C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance. Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist

  13. Ocean Acidification and Increased Temperature Have Both Positive and Negative Effects on Early Ontogenetic Traits of a Rocky Shore Keystone Predator Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H.; Jara, María Elisa; Seguel, Mylene E.; Torres, Rodrigo; Alarcon, Emilio; Lee, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39°S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19°C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15°C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation

  14. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre......-anthesis only (HC), heat at post-anthesis only (CH), and heat stress at both stages (HH). Post-anthesis heat stress decreased grain starch content, reduced the content of fructans and depressed activities of related synthesis enzymes of sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase and fructan......:fructan fructosyltransferase. Interestingly, HH plants had significantly higher grain yield than the CH plants. In addition, post-anthesis high temperature lowered grain starch content and increased percentages of volume, number and surface area of B-type starch granules in CH and HH than in CC treatment. However, HH plants...

  15. Room-temperature negative differential resistance in AlAs/ErAs/AlAs heterostructures grown on (001)GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Tsuda, M.; Nishinaga, T.; Palmstrøm, C. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have fabricated resonant tunneling structures having a buried ErAs semimetallic quantum well and AlAs double barriers, on (001)GaAs substrates. In order to suppress the three-dimensional island growth of GaAs and AlAs on ErAs and to obtain flat interfaces, we adopted a template approach, in which one monolayer of Mn was deposited on ErAs prior to the growth of AlAs, in molecular beam epitaxy. In the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature, negative differential resistance was clearly observed in a significant number of diodes with the ErAs thickness ranging from 2.6 to 5.0 nm. This room-temperature device operation on (001) substrates is, we believe, an important step towards the realization of semimetal/semiconductor hybrid quantum devices.

  16. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  17. Low-temperature negative thermal expansion behavior of LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x} compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Huang, Rongjin, E-mail: huangrongjin@mail.ipc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, Yuqiang [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Laifeng, E-mail: laifengli@mail.ipc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x}(x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) compounds with different Si content were fabricated by conventional arc-melting method, the structures of which were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement at ambient temperature. Besides, the thermal expansion and magnetic properties of these samples were also researched by means of a strain gage and a physical property measurement system (PPMS). Significantly, it was found that the negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior have been remarkably enhanced with substituting Al with Si atoms. Furthermore, the NTE operation-temperature window concurrently shifts toward a higher temperature region. The variable temperature XRD results indicate that LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x} retain cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structure when temperature varies from 20 K to 270 K, including the temperature region where NTE occurs. The further theoretical analysis combined with magnetic characterization reveal that the improvement of NTE behavior is attributed to the enhancement of Fe–Fe magnetic exchange interactions with doping Si atoms. It is noteworthy that this study displays a new pathway to improve the NTE property of La(Fe,Al){sub 13}-based compounds at low temperature region, which highlights the potential applications of NTE materials in cryogenic engineering. - Highlights: • Negative thermal expansion of LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x} was improved by introducing Si. • The structure of LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x} was studied by X-ray diffraction measurement. • We analyze the mechanism of NTE in LaFe{sub 11.2}Al{sub 1.8−x}Si{sub x} by magnetic measurement.

  18. Giant negative thermal expansion covering room temperature in nanocrystalline GaN{sub x}Mn{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J. C.; Tong, P., E-mail: tongpeng@issp.ac.cn; Chen, L.; Guo, X. G.; Yang, C.; Song, B.; Wu, Y.; Lin, S.; Song, W. H. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhou, X. J.; Lin, H., E-mail: linhe@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200120 (China); Ding, Y. W.; Bai, Y. X. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Sun, Y. P., E-mail: ypsun@issp.ac.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-09-28

    Nanocrystalline antiperovskite GaN{sub x}Mn{sub 3} powders were prepared by mechanically milling. The micrograin GaN{sub x}Mn{sub 3} exhibits an abrupt volume contraction at the antiferromagnetic (AFM) to paramagnetic (PM) (AFM-PM) transition. The temperature window of volume contraction (ΔT) is broadened to 50 K as the average grain size (〈D〉) is reduced to ∼30 nm. The corresponding coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α) reaches ∼ −70 ppm/K, which are comparable to those of giant NTE materials. Further reducing 〈D〉 to ∼10 nm, ΔT exceeds 100 K and α remains as large as −30 ppm/K (−21 ppm/K) for x = 1.0 (x = 0.9). Excess atomic displacements together with the reduced structural coherence, revealed by high-energy X-ray pair distribution functions, are suggested to delay the AFM-PM transition. By controlling 〈D〉, giant NTE may also be achievable in other materials with large lattice contraction due to electronic or magnetic phase transitions.

  19. Effects of Iso-Octane/Ethanol Blend Ratios on the Observance of Negative Temperature Coefficient Behavior within the Ignition Quality Tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogin, Gregory E., Jr.; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Osecky, Eric; Zigler, Bradley T.

    2016-12-15

    An ignition delay study investigating the reduction in low temperature heat release (LTHR) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region with increasing ethanol concentration in binary blends of ethanol/isooctane was conducted in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT). The IQT is advantageous for studying multi-component fuels such as iso-octane/ethanol which are difficult to study at lower temperatures covering the NTC region in traditional systems (e.g., shock tubes, rapid compression machines, etc.). The high octane numbers and concomitant long ignition delay times of ethanol and iso-octane are ideal for study in the IQT allowing the system to reach a quasi-homogeneous mixture; allowing the effect of fuel chemistry on ignition delay to be investigated with minimal impact from the fuel spray due to the relatively long ignition times. NTC behavior from iso-octane/ethanol blends was observed for the first time using an IQT. Temperature sweeps of iso-octane/ethanol volumetric blends (100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50, and 0/100) were conducted from 623 to 993 K at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 MPa and global equivalence ratios ranging from 0.7 to 1.0. Ignition of the iso-octane/ethanol blends in the IQT was also modeled using a 0-D homogeneous batch reactor model. Significant observations include: (1) NTC behavior was observed for ethanol/iso-octane fuel blends up to 20% ethanol. (2) Ethanol produced shorter ignition delay times than iso-octane in the high temperature region. (3) The initial increase in ethanol from 0% to 10% had a lesser impact on ignition delay than increasing ethanol from 10% to 20%. (4) The 0-D model predicts that at 0.5 and 1.0 MPa ethanol produces the shortest ignition time in the high-temperature regime, as seen experimentally.

  20. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  1. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardin, M. P.; Hogg, T.; Kurz, W.; Bernier, P. Y.; Guo, X. J.; Cyr, G.

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60ºN for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially-explicit simulations of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modelling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce inter-annual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Inter-annual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on inter-annual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  2. Effect of substrate bias on negative bias temperature instability of ultra-deep sub-micro p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Yan-Rong; Hao Yue; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hu Shi-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The effect of substrate bias on the degradation during applying a negative bias temperature (NBT) stress is studied in this paper. With a smaller gate voltage stress applied, the degradation of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is enhanced, and there comes forth an inflexion point. The degradation pace turns larger when the substrate bias is higher than the inflexion point. The substrate hot holes can be injected into oxide and generate additional oxide traps, inducing an inflexion phenomenon. When a constant substrate bias stress is applied, as the gate voltage stress increases, an inflexion comes into being also. The higher gate voltage causes the electrons to tunnel into the substrate from the poly, thereby generating the electron-hole pairs by impact ionization. The holes generated by impact ionization and the holes from the substrate all can be accelerated to high energies by the substrate bias. More additional oxide traps can be produced, and correspondingly, the degradation is strengthened by the substrate bias. The results of the alternate stress experiment show that the interface traps generated by the hot holes cannot be annealed, which is different from those generated by common holes.

  3. Gate length and temperature dependence of negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken [Texas Instruments Inc., Richardson, Texas 75243 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Introducing quantum transport into silicon transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated silicon devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (V{sub G}) spacing between NDTCs. The V{sub G} spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background.

  4. Investigation of Device Performance and Negative Bias Temperature Instability of Plasma Nitrided Oxide in Nanoscale p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Shik; Ji, Hee-Hwan; Goo, Tae-Gyu; Yoo, Ook-Sang; Choi, Won-Ho; Na, Min-Ki; Kim, Yong-Goo; Park, Sung-Hyung; Lee, Heui-Seung; Kang, Young-Seok; Kim, Dae-Byung; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated the device performance and negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation for thermally nitrided oxide (TNO) and plasma nitrided oxide (PNO) in nanoscale p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET). PNOs show the improvement of dielectric performance compared to TNO with no change of the device performance. PNOs also show the improvement of NBTI immunity than TNO at low temperature stress, whereas NBTI immunity of PNO with high N concentration can be worse than TNO at high temperature stress. Recovery effect of NBTI degradation of PNO is lower than that of TNO and it is increased as the N concentration is increased in PNO because the dissociated Si dangling bonds and generated positive oxide charges are repassivated and neutralized, respectively. Moreover, complete recovery of ΔVth is dominated by neutralization of positive oxide charges. Therefore, N contents at polycrystalline Si/SiO2 interface as well as N contents at Si/SiO2 interface can affect significantly on NBTI degradation and recovery effect.

  5. On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard for the Next Generation of IR Remote Sensing Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Fred. A.; Adler, Douglas P.; Pettersen, P. Claire; Gero, Jonathan; Taylor, Joseph K.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Perepezko, John H.

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing satellite instrumentation, including climate benchmark missions will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high...

  6. Determination of absolute adsorption in highly ordered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Florian O.

    2009-06-01

    Recently developed Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are the materials with the highest intrinsic surface areas to date and their discovery increased the research activity in the field of microporous adsorption materials significantly. In this contribution, a generic method of analysis for volumetrically measured adsorption isotherms is presented that separates absolute adsorption from excess adsorption to the best possible degree by representing the absolute adsorption isotherm by a superposition of in respect to pressure strictly monotonously increasing fitting function. The procedure allows to determine the heat of adsorption at constant gas uptake via implicitly defined quantities. The method was applied to adsorption data of hydrogen on MOF-5 ranging from 40 K to 200 K. Methane adsorption on MOF-5 was used to demonstrate that the common practice of neglecting the difference between excess and absolute adsorption leads to erroneously increased heat of adsorption values at high coverages and temperatures.

  7. Negative catalytic effect of water on the reactivity of hydrogen abstraction from the C-H bond of dimethyl ether by deuterium atoms through tunneling at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2016-10-01

    We report an experimental study on the catalytic effect of solid water on the reactivity of hydrogen abstraction (H-abstraction) from dimethyl ether (DME) in the low-temperature solid DME-H2O complex. When DME reacted with deuterium atoms on a surface at 15-25 K, it was efficiently deuterated via successive tunneling H-abstraction and deuterium (D)-addition reactions. The 'effective' rate constant for DME-H2O + D was found to be about 20 times smaller than that of pure DME + D. This provides the first evidence that the presence of solid water has a negative catalytic effect on tunneling H-abstraction reactions.

  8. Absolutely separating quantum maps and channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S. N.; Magadov, K. Yu; Jivulescu, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Absolutely separable states ϱ remain separable under arbitrary unitary transformations U\\varrho {U}\\dagger . By example of a three qubit system we show that in a multipartite scenario neither full separability implies bipartite absolute separability nor the reverse statement holds. The main goal of the paper is to analyze quantum maps resulting in absolutely separable output states. Such absolutely separating maps affect the states in a way, when no Hamiltonian dynamics can make them entangled afterwards. We study the general properties of absolutely separating maps and channels with respect to bipartitions and multipartitions and show that absolutely separating maps are not necessarily entanglement breaking. We examine the stability of absolutely separating maps under a tensor product and show that {{{Φ }}}\\otimes N is absolutely separating for any N if and only if Φ is the tracing map. Particular results are obtained for families of local unital multiqubit channels, global generalized Pauli channels, and combination of identity, transposition, and tracing maps acting on states of arbitrary dimension. We also study the interplay between local and global noise components in absolutely separating bipartite depolarizing maps and discuss the input states with high resistance to absolute separability.

  9. Absolute configuration of isovouacapenol C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C27H34O5 {systematic name: (4aR,5R,6R,6aS,7R,11aS,11bR-4a,6-dihydroxy-4,4,7,11b-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodecahydrophenanthro[3,2-b]furan-5-yl benzoate}, is a cassane furanoditerpene, which was isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The three cyclohexane rings are trans fused: two of these are in chair conformations with the third in a twisted half-chair conformation, whereas the furan ring is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.003 Å. An intramolecular C—H...O interaction generates an S(6 ring. The absolute configurations of the stereogenic centres at positions 4a, 5, 6, 6a, 7, 11a and 11b are R, R, R, S, R, S and R, respectively. In the crystal, molecules are linked into infinite chains along [010] by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. C...O [3.306 (2–3.347 (2 Å] short contacts and C—H...π interactions also occur.

  10. Influence of plasma-generated negative oxygen ion impingement on magnetron sputtered amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films during growth at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias-Montero, M.; Garcia-Garcia, F. J.; Alvarez, R.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.; Palmero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Cotrino, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US), Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Seville (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 42022 Seville (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    Growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering at low temperatures has been studied under different oxygen partial pressure conditions. Film microstructures varied from coalescent vertical column-like to homogeneous compact microstructures, possessing all similar refractive indexes. A discussion on the process responsible for the different microstructures is carried out focusing on the influence of (i) the surface shadowing mechanism, (ii) the positive ion impingement on the film, and (iii) the negative ion impingement. We conclude that only the trend followed by the latter and, in particular, the impingement of O{sup -} ions with kinetic energies between 20 and 200 eV, agrees with the resulting microstructural changes. Overall, it is also demonstrated that there are two main microstructuring regimes in the growth of amorphous SiO{sub 2} thin films by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures, controlled by the amount of O{sub 2} in the deposition reactor, which stem from the competition between surface shadowing and ion-induced adatom surface mobility.

  11. Influence of elevated temperature on starch hydrolysis by enterotoxin-positive and enterotoxin-negative strains of Clostridium perfringens type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarado, J S; Rodriguez, M A; Labbé, R G

    1992-01-01

    Enterotoxin-positive (Ent+) and enterotoxin-negative (Ent-) strains of Clostridium perfringens were cultured in Duncan-Strong sporulation medium containing starch at 37 and 46 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, all strains degraded starch and sporulated well. However, only Ent- strains could hydrolyze starch, grow extensively, and sporulate at 46 degrees C. Growth, sporulation, and starch hydrolysis by Ent+ strains at 46 degrees C were equivalent to those obtained at 37 degrees C when alpha-amylase was added to the cultures during growth. The total amount of extracellular plus intracellular amylase in cultures of Ent+ strains was significantly less in cells incubated at 46 degrees C than in cells incubated at 37 degrees C. These results contradict an earlier report that Ent+ strains cannot sporulate well near their optimal growth temperature (R. G. Labbe and C. L. Duncan, Can. J. Microbiol. 20:1493-1501, 1974) and suggest that synthesis of alpha-amylase in Ent+ strains is regulated by temperature.

  12. Evaluation of negative bias temperature instability in ultra-thin gate oxide pMOSFETs using a new on-line PDO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhi-Gang; Xu Ming-Zhen; Tan Chang-Hua

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line methodology is used to characterize the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) without inherent recovery. Saturation drain voltage shift and mobility shift are extracted by ID - VD characterizations, which were measured before stress, and after every certain stress phase, using the proportional differential operator (PDO) method. The new on-line methodology avoids the mobility linearity assumption as compared with the previous on-the-fly method. It is found that both reaction-diffusion and charge-injection processes are important in NBTI effect under either DC or AC stress. A similar activation energy, 0.15 eV, occurred in both DC and AC NBTI processes.Also degradation rate factor is independent of temperature below 90℃ and sharply increases above it. The frequency dependence of NBTI degradation shows that NBTI degradation is independent of frequencies. The carrier tunnelling and reaction-diffusion mechanisms exist simultaneously in NBTI degradation of sub-micron pMOSFETs, and the carrier tunnelling dominates the earlier NBTI stage and the reaction-liffusion mechanism follows when the generation rate of traps caused by carrier tunnelling reaches its maximum.

  13. Measurement of the absolute speed is possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey V.; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

    2016-01-01

    One of popular problems, which  are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists.  Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in oth...

  14. To measure the absolute speed is possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey; Tokarevsky, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    One of popular problems, which are experimentally studied in physics in a long time, is the testing of the special relativity theory, first of all – measurements of isotropy and constancy of light speed; as well as attempts to determine so called “absolute speed”, i.e. the Earth speed in the absolute spacetime (absolute reference frame), if this spacetime (ARF) exists. Corresponding experiments aimed at the measuring of proper speed of some reference frame in other one, incl...

  15. Influence of Design and Process Parameters of 32-nm Advanced-Process High- k p-MOSFETs on Negative-Bias Temperature Instability and Study of Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimin, A. F. Muhammad; Radzi, A. A. Mohd; Sazali, N. A. F.; Hatta, S. F. Wan Muhamad; Soin, N.; Hussin, H.

    2017-10-01

    Negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become a prominent factor limiting scaling of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This work presents a comprehensive simulation study on the effects of critical design parameters of 32-nm advanced-process high- k p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on NBTI. The NBTI mechanism and defects were explored for various geometric and process design parameters over a wide range of values. The NBTI simulation method applied in this work follows the on-the-fly method to capture the mechanisms of fast and slow traps. This work illustrates the dependence of the threshold voltage ( V th) degradation on the stress oxide field and stress temperature as well as investigation of the Arrhenius plot for the devices. The temperature insensitivity during short stress time of 1 ms indicates absence of generated defects and presence of preexisting defects. It is also observed that significant defects are generated in the gate stack subsequent to NBTI. The slope obtained from the V th degradation analysis at 1 ks and 375°C shows that changing the SiO2 interfacial layer thickness affects the V th degradation by 96.16% more than changing the HfO2 thickness and by 80.67% more than changing the metal gate thickness. It is also found that the NBTI effect depends on process design considerations, specifically the boron concentration in the highly doped drain, the metal gate work function, and the halo doping concentration; it was observed that higher boron dose and high metal work function may lead to higher V th degradation. However, the halo doping concentration in the advanced 32-nm structure has an insignificant effect on NBTI.

  16. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  17. Absolute Income, Relative Income, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Chernova, Kateryna

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the World Values Survey to investigate how an individual's self-reported happiness is related to (i) the level of her income in absolute terms, and (ii) the level of her income relative to other people in her country. The main findings are that (i) both absolute and relative income are positively and significantly…

  18. Newton On Absolute Space A Commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    Newton seems to have stated a quantitative relationship between the position of a body in relative space and the position of the body in absolute space in the first scholium of his Principia. We show that if this suspected relationship is assumed to hold, it will dispel many errors and misrepresentations that have befallen Newton's ideas on absolute space.

  19. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  20. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  1. Effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Yonglin, E-mail: leiyonglin@163.com [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: linxy@swust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liao, Huiwei, E-mail: liaohw@swust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effect of Ni, Fe and Mn in different proportions on microstructure and pollutant-catalyzed properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O negative temperature coefficient ceramic nanocompositions was studied. Structural and physical characterization of all the samples was carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric (TG). The results revealed that the interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content, the grain size decreased with increasing Ni content, the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral sites by Fe{sup 2+} increased with increasing Fe content. And increase of iron could improve Ni-Fe-Mn-O high temperature stability. The low-temperature thermal removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 83.8%, 75.2%, 78.5% and 60.3% at 2400 min, respectively. And the microwave combining with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removal efficiencies of 30 mg/L methyl orange solution for NiFeMnO{sub 4}, Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4,} Ni{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 2.1}Mn{sub 0.6}O{sub 4} systems were 96.5%,93.8%, 98.7% and 98% at 6.0 min, respectively. These results indicated that the Ni-Fe-Mn-O ceramics with appropriate increase of iron were useful for industrial applications on degrading organic pollute. - Highlights: • The relationship of composition and catalytic properties of Ni-Fe-Mn-O was proposed. • The interplanar spacing decreased with increasing Fe content. • The grain size decreased with increasing Ni content. • The substitution of Ni{sup 2+} in the tetrahedral site by Fe{sup 2+} with increasing Fe content.

  2. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM

  3. Negative terahertz conductivity in remotely doped graphene bilayer heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhii, V. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, and Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-11-14

    Injection or optical generation of electrons and holes in graphene bilayers (GBLs) can result in the interband population inversion enabling the terahertz (THz) radiation lasing. The intraband radiative processes compete with the interband transitions. We demonstrate that remote doping enhances the indirect interband generation of photons in the proposed GBL heterostructures. Therefore, such remote doping helps to surpass the intraband (Drude) absorption, and results in large absolute values of the negative dynamic THz conductivity in a wide range of frequencies at elevated (including room) temperatures. The remotely doped GBL heterostructure THz lasers are expected to achieve higher THz gain compared with previously proposed GBL-based THz lasers.

  4. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroo Shalabh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates.

  5. Negative pressure characteristics of an evaporating meniscus at nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroo, Shalabh C; Chung, Jn

    2011-01-12

    This study aims at understanding the characteristics of negative liquid pressures at the nanoscale using molecular dynamics simulation. A nano-meniscus is formed by placing liquid argon on a platinum wall between two nano-channels filled with the same liquid. Evaporation is simulated in the meniscus by increasing the temperature of the platinum wall for two different cases. Non-evaporating films are obtained at the center of the meniscus. The liquid film in the non-evaporating and adjacent regions is found to be under high absolute negative pressures. Cavitation cannot occur in these regions as the capillary height is smaller than the critical cavitation radius. Factors which determine the critical film thickness for rupture are discussed. Thus, high negative liquid pressures can be stable at the nanoscale, and utilized to create passive pumping devices as well as significantly enhance heat transfer rates.

  6. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  7. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  8. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  9. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  10. Negative thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, G D [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJB, Ciudad Universitaria, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Bruno, J A O [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de QuImica Inorganica, AnalItica y QuImica FIsica, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barron, T H K [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Allan, N L [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-02

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  11. The risks of absolute medical confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, M A

    2013-03-01

    Some ethicists argue that patient confidentiality is absolute and thus should never be broken. I examine these arguments that when critically scrutinised, become porous. I will explore the concept of patient confidentiality and argue that although, this is a very important medical and bioethical issue, this needs to be wisely delivered to reduce third party harm or even detriment to the patient. The argument for absolute confidentiality is particularly weak when it comes to genetic information and inherited disease.

  12. Absolute parameters of young stars: QZ Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. S. G.; Blackford, M.; Butland, R.; Budding, E.

    2017-09-01

    New high-resolution spectroscopy and BVR photometry together with literature data on the complex massive quaternary star QZ Car are collected and analysed. Absolute parameters are found as follows. System A: M1 = 43 (±3), M2 = 19 (+3 -7), R1 = 28 (±2), R2 = 6 (±2), (⊙); T1 ∼ 28 000, T2 ∼ 33 000 K; System B: M1 = 30 (±3), M2 = 20 (±3), R1 = 10 (±0.5), R2 = 20 (±1), (⊙); T1 ∼ 36 000, T2 ∼ 30 000 K (model dependent temperatures). The wide system AB: Period = 49.5 (±1) yr, Epochs, conjunction = 1984.8 (±1), periastron = 2005.3 (±3) yr, mean separation = 65 (±3), (au); orbital inclination = 85 (+5 -15) deg, photometric distance ∼2700 (±300) pc, age = 4 (±1) Myr. Other new contributions concern: (a) analysis of the timing of minima differences (O - C)s for the eclipsing binary (System B); (b) the width of the eclipses, pointing to relatively large effects of radiation pressure; (c) inferences from the rotational widths of lines for both Systems A and B; and (d) implications for theoretical models of early-type stars. While feeling greater confidence on the quaternary's general parametrization, observational complications arising from strong wind interactions or other, unclear, causes still inhibit precision and call for continued multiwavelength observations. Our high-inclination value for the AB system helps to explain failures to resolve the wide binary in the previous years. The derived young age independently confirms membership of QZ Car to the open cluster Collinder 228.

  13. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  14. Jasminum flexile flower absolute from India--a detailed comparison with three other jasmine absolutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Sim, Sherina; Meier, Manfred; Hammerschmidt, Franz-Josef

    2009-09-01

    Jasminum flexile flower absolute from the south of India and the corresponding vacuum headspace (VHS) sample of the absolute were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Three other commercially available Indian jasmine absolutes from the species: J. sambac, J. officinale subsp. grandiflorum, and J. auriculatum and the respective VHS samples were used for comparison purposes. One hundred and twenty-one compounds were characterized in J. flexile flower absolute, with methyl linolate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, and benzyl acetate as the main constituents. A detailed olfactory evaluation was also performed.

  15. Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán

    2015-12-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.

  16. Nothing a Hot Bath Won't Cure: Infection Rates of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Correlate Negatively with Water Temperature under Natural Field Settings

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28uC. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with ...

  17. Absolute Asymmetric Synthesis Using A Cocrystal Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Koshima

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Absolute asymmetric synthesis by means of solid-state reaction of chiral crystals self-assembled from achiral molecules is an attractive and promising methodology for asymmetric synthesis because it is not necessary to employ any external chiral source like a chiral catalyst.In order to design reliably absolute asymmetric syntheses in the solid state,it is inevitable to prepare and predict the formation of chiral crystals from achiral compounds.We have prepared a number of chiral cocrystals co...

  18. Absolute-Magnitude Distributions of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John; Maddox, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M_B -15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of -19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at -16.75.

  19. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  20. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  1. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  2. Time Function and Absolute Black Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity is not consistent with quantum mechanics, because general relativity cannot be quantized. [1] But without conversion of force and energy, it is impossible to find a grand unified theory. A very important result of CPH theory is time function that allows we give a new ...... description of absolute black hole and before the big bang....

  3. Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…

  4. Thin-film magnetoresistive absolute position detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, Johannes Petrus Jacobus

    1990-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation of a digital absolute posi- tion-detection system, which is based on a position-information carrier (i.e. a magnetic tape) with one single code track on the one hand, and an array of magnetoresistive sensors for the detection of the informatio

  5. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorf...

  6. Magnetoresistive sensor for absolute position detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.

    1984-01-01

    A digital measurement principle for absolute position is decscribed. The position data is recorded serially into a single track of a hard-magnetic layer with the help of longitudinal saturation recording. Detection is possible by means of an array of sensor elements which can be made of a substrate.

  7. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  8. New Techniques for Absolute Gravity Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-07

    Hammond, J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J. A., and Iliff, R. L. (1979) The AFGL absolute gravity system...International Gravimetric Bureau, No. L:I-43. 7. Hammond. J.A. (1978) Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata Vol. XX. 8. Hammond, J.A., and

  9. Det demokratiske argument for absolut ytringsfrihed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer den påstand, at absolut ytringsfrihed er en nødvendig forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet med udgangspunkt i en rekonstruktion af et argument fremsat af Ronald Dworkin. Spørgsmålet er, hvorfor ytringsfrihed skulle være en forudsætning for demokratisk legitimitet, og hvorfor...

  10. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  11. Negative learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); O' Neill, B.C. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)]|[Institute for the Study of Society and Environment, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Webster M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate negative learning in the context of climate change with a formal model that embeds the concept within the Bayesian framework, illustrating that it may lead to errant decisions and large welfare losses to society. Based on these cases, we suggest approaches to scientific assessment and decision making that could mitigate the problem. Application of the tools of science history to the study of learning in global change, including critical examination of the assessment process to understand how judgments are made, could provide important insights on how to improve the flow of information to policy makers.

  12. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  13. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  14. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  15. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  16. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  17. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  18. Appropriate use of the particle-in-cell method in low temperature plasmas: Application to the simulation of negative ion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, L.; Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC MCC) method has been used by different authors in the last ten years to describe negative ion extraction in the context of neutral beam injection for fusion. Questionable results on the intensity and profile of the extracted negative ion beamlets have been presented in several recently published papers. Using a standard explicit PIC MCC method, we show that these results are due to a non-compliance with the constraints of the numerical method (grid spacing, number of particles per cell) and to a non-physical generation of the simulated plasma. We discuss in detail the conditions of mesh convergence and plasma generation and show that the results can significantly deviate from the correct solution and lead to unphysical features when the constraints inherent to the method are not strictly fulfilled. This paper illustrates the importance of verification in any plasma simulation. Since the results presented in this paper have been obtained with careful verification of the method, we propose them as benchmarks for future comparisons between different simulation codes for negative ion extraction.

  19. On determining absolute entropy without quantum theory or the third law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2016-04-01

    We employ classical thermodynamics to gain information about absolute entropy, without recourse to statistical methods, quantum mechanics or the third law of thermodynamics. The Gibbs-Duhem equation yields various simple methods to determine the absolute entropy of a fluid. We also study the entropy of an ideal gas and the ionization of a plasma in thermal equilibrium. A single measurement of the degree of ionization can be used to determine an unknown constant in the entropy equation, and thus determine the absolute entropy of a gas. It follows from all these examples that the value of entropy at absolute zero temperature does not need to be assigned by postulate, but can be deduced empirically.

  20. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Tramontana, A.; Cirio, R.; Marchetto, F.; Sacchi, R.; Giordanengo, S.; Monaco, V.

    2013-07-01

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  1. Learning in a unidimensional absolute identification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D; Cowan, Nelson; Pfaltz, Monique

    2004-10-01

    We tested whether there is long-term learning in the absolute identification of line lengths. Line lengths are unidimensional stimuli, and there is a common belief that learning of these stimuli quickly reaches a low-level asymptote of about seven items and progresses no more. We show that this is not the case. Our participants served in a 1.5-h session each day for over a week. Although they did not achieve perfect performance, they continued to improve day by day throughout the week and eventually learned to distinguish between 12 and 20 line lengths. These results are in contrast to common characterizations of learning in absolute identification tasks with unidimensional stimuli. We suggest that this learning reflects improvement in short-term processing.

  2. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  3. Asteroid absolute magnitudes and slope parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    A new listing of absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) has been created and published in the Minor Planet Circulars; this same listing will appear in the 1992 Ephemerides of Minor Planets. Unlike previous listings, the values of the current list were derived from fits of data at the V band. All observations were reduced in the same fashion using, where appropriate, a single basis default value of 0.15 for the slope parameter. Distances and phase angles were computed for each observation. The data for 113 asteroids was of sufficiently high quality to permit derivation of their H and G. These improved absolute magnitudes and slope parameters will be used to deduce the most reliable bias-corrected asteroid size-frequency distribution yet made.

  4. An absolute measure for a key currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    It is generally considered that the US dollar and the euro are the key currencies in the world and in Europe, respectively. However, there is no absolute general measure for a key currency. Here, we investigate the 24-hour periodicity of foreign exchange markets using a recurrence plot, and define an absolute measure for a key currency based on the strength of the periodicity. Moreover, we analyze the time evolution of this measure. The results show that the credibility of the US dollar has not decreased significantly since the Lehman shock, when the Lehman Brothers bankrupted and influenced the economic markets, and has increased even relatively better than that of the euro and that of the Japanese yen.

  5. Absolute and relative dosimetry for ELIMED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Cuttone, G.; Candiano, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pisciotta, P.; Romano, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Cirio, R.; Sacchi, R.; Monaco, V. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino, Italy and Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Giordanengo, S. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The definition of detectors, methods and procedures for the absolute and relative dosimetry of laser-driven proton beams is a crucial step toward the clinical use of this new kind of beams. Hence, one of the ELIMED task, will be the definition of procedures aiming to obtain an absolute dose measure at the end of the transport beamline with an accuracy as close as possible to the one required for clinical applications (i.e. of the order of 5% or less). Relative dosimetry procedures must be established, as well: they are necessary in order to determine and verify the beam dose distributions and to monitor the beam fluence and the energetic spectra during irradiations. Radiochromic films, CR39, Faraday Cup, Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) and transmission ionization chamber will be considered, designed and studied in order to perform a fully dosimetric characterization of the ELIMED proton beam.

  6. The absolute differential calculus (calculus of tensors)

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Written by a towering figure of twentieth-century mathematics, this classic examines the mathematical background necessary for a grasp of relativity theory. Tullio Levi-Civita provides a thorough treatment of the introductory theories that form the basis for discussions of fundamental quadratic forms and absolute differential calculus, and he further explores physical applications.Part one opens with considerations of functional determinants and matrices, advancing to systems of total differential equations, linear partial differential equations, algebraic foundations, and a geometrical intro

  7. Absolute vs. Relative Notion of Wealth Changes

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses solutions derived from lottery experiments using two alternative assumptions: that people perceive wealth changes as absolute amounts of money; and that people consider wealth changes as a proportion of some reference value dependant on the context of the problem under consideration. The former assumption leads to the design of Prospect Theory, the latter - to a solution closely resembling the utility function hypothesized by Markowitz (1952B). This paper presents several...

  8. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  9. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Angelis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy. In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0 μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0 μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  10. Inviscid instability of the Batchelor vortex: Absolute-convective transition and spatial branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendraru, Cornel; Sellier, Antoine; Rossi, Maurice; Huerre, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to examine the spatio-temporal instability properties of the Batchelor q-vortex, as a function of swirl ratio q and external axial flow parameter a. The inviscid dispersion relation between complex axial wave number and frequency is determined by numerical integration of the Howard-Gupta ordinary differential equation. The absolute-convective nature of the instability is then ascertained by application of the Briggs-Bers zero-group-velocity criterion. A moderate amount of swirl is found to promote the onset of absolute instability. In the case of wakes, transition from convective to absolute instability always takes place via the helical mode of azimuthal wave number m=-1. For sufficiently large swirl, co-flowing wakes become absolutely unstable. In the case of jets, transition from absolute to convective instability occurs through various helical modes, the transitional azimuthal wave number m being negative but sensitive to increasing swirl. For sufficiently large swirl, weakly co-flowing jets become absolutely unstable. These results are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with those obtained by Delbende et al. through a direct numerical simulation of the linear response. Finally, the spatial (complex axial wave number, real frequency) instability characteristics are illustrated for the case of zero-external flow swirling jets.

  11. Lagrangian Velocity Correlations and Absolute Dispersion in the Midlatitude Troposphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhatme, J

    2004-01-01

    Employing daily wind data from the ECMWF, we perform passive particle advection to estimate the Lagrangian velocity correlation functions (LVCF) associated with the midlatitude tropospheric flow. In particular we decompose the velocity field into time mean and transient (or eddy) components to better understand the nature of the LVCF's.A closely related quantity, the absolute dispersion (AD) is also examined. Given the anisotropy of the flow, meridional and zonal characteristics are considered separately. The zonal LVCF is seen to be non-exponential. In fact, for a broad set of intermediate timescales it is better described as a power law of the form $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$ with $ 0<\\alpha<1$. Indeed, the implied long time correlation in the zonal flow results in a superdiffusive zonal AD regime. On the other hand, the meridional LVCF decays rapidly to zero. Interestingly, before approaching to zero it shows a region of negative correlation. A physical argument based on the rotational inhibition of latitudinal...

  12. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  13. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2

  14. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth, E-mail: kenneth.ruud@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Gauss, Jürgen [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-07

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the {sup 17}O and {sup 33}S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin–rotation constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C{sup 17}O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H{sub 2}{sup 33}S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin–rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H{sub 2}{sup 17}O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C{sup 17}O −59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H{sub 2}{sup 33}S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  15. Communication: The absolute shielding scales of oxygen and sulfur revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Ruud, Kenneth; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    We present an updated semi-experimental absolute shielding scale for the 17O and 33S nuclei. These new shielding scales are based on accurate rotational microwave data for the spin-rotation constants of H217O [Puzzarini et al., J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234304 (2009)], C17O [Cazzoli et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4, 3575 (2002)], and H233S [Helgaker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244308 (2013)] corrected both for vibrational and temperature effects estimated at the CCSD(T) level of theory as well as for the relativistic corrections to the relation between the spin-rotation constant and the absolute shielding constant. Our best estimate for the oxygen shielding constants of H217O is 328.4(3) ppm and for C17O -59.05(59) ppm. The relativistic correction for the sulfur shielding of H233S amounts to 3.3%, and the new sulfur shielding constant for this molecule is 742.9(4.6) ppm.

  16. Absolute properties of the spotted eclipsing binary star CV Bootis

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Lacy, Claud H Sandberg

    2008-01-01

    We present new V-band differential brightness measurements as well as new radial-velocity measurements of the detached, circular, 0.84-day period, double-lined eclipsing binary system CV Boo. These data along with other observations from the literature are combined to derive improved absolute dimensions of the stars for the purpose of testing various aspects of theoretical modeling. Despite complications from intrinsic variability we detect in the system, and despite the rapid rotation of the components, we are able to determine the absolute masses and radii to better than 1.3% and 2%, respectively. We obtain M(A) = 1.032 +/- 0.013 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.262 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the hotter, larger, and more massive primary (star A), and M(B) = 0.968 +/- 0.012 M(Sun) and R(B) = 1.173 +/- 0.023 R(Sun) for the secondary. The estimated effective temperatures are 5760 +/- 150 K and 5670 +/- 150 K. The intrinsic variability with a period about 1% shorter than the orbital period is interpreted as being due to modulatio...

  17. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers for all formulations. The nanoparticles were prepared from the same sol–gels, however, instead of spinning the gels were dried, grinded and sintered at 700 °C. Photodegradation under UV irradiation for the rhodamine B at 5, 15, 25, 45 and 55 °C were performed. For the nanoparticles...

  18. Influence of temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures: Negative impact with the nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakata, Nasser A.M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influence of the temperature on the photodegradation process using Ag-doped TiO2 nanostructures was investigated. Two morphologies were used; nanoparticles and nanofibers. The nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning of a sol–gel consisting of titanium isopropoxide, silver......-doped TiO2 nanofibers for all formulations. The nanoparticles were prepared from the same sol–gels, however, instead of spinning the gels were dried, grinded and sintered at 700 °C. Photodegradation under UV irradiation for the rhodamine B at 5, 15, 25, 45 and 55 °C were performed. For the nanoparticles...

  19. Absolute calibration of the Auger fluorescence detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P.; Brack, J.; Garrard, L.; Harton, J.; Knapik, R.; Meyhandan, R.; Rovero, A.C.; /Buenos Aires, IAFE; Tamashiro, A.; Warner, D.

    2005-07-01

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the combined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  20. Absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara

    2016-07-21

    With the increasing availability of positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging, the absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) has become popular in clinical settings. Quantitative MBF provides an important additional diagnostic or prognostic information over conventional visual assessment. The success of MBF quantification using PET/computed tomography (CT) has increased the demand for this quantitative diagnostic approach to be more accessible. In this regard, MBF quantification approaches have been developed using several other diagnostic imaging modalities including single-photon emission computed tomography, CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance. This review will address the clinical aspects of PET MBF quantification and the new approaches to MBF quantification.

  1. ABSOLUT LOMO绝对创意

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    婷婷(整理)

    2007-01-01

    ABSOLUT与创意素来有着不解之缘。由Andy Warhal的ABSOLUT WARHOL至今,已有超过400位不同领域的创意大师为ABSOLUT的当代艺术宝库贡献了自己的得意之作。ABSOLUT的创意仿佛永远不会枯竭,而一系列的作品也让惊喜从未落空。

  2. Absolute Priority for a Vehicle in VANET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Rostam; Hendessi, Faramarz; Montazeri, Mohammad Ali; Sheikh Zefreh, Mohammad

    In today's world, traffic jams waste hundreds of hours of our life. This causes many researchers try to resolve the problem with the idea of Intelligent Transportation System. For some applications like a travelling ambulance, it is important to reduce delay even for a second. In this paper, we propose a completely infrastructure-less approach for finding shortest path and controlling traffic light to provide absolute priority for an emergency vehicle. We use the idea of vehicular ad-hoc networking to reduce the imposed travelling time. Then, we simulate our proposed protocol and compare it with a centrally controlled traffic light system.

  3. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  4. Development of an absolute neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, C; Birstein, L; Loyola, H [Section de Desarrollos Innovativos, Comision Chilena de EnergIa Nuclear (CCHEN), Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: lbirstei@cchen.cl

    2008-11-01

    An Absolute Neutron Dosimeter was developed to be used as a calibration standard for the Radiation Metrology Laboratory at CCHEN. The main component of the Dosimeter consists of a Proportional Counter of cylindrical shape, with Polyethylene walls and Ethylene gas in its interior. It includes a cage shaped arrangement of graphite bars that operates like the Proportional Counter cathode and a tungsten wire of 25 {mu}m in diameter {mu}m as the anode. Results of a Montecarlo modeling for the Dosimeter operation and results of tests and measurements performed with a radioactive source are presented.

  5. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  6. ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE TYPE INDIRECT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  7. Absolute Orientation Based on Distance Kernel Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbiao Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The classical absolute orientation method is capable of transforming tie points (TPs from a local coordinate system to a global (geodetic coordinate system. The method is based only on a unique set of similarity transformation parameters estimated by minimizing the total difference between all ground control points (GCPs and the fitted points. Nevertheless, it often yields a transformation with poor accuracy, especially in large-scale study cases. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel absolute orientation method based on distance kernel functions, in which various sets of similarity transformation parameters instead of only one set are calculated. When estimating the similarity transformation parameters for TPs using the iterative solution of a non-linear least squares problem, we assigned larger weighting matrices for the GCPs for which the distances from the point are short. The weighting matrices can be evaluated using the distance kernel function as a function of the distances between the GCPs and the TPs. Furthermore, we used the exponential function and the Gaussian function to describe distance kernel functions in this study. To validate and verify the proposed method, six synthetic and two real datasets were tested. The accuracy was significantly improved by the proposed method when compared to the classical method, although a higher computational complexity is experienced.

  8. Absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A and alterporriols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamaru, Saki; Honma, Miho; Murakami, Takanori; Tsushima, Taro; Kudo, Shinji; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Nihei, Ken-Ichi; Nehira, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    The absolute stereochemistry of altersolanol A (1) was established by observing a positive exciton couplet in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of the C3,C4-O-bis(2-naphthoyl) derivative 10 and by chemical correlations with known compound 8. Before the discussion, the relative stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The shielding effect at C7'-OMe group by C1-O-benzoylation established the relative stereochemical relationship between the C8-C8' axial bonding and the C1-C4/C1'-C4' polyol moieties of alterporriols E (3), an atropisomer of the C8-C8' dimer of 1. As 3 could be obtained by dimerization of 1 in vitro, the absolute configuration of its central chirality elements (C1-C4) must be identical to those of 1. Spectral comparison between the experimental and theoretical CD spectra supported the above conclusion. Axial stereochemistry of novel C4-O-deoxy dimeric derivatives, alterporriols F (4) and G (5), were also revealed by comparison of their CD spectra to those of 2 and 3.

  9. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  10. Development of non-flammable lithium secondary battery with room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte: Performance of electroplated Al film negative electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ui, Koichi; Yamamoto, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kohei; Minami, Takuto; Takeuchi, Ken; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Koura, Nobuyuki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    The negative electrode performance of the electroplated Al film electrode in the LiCl saturated AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methylimizadolium chloride (EMIC) + SOCl{sub 2} melt as the electrolyte for use in non-flammable lithium secondary batteries was evaluated. In the cyclic voltammogram of the electroplated Al film electrode in the melt, the oxidation and reduction waves corresponding to the electrochemical insertion/extraction reactions of the Li{sup +} ion were observed at 0-0.80 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, which suggested that the electroplated Al film electrode operated well in the electrolyte. The almost flat potential profiles at about 0.40 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li on discharging were shown. The discharge capacity and charge-discharge efficiency was 236 mAh g{sup -1} and 79.2% for the 1st cycle and it maintained 232 mAh g{sup -1} and 77.9% after the 10th cycle. In addition, the initial charge-discharge efficiencies of the electroplated Al film electrode were higher than that of carbon electrodes. The main cathodic polarization reaction was the insertion of Li{sup +} ions, and side reactions hardly occurred due to the decomposition reaction of the melt because the Li content corresponding to the electricity was almost totally inserted into the film after charging. (author)

  11. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G. [Department of Quantum Detection, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena 07745 (Germany); Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M. [Supracon AG, An der Lehmgrube 11, Jena 07751 (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  12. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  13. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  14. A Conceptual Approach to Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark W.; Bryson, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    The absolute value learning objective in high school mathematics requires students to solve far more complex absolute value equations and inequalities. When absolute value problems become more complex, students often do not have sufficient conceptual understanding to make any sense of what is happening mathematically. The authors suggest that the…

  15. Invariant and Absolute Invariant Means of Double Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alotaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some properties of the invariant mean, define the concepts of strong σ-convergence and absolute σ-convergence for double sequences, and determine the associated sublinear functionals. We also define the absolute invariant mean through which the space of absolutely σ-convergent double sequences is characterized.

  16. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  17. Surface Characterization of pNIPAM Under Varying Absolute Humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Arnav; Kanapuram, Ravitej; Leva, Harrison; Trejo, Juan; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has become ubiquitously known as a ``smart'' polymer, showing many promising applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. These applications are particularly reliant on its trenchant, thermally induced hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition that occurs at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). This feature imparts the pNIPAM programmable adsorption and release capabilities, thus eliminating the need for additional enzymes when removing cells from pNIPAM coated surfaces and leaving the extracellular matrix proteins of the cells largely untouched. The dependence of the LCST on molecular weight, solvent systems, and various salts has been studied extensively. However, what has not been explored is the effect of humidity on the characteristic properties of the polymer, specifically the LCST and the magnitude of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition. We studied the surface energy variation of pNIPAM as a function of humidity by altering the absolute humidity and keeping the ambient temperature constant. Our experiments were conducted inside a cuboidal environmental chamber with control over the temperature and humidity inside the chamber. A controlled needle was employed to dispense size-regulated droplets. Throughout this process, a CCD camera was used to image the droplet and the static contact angle was determined using image processing techniques. The behavior of pNIPAM as a function of humidity is presented and discussed.

  18. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  19. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  20. Use of Absolute and Comparative Performance Feedback in Absolute and Comparative Judgments and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Don A.; Klein, William M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Which matters more--beliefs about absolute ability or ability relative to others? This study set out to compare the effects of such beliefs on satisfaction with performance, self-evaluations, and bets on future performance. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were told they had answered 20% correct, 80% correct, or were not given their…

  1. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  2. Absolute geostrophic currents in global tropical oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Yuan, Dongliang

    2016-11-01

    A set of absolute geostrophic current (AGC) data for the period January 2004 to December 2012 are calculated using the P-vector method based on monthly gridded Argo profiles in the world tropical oceans. The AGCs agree well with altimeter geostrophic currents, Ocean Surface Current Analysis-Real time currents, and moored current-meter measurements at 10-m depth, based on which the classical Sverdrup circulation theory is evaluated. Calculations have shown that errors of wind stress calculation, AGC transport, and depth ranges of vertical integration cannot explain non-Sverdrup transport, which is mainly in the subtropical western ocean basins and equatorial currents near the Equator in each ocean basin (except the North Indian Ocean, where the circulation is dominated by monsoons). The identified non-Sverdrup transport is thereby robust and attributed to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief of the bottom (JEBAR) and mesoscale eddy nonlinearity.

  3. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  4. WHY DOES LEIBNIZ NEED ABSOLUTE TIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLÁS VAUGHAN C.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo pongo en contraposición dos doctrinas conspicuamenteleibnicianas: la doctrina del tiempo relacional e ideal, y la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida. Argumentaré que si todas las substancias están necesariamentecoordinadas, entonces no tiene sentido negar el carácter absoluto y real del tiempo. En la primera sección describiré la concepción newtoniana y clarkeana del tiempo absoluto; en la segunda discutiré la crítica leibniciana a dicha concepción, crítica sobre la que se erige su doctrina relacional e ideal del tiempo; en la tercera sección daré un vistazo a la metafísica monádica madura de Leibniz, haciendo especial énfasis en la doctrina de la armonía preestablecida; finalmente, en la última sección sugeriré la existencia de una tensión irreconciliable entre estas dos doctrinas.Abstract: In this paper I bring together two characteristically Leibnizean doctrines:the doctrine of relational and ideal time, and the doctrine of preestablished harmony. I will argue that, if every substance is necessarily connected with another, then it makes no sense to deny absolute and real time. In the first section, I will describe Newton’s and Clarke’s conception of absolute time; then, in the second section, I will consider Leibniz’s critique of that conception, on which he bases his ideal and relational doctrine of time. In the third section I will look briefly at Leibniz’s mature monadic metaphysics, taking special account of his doctrine of preestablished harmony. In the last section, I will suggest that there is an irreconcilable tension between these two doctrines.

  5. Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Peter V.; Hoyt, C.; Kochling, H.; Miller, P.

    1990-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in heat diffusivity of pure Cu at liquid-He temperatures makes possible very important advances in the absolute accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, and time constant of cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs), relative to conventional ESRs. The design and characterization of a table-top cryogenic ESR now available for detector calibration work to the 0.01-percent level of absolute accuracy under laser illumination is discussed. A sensitive cryogenic ESR recently delivered to the NIST for radiometric calibrations of black bodies is also described, along with the design and testing of a very fast cryogenic ESR developed for NASA remote-sensing studies of the earth's radiation budget.

  6. Negative numbers are generated in the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to disentangle two possible representations of negative numbers--the holistic representation, where absolute magnitude is integrated with polarity; and the components representation, where absolute magnitude is stored separately from polarity. Participants' performance was examined in two tasks involving numbers from--100 to 100. In the numerical comparison task, participants had to decide which number of a pair was numerically larger/smaller. In the number line task, participants were presented with a spatial number line on which they had to place a number. The results of both tasks support the components representation of negative numbers. The findings suggest that processing of negative numbers does not involve retrieval of their meaning from memory, but rather the integration of the polarity sign with the digits' magnitudes.

  7. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  8. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  9. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettisserry, D. P., E-mail: deva@umd.edu, E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Goldsman, N., E-mail: deva@umd.edu, E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Akturk, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lelis, A. J. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the “amorphousness” of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The “permanently electrically active” centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (V{sub th}) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the “electrically inactive” defects could be transformed into various “electrically active” configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of V{sub th} instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  10. Color assimilation and contrast near absolute threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Contrast and Assimilation test targets are almost always viewed at high light levels. We measured the appearances of Simultaneous Contrast, Assimilation and other spatial surrounds near absolute rod threshold. Given the very different spatial organizations of receptive fields in rod and cone vision at detection threshold, it is not obvious that these familiar cone-vision spatial effects would be observed at rod light levels. Nevertheless, the spatial experiments showed that these targets have the same changes in appearance as those observed in bright light. Our experiments used very dim candle light that was above threshold for rods and L cones, and below threshold for M and S cones. Although detection threshold experiments show very different spatial organizations for rod and cone vision, we found that spatial contrast experiments gave the same changes of appearance. Neural contrast mechanisms at the lowest end of our visual HDR range are very similar to those at the top of the range in sunlight. This is true for both chromatic and achromatic targets.

  11. PROFIT – THE ABSOLUTE EXPRESSION OF PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SIMTION

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitability of an economic unit is expressed through a system of indicators, because "no index or economic category can reflect the total, perfect, complex reality of economic phenomena or processes. Each expresses a side of concrete, essential details (indexes, but a full one (economic category. This system of indexes for profitability is characterized by a higher degree of consolidation, of reflection of the economic-financial results. They must be correlated to the other indexes of economic efficiency from the various subsystems that constitute the factors which determine the actual amount of profit and the rate of return. Each indicator has a certain form of expression according to the phenomena to which it refers. Thus, they can be expressed in relative sizes as medium sizes or indexes. They can also be expressed in physical, conventional or value units. The ability to develop monetary results can not be judged independently to the employed means for achieving them. Therefore, the profitability analysis is not limited to investigating its absolute indexes but also the relative ones, obtained by comparing the results to the means employed or consumed for developing the specific activity

  12. Direct numerical simulations of exhaust gas recirculation effect on multistage autoignition in the negative temperature combustion regime for stratified HCCI flow conditions by using H2O2 addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-04-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of a stratified flow in a homogeneous compression charge ignition (HCCI) engine are performed to investigate the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and temperature/mixture stratification effects on the autoignition of synthetic dimethyl ether (DME) in the negative temperature combustion region. Detailed chemistry for a DME/air mixture is employed and solved by a hybrid multi-time scale (HMTS) algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The effect of ? to mimic the EGR effect on autoignition are studied. The results show that adding ? enhances autoignition by rapid OH radical pool formation (34-46% reduction in ignition delay time) and changes the ignition heat release rates at different ignition stages. Sensitivity analysis is performed and the important reactions pathways affecting the autoignition are specified. The DNS results show that the scales introduced by thermal and mixture stratifications have a strong effect after the low temperature chemistry (LTC) ignition especially at the locations of high scalar dissipation rates. Compared to homogenous ignition, stratified ignitions show similar first autoignition delay times, but 18% reduction in the second and third ignition delay times. The results also show that molecular transport plays an important role in stratified low temperature ignition, and that the scalar mixing time scale is strongly affected by local ignition in the stratified flow. Two ignition-kernel propagation modes are observed: a wave-like, low-speed, deflagrative mode and a spontaneous, high-speed, ignition mode. Three criteria are introduced to distinguish these modes by different characteristic time scales and Damkhöler numbers using a progress variable conditioned by an ignition kernel indicator. The low scalar dissipation rate flame front is characterized by high displacement speeds and high mixing Damkhöler number. The proposed criteria are applied successfully at the different ignition stages and

  13. New precise determination of the high temperature unusual temperature dependent thermopower of liquid divalent cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et des Interfaces, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57 078 Metz Cedex 03 (France). E-mail: boris at lpli.sciences.univ-metz.fr; Ben Moussa, A.; Makradi, A.; Chaaba, H.; Gasser, J.-G. [Laboratoire de Physique des Liquides et des Interfaces, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57 078 Metz Cedex 03 (France)

    2000-04-17

    We do not know any precise measurement of the absolute thermopower (ATP) of liquid cadmium and zinc at high temperatures. For liquid cadmium, there are, in the literature, apparent contradictory results. Bath and Kliem and North and Wagner observed that the ATP increases with temperature between 350 deg. C and 650 deg. C, but Bradley observed the opposite behaviour between 600 deg. C and 750 deg. C. In this work we measured accurately the absolute thermopower of liquid cadmium from the melting point up to 900 deg. C. We find a maximum around 520 deg. C, and then the thermopower decreases down to a surprising negative value. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such an unusual behaviour is reported. Nevertheless, it is qualitatively consistent with all the authors mentioned and the apparent contradictory results should only be due to the different temperature ranges of measurements. Using the ATP expression from the Faber-Ziman formalism, we can fit very well the experimental absolute thermopower versus temperature curve with only one adjustable parameter. For this, we have considered that the temperature dependence of the ATP is dominated by the resistivity, and we have introduced the experimental resistivity temperature dependence in the ATP expression. The very good fitting quality demonstrates that our hypothesis is consistent. In contrast, the liquid zinc ATP only increases with temperature. Nevertheless, near 1100 deg. C, the highest temperature achieved, it shows saturation that may be an indication of a decrease at higher temperature. The same type of fitting gives also quite good results. (author)

  14. New precise determination of the high temperature unusual temperature dependent thermopower of liquid divalent cadmium and zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, B.; Ben Moussa, A.; Makradi, A.; Chaaba, H.; Gasser, J.-G.

    2000-04-01

    We do not know any precise measurement of the absolute thermopower (ATP) of liquid cadmium and zinc at high temperatures. For liquid cadmium, there are, in the literature, apparent contradictory results. Bath and Kliem and North and Wagner observed that the ATP increases with temperature between 350 °C and 650 °C, but Bradley observed the opposite behaviour between 600 °C and 750 °C. In this work we measured accurately the absolute thermopower of liquid cadmium from the melting point up to 900 °C. We find a maximum around 520 °C, and then the thermopower decreases down to a surprising negative value. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such an unusual behaviour is reported. Nevertheless, it is qualitatively consistent with all the authors mentioned and the apparent contradictory results should only be due to the different temperature ranges of measurements. Using the ATP expression from the Faber-Ziman formalism, we can fit very well the experimental absolute thermopower versus temperature curve with only one adjustable parameter. For this, we have considered that the temperature dependence of the ATP is dominated by the resistivity, and we have introduced the experimental resistivity temperature dependence in the ATP expression. The very good fitting quality demonstrates that our hypothesis is consistent. In contrast, the liquid zinc ATP only increases with temperature. Nevertheless, near 1100 °C, the highest temperature achieved, it shows saturation that may be an indication of a decrease at higher temperature. The same type of fitting gives also quite good results.

  15. Positioning, alignment and absolute pointing of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, F [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1 (Germany); Distefano, C, E-mail: fehr@physik.uni-erlangen.d [INFN Laboratori Nazional del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    A precise detector alignment and absolute pointing is crucial for point-source searches. The ANTARES neutrino telescope utilises an array of hydrophones, tiltmeters and compasses for the relative positioning of the optical sensors. The absolute calibration is accomplished by long-baseline low-frequency triangulation of the acoustic reference devices in the deep-sea with a differential GPS system at the sea surface. The absolute pointing can be independently verified by detecting the shadow of the Moon in cosmic rays.

  16. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  17. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W.; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We developed a computational method (ABSOLUTE) that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. ABSOLUTE can detect subclonal heterogeneity, somatic homozygosity, and calculate statistical sensitivity to detect specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze ovarian cancer data and identified pervasive subclonal somatic point mutations. In contrast, mutations occurring in key tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and NF1 were predominantly clonal ...

  18. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  19. Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    gathered close to a microsecond after the stress is interrupted. 1. Experimental Setup This method uses an operational amplifier ( OPAMP ) as shown in...Figure 18. The OPAMP is used in a fashion such that when the test is switched from the stress position to that of the measure position, it will attempt... OPAMP . As a result, it is possible for this test to be run on shorter time periods of stress. Furthermore, this approach allows a direct

  20. High-precision Absolute Coordinate Measurement using Frequency Scanned Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Tianxiang; Riles, Keith; Li, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report high-precision absolute position measurement performed with frequency scanned interferometry (FSI). We reported previously on measurement of absolute distance with FSI [1]. Absolute position is determined by several related absolute distances measured simultaneously. The achieved precision of 2-dimensional measurements is better than 1 micron, and in 3-dimensional measurements, the precision on X and Y is confirmed to be below 1 micron, while the confirmed precision on Z is about 2 microns, where the confirmation is limited by the lower precision of the moving stage in Z direction.

  1. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  2. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias ($f$). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is $...

  3. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  4. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  5. Greater absolute risk for all subtypes of breast cancer in the US than Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Hisani N; Beena Devi, C R; Sung, Hyuna; Tang, Tieng Swee; Rosenberg, Philip S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sherman, Mark E; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2015-01-01

    Hormone receptor (HR) negative breast cancers are relatively more common in low-risk than high-risk countries and/or populations. However, the absolute variations between these different populations are not well established given the limited number of cancer registries with incidence rate data by breast cancer subtype. We, therefore, used two unique population-based resources with molecular data to compare incidence rates for the 'intrinsic' breast cancer subtypes between a low-risk Asian population in Malaysia and high-risk non-Hispanic white population in the National Cancer Institute's surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries database (SEER 18). The intrinsic breast cancer subtypes were recapitulated with the joint expression of the HRs (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). Invasive breast cancer incidence rates overall were fivefold greater in SEER 18 than in Malaysia. The majority of breast cancers were HR-positive in SEER 18 and HR-negative in Malaysia. Notwithstanding the greater relative distribution for HR-negative cancers in Malaysia, there was a greater absolute risk for all subtypes in SEER 18; incidence rates were nearly 7-fold higher for HR-positive and 2-fold higher for HR-negative cancers in SEER 18. Despite the well-established relative breast cancer differences between low-risk and high-risk countries and/or populations, there was a greater absolute risk for HR-positive and HR-negative subtypes in the US than Malaysia. Additional analytical studies are sorely needed to determine the factors responsible for the elevated risk of all subtypes of breast cancer in high-risk countries like the United States.

  6. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  7. Absolute Abundance Measurements in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry

    2014-06-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with EVE/SDO and EIS/Hinode. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines Fe XV-XXIV and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (F). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is F=1.17+-0.22. Furthermore, we have compared the EVE measurements with corresponding flare observations of intermediate temperature S, Ar, Ca, and Fe emission lines taken with EIS. Our initial calculations also indicate a photospheric composition for these observations. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation in the non-flaring corona occurs.

  8. Absolute chronology and stratigraphy of Lepenski Vir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, a number of specialist analyses were made on the material from old excavations of Mesolithic-Neolithic sites in the Danube Gorges. These new results altered significantly our understanding of the Lepenski Vir culture. The question of chronology of this regional phenomenon has been acute since the discovery of Lepenski Vir in the 1960s, and it remains of key importance for understanding the character of Mesolithic-Neolithic transformations in this and the neighbouring regions. The most heated debate was fuelled by the initial stratigraphic and chronological attribution of the type-site itself. There remained the question about the adequate dating of the most prominent phase at this site characterized by buildings with trapezoidal bases covered with limestone floors and with rectangular stone-lined hearths placed in the centre of these features. There have been suggestions that these features also contain Early Neolithic Starčevo type pottery and other similar items of material culture and should thus be dated to the Early Neolithic historical context. Moreover, the first series of conventional radiocarbon determinations (21 dates also suggested that the absolute chronology of these features should be confined to the period from around 6400-5500 cal BC (Fig. 1. Due to the importance of defining more precisely the chronology for the start of construction of these particular features at Lepenski Vir and for establishing the life-span of these buildings and their associated material culture, we have AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry dated a number of contexts from this site. The results are presented in this paper. The project was made possible through the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerate Dating Service (ORADS programme funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC of the Great Britain. Apart from those dates presented in this paper, there are 29 previously published

  9. Absolute instability in viscoelastic mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasun K.; Zaki, Tamer A.

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal linear stability of viscoelastic planar mixing layers is investigated. A one-parameter family of velocity profiles is used as the base state with the parameter, S, controlling the amount of shear and backflow. The influence of viscoelasticity in dilute polymer solutions is modeled with the Oldroyd-B and FENE-P constitutive equations. Both models require the specification of the ratio of the polymer-relaxation and convective time scales (the Weissenberg number, We) and the ratio of solvent and solution viscosities (β). The maximum polymer extensibility, L, must also be specified for the FENE-P model. We examine how the variation of these parameters along with the Reynolds number, Re, affects the minimum value of S at which the flow becomes locally absolutely unstable. With the Oldroyd-B model, the influence of viscoelasticity is shown to be almost fully captured by the elasticity, E^* equiv (1-β ) We/Re, and Scrit decreases as elasticity is increased, i.e., elasticity is destabilizing. A simple approximate dispersion relation obtained via long-wave asymptotic analysis is shown to accurately capture this destabilizing influence. Results obtained with the FENE-P model exhibit a rich variety of behavior. At large values of the extensibility, L, results are similar to those for the Oldroyd-B fluid as expected. However, when the extensibility is reduced to more realistic values (L ≈ 100), one must consider the scaled shear rate, η _c equiv We S/2L, in addition to the elasticity. When ηc is large, the base-state polymer stress obtained by the FENE-P model is reduced, and there is a corresponding reduction in the overall influence of viscoelasticity on stability. Additionally, elasticity exhibits a stabilizing effect which is driven by the streamwise-normal perturbation polymer stress. As ηc is reduced, the base-state and perturbation normal polymer stresses predicted by the FENE-P model move towards the Oldroyd-B values, and the destabilizing

  10. Absolute Humidity and the Seasonality of Influenza (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.; Pitzer, V.; Viboud, C.; Grenfell, B.; Goldstein, E.; Lipsitch, M.

    2010-12-01

    Much of the observed wintertime increase of mortality in temperate regions is attributed to seasonal influenza. A recent re-analysis of laboratory experiments indicates that absolute humidity strongly modulates the airborne survival and transmission of the influenza virus. Here we show that the onset of increased wintertime influenza-related mortality in the United States is associated with anomalously low absolute humidity levels during the prior weeks. We then use an epidemiological model, in which observed absolute humidity conditions temper influenza transmission rates, to successfully simulate the seasonal cycle of observed influenza-related mortality. The model results indicate that direct modulation of influenza transmissibility by absolute humidity alone is sufficient to produce this observed seasonality. These findings provide epidemiological support for the hypothesis that absolute humidity drives seasonal variations of influenza transmission in temperate regions. In addition, we show that variations of the basic and effective reproductive numbers for influenza, caused by seasonal changes in absolute humidity, are consistent with the general timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks observed for 2009 A/H1N1 in temperate regions. Indeed, absolute humidity conditions correctly identify the region of the United States vulnerable to a third, wintertime wave of pandemic influenza. These findings suggest that the timing of pandemic influenza outbreaks is controlled by a combination of absolute humidity conditions, levels of susceptibility and changes in population mixing and contact rates.

  11. Novalis' Poetic Uncertainty: A "Bildung" with the Absolute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Novalis, the Early German Romantic poet and philosopher, had at the core of his work a mysterious depiction of the "absolute." The absolute is Novalis' name for a substance that defies precise knowledge yet calls for a tentative and sensitive speculation. How one asserts a truth, represents an object, and sets about encountering things…

  12. A Global Forecast of Absolute Poverty and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M. J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are made of absolute poverty and employment under the hypothesis that existing trends continue. Concludes that while the number of people in absolute poverty is not likely to decline by 2000, the proportion will fall. Jobs will have to grow 3.9% per year in developing countries to achieve full employment. (JOW)

  13. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas; Sarbort, Martin; Bering, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We investigate imaging by spherically symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive a number of properties of such devices, present a general method for designing them and use this method to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically homogeneous region and having a moderate refractive index range.

  14. ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE DISCRETE NONLINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zuoxin; HAN Jingqing; ZHAO Suxia; WU Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, the absolute stability of general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems has been discussed by Lyapunov function approach. A sufficient condition of absolute stability for the general Lurie discrete nonlinear control systems is derived, and some necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained in special cases. Meanwhile, we give a simple example to illustrate the effectiveness of the results.

  15. On the Mean Absolute Error in Inverse Binomial Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Mendo, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A closed-form expression and an upper bound are obtained for the mean absolute error of the unbiased estimator of a probability in inverse binomial sampling. The results given permit the estimation of an arbitrary probability with a prescribed level of the normalized mean absolute error.

  16. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  17. Measurements of Absolute Abundances in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Harry P.

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 ± 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  18. About bond model of S-type negative differential resistance in GaP LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydar, G.; Konoreva, O.; Maliy, Ye.; Olikh, Ya.; Petrenko, I.; Pinkovska, M.; Radkevych, O.; Tartachnyk, V.

    2017-04-01

    The bond models are presented that explain the S-type anomaly of GaP LEDs' electrical characteristics at temperatures Т ≤ 120 K. A possible mechanism of negative differential resistance appearing in current-voltage characteristics is proposed, based on the features of the gallium phosphide complex band structure. The conductive zone absolute minimum in this crystal is near the Brillouin zone end. Due to the positive internal bond, controlled by the current, intervalley electron transfer occurs from the side valley to the higher one with the smaller effective electron mass. While the applied voltage is increased, electrons move from the lateral valley to the direct conductive zone bottom and an S-type negative differential resistance region appears.

  19. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E; Kosloff, R

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω^{2} is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  20. Analysis of absolute flatness testing in sub-stitching interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Xu, Fuchao; Xie, Weimin; Xing, Tingwen

    2016-09-01

    Sub-aperture stitching is an effective way to extend the lateral and vertical dynamic range of a conventional interferometer. The test accuracy can be achieved by removing the error of reference surface by the absolute testing method. When the testing accuracy (repeatability and reproducibility) is close to 1nm, in addition to the reference surface, other factors will also affect the measuring accuracy such as environment, zoom magnification, stitching precision, tooling and fixture, the characteristics of optical materials and so on. In the thousand level cleanroom, we establish a good environment system. Long time stability, temperature controlled at 22°+/-0.02°.The humidity and noise are controlled in a certain range. We establish a stitching system in the clean room. The vibration testing system is used to test the vibration. The air pressure testing system is also used. In the motion system, we control the tilt error no more than 4 second to reduce the error. The angle error can be tested by the autocollimator and double grating reading head.

  1. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star AP Andromedae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg Lacy, Claud H. [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W., E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    AP And is a well-detached F5 eclipsing binary star for which only a very limited amount of information was available before this publication. We have obtained very extensive measurements of the light curve (19,097 differential V magnitude observations) and a radial velocity curve (83 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.277 ± 0.004 and 1.251 ± 0.004 M {sub ☉}, radii of 1.233 ± 0.006 and 1.1953 ± 0.005 R {sub ☉}, and temperatures of 6565 ± 150 K and 6495 ± 150 K. The distance to the system is about 400 ± 30 pc. Comparison with the theoretical properties of the stellar evolutionary models of the Yonsei-Yale series of Yi et al. shows good agreement between the observations and the theory at an age of about 500 Myr and a slightly sub-solar metallicity.

  2. Absolute calibration of a wideband antenna and spectrometer for sky noise spectral index measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Alan E E

    2012-01-01

    A new method of absolute calibration of sky noise temperature using a three-position switched spectrometer, measurements of antenna and low noise amplifier impedance with a vector network analyzer, and ancillary measurements of the amplifier noise waves is described. The details of the method and its application to accurate wideband measurements of the spectral index of the sky noise are described and compared with other methods.

  3. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  4. The assessment of protective behavioral strategies: comparing the absolute frequency and contingent frequency response scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Benjamin A; Pearson, Matthew R; Henson, James M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to examine the effects of response scale on the observed relationships between protective behavioral strategies (PBS) measures and alcohol-related outcomes. We reasoned that an "absolute frequency" scale (stem: "how many times …"; response scale: 0 times to 11+ times) conflates the frequency of using PBS with the frequency of consuming alcohol; thus, we hypothesized that the use of an absolute frequency response scale would result in positive relationships between types of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Alternatively, a "contingent frequency" scale (stem: "When drinking … how often …"; response scale: never to always) does not conflate frequency of alcohol use with use of PBS; therefore, we hypothesized that use of a contingent frequency scale would result in negative relationships between use of PBS and alcohol-related outcomes. Two published measures of PBS were used across studies: the Protective Behavioral Strategies Survey (PBSS) and the Strategy Questionnaire (SQ). Across three studies, we demonstrate that when measured using a contingent frequency response scale, PBS measures relate negatively to alcohol-related outcomes in a theoretically consistent manner; however, when PBS measures were measured on an absolute frequency response scale, they were nonsignificantly or positively related to alcohol-related outcomes. We discuss the implications of these findings for the assessment of PBS.

  5. EOP TDRs (Temperature-Depth-Recordings) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature-depth-recorders (TDRs) were attached to commercial longline and research Cobb trawl gear to obtain absolute depth and temperature measurement during...

  6. Synoptic Monthly Gridded WOD Absolute Geostrophic Velocity (SMG-WOD-V) (January 1945 - December 2014) with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0146195)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SMG-WOD-V dataset comprises synoptic monthly global gridded fields of absolute geostrophic velocity inverted from the synoptic monthly gridded WOD temperature...

  7. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  8. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (Pfertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1).

  9. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  10. HIRDLS observations of global gravity wave absolute momentum fluxes: A wavelet based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Sherine Rachel; Kishore Kumar, Karanam

    2016-02-01

    Using wavelet technique for detection of height varying vertical and horizontal wavelengths of gravity waves, the absolute values of gravity wave momentum fluxes are estimated from High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) temperature measurements. Two years of temperature measurements (2005 December-2007 November) from HIRDLS onboard EOS-Aura satellite over the globe are used for this purpose. The least square fitting method is employed to extract the 0-6 zonal wavenumber planetary wave amplitudes, which are removed from the instantaneous temperature profiles to extract gravity wave fields. The vertical and horizontal wavelengths of the prominent waves are computed using wavelet and cross correlation techniques respectively. The absolute momentum fluxes are then estimated using prominent gravity wave perturbations and their vertical and horizontal wavelengths. The momentum fluxes obtained from HIRDLS are compared with the fluxes obtained from ground based Rayleigh LIDAR observations over a low latitude station, Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) and are found to be in good agreement. After validation, the absolute gravity wave momentum fluxes over the entire globe are estimated. It is found that the winter hemisphere has the maximum momentum flux magnitudes over the high latitudes with a secondary maximum over the summer hemispheric low-latitudes. The significance of the present study lies in introducing the wavelet technique for estimating the height varying vertical and horizontal wavelengths of gravity waves and validating space based momentum flux estimations using ground based lidar observations.

  11. Gender equality and women's absolute status: a test of the feminist models of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberly; Vieraitis, Lynne M; Britto, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    Feminist theory predicts both a positive and negative relationship between gender equality and rape rates. Although liberal and radical feminist theory predicts that gender equality should ameliorate rape victimization, radical feminist theorists have argued that gender equality may increase rape in the form of male backlash. Alternatively, Marxist criminologists focus on women's absolute socioeconomic status rather than gender equality as a predictor of rape rates, whereas socialist feminists combine both radical and Marxist perspectives. This study uses factor analysis to overcome multicollinearity limitations of past studies while exploring the relationship between women's absolute and relative socioeconomic status on rape rates in major U.S. cities using 2000 census data. The findings indicate support for both the Marxist and radical feminist explanations of rape but no support for the ameliorative hypothesis. These findings support a more inclusive socialist feminist theory that takes both Marxist and radical feminist hypotheses into account.

  12. On the calculation of the absolute grand potential of confined smectic-A phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Cheng; Baus, Marc; Ryckaert, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We determine the absolute grand potential Λ along a confined smectic-A branch of a calamitic liquid crystal system enclosed in a slit pore of transverse area A and width L, using the rod-rod Gay-Berne potential and a rod-wall potential favouring perpendicular orientation at the walls. For a confined phase with an integer number of smectic layers sandwiched between the opposite walls, we obtain the excess properties (excess grand potential Λexc, solvation force fs and adsorption Γ) with respect to the bulk phase at the same μ (chemical potential) and T (temperature) state point. While usual thermodynamic integration methods are used along the confined smectic branch to estimate the grand potential difference as μ is varied at fixed L, T, the absolute grand potential at one reference state point is obtained via the evaluation of the absolute Helmholtz free energy in the (N, L, A, T) canonical ensemble. It proceeds via a sequence of free energy difference estimations involving successively the cost of localising rods on layers and the switching on of a one-dimensional harmonic field to keep layers integrity coupled to the elimination of inter-layers and wall interactions. The absolute free energy of the resulting set of fully independent layers of interacting rods is finally estimated via the existing procedures. This work opens the way to the computer simulation study of phase transitions implying confined layered phases.

  13. Negation and negative concord in romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Sag, I.A.

    This paper addresses the two interpretations a combination of negative indefinites can get in concord languages like French, namely a concord reading which amounts to a single negation, or a double negation reading. We develop an analysis in a polyadic framework, in which a sequence of

  14. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly (benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  15. Negative Dielectric Constant Material Based on Ion Conducting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Metamaterials or artificial negative index materials (NIMs) have generated great attention due to their unique and exotic electromagnetic properties. One exemplary negative dielectric constant material, which is an essential key for creating the NIMs, was developed by doping ions into a polymer, a protonated poly(benzimidazole) (PBI). The doped PBI showed a negative dielectric constant at megahertz (MHz) frequencies due to its reduced plasma frequency and an induction effect. The magnitude of the negative dielectric constant and the resonance frequency were tunable by doping concentration. The highly doped PBI showed larger absolute magnitude of negative dielectric constant at just above its resonance frequency than the less doped PBI.

  16. A Proposed Absolute Entropy of Near Extremal Kerr-Newman Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H

    2001-01-01

    Some problems have been found as to the definition of entropy of black hole being applied to the extremal Kerr-Newman case, which has conflicts with the third law of thermodynamics. We have proposed a new modification for the near extremal one, which not only obeys the third law, but also does not conflict with other results in black hole thermodynamics. Then we proved that the inner horizon has temperature and proposed that the inner horizon contributes to the entropy of the near extremal one so that the entropy of it has a modified form and vanishes at absolute zero temperature.

  17. Absolute gravimetry - for monitoring climate change and geodynamics in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil

    with the GPS data, it is possible to separate the different signals. The method used in this study is absolute gravimetry. An absolute gravimeter of the A10 type has been purchased by DTU Space for this purpose. This instrument can measure gravity changes as small as 6µGal (= 60nm=s2), which provides....... The time allocated for a PhD project is not sufficient to gather enough data for an elaborated analysis of the different signals which can be detected in Greenland. However, as will be presented in this thesis, the preliminary results indicate interesting possibilities for the use of absolute gravimetry...

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Concentration on Low-Frequency Noise and Negative Bias Temperature Instability of p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Nitrided Gate Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Shik; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Bok, Jung-Deuk; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jung, Yi-Jung; Choi, Woon-il; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lim, Min-Gyu; Chung, Yi-Sun; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the dependence of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and low-frequency noise characteristics on the various nitrided gate oxides is reported. The threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) under NBTI stress for thermally nitrided oxide (TNO) was greater than that of plasma nitrided oxide (PNO), whereas the slopes of ΔVT versus stress time for PNO were similar to those for TNO. The flicker noise (1/f noise) characteristic of PNO was better than that of TNO by about 1 order of magnitude, although the 1/f noise of PNO showed almost the same dependence on the frequency as that of TNO. The carrier number fluctuation model due to the trapping and detrapping of electrons in oxide traps was found to be a dominant mechanism of flicker noise. The probability of the generation of drain current random telegraph signal (ID-RTS) noise shows similar values (70-78%) for all nitrided oxides, which shows that the generation of RTS noise is not greatly affected by the nitridation method or nitrogen concentration.

  19. Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    Full Text Available In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region.

    Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques

  20. Significance of absolute energy scale for physics at BESⅢ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-Dong; MO Xiao-Hu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of absolute energy calibration on BESⅢ physics are discussed in detail,which mainly involve the effects on τ mass measurement,cross section scan measurement,and generic error determination in other measurements.

  1. Producing Absolute Truth: CSI Science as Wishful Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruse, Corinna

    2010-01-01

    ...). I argue that CSI science, in delivering an absolute “truth” about how and by whom crimes have been committed, is equated with justice, effectively superseding nonfictional forensic science as well as nonfictional judicature as a whole...

  2. Changes in Absolute Sea Level Along U.S. Coasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows changes in absolute sea level from 1960 to 2016 based on satellite measurements. Data were adjusted by applying an inverted barometer (air pressure)...

  3. Absolute position total internal reflection microscopy with an optical tweezer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lulu Liu; Alexander Woolf; Alejandro W. Rodriguez; Federico Capasso

    2014-01-01

    .... We show that by making only simple modifications to the basic TIRM sensing setup and procedure, a probe particle's absolute position relative to a dielectric interface may be known with better than...

  4. Preparation of an oakmoss absolute with reduced allergenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, C; Maupetit, P; Petrzilka, M; Klecak, G

    1992-06-01

    Synopsis Oakmoss absolute, an extract of the lichen Evernia prunastri, is known to cause allergenic skin reactions due to the presence of certain aromatic aldehydes such as atranorin, chloratranorin, ethyl hematommate and ethyl chlorohematommate. In this paper it is shown that treatment of Oakmoss absolute with amino acids such as lysine and/or leucine, lowers considerably the content of these allergenic constituents including atranol and chloratranol. The resulting Oakmoss absolute, which exhibits an excellent olfactive quality, was tested extensively in comparative studies on guinea pigs and on man. The results of the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and Human Repeated Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) indicate that, in comparison with the commercial test sample, the allergenicity of this new quality of Oakmoss absolute was considerably reduced, and consequently better skin tolerance of this fragrance for man was achieved.

  5. Wall Effect on the Convective-Absolute Boundary for the Compressible Shear Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Jean-Christophe; Dussauge, Jean-Paul; Casalis, Grégoire

    The linear stability of inviscid compressible shear layers is studied. When the layer develops at the vicinity of a wall, the two parallel flows can have a velocity of the same sign or of opposite signs. This situation is examined in order to obtain first hints on the stability of separated flows in the compressible regime. The shear layer is described by a hyperbolic tangent profile for the velocity component and the Crocco relation for the temperature profile. Gravity effects and the superficial tension are neglected. By examining the temporal growth rate at the saddle point in the wave-number space, the flow is characterized as being either absolutely unstable or convectively unstable. This study principally shows the effect of the wall on the convective-absolute transition in compressible shear flow. Results are presented, showing the amount of the backflow necessary to have this type of transition for a range of primary flow Mach numbers M1 up to 3.0. The boundary of the convective-absolute transition is defined as a function of the velocity ratio, the temperature ratio and the Mach number. Unstable solutions are calculated for both streamwise and oblique disturbances in the shear layer.

  6. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  7. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  8. DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  9. Global trends in relative and absolute wealth concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares changes in relative and absolute wealth concentrations to establish if both processes have followed similar trajectories. The findings indicate that while the level of relative wealth concentration has increased recently, it is not extraordinarily high in an historical perspective. On the contrary, the level of absolute wealth concentration is most likely higher than that previously occurred because of the increase in the wealth holdings and population size of high net wor...

  10. Spectra of absolute instruments from the WKB approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    We calculate frequency spectra of absolute optical instruments using the WKB approximation. The resulting eigenfrequencies approximate the actual values very accurately, in some cases they even give the exact values. Our calculations confirm results obtained previously by a completely different method. In particular, the eigenfrequencies of absolute instruments form tight groups that are almost equidistantly spaced. We demonstrate our method and its results on several examples.

  11. DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  12. Absolute Free Energies for Biomolecules in Implicit or Explicit Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T.; Schilling, Tanja

    Methods for absolute free energy calculation by alchemical transformation of a quantitative model to an analytically tractable one are discussed. These absolute free energy methods are placed in the context of other methods, and an attempt is made to describe the best practice for such calculations given the current state of the art. Calculations of the equilibria between the four free energy basins of the dialanine molecule and the two right- and left-twisted basins of DNA are discussed as examples.

  13. CMOS MEMS capacitive absolute pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narducci, M.; Yu-Chia, L.; Fang, W.; Tsai, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of a capacitive pressure sensor using a commercial 0.18 µm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process and postprocess. The pressure sensor is capacitive and the structure is formed by an Al top electrode enclosed in a suspended SiO2 membrane, which acts as a movable electrode against a bottom or stationary Al electrode fixed on the SiO2 substrate. Both the movable and fixed electrodes form a variable parallel plate capacitor, whose capacitance varies with the applied pressure on the surface. In order to release the membranes the CMOS layers need to be applied postprocess and this mainly consists of four steps: (1) deposition and patterning of PECVD (plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition) oxide to protect CMOS pads and to open the pressure sensor top surface, (2) etching of the sacrificial layer to release the suspended membrane, (3) deposition of PECVD oxide to seal the etching holes and creating vacuum inside the gap, and finally (4) etching of the passivation oxide to open the pads and allow electrical connections. This sensor design and fabrication is suitable to obey the design rules of a CMOS foundry and since it only uses low-temperature processes, it allows monolithic integration with other types of CMOS compatible sensors and IC (integrated circuit) interface on a single chip. Experimental results showed that the pressure sensor has a highly linear sensitivity of 0.14 fF kPa-1 in the pressure range of 0-300 kPa.

  14. Accurate absolute measurement of trapped Cs atoms in a MOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talavera O, M.; Lopez R, M.; Carlos L, E. de [Division de Tiempo y Frecuencia, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, km 4.5 Carretera a los Cues, El Marques, 76241 Queretaro (Mexico); Jimenez S, S. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del lPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    A Cs-133 Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) has been developed at the Time and Frequency Division of the Centro Nacional de Metrologia, CENAM, in Mexico. This MOT is part of a primary frequency standard based on ultra-cold Cs atoms, called CsF-1 clock, under development at CENAM. In this Cs MOT, we use the standard configuration ({sigma}{sup +} - {sigma}{sup -}) 4-horizontal 2-vertical laser beams 1.9 cm in diameter, with 5 mW each. We use a 852 nm, 5 mW, DBR laser as a master laser which is stabilized by saturation spectroscopy. Emission linewidth of the master laser is l MHz. In order to amplify the light of the master laser, a 50 mW, 852 nm AlGaAs laser is used as slave laser. This slave laser is stabilized by light injection technique. A 12 MHz red shift of the light is performed by two double passes through two Acusto-Optic Modulators (AOMs). The optical part of the CENAMs MOT is very robust against mechanical vibration, acoustic noise and temperature changes in our laboratory, because none of our diode lasers use an extended cavity to reduce the linewidth. In this paper, we report results of our MOT characterization as a function of several operation parameters such as the intensity of laser beams, the laser beam diameter, the red shift of light, and the gradient of the magnetic field. We also report accurate absolute measurement of the number of Cs atoms trapped in our Cs MOT. We found up to 6 x 10{sup 7} Cs atoms trapped in our MOT measured with an uncertainty no greater than 6.4%. (Author)

  15. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  16. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  17. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  18. Temperature Dependence of Atomic Decay Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Jun; CHENG Ze

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the decay rate of an atom in a two-dimensional optical microcavity in which there exists a Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. It is found that below the critical temperature Tc, the atomic decay rate depends on the absolute temperature T. Especially, at absolute zero temperature almost all photons are in the condensate state, and the atom can be approximately treated as if it is in vacuum.%We investigate the decay rate of an atom in a two-dimensional optical microcavity in which there exists a BoseEinstein condensation of photons.It is found that below the critical temperature To,the atomic decay rate depends on the absolute temperature T.Especially,at absolute zero temperature almost all photons are in the condensate state,and the atom can be approximately treated as if it is in vacuum.

  19. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibrationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappatou, A.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Delabie, E.; Marchuk, O.; Biel, W.; Jakobs, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  20. Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

  1. The University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center Absolute Radiance Interferometer (ARI): Instrument Overview and Radiometric Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Joe K.; Revercomb, Hank E.; Bujis, Henry; Grandmont, Frederic J.; Gero, P. Jonathan; Best, Fred. A.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrally resolved thermal radiances measured from orbit with extremely high absolute accuracy (< 0.1 K, k = 3, brightness temperature at scene temperature) constitute a critical observation for future climate benchmark missions. The FTS approach is well suited for the combined requirement of ultra-high accuracy and broad spectral coverage at high spectral resolution. FTS technology inherently provides broad spectral coverage with a small number of detectors, a very well defined instrument l...

  2. Absolute neutrophil values in malignant patients on cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, A J; Ibegbulam, O G; Ocheni, S; Madu, K A; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    A total of eighty patients with various malignancies seen between September 2008 and April 2009 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria, had their absolute neutrophil counts, done at Days 0 and 12 of the first cycle of their various chemotherapeutic regimens. They were adult patients who had been diagnosed of various malignancies, consisting of Breast cancer 36 (45%), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 8 (10%), Hodgkin's lymphoma 13 (16.25%), Colorectal carcinoma 6 (7.5%), Multiple myeloma 7 (8.75%), Cervical carcinoma 1 (1.25%) and other malignancies 9 (11.25%), Manual counting of absolute neutrophil count was done using Turks solution and improved Neubauer counting chamber and Galen 2000 Olympus microscope. The socio demographic data of the patients were assessed from a questionnaire. There were 27 males (33.75%) and 53 females (66.25%). Their ages ranged from 18 - 80 years with a median of 45 years. The mean absolute neutrophil count of the respondents pre-and post chemotherapy was 3.7 +/- 2.1 x 10(9)/L and 2.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(9)/L respectively. There were significant differences in both the absolute neutrophil count (p=0.00) compared to the pre-chemotherapy values. Chemotherapeutic combinations containing cyclophosphamide and Adriamycin were observed to cause significant reduction in absolute neutrophil.

  3. Absolute quantification of somatic DNA alterations in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Scott L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Helman, Elena; McKenna, Aaron; Shen, Hui; Zack, Travis; Laird, Peter W; Onofrio, Robert C; Winckler, Wendy; Weir, Barbara A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Pellman, David; Levine, Douglas A; Lander, Eric S; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad

    2012-05-01

    We describe a computational method that infers tumor purity and malignant cell ploidy directly from analysis of somatic DNA alterations. The method, named ABSOLUTE, can detect subclonal heterogeneity and somatic homozygosity, and it can calculate statistical sensitivity for detection of specific aberrations. We used ABSOLUTE to analyze exome sequencing data from 214 ovarian carcinoma tumor-normal pairs. This analysis identified both pervasive subclonal somatic point-mutations and a small subset of predominantly clonal and homozygous mutations, which were overrepresented in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 and NF1 and in a candidate tumor suppressor gene CDK12. We also used ABSOLUTE to infer absolute allelic copy-number profiles from 3,155 diverse cancer specimens, revealing that genome-doubling events are common in human cancer, likely occur in cells that are already aneuploid, and influence pathways of tumor progression (for example, with recessive inactivation of NF1 being less common after genome doubling). ABSOLUTE will facilitate the design of clinical sequencing studies and studies of cancer genome evolution and intra-tumor heterogeneity.

  4. Absolute frequency measurement of unstable lasers with optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverini, N.; Poli, N.; Sutyrin, D.; Wang, F.-Y.; Schioppo, M.; Tarallo, M. G.; Tino, G. M.

    2010-09-01

    Here we report on absolute frequency measurements of a commercial high power CW diode-pumped solid-state laser (Coherent Verdi-V5). This kind of lasers usually presents large frequency jitter (up to 50 MHz) both in the short term (1 ms time scale) and in the long term (>10 s time scale). A precise measurement of absolute frequency deviations in both temporal scales should require a set of different devices (optical cavities, optical wave-meters), each suited for measurements only at a specific integration time. Here we demonstrate how a frequency comb can be used to overcome this difficulty, allowing in a single step a full characterization of both short ( 103 s) absolute frequency jitter with a resolution better than 1 MHz. We demonstrate in this way the flexibility of optical frequency combs for absolute frequency measurements not only of ultra-stable lasers but also of relatively unstable lasers. The absolute frequency calibration of the Verdi laser that we have obtained have been used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements of the local gravitational acceleration value with 88Sr atoms trapped in 1D vertical lattices.

  5. Absolute and relative family affluence and psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; De Clercq, Bart; Schnohr, Christina W; Bird, Phillippa; Pickett, Kate E; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Hofmann, Felix; Currie, Candace

    2013-08-01

    Previous research on the links between income inequality and health and socioeconomic differences in health suggests that relative differences in affluence impact health and well-being more than absolute affluence. This study explored whether self-reported psychosomatic symptoms in adolescents relate more closely to relative affluence (i.e., relative deprivation or rank affluence within regions or schools) than to absolute affluence. Data on family material assets and psychosomatic symptoms were collected from 48,523 adolescents in eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, Norway, Scotland, Poland, Turkey, and Ukraine) as part of the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Multilevel regression analyses of the data showed that relative deprivation (Yitzhaki Index, calculated in regions and in schools) and rank affluence (in regions) (1) related more closely to symptoms than absolute affluence, and (2) related to symptoms after differences in absolute affluence were held constant. However, differences in family material assets, whether they are measured in absolute or relative terms, account for a significant variation in adolescent psychosomatic symptoms. Conceptual and empirical issues relating to the use of material affluence indices to estimate socioeconomic position are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Absolute Navigation Information Estimation for Micro Planetary Rovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ilyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides algorithms to estimate absolute navigation information, e.g., absolute attitude and position, by using low power, weight and volume Microelectromechanical Systems-type (MEMS sensors that are suitable for micro planetary rovers. Planetary rovers appear to be easily navigable robots due to their extreme slow speed and rotation but, unfortunately, the sensor suites available for terrestrial robots are not always available for planetary rover navigation. This makes them difficult to navigate in a completely unexplored, harsh and complex environment. Whereas the relative attitude and position can be tracked in a similar way as for ground robots, absolute navigation information, unlike in terrestrial applications, is difficult to obtain for a remote celestial body, such as Mars or the Moon. In this paper, an algorithm called the EASI algorithm (Estimation of Attitude using Sun sensor and Inclinometer is presented to estimate the absolute attitude using a MEMS-type sun sensor and inclinometer, only. Moreover, the output of the EASI algorithm is fused with MEMS gyros to produce more accurate and reliable attitude estimates. An absolute position estimation algorithm has also been presented based on these on-board sensors. Experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite for low-cost and low-weight micro planetary rovers.

  7. Harnack inequality for the negative power Gaussian curvature flow

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the power of Gaussian curvature flow of a compact convex hypersurface and establish its Harnack inequality when the power is negative. In the Harnack inequality, we require that the absolute value of the power is strictly positive and strictly less than the inverse of the dimension of the hypersurface.

  8. Design of a quasi-zero-stiffness based sensor system for the measurement of absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xingjian; Wang, Yu; Li, Quankun; Sun, Xiuting

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the analysis and design of a novel sensor system for measuring the absolute vibration displacement of moving platforms based on the concept of quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS). The sensor system is constructed using positive- and negative-stiffness springs, which make it possible to achieve an equivalent QZS and consequently to create a broadband vibration-free point for absolute vibration displacement measurement in moving platforms. Theoretical analysis is conducted for the analysis and design of the influence of structure parameters on system measurement performance. A prototype is designed which can avoid the drawback of instability in existing QZS systems with negative stiffness, and corresponding data-processing software is developed to fulfill time domain measurements. Both the simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of this novel sensor system.

  9. Analysis, Design and Testing of a Novel Quasi-Zero-Stiffness based Sensor System for Measurement of Absolute Vibration Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the analysis and design of a novel quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) based vibration sensor system for measuring absolute displacement of vibrating platforms/objects. The sensor system is constructed by using positive and negative-stiffness springs, which makes it possible to achieve an equivalent QZS and consequently to create a broadband vibration-free point for absolute displacement measurement in vibrating platforms. Theoretic analysis is conducted for the analysis and design of the influence of structure parameters on system measurement performance. A prototype is designed which can avoid the drawback of instability in existing QZS systems with negative stiffness, and the corresponding data-processing software is developed to fulfill time domain and frequency domain measurements simultaneously. Both simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness of this novel sensor system.

  10. Absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Klaus; Braun, Pierre-François; Karrai, Khaled

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a method for absolute distance sensing by two laser optical interferometry. A particularity of this technique is that a target distance is determined in absolute and is no longer limited to within an ambiguity range affecting usually multiple wavelength interferometers. We implemented the technique in a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot miniature fiber based interferometer. We used two diode lasers, both operating in the 1550 nm wavelength range. The wavelength difference is chosen to create a 25 μm long periodic beating interferometric pattern allowing a nanometer precise position measurement but limited to within an ambiguity range of 25 μm. The ambiguity is then eliminated by scanning one of the wavelengths over a small range (3.4 nm). We measured absolute distances in the sub-meter range and this with just few nanometer repeatability.

  11. Abelian varieties with many endomorphisms and their absolutely simple factors

    CERN Document Server

    Guitart, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the abelian varieties arising as absolutely simple factors of GL2-type varieties over a number field k. In order to obtain this result, we study a wider class of abelian varieties: the k-varieties A/k satisfying that $\\End_k^0(A)$ is a maximal subfield of $\\End_k^0(A)$. We call them Ribet-Pyle varieties over k. We see that every Ribet-Pyle variety over k is isogenous over $\\bar k$ to a power of an abelian k-variety and, conversely, that every abelian k-variety occurs as the absolutely simple factor of some Ribet-Pyle variety over k. We deduce from this correspondence a precise description of the absolutely simple factors of the varieties over k of GL2-type.

  12. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Random phase or amplitude illumination is proposed to remove at once all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, at once from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for {\\em any} complex-valued object of arbitrary sparsity. While this irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a new perspective and an effective method for achieving absolute uniqueness in phase retrieval for {\\em every} object, not just objects outside of a measure-zero set. In particular, almost sure absolute uniqueness is proved for complex-valued objects under a general two-point assumption. For objects of nonnegative real and imaginary parts, absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases.

  13. The mixed Littlewood conjecture for pseudo-absolute values

    CERN Document Server

    Harrap, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we prove the mixed Littlewood conjecture for a p-adic absolute value and any pseudo-absolute value with bounded ratios. More precisely we show that if p is a prime and D is a pseudo-absolute value sequence with elements divisible by finitely many primes not equal to p, and if the terms of D grow more slowly than the exponential of a polynomial then the infimum over natural numbers n of the quantity n.|n|_p.|n|_D.||nx|| equals 0 for all real x. Our proof relies on two deep results, a measure rigidity theorem due to Lindenstrauss and lower bounds for linear forms in logarithms due to Baker and Wustholz. We also deduce the answer to the related metric question of how fast the infimum above tends to zero, for almost every x.

  14. Absolute absorption on rubidium D1 line: including resonant dipole-dipole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Weller, Lee; Siddons, Paul; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on measurements of the absolute absorption spectra of dense rubidium vapour on the D1 line in the weak-probe regime for temperatures up to 170 C and number densities up to 3 \\times 10^14 cm^-3. In such vapours, modifications to the homogeneous linewidth of optical transitions arise due to dipole-dipole interactions between identical atoms, in superpositions of the ground and excited states. Absolute absorption spectra were recorded with deviation of 0.1% between experiment and a theory incorporating resonant dipole-dipole interactions. The manifestation of dipole-dipole interactions is a self-broadening contribution to the homogeneous linewidth, which grows linearly with number density of atoms. Analysis of the absolute absorption spectra allow us to ascertain the value of the self-broadening coefficient for the rubidium D1 line: \\beta/2\\pi = (0.69 \\pm 0.04) \\times 10^-7 Hz cm^3, in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  15. The INES System; 2, Ripple Correction and Absolute Calibration for IUE High Resolution Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Cassatella, A; González-Riestra, R; Ponz, J D; Barbero, J F G; Talavera, A; Wamsteker, W

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we document the results of the study which led to the ripple correction and absolute calibration algorithms applied to the high resolution spectra processed with the NEWSIPS software for the Final Archive of the IUE Project. In this analysis, based on a very large number of spectra, we find that both K and the alpha parameters (not only the former as previously believed) vary with order number. This fact, together with the finding that the central peaks of the blaze function vary also as a function of the THDA temperature (for the SWP camera) and of the date of observations (for the LWP and LWR cameras), makes the ripple correction algorithm more complex than previously considered but, at the same time, considerably more reliable. As for the high resolution absolute calibration, the method followed is similar to the one implemented in IUESIPS. The internal accuracy of the high resolution calibration is about 4%. We note that the ripple correction and absolute calibration algorithms here describe...

  16. Absolute and relative emissions analysis in practical combustion systems—effect of water vapor condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J. P.; Mollendorf, J. C.; DesJardin, P. E.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of the absolute combustion gas composition is necessary in the automotive, aircraft, processing, heating and air conditioning industries where emissions reduction is a major concern. Those industries use a variety of sensor technologies. Many of these sensors are used to analyze the gas by pumping a sample through a system of tubes to reach a remote sensor location. An inherent characteristic with this type of sampling strategy is that the mixture state changes as the sample is drawn towards the sensor. Specifically, temperature and humidity changes can be significant, resulting in a very different gas mixture at the sensor interface compared with the in situ location (water vapor dilution effect). Consequently, the gas concentrations obtained from remotely sampled gas analyzers can be significantly different than in situ values. In this study, inherent errors associated with sampled combustion gas concentration measurements are explored, and a correction methodology is presented to determine the absolute gas composition from remotely measured gas species concentrations. For in situ (wet) measurements a heated zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) oxygen sensor (Bosch LSU 4.9) is used to measure the absolute oxygen concentration. This is used to correct the remotely sampled (dry) measurements taken with an electrochemical sensor within the remote analyzer (Testo 330-2LL). In this study, such a correction is experimentally validated for a specified concentration of carbon monoxide (5020 ppmv).

  17. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  18. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  19. Fabrication of capacitive absolute pressure sensors by thin film vacuum encapsulation on SOI substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, Luca; Mancarella, Fulvio; Roncaglia, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of absolute capacitive pressure sensors fabricated by polysilicon low-pressure chemical vapour deposition vacuum packaging on silicon-on-insulator substrates. The fabrication process proposed is carried out at wafer level and allows obtaining a large number of miniaturized sensors per substrate on 1  ×  2 mm2 chips with high yield. The sensors present average pressure sensitivity of 8.3 pF/bar and average pressure resolution limit of 0.24 mbar within the measurement range 200-1200 mbar. The temperature drift of the sensor prototypes was also measured in the temperature range 25-45 °C, yielding an average temperature sensitivity of 67 fF K-1 at ambient pressure.

  20. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  1. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  2. Improved Absolute Radiometric Calibration of a UHF Airborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Elaine; Hawkins, Brian P.; Harcke, Leif; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Michel, Thierry R.; Moreira, Laila; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Shimada, Joanne G.; Tham, Kean W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The AirMOSS airborne SAR operates at UHF and produces fully polarimetric imagery. The AirMOSS radar data are used to produce Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) depth profiles. The absolute radiometric accuracy of the imagery, ideally of better than 0.5 dB, is key to retrieving RZSM, especially in wet soils where the backscatter as a function of soil moisture function tends to flatten out. In this paper we assess the absolute radiometric uncertainty in previously delivered data, describe a method to utilize Built In Test (BIT) data to improve the radiometric calibration, and evaluate the improvement from applying the method.

  3. Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor (AESSIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kuehne, M.; Kock, M.

    1988-01-01

    AESSIM, the Absolute, Extreme-Ultraviolet, Solar Spectral Irradiance Monitor, is designed to measure the absolute solar spectral irradiance at extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. The data are required for studies of the processes that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere and for predictions of atmospheric drag on space vehicles. AESSIM is comprised of sun-pointed spectrometers and newly-developed, secondary standards of spectral irradiance for the EUV. Use of the in-orbit standard sources will eliminate the uncertainties caused by changes in spectrometer efficiency that have plagued all previous measurements of the solar spectral EUV flux.

  4. Properties of Absolute Stability in the Presence of Time Lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the properties of absolute stability independent of the delays of time-delay systems, possessing non commensurate internal point delays, for any nonlinearity satisfying a Popov’s- type time positivity inequality. That property holds if an associate delay-free system is absolutely stable and the size of the delayed dynamics is sufficiently small. The results are obtained for nonlinearities belonging to sectors [0, k] and [h, k+h], and are based on a parabola test type.

  5. Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.

  6. Absolute cross-sections from X-{gamma} coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemasson, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Shrivastava, A. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Navin, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: navin@ganil.fr; Rejmund, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Nanal, V. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhattacharyya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.; Mahata, K.; Parkar, V.V. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Ramachandran, K.; Rout, P.C. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2009-01-11

    An activation technique using coincidences between characteristic X-rays and {gamma}-rays to obtain absolute cross-sections is described. This method is particularly useful in the case of nuclei that decay by electron capture. In addition to the reduction of possible contamination, an improved detection sensitivity is achieved as compared to inclusive measurements, thereby allowing the extraction of absolute fusion cross-sections in the nano-barn range. Results of this technique for {sup 6}Li+{sup 198}Pt system, at energies around the Coulomb barrier are described. Future applications with low intensity radioactive ion beams are also discussed.

  7. Total Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of the Marine Norditerpenoid Xestenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Miyaoka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Xestenone is a marine norditerpenoid found in the northeastern Pacific sponge Xestospongia vanilla. The relative configuration of C-3 and C-7 in xestenone was determined by NOESY spectral analysis. However the relative configuration of C-12 and the absolute configuration of this compound were not determined. The authors have now achieved the total synthesis of xestenone using their developed one-pot synthesis of cyclopentane derivatives employing allyl phenyl sulfone and an epoxy iodide as a key step. The relative and absolute configurations of xestenone were thus successfully determined by this synthesis.

  8. Absolute zero and the conquest of cold and the conquest of cold

    CERN Document Server

    Shachtman, Tom

    2000-01-01

    In a sweeping yet marvelously concise history, Tom Shachtman ushers us into a world in which scientists tease apart the all-important secrets of cold. Readers take an extraordinary trip, starting in the 1600s with an alchemist's air conditioning of Westminster Abbey and scientists' creation of thermometers. Later, while entrepreneurs sold Walden Pond ice to tropical countries -- packed in ""high-tech"" sawdust -- researchers pursued absolute zero and interpreted their work as romantically as did adventurers to remote regions. Today, playing with ultracold temperatures is one of the hottest fro

  9. Measurement of the Absolute Hohlraum Wall Albedo Under Ignition Foot Drive Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O S; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Campbell, K M; Dewald, E L; Hammel, B A; Kauffman, R L; Landen, O L; Rosen, M D; Wallace, R J; Weber, F A

    2003-08-26

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  10. Measurement of the absolute hohlraum wall albedo under ignition foot drive conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, L J; Wallace, R J; Hammel, B A; Weber, F A; Landen, O L; Campbell, K M; DeWald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Rosen, M D; Jones, O S; Turner, R E; Kauffmann, R L; Hammer, J H

    2003-11-25

    We present the first measurements of the absolute albedos of hohlraums made from gold or from high-Z mixtures. The measurements are performed over the range of radiation temperatures (70-100 eV) expected during the foot of an indirect-drive temporally-shaped ignition laser pulse, where accurate knowledge of the wall albedo (i.e. soft x-ray wall re-emission) is most critical for determining capsule radiation symmetry. We find that the gold albedo agrees well with calculations using the super transition array opacity model, potentially providing additional margin for ICF ignition.

  11. Absolute Helmholtz free energy of highly anharmonic crystals: theory vs Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakub, Lydia; Yakub, Eugene

    2012-04-14

    We discuss the problem of the quantitative theoretical prediction of the absolute free energy for classical highly anharmonic solids. Helmholtz free energy of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) crystal is calculated accurately while accounting for both the anharmonicity of atomic vibrations and the pair and triple correlations in displacements of the atoms from their lattice sites. The comparison with most precise computer simulation data on sublimation and melting lines revealed that theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulation data in the whole range of temperatures and densities studied.

  12. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between the comple......In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between...

  13. Negation in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳

    2016-01-01

    Every language has its own unique ways of negation and English is no exception. More importance should be attached to when a negative English sentence is translated into its Chinese equivalent. Negation in English can be realized in many differ-ent ways. In the first place, the different types of negation in English will be analyzed. In addition, the affixes and lexicons used to denote negation will be investigated. The last part is mainly concerning the idioms and other expressions which denote nega-tive meanings. In order to make the views much more clearly, some Chinese equivalents of the English sentences will be offered here.

  14. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  15. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  16. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn. J

  17. Confirmation of the absolute configuration of (−)-aurantioclavine

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-04-01

    We confirm our previous assignment of the absolute configuration of (-)-aurantioclavine as 7R by crystallographically characterizing an advanced 3-bromoindole intermediate reported in our previous synthesis. This analysis also provides additional support for our model of enantioinduction in the palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ophthalmoplegic migraine. Two patients with an absolute response to indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, J A; Churruca, J; de la Casa Fages, B; de Silanes, C López; Sánchez, C; Barriga, F J

    2010-06-01

    Two patients suffering from ophthalmoplegic migraine had a strictly unilateral headache absolutely responsive to indomethacin, but not to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics or corticosteroids. Such observations raise a therapeutic alternative and suggest that ophthalmoplegic migraine may present with different headache phenotypes.

  19. Partial sums of arithmetical functions with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAJYOTI SAHA

    2016-08-01

    For an arithmetical function $f$ with absolutely convergent Ramanujan expansion, we derive an asymptotic formula for the $\\sum_{n\\leq N}$ f(n)$ with explicit error term. As a corollary we obtain new results about sum-of-divisors functions and Jordan’s totient functions.

  20. On absolute stability of nonlinear systems with small delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gil

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear nonautonomous retarded systems with separated autonomous linear parts and continuous nonlinear ones are considered. It is assumed that deviations of the argument are sufficiently small. Absolute stability conditions are derived. They are formulated in terms of eigenvalues of auxiliary matrices.

  1. Urey: to measure the absolute age of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J. E.; Plescia, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bartlett, P.; Bickler, D.; Carlson, R.; Carr, G.; Fong, M.; Gronroos, H.; Guske, P. J.; hide

    2003-01-01

    UREY, a proposed NASA Mars Scout mission will, for the first time, measure the absolute age of an identified igneous rock formation on Mars. By extension to relatively older and younger rock formations dated by remote sensing, these results will enable a new and better understanding of Martian geologic history.

  2. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  3. Absolute configuration and antiprotozoal activity of minquartynoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H B; Christensen, Søren Brøgger; Kvist, L P;

    2000-01-01

    Minquartynoic acid (1) was isolated as an antimalarial and antileishmanial constituent of the Peruvian tree Minquartia guianensis and its absolute configuration at C-17 established to be (+)-S through conversion to the known (+)-(S)-17-hydroxystearic acid (2) and confirmed using Mosher's method....

  4. Individual Differences in Absolute and Relative Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Ruth H.; Shields, Micheal; Wheeler, Amanda Easton; Zacchilli, Tammy Lowery

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated absolute and relative metacomprehension accuracy as a function of verbal ability in college students. Students read hard texts, revised texts, or a mixed set of texts. They then predicted their performance, took a multiple-choice test on the texts, and made posttest judgments about their performance. With hard texts,…

  5. Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Brisbane, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Caicedo Carvajal, J M; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Eames, C; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; d'Enterria, D G; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hofmann, W; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koblitz, S; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kukulak, S; Kumar, R; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Luisier, J; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nardulli, J; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Nies, S; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B; Palacios, J; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilar, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skottowe, H P; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Styles, N; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vervink, K; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wacker, K; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Absolute luminosity measurements are of general interest for colliding-beam experiments at storage rings. These measurements are necessary to determine the absolute cross-sections of reaction processes and are valuable to quantify the performance of the accelerator. LHCb has applied two methods to determine the absolute scale of its luminosity measurements for proton-proton collisions at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In addition to the classic ``van der Meer scan'' method a novel technique has been developed which makes use of direct imaging of the individual beams using beam-gas and beam-beam interactions. This beam imaging method is made possible by the high resolution of the LHCb vertex detector and the close proximity of the detector to the beams, and allows beam parameters such as positions, angles and widths to be determined. The results of the two methods have comparable precision and are in good agreement. Combining the two methods, an overall precision of 3.5\\% in the absolute lumi...

  6. Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prem Chandra

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.

  7. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Rigoberto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the "freezing" technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  8. Absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients of trans-Neptunian objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Candal, A; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Santos-Sanz, P; Thirouin, A; Silva, J S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Accurate measurements of diameters of trans-Neptunian objects are extremely complicated to obtain. Thermal modeling can provide good results, but accurate absolute magnitudes are needed to constrain the thermal models and derive diameters and geometric albedos. The absolute magnitude, Hv, is defined as the magnitude of the object reduced to unit helio- and geocentric distances and a zero solar phase angle and is determined using phase curves. Phase coefficients can also be obtained from phase curves. These are related to surface properties, yet not many are known. Aims: Our objective is to measure accurate V band absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients for a sample of trans-Neptunian objects, many of which have been observed, and modeled, within the 'TNOs are cool' program, one of Herschel Space Observatory key projects. Methods: We observed 56 objects using the V and R filters. These data, along with those available in the literature, were used to obtain phase curves and measure V band absolute m...

  9. The harmonic force field and absolute infrared intensities of diacetylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Th.; Visser, T.; Smit, W.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The frequencies, harmonic force field and absolute IR intensities for C4H2 and C4D2 are reported. The experimental harmonized frequencies obey the Teller—Redlich product rule very well. An approximate harmonic force field was obtained from a refinement procedure in which the starting values are adj

  10. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  11. Two methods for absolute calibration of dynamic pressure transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G. W.; Migliori, A.; Garrett, S. L.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1982-12-01

    Two techniques are described for absolute calibration of a dynamic pressure transducer from 0 to 400 Hz in 1-MPa helium gas. One technique is based on a comparison to a mercury manometer; the other is based on the principle of reciprocity. The two techniques agree within the instrumental uncertainties of 1%.

  12. Absolute measurement of detector quantum efficiency using parametric downconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, J G; Ridley, K D; Tapster, P R

    1987-11-01

    We show that a parametric downconversion crystal emitting angle resolved coincident photon pairs can be used to measure the absolute quantum efficiency of a photon counting detection system. We have measured the quantum efficiency of a silicon avalanche photodiode, operated in Geiger mode, as a function of operating voltage and compare this to results obtained using a conventional method.

  13. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    2015-01-01

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of h

  14. Absolute measurements of chlorine Cl+ cation single photoionization cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, E. M.; Juarez, A. M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Aguilar, A.; Hernandez, L.; Antillon, A.; Macaluso, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Gonzalez-Magana, O.; Hanstorp, D.; Covington, A. M.; Davis, V.; Calabrese, D.; Hinojosa, G.

    The photoionization of Cl+ leading to Cl2+ was measured in the photon energy range of 19.5-28.0 eV. A spectrum with a photon energy resolution of 15 meV normalized to absolute cross-section measurements is presented. The measurements were carried out by merging a Cl+ ion beam with a photon beam of

  15. Absolute configurations of zingiberenols isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sesquiterpene alcohol zingiberenol, or 1,10-bisaboladien-3-ol, was isolated some time ago from ginger, Zingiber officinale, rhizomes, but its absolute configuration had not been determined. With three chiral centers present in the molecule, zingiberenol can exist in eight stereoisomeric forms. ...

  16. Toward The Absolute Age of M92 With MIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie; Dotter, Aaron; Weisz, Daniel; Rosenfield, Philip; Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Globular clusters provide a fundamental link between stars and galaxies. For example, it has been suggested that ultra faint dwarf galaxies formed all of their stars prior to the epoch of reionization, but this conclusion hinges entirely on the striking similarity of their stellar populations to the ancient, metal-poor globular cluster M92. The accurate measurement of absolute ages of ancient globular clusters therefore has direct implications for the formation histories of the smallest galaxies in the Universe. However, a reliable determination of the absolute ages of globular clusters has proven to be a challenge due to uncertainties in stellar physics and complications in how the models are compared to observations. I will present preliminary results from a comprehensive study to measure the absolute age of M92 using high-quality HST archival imaging data. We pair our new MESA Isochrones and Stellar Tracks (MIST) models with a full CMD fitting framework to jointly fit multi-color CMDs, taking into account the uncertainties in abundances, distance, and stellar physics. The goal of this project is two-fold. First, we aim to provide the most secure absolute age of M92 to date with robustly estimated uncertainties. Second, we explore and quantify the degeneracies between uncertain physical quantities and model variables, such as the distance, mixing-length-alpha parameter, and helium abundance, with the ultimate goal of better constraining these unknowns with data from ongoing and future surveys such as K2, Gaia, TESS, JWST, and WFIRST.

  17. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  18. Computability of Homology for Compact Absolute Neighbourhood Retracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Collins (Pieter); A. Bauer; P. Hertling; K.-I. Ko

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we discuss the information needed to compute the homology groups of a topological space. We argue that the natural class of spaces to consider are the compact absolute neighbourhood retracts, since for these spaces the homology groups are finite. We show that we need to

  19. Absolute Quantification Using Turbo Spectroscopic Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwihapsari, Yanurita; Mostert, J. P.; Hoogduin, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the drawbacks of scanning patients using multiple-voxel spectroscopic imaging is the long acquisition time. This is especially true when one is interested in obtaining absolute metabolite concentrations which requires acquisition of unsuppressed water spectra in addition to the suppressed

  20. Fabricating the absolute fake: America in contemporary pop culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Onze wereld wordt gedomineerd door de Amerikaanse popcultuur. Fabricating the Absolute Fake onderzoekt de dynamiek van Amerikanisering aan de hand van hedendaagse films, televisieprogramma's en popsterren die reflecteren op de vraag wat het betekent om Amerikaan in een mondiale popcultuur te zijn.

  1. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate...

  2. Four Years of Absolute Gravity in the Taiwan Orogen (AGTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Kao, Ricky; Hsieh, Nicky

    2010-05-01

    AGTO is a scientific project between Taiwanese and French institutes, which aim is to improve tectonic knowledge of Taiwan primarily using absolute gravity measurements and permanent GPS stations. Both tools are indeed useful to study vertical movements and mass transfers involved in mountain building, a major process in Taiwan located at the convergent margin between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. This convergence results in two subductions north and south of Taiwan (Ryukyu and Manilla trenches, respectively), while the center is experiencing collision. These processes make Taiwan very active tectonically, as illustrated by numerous large earthquakes and rapid uplift of the Central Range. High slopes of Taiwan mountains and heavy rains brought by typhoons together lead to high landslides and mudflows risks. Practically, absolute gravity measurements have been yearly repeated since 2006 along a transect across south Taiwan, from Penghu to Lutao islands, using FG5 absolute gravimeters. This transect contains ten sites for absolute measurements and has been densified in 2008 by incorporating 45 sites for relative gravity measurements with CG5 gravimeters. The last relative and absolute measurements have been performed in November 2009. Most of the absolute sites have been measured with a good accuracy, about 1 or 2 ?Gal. Only the site located in Tainan University has higher standard deviation, due to the city noise. We note that absolute gravity changes seem to follow a trend in every site. However, straightforward tectonic interpretation of these trends is not valuable as many non-tectonic effects are supposed to change g with time, like groundwater or erosion. Estimating and removing these effects leads to a tectonic gravity signal, which has theoretically two origins : deep mass transfers around the site and vertical movements of the station. The latter can be well constrained by permanent GPS stations located close to the measurement pillar. Deep mass

  3. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  4. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  5. The PMA Catalogue: 420 million positions and absolute proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, V. S.; Fedorov, P. N.; Velichko, A. B.; Shulga, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a catalogue that contains about 420 million absolute proper motions of stars. It was derived from the combination of positions from Gaia DR1 and 2MASS, with a mean difference of epochs of about 15 yr. Most of the systematic zonal errors inherent in the 2MASS Catalogue were eliminated before deriving the absolute proper motions. The absolute calibration procedure (zero-pointing of the proper motions) was carried out using about 1.6 million positions of extragalactic sources. The mean formal error of the absolute calibration is less than 0.35 mas yr-1. The derived proper motions cover the whole celestial sphere without gaps for a range of stellar magnitudes from 8 to 21 mag. In the sky areas where the extragalactic sources are invisible (the avoidance zone), a dedicated procedure was used that transforms the relative proper motions into absolute ones. The rms error of proper motions depends on stellar magnitude and ranges from 2-5 mas yr-1 for stars with 10 mag mas yr-1 for faint ones. The present catalogue contains the Gaia DR1 positions of stars for the J2015 epoch. The system of the PMA proper motions does not depend on the systematic errors of the 2MASS positions, and in the range from 14 to 21 mag represents an independent realization of a quasi-inertial reference frame in the optical and near-infrared wavelength range. The Catalogue also contains stellar magnitudes taken from the Gaia DR1 and 2MASS catalogues. A comparison of the PMA proper motions of stars with similar data from certain recent catalogues has been undertaken.

  6. Absolute V-R colors of trans-Neptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Ayala-Loera, Carmen; Ortiz, Jose-Luis; Duffard, Rene; Estela, Fernandez-Valenzuela; Santos-Sanz, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The absolute magnitude of a minor body is the apparent magnitude that the body would have if observed from the Sun at a distance of 1AU. Absolute magnitudes are measured using phase curves, showing the change of the magnitude, normalized to unit helio and geo-centric distance, vs. phase angle. The absolute magnitude is then the Y-intercept of the curve. Absolute magnitudes are related to the total reflecting surface of the body and thus bring information of its size, coupled with the reflecting properties.Since 2011 our team has been collecting data from several telescopes spread in Europe and South America. We complemented our data with those available in the literature in order to construct phase curves of trans-Neptunian objects with at least three points. In a first release (Alvarez-Candal et al. 2016, A&A, 586, A155) we showed results for 110 trans-Neptunian objects using V magnitudes only, assuming an overall linear trend and taking into consideration rotational effects, for objects with known light-curves.In this contribution we show results for more than 130 objects, about 100 of them with phase curves in two filters: V and R. We compute absolute magnitudes and phase coefficients in both filters, when available. The average values are HV = 6.39 ± 2.37, βV = (0.09 ± 0.32) mag per degree, HR = 5.38 ± 2.30, and βR = (0.08 ± 0.42) mag per degree.

  7. Towards absolute laser spectroscopic CO2 isotope ratio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of isotope composition of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is necessary to identify sources and sinks of this key greenhouse gas. In the last years, laser spectroscopic techniques such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) have been shown to perform accurate isotope ratio measurements for CO2 and other gases like water vapour (H2O) [1,2]. Typically, isotope ratios are reported in literature referring to reference materials provided by e.g. the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, there could be some benefit if field deployable absolute isotope ratio measurement methods were developed to address issues such as exhausted reference material like the Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) standard. Absolute isotope ratio measurements would be particularly important for situations where reference materials do not even exist. Here, we present CRDS and TDLAS-based absolute isotope ratios (13C/12C ) in atmospheric CO2. We demonstrate the capabilities of the used methods by measuring CO2 isotope ratios in gas standards. We compare our results to values reported for the isotope certified gas standards. Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant uncertainty budgets on the CRDS and TDLAS absolute isotope ratio measurements are presented, and traceability is addressed. We outline the current impediments in realizing high accuracy absolute isotope ratio measurements using laser spectroscopic methods, propose solutions and the way forward. Acknowledgement Parts of this work have been carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project-HIGHGAS. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union. References [1] B. Kühnreich, S. Wagner, J. C. Habig,·O. Möhler, H. Saathoff, V. Ebert, Appl. Phys. B 119:177-187 (2015). [2] E. Kerstel, L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439-449 (2008).

  8. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  9. Networks of Absolute Calibration Stars for SST, AKARI, and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.

    2007-04-01

    I describe the Cohen-Walker-Witteborn (CWW) network of absolute calibration stars built to support ground-based, airborne, and space-based sensors, and how they are used to calibrate instruments on the SPITZER Space Telescope (SST and Japan's AKARI (formerly ASTRO-F), and to support NASA's planned MidEx WISE (the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer). All missions using this common calibration share a self-consistent framework embracing photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy. CWW also underpins COBE/DIRBE several instruments used on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory ({KAO}), the joint Japan-USA ``IR Telescope in Space" (IRTS) Near-IR and Mid-IR spectrometers, the European Space Agency's IR Space Observatory (ISO), and the US Department of Defense's Midcourse Space eXperiment (MSX). This calibration now spans the far-UV to mid-infrared range with Sirius (one specific Kurucz synthetic spectrum) as basis, and zero magnitude defined from another Kurucz spectrum intended to represent an ideal Vega (not the actual star with its pole-on orientation and mid-infrared dust excess emission). Precision 4-29 μm radiometric measurements on MSX validate CWW's absolute Kurucz spectrum of Sirius, the primary, and a set of bright K/MIII secondary standards. Sirius is measured to be 1.0% higher than predicted. CWW's definitions of IR zero magnitudes lie within 1.1% absolute of MSX measurements. The US Air Force Research Laboratory's independent analysis of on-orbit {MSX} stellar observations compared with emissive reference spheres show CWW primary and empirical secondary spectra lie well within the ±1.45% absolute uncertainty associated with this 15-year effort. Our associated absolute calibration for the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the SST lies within ˜2% of the recent extension of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS instrument to NICMOS (Bohlin, these Proceedings), showing the closeness of these two independent approaches to calibration.

  10. Risk factor modification and projections of absolute breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Gail, Mitchell H

    2011-07-06

    Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions.

  11. The Impact of Different Absolute Solar Irradiance Values on Current Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David H.; Lean, Judith L.; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of the preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model 3 using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value: a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and a lower value measured recently by the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Each of the model simulations is adjusted to achieve global energy balance; without this adjustment the difference in irradiance produces a global temperature change of 0.48C, comparable to the cooling estimated for the Maunder Minimum. The results indicate that by altering cloud cover the model properly compensates for the different absolute solar irradiance values on a global level when simulating both preindustrial and doubled CO2 climates. On a regional level, the preindustrial climate simulations and the patterns of change with doubled CO2 concentrations are again remarkably similar, but there are some differences. Using a higher absolute solar irradiance value and the requisite cloud cover affects the model's depictions of high-latitude surface air temperature, sea level pressure, and stratospheric ozone, as well as tropical precipitation. In the climate change experiments it leads to an underestimation of North Atlantic warming, reduced precipitation in the tropical western Pacific, and smaller total ozone growth at high northern latitudes. Although significant, these differences are typically modest compared with the magnitude of the regional changes expected for doubled greenhouse gas concentrations. Nevertheless, the model simulations demonstrate that achieving the highest possible fidelity when simulating regional climate change requires that climate models use as input the most accurate (lower) solar irradiance value.

  12. Quantifying absolute spin polarization with non-magnetic contacts in FM/ n-GaAs heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Chad; Wienkes, Lee; Christie, Kevin; Patel, Sahil; Palmstrøm, Chris; Crowell, Paul

    2014-03-01

    We report on a novel method of quantifying spin accumulation in Co2MnSi/ n-GaAs and Fe/ n-GaAs heterostructures using a non-magnetic probe. The presence of a non-equilibrium spin polarization generates a large electrostatic potential shift relative to the equilibrium state. This is due to the combination of (1) the parabolic (non-constant) density of states and (2) the population imbalance between the two spin sub-bands. We observe this shift as a Hanle effect in a non-local, non-magnetic semiconducting contact. Since this signal depends only on experimentally accessible parameters of the bulk semiconductor, its magnitude may be used to quantify the injected spin polarization in absolute terms. By comparison with the (smaller) spin-valve signal observed with a second ferromagnetic contact, we demonstrate that this electrostatic shift scales quadratically with spin polarization, dephases in the presence of both applied and hyperfine fields, and is observable to higher temperatures than traditional non-local measurements. Quantitative modeling allows extraction of absolute polarizations in excess of 50 % at low temperatures, and further indicates that this contribution constitutes a large fraction of the three-terminal signal observed in these devices. Supported by NSF DMR-1104951; by STARnet, a SRC program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; and by the NSF MRSEC program.

  13. First absolutely calibrated on-axis ion flow measurements in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, B.; Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nishizawa, T.; Nornberg, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    Improvements in absolute calibration techniques allow for the first direct measurements of the flow profile in the core of MST. We use both active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy and passive emission near 343 nm to measure ion temperature and flow. It is generally assumed that O VI is the brightest passive emission source. However, we show that there are cases, such as high temperature, pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) plasmas where the passive emission is dominated by C VI. Differences in the fine structure for O VI and C VI result in a systematic velocity error of about 12 km/s if the wrong model is assumed. Active measurements, however, are relatively insensitive to background model choice. The dominant source of error in active velocity measurements remains the systematic errors in calibration. The first absolutely calibrated, localized toroidal velocity measurements were obtained using an updated calibration technique. During PPCD, the on-axis ion flow is up to 40 km/s larger than both the n = 6 mode velocity and the line-averaged ion velocity. These measurements provide the first direct look at the flow profile in the core of MST. This work has been supported by the US DOE and the Wheaton College summer research program.

  14. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  15. FIRAS optical alignment and performance during vibration qualification and cryogenic cycling. [Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John G.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is designed to investigate the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR), that permeates the universe as a consequence of the Big Bang. This 3 degree Kelvin radiation is a fossil that contains much information about the early universe. The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), will investigate the spectral isotropy of this ancient remnant and look for clues as to the subsequent evolution of the universe. The instrument is a cryogenically cooled, modified Michelson interferometer which operates in the 1 cm to 100 micron wavelength range. FIRAS is designed to provide absolute spectral information, therefore, all possible perturbations to the instrument response must be investigated to minimize distortions of the data. This paper discusses the methodology and resultant variations in the instrument performance noted during room temperature, and liquid nitrogen, (LN2) temperature vibration qualification. Reference alignment shifts in critical components such as the instrument wire-grid beamsplitter are correlated to changes in the instrument spectral response.

  16. Determination of the Absolute Luminosity at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    White, Simon Mathieu; Puzo, P

    2010-01-01

    For particle colliders, the most important performance parameters are the beam energy and the luminosity. High energies allow the particle physics experiments to study and observe new effects. The luminosity describes the ability of the collider to produce the required number of useful interactions or events. It is defined as the proportionality factor between the event rate, measured by the experiments, and the cross section of the observed event which describes its probability to occur. The absolute knowledge of the luminosity therefore allows for the experiments to measure the absolute cross sections. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was designed to produce proton proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. This energy would be the highest ever reached in a particle accelerator. The knowledge and understanding of particle physics at such high energy is based on simulations and theoretical predictions. As opposed to e+ e- colliders, for which the Bhabba scattering cross section can be accurately ...

  17. Absolute configuration of labdane diterpenoids from Physalis nicandroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Emma; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L; Romero, Yunuen; Martínez, Mahinda

    2015-02-27

    A mixture of the new epimeric labdenetriols 1 and 2 was isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis nicandroides. The structures of 1 and 2, including their absolute configurations, were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data, together with the X-ray diffraction analysis of acetonide 3 and chemical correlation with (-)-(13E)-labd-13-ene-8α,15-diol (6), whose absolute configuration was also confirmed by X-ray analysis of its dibromo derivative 7. The epimeric labdenediols 8 and 9, the known labdanes 6 and 11, and the acylsucroses 12 and 13 were also isolated. Labdanes 6 and 11 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities in the induced ear edema model.

  18. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  19. Absolute limit on rotation of gravitationally bound stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, N. K.

    1994-03-01

    The authors seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass-shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M = 1.442 solar mass neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). If the limit were found to be broken by any pulsar, it would signal that the confined hadronic phase of ordinary nucleons and nuclei is only metastable.

  20. Absolute Stability for Lurie Control System with Unbound Time Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天成; 王耀才; 洪留荣

    2004-01-01

    Time delay existes widely in various real engineering systems and can result in unsatisfactory performance or even an instability of control systems. Therefore, to investigate the stability for time delay systems is of vitul importance in control theory and its applications. Many researchers have studied the stability criteria of systems with constant delay or bound varying time delay, but few of them studied large time delay or unbound time delay. Large time delay existes commonly in various engineering applications. In this paper, the absolute stability of Lurie type direct control systems and indirect control systems with several time delays are discussed. Based on Lyapunov theory, the new delay dependent absolute stability criteria are derived. In our theorem, time delays can be unbound functions, which shows that the results are less conservative than that of existed criteria.

  1. Absolute quantification methods in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, Steven J.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Nahid, K.; Cope, Mark; Delpy, David T.

    1995-05-01

    Recent work aimed at providing an absolute measurement of tissue haemoglobin saturation and a new instrument development, the spatially resolved spectrometer (SRS), are discussed. The theoretical basis of operation of this device and its hardware implementation are described and the results of validation studies on tissue simulating phantoms are presented as are preliminary measurements on human volunteers and observations on patients undergoing neurosurgery. In its present form the instrument appears to produce absolute haemoglobin saturation values for resting human skeletal muscle and the normally perfused human head which are rather low based on physiological expectations. However, we obtained a tight correlation between the saturation values measured by the SRS instrument and those obtained from blood-gas analysis of samples drawn from a jugular bulb catheter in one neurosurgery subject during clamping of the right carotid arteries.

  2. Self consistent, absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, A; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Genovese, M; Gramegna, M; Lolli, L; Monticone, E; Portesi, C; Rajteri, M; Rastello, M L; Taralli, E; Traina, P; White, M

    2011-11-07

    Well characterized photon number resolving detectors are a requirement for many applications ranging from quantum information and quantum metrology to the foundations of quantum mechanics. This prompts the necessity for reliable calibration techniques at the single photon level. In this paper we propose an innovative absolute calibration technique for photon number resolving detectors, using a pulsed heralded photon source based on parametric down conversion. The technique, being absolute, does not require reference standards and is independent upon the performances of the heralding detector. The method provides the results of quantum efficiency for the heralded detector as a function of detected photon numbers. Furthermore, we prove its validity by performing the calibration of a Transition Edge Sensor based detector, a real photon number resolving detector that has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in various quantum information protocols.

  3. Simultaneously improving the sensitivity and absolute accuracy of CPT magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shang-Qing; Yang, Guo-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Chen, Zheng-Xiang

    2014-03-24

    A new method to improve the sensitivity and absolute accuracy simultaneously for coherent population trapping (CPT) magnetometer based on the differential detection method is presented. Two modulated optical beams with orthogonal circular polarizations are applied, in one of which two magnetic resonances are excited simultaneously by modulating a 3.4GHz microwave with Larmor frequency. When a microwave frequency shift is introduced, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each beam shows a low noise resonance. The sensitivity of 2pT/Hz @ 10Hz is achieved. Meanwhile, the absolute accuracy of ± 0.5nT within the magnetic field ranging from 20000nT to 100000nT is realized.

  4. Absolute configuration assignment of (+)-fluralaner using vibrational circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, John; Joyce, Leo A; Liu, Jinchu; Jarrell, Tiffany M; Culberson, J Chris; Sherer, Edward C

    2017-10-05

    The absolute configurations of the separated enantiomers of fluralaner, a racemic animal health product used to prevent fleas and ticks, have been assigned using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The crystallographic structure of the active enantiomer (+)-fluralaner has previously been shown to have the (S) configuration using small molecule crystallography. We sought a faster analytical method to determine the absolute configuration of the separated enantiomers. When comparing the measured IR (infrared) and VCD spectra, it is apparent that the amide carbonyl groups appear in the IR but are nearly absent in the VCD. Computational work to calculate the VCD and IR using in vacuo models, implicit solvation, and explicitly solvated complexes has implicated conformational averaging of the carbonyl VCD intensities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Automated absolute phase retrieval in across-track interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed is a key element in the processing of topographic radar maps acquired by the NASA/JPL airborne synthetic aperture radar configured as an across-track interferometer (TOPSAR). TOPSAR utilizes a single transmit and two receive antennas; the three-dimensional target location is determined by triangulation based on a known baseline and two measured slant ranges. The slant range difference is determined very accurately from the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas. This phase is measured modulo 2pi, whereas it is the absolute phase which relates directly to the difference in slant range. It is shown that splitting the range bandwidth into two subbands in the processor and processing each individually allows for the absolute phase. The underlying principles and system errors which must be considered are discussed, together with the implementation and results from processing data acquired during the summer of 1991.

  6. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  7. Demonstrating an absolute quantum advantage in direct absorption measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Moreau, Paul-Antoine; Whittaker, Rebecca; Joshi, Siddarth K; Birchall, Patrick; McMillan, Alex; Rarity, John G; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-01-01

    Engineering apparatus that harness quantum theory offers practical advantages over current technology. A fundamentally more powerful prospect is the long-standing prediction that such quantum technologies could out-perform any future iteration of their classical counterparts, no matter how well the attributes of those classical strategies can be improved. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such an instance of \\textit{absolute} advantage per photon probe in the precision of optical direct absorption measurement. We use correlated intensity measurements of spontaneous parametric downconversion using a commercially available air-cooled CCD, a new estimator for data analysis and a high heralding efficiency photon-pair source. We show this enables improvement in the precision of measurement, per photon probe, beyond what is achievable with an ideal coherent state (a perfect laser) detected with $100\\%$ efficient and noiseless detection. We see this absolute improvement for up to $50\\%$ absorption, with a maximum ...

  8. Combinatorial Selection and Least Absolute Shrinkage via the CLASH Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrillidis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for linear regression exploits the geometric interplay of the $\\ell_2$-data error objective and the $\\ell_1$-norm constraint to arbitrarily select sparse models. Guiding this uninformed selection process with sparsity models has been precisely the center of attention over the last decade in order to improve learning performance. To this end, we alter the selection process of LASSO to explicitly leverage combinatorial sparsity models (CSMs) via the combinatorial selection and least absolute shrinkage (CLASH) operator. We provide concrete guidelines how to leverage combinatorial constraints within CLASH, and characterize CLASH's guarantees as a function of the set restricted isometry constants of the sensing matrix. Finally, our experimental results show that CLASH can outperform both LASSO and model-based compressive sensing in sparse estimation.

  9. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  10. Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y

    2010-01-01

    Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.

  11. Enantiomers of a nonylphenol isomer: absolute configurations and estrogenic potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Oppel, Iris M; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-02-01

    Enantiomers of 4-(1,1,2-trimethylhexyl)phenol, a chiral isomer of the endocrine disrupting chemical nonylphenol, have been resolved and isolated by preparative chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were then determined by an X-ray crystallographic study of the (-)-camphanoyl derivative of the first eluted enantiomer NP(35)E1. The first enantiomer (NP(35)E1) and the second enantiomer (NP(35)E2) eluted were found to have the S and R absolute configurations, respectively. The estrogenic potencies of the S and R enantiomers were tested by the E-screen assay. A slight difference was observed in the relative proliferative effect between the S enantiomer and R enantiomer in the E-screen assay.

  12. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  13. The United States and assassination policy : diluting the absolute

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. has reached a crossroads with its policy regarding assassination. Executive Order 12333, which explicitly and absolutely prohibits assassination, is still in effect. The ban, however, has been diluted and circumvented since its inception. Past administrations have targeted enemy leaders with "indirect" strikes such as the 1986 attacks against Libya and the 1998 missile strikes in Afghanistan and Sudan. Currently, the U.S. deli...

  14. Absolute indoor calibration of large area solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzdorf, J.; Wittchen, T.; Kaase, H.

    1986-11-01

    Equipment for the calibration of reference solar cells which is traceable back to their primary radiometric standards is presented. The apparatus, based on the differential spectral responsivity method is an absolute indoor procedure without reference solar cells, and needs no solar simulator. The method is applicable to all kinds of test devices up to solar cell areas of 10 x 10 cm without any requirements on linearity and spectral responsivity of the cells.

  15. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of the Ds+- meson

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Dragic, J; Fujii, H; Gershon, T; Haba, J; Hazumi, M; Higuchi, T; Igarashi, Y; Itoh, R; Iwasaki, Y; Katayama, N; Kichimi, H; Krokovnyi, P P; Limosani, A; Nakamura, I; Nakao, M; Nakazawa, H; Nishida, S; Nozaki, T; Ozaki, H; Ronga, F J; Saitoh, S; Sakai, Y; Stamen, R; Sumisawa, K; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tanaka, M; Trabelsi, K; Tsuboyama, T; Tsukamoto, T; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Ushiroda, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, J; Hoshi, Y; Neichi, K; Aihara, H; Hastings, N C; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, K; Iwasaki, M; Kakuno, H; Kusaka, A; Nakahama, Y; Tanabe, K; Anipko, D; Arinstein, K; Aulchenko, V; Bedny, I; Bondar, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D A; Gabyshev, N; Kuzmin, A; Poluektov, A; Root, N; Shwartz, B; Sidorov, V; Usov, Yu; Zhilich, V; Aoki, K; Enari, Y; Hara, K; Hayasaka, K; Hokuue, T; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Kishimoto, N; Kozakai, Y; Kubota, T; Miyazaki, Y; Ohshima, T; Okabe, T; Sato, N; Senyo, K; Yoshino, S; Arakawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Miyata, H; Tamura, N; Watanabe, M; Asano, Y; Aso, T; Aushev, T; Bay, A; Hinz, L; Jacoby, C; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Villa, S; Wicht, J; Zürcher, D; Aziz, T; Banerjee, S; Gokhroo, G; Majumder, G; Bahinipati, S; Drutskoy, A; Goldenzweig, P; Kinoshita, K; Kulasiri, R; Sayeed, K; Schwartz, A J; Somov, A; Bakich, A M; Cole, S; McOnie, S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Stöck, H; Varvell, K E; Yabsley, B D; Balagura, V; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Liventsev, D; Medvedeva, T; Mizuk, R; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Tikhomirov, I; Uglov, T; Tian, Y BanX C; Barberio, E; Dalseno, J; Dowd, R; Moloney, G R; Sevior, M E; Taylor, G N; Tse, Y F; Urquijo, P; Barbero, M; Browder, T E; Guler, H; Jones, M; Li, J; Nishimura, K; Olsen, S L; Peters, M; Rorie, J; Sahoo, H; Uchida, K; Varner, G; Belous, K S; Shapkin, M; Sokolov, A; Bitenc, U; Bizjak, I; Fratina, S; Gorisek, A; Pestotnik, R; Staric, M; Zupanc, A; Blyth, S; Chen, A; Chen, W T; Go, A; Hou, S; Kuo, C C; Bozek, A; Kapusta, P; Lesiak, T; Matyja, A; Natkaniec, Z; Ostrowicz, W; Palka, H; Rózanska, M; Wiechczynski, J; Bracko, M; Korpar S; Brodzicka, J; Chang, M C; Kikuchi, N; Mikami, Y; Nagamine, T; Schonmeier, P; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Lee, Y J; Lin, C Y; Lin, S W; Shen, Y T; Tsai, Y T; Ueno, K; Wang, C C; Wang, M Z; Wu, C H; Cheon, B G; Choi, J H; Ha, H; Kang, J S; Won, E; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Park, C W; Park, K S; Chuvikov, A; Garmash, A; Marlow, D; Ziegler, T; Dash, M; Mohapatra, D; Piilonen, L E; Yusa, Y; Fujikawa, M; Hayashii, H; Imoto, A; Kataoka, S U; Miyabayashi, K; Noguchi, S; Krizan, P; Golob, B; Seidl, R; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Hara, T; Heffernan, D; Miyake, H; Hasegawa, Y; Satoyama, N; Takada, N; Nitoh, O; Hoshina, K; Ishino, H; Khan, H R; Kibayashi, A; Mori, T; Ono, S; Watanabe, Y; Iwabuchi, M; Kim, Y J; Liu, Y; Sarangi, T R; Uchida, Y; Kang, J H; Kim, T H; Kwon, Y J; Kurihara, E; Kawai, H; Park, H; Kim, H J; Kim, S K; Lee, J; Lee, S E; Yang He Young; Kumar, R; Singh, J B; Soni, N; Lange, J S; Leder, G; MacNaughton, J; Mandl, F; Mitaroff, W A; Pernicka, M; Schwanda, C; Widhalm, L; Matsumoto, T; Nakagawa, T; Seki, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamamoto, S; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Sakaue, H; Teramoto, Y; Ogawa, A; Shibuya, H; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Sakamoto, H; Wang, C H; Schümann, J; Stanic, S; Xie, Q L; Yuan, Y; Zang, S L; Zhang, C C; Yamashita, Y; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P

    2006-01-01

    The Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+- absolute branching fraction is measured using e+e- -> Ds*+- Ds1-+(2536) events collected by the Belle detector at the KEKB e+e- asymmetric energy collider. Using the ratio of yields when either the Ds1 or Ds* is fully reconstructed, we find Br(Ds+- -> K+-K-+pi+-)= (4.0+-0.4(stat)+-0.4(sys))%.

  16. Diagnostic Application of Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis in Hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Oliveira, L.C.; Dalaqua, L. Jr.

    2004-10-03

    The Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis (ANAA) technique was used to determine element concentrations of Cl and Na in blood of healthy group (male and female blood donators), select from Blood Banks at Sao Paulo city, to provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients. This study permitted to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations.

  17. Absolute Stability of Discrete-Time Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Medina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stability of nonlinear nonautonomous discrete-time systems with delaying arguments, whose linear part has slowly varying coefficients, and the nonlinear part has linear majorants. Based on the “freezing” technique to discrete-time systems, we derive explicit conditions for the absolute stability of the zero solution of such systems.

  18. Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    1999-01-01

    When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...

  19. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M.; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Vanden Berk, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ~2600-3300 Å after removing optical light, and u ≈ 3000-4000 Å) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ≈2000-2400 Å). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 Å. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ~1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  20. ABSTRACT FUNCTIONS OF BOUNDED VARIATION AND ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuCongxin; LiuTiefu

    1994-01-01

    As well known that in 1938,I. M. Gelfand firstly introduced abstract functions of bounded variation from [a,b] to a Banach space. After Gelfand's work,many mathematicians investigated various properties and of this kind of abstract functions, and also paid attention to the abstract functions of absolute continuity In this paper, we summarize to explain our work [1-17] about this topic.

  1. Measuring absolute spectral radiance using an Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Sanguinetti, Bruno; Monteiro, Fernando; Gisin, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method to measure the spectral radiance of a source in an absolute way without the need of a reference. Here we give the necessary detail to allow for the device to be reproduced from standard fiber-optic components. The device is suited for fiber-optic applications at telecom wavelengths and calibration of powermeters and spectrometers at light levels from 1nW to 1uW.

  2. Monocular 3D scene reconstruction at absolute scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, Christian; d'Angelo, Pablo; Krüger, Lars; Kuhl, Annika; Groß, Horst-Michael

    In this article we propose a method for combining geometric and real-aperture methods for monocular three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of static scenes at absolute scale. Our algorithm relies on a sequence of images of the object acquired by a monocular camera of fixed focal setting from different viewpoints. Object features are tracked over a range of distances from the camera with a small depth of field, leading to a varying degree of defocus for each feature. Information on absolute depth is obtained based on a Depth-from-Defocus approach. The parameters of the point spread functions estimated by Depth-from-Defocus are used as a regularisation term for Structure-from-Motion. The reprojection error obtained from bundle adjustment and the absolute depth error obtained from Depth-from-Defocus are simultaneously minimised for all tracked object features. The proposed method yields absolutely scaled 3D coordinates of the scene points without any prior knowledge about scene structure and camera motion. We describe the implementation of the proposed method both as an offline and as an online algorithm. Evaluating the algorithm on real-world data, we demonstrate that it yields typical relative scale errors of a few per cent. We examine the influence of random effects, i.e. the noise of the pixel grey values, and systematic effects, caused by thermal expansion of the optical system or by inclusion of strongly blurred images, on the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction result. Possible applications of our approach are in the field of industrial quality inspection; in particular, it is preferable to stereo cameras in industrial vision systems with space limitations or where strong vibrations occur.

  3. Electroweak absolute, meta-, and thermal stability in neutrino mass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Manfred; Patel, Hiren H.; Radovčić, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right-handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  4. Absolute configuration of novel bioactive flavonoids from Tephrosia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Chávez, D; Song, L L; Farnsworth, N R; Pezzuto, J M; Kinghorn, A D

    2000-02-24

    [structure: see text] Three novel flavonoids, (+)-tephrorins A (1) and B (2) and (+)-tephrosone (3), were isolated from Tephrosia purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectral analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 are flavanones containing an unusual tetrahydrofuran moiety. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their potential cancer chemopreventive properties using a cell-based quinone reductase induction assay.

  5. An International Comparison of Absolute Radiant Power Measurement Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Douglas B.

    1990-01-01

    We report the results of an intercomparison of monochromatic radiant power measurement capabilities recently completed by 11 national laboratories. The intercomparison radiometers, distributed in pairs, included an amplifier with six decades of precision gain and one of two types of silicon photodiode (pn or np-type construction). Eleven of the laboratories measured the absolute responsivity of the radiometers at 633 nm and nine at 488 nm. The standard deviation of the overall difference was ...

  6. Electroweak Absolute, Meta-, and Thermal Stability in Neutrino Mass Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Manfred; Radovčić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the electroweak vacuum in neutrino mass models containing right handed neutrinos or fermionic isotriplets. In addition to considering absolute stability, we place limits on the Yukawa couplings of new fermions based on metastability and thermal stability in the early Universe. Our results reveal that the upper limits on the neutrino Yukawa couplings can change significantly when the top quark mass is allowed to vary within the experimental range of uncertainty in its determination.

  7. Crystal structure of meteoritic schreibersites: determination of absolute structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, Ivana

    Minerals of the schreibersite nickelphosphide series (Fe,Ni)3P crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group Ibar 4. As a consequence, they can possess two different spatial arrangements of the constituting atoms within the unit cell, related by the inversion symmetry operation. Here, we present the crystal structure refinements from single crystal X-ray diffraction data for schreibersite grains from iron meteorites Acuña, Carlton, Hex River Mts. (three different crystals), Odessa (two different crystals), Sikhote Alin, and Toluca aiming for the determination of the absolute structure of the examined crystals. The crystals studied cover the composition range from 58 mol% to 80 mol% Fe3P end-member. Unit-cell parameter a and volume of the unit cell V, as well as certain topological structural parameters tightly correlate with Fe3P content. Unit-cell parameter c, on the other hand, does not show such strong correlation. Eight of the nine crystal structure refinements allowed unambiguous absolute structure assignment. The single crystal extracted from Toluca is, however, of poor quality and consequently the structure refinement did not provide as good results as the rest of the materials. Also, this crystal has only weak inversion distinguishing power to provide unequivocal absolute structure determination. Six of the eight unambiguous absolute structure determinations indicated inverted atomic arrangement compared to that reported in earlier structure refinements (here called standard). Only two grains, one taken from Odessa iron and the other from the Hex River Mts. meteorite, reveal the dominance of standard crystal structure setting.

  8. Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A

    2014-03-07

    A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.

  9. Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang

    2008-01-01

    To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.

  10. 灵动的性感 Absolut Volvo C30

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅微芳; 杨洲

    2008-01-01

    <正>绝对伏特加酒(Absolut Vodka)永恒的个性化包装,对每一个人来说都不陌生。短颈圆肩的水晶瓶,独创性地将所有标注Absolut Vodka的文字信息用彩色粗体字体直接印在瓶身,透过完全透明的酒瓶,感触到纯正、净爽、自信的Absolut Vodka。同样来自瑞典经典轿车沃尔沃(Volvo)家族的C30就像斯堪的纳维亚的烈酒一样展现着恒久魅力,为人们的眼球、心境带来激情与渴望的强力冲击,Volvo C30那种灵动的性感气质让钟爱者静静地迷醉其中。

  11. Hyperstereopsis in helmet-mounted NVDs: absolute distance perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Patrick; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Gibbs, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the side of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. The increased separation of the cameras induces hyperstereopsis - the exaggeration of the stereoscopic disparities that support the perception of relative depth around the point of fixation. Increased camera separation may also affect absolute depth perception, because it increases the amount of vergence (crossing) of the eyes required for binocular fusion, and because the differential perspective from the viewpoints of the two eyes is increased. The effect of hyperstereopsis on the perception of absolute distance was investigated using a large-scale stereoscopic display system. A fronto-parallel textured surface was projected at a distance of 6 metres. Three stereoscopic viewing conditions were simulated - hyperstereopsis (four times magnification), normal stereopsis, and hypostereopsis (one quarter magnification). The apparent distance of the surface was measured relative to a grid placed in a virtual "leaf room" that provided rich monocular cues, such as texture gradients and linear perspective, to absolute distance as well as veridical sterescopic disparity cues. The different stereoscopic viewing conditions had no differential effect on the apparent distance of the textured surface at this viewing distance.

  12. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V; Foley, Ryan J; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T; Hoversten, Erik A; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Berk, Daniel Vanden

    2010-01-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby(redshift z = 0.004--0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe~Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way (MW) extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1_rc covering ~2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u ~3000--4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ~2000-2400 A). The uvw1_rc-b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2-uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with ...

  13. The absolute infrared magnitudes of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, W P S

    2000-01-01

    The absolute luminosities and homogeneity of early-time infrared (IR) light curves of type Ia supernovae are examined. Eight supernovae are considered. These are selected to have accurately known epochs of maximum blue light as well as having reliable distance estimates and/or good light curve coverage. Two approaches to extinction correction are considered. Owing to the low extinction in the IR, the differences in the corrections via the two methods are small. Absolute magnitude light curves in the J, H and K-bands are derived. Six of the events, including five established ``Branch-normal'' supernovae show similar coeval magnitudes. Two of these, SNe 1989B and 1998bu, were observed near maximum infrared light. This occurs about 5 days {\\it before} maximum blue light. Absolute peak magnitudes of about -19.0, -18.7 and -18.8 in J, H & K respectively were obtained. The two spectroscopically peculiar supernovae in the sample, SNe 1986G and 1991T, also show atypical IR behaviour. The light curves of the six s...

  14. Son preference in Indian families: absolute versus relative wealth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Sylvestre

    2011-02-01

    The desire for male children is prevalent in India, where son preference has been shown to affect fertility behavior and intrahousehold allocation of resources. Economic theory predicts less gender discrimination in wealthier households, but demographers and sociologists have argued that wealth can exacerbate bias in the Indian context. I argue that these apparently conflicting theories can be reconciled and simultaneously tested if one considers that they are based on two different notions of wealth: one related to resource constraints (absolute wealth), and the other to notions of local status (relative wealth). Using cross-sectional data from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 National Family and Health Surveys, I construct measures of absolute and relative wealth by using principal components analysis. A series of statistical models of son preference is estimated by using multilevel methods. Results consistently show that higher absolute wealth is strongly associated with lower son preference, and the effect is 20%-40% stronger when the household's community-specific wealth score is included in the regression. Coefficients on relative wealth are positive and significant although lower in magnitude. Results are robust to using different samples, alternative groupings of households in local areas, different estimation methods, and alternative dependent variables.

  15. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  16. On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, J; Arqueros, F

    2014-01-01

    The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9+-2.0 ph/MeV for the band at 337 nm in dry air at 800 hPa and 293 K, in agreement with experimental values. We have also performed a critical analysis of available absolute measurements of the fluorescence yield with the assistance of our simulation. Corrections have been applied to some measurements to account for a bias in the evaluation of the energy deposition. Possible effects of other experimental aspects have also been discussed. From this analysis, we determined an average fluorescence yield of 7.04+-0.24 ph/MeV at the above conditions.

  17. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  18. Ocean warming ameliorates the negative effects of ocean acidification on Paracentrotus lividus larval development and settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Eliseba; Clemente, Sabrina; Hernández, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Ocean warming and acidification both impact marine ecosystems. All organisms have a limited body temperature range, outside of which they become functionally constrained. Beyond the absolute extremes of this range, they cannot survive. It is hypothesized that some stressors can present effects that interact with other environmental variables, such as ocean acidification (OA) that have the potential to narrow the thermal range where marine species are functional. An organism's response to ocean acidification can therefore be highly dependent on thermal conditions. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted ocean warming conditions and acidification, on survival, development, and settlement, of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Nine combined treatments of temperature (19.0, 20.5 and 22.5 °C) and pH (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 units) were carried out. All of the conditions tested were either within the current natural ranges of seawater pH and temperature or are within the ranges that have been predicted for the end of the century, in the sampling region (Canary Islands). Our results indicated that the negative effects of low pH on P. lividus larval development and settlement will be mitigated by a rise in seawater temperature, up to a thermotolerance threshold. Larval development and settlement performance of the sea urchin P. lividus was enhanced by a slight increase in temperature, even under lowered pH conditions. However, the species did show negative responses to the levels of ocean warming and acidification that have been predicted for the turn of the century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. COBE and the Absolute Assignment of the CMB to the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie; Rabounski, Dmitri

    2007-03-01

    The FIRAS instrument on COBE initially reported a CMB temperature of 2.730+/-0.001 K (1σ). At the same time, using the 1st derivative, FIRAS reported a CMB temperature of 2.717+/-0.003 K (1σ). These two values are significantly different at the 99% confidence interval. In order to remove this significance, NASA lowered the absolute value of the CMB by changing the calibration on the external calibrator long after launch. It also raised the error bars on the second value. However, the observed difference in the CMB temperature measured by these two methods may well constitute evidence that the CMB monopole arises from the Earth. It should be assumed that a second, much weaker, microwave field exists both at L2 (the WMAP position) and at the COBE position. Motion through this much weaker field is responsible for the dipole observed. The value of the CMB temperature obtained by the 1st derivative is sensitive to motion. It is also sensitive to the complicating effect of the weak field also present at L2 when sampling the CMB temperature using FIRAS. The presence of a second weak field at L2 and the Earth is required in order for COBE to be able to resolve this situation. The PLANCK satellite should soon reveal that that CMB monopole does not exist at L2.

  20. Negative thermophoresis of nanoparticles in the free molecular regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Zhigang

    2012-07-01

    Negative thermophoresis is a phenomenon of particle transport induced by a temperature gradient, by which small particles migrate from low to high temperatures. In gas media, it depends strongly on the gas-particle interaction and temperature. In this paper, we show that negative thermophoresis is possible in the free molecular regime and a theoretical criterion is derived. On the basis of a general gas-particle interaction potential, an empirical necessary condition for negative thermophoresis that the potential parameters should satisfy is also obtained. Finally, the temperature ranges for the occurrence of negative thermophoresis are determined for a series of gas-particle interaction parameters.

  1. The new Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG): first results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvalot, Sylvain; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Merlet, Sebastien; Desruelle, Bruno; Lautier-Gaud, Jean; Menoret, Vincent; Vermeulen, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cold atom gravimetry represents one of the most innovative evolution in gravity instrumentation since the last 20 years. The concept of measuring the gravitational acceleration by dropping atoms and the development of the first instrumental devices during this last decade quickly revealed the promising perspectives of this new generation of gravity meters enabling accurate and absolute measurements of the Earth's gravity field for a wide range of applications (geophysics, geodesy, metrology, etc.). The Absolute Quantum Gravimeter (AQG) gravity meter, developed by MUQUANS (Talence, France - http://www.muquans.com/) with the support of RESIF, the French Seismologic and Geodetic Network (http://www.resif.fr/) belongs to this new generation of instruments. It also represents the first commercial device based on the utilization of advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques, which allow to characterize precisely the vertical acceleration experienced by a cloud of cold atoms. Recently, the first operational unit (AQG01) has been achieved as a compact transportable gravimeter with the aim of satisfying absolute gravity measurements in laboratory conditions under the following specifications: measurements the μGal level at a few Hz cycling frequency, sensitivity of 50μGal/√Hz, immunity to ground vibrations, easy and quickness of operation, automated continuous data acquisition for several months, etc. In order to evaluate the current performances of the AQG01, several experiments are carried out in collaboration between RESIF user's teams and the MUQUANS manufacturer on different reference gravity sites and laboratories in France. These measurements performed in indoor conditions including simultaneous observations with classical reference gravity instruments (corner-cube absolute gravity meters, relative superconducting meters) as well with the Cold Atom Gravity meter (CAG) developed by LNE-SYRTE, lead to a first objective characterization of the performances of

  2. Determination of the absolute chirality of tellurium using resonant diffraction with circularly polarized x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Collins, S P; Lovesey, S W; Matsumami, M; Moriwaki, T; Shin, S

    2010-03-31

    Many proteins, sugars and pharmaceuticals crystallize into two forms that are mirror images of each other (enantiomers) like our right and left hands. Tellurium is one enantiomer having a space group pair, P3(1)21 (right-handed screw) and P3(2)21 (left-handed screw). X-ray diffraction with dispersion correction terms has been playing an important role in determining the handedness of enantiomers for a long time. However, this approach is not applicable for an elemental crystal such as tellurium or selenium. We have demonstrated that positive and negative circularly polarized x-rays at the resonant energy of tellurium can be used to absolutely distinguish right from left tellurium. This method is applicable to chiral motifs that occur in biomolecules, liquid crystals, ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics, multiferroics, etc.

  3. Misconceptions in recent papers on special relativity and absolute space theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torr, D. G.; Kolen, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several recent papers which purport to substantiate or negate arguments in favor of certain theories of absolute space have been based on fallacious principles. This paper discusses three related instances, indicating where misconceptions have arisen. It is established, contrary to popular belief, that the classical Lorentz ether theory accounts for all the experimental evidence which supports the special theory of relativity. It is demonstrated that the ether theory predicts the null results obtained from pulsar timing and Moessbauer experiments. It is concluded that a measurement of the one-way velocity of light has physical meaning within the context of the Lorentz theory, and it is argued that an adequately designed experiment to measure the one-way velocity of light should be attempted.

  4. The Analysis of Negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛琨

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chapter 1 The Meaning of Negation Negation,in our daily life,is very commonly used.When you deny something,you use it;when you refuse something,you use it too.And the most common negatiom"no"and"not"are used by US every day.

  5. Preliminary results of absolute wavelength calibration of imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiayun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Fudi [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Lyu, Bo, E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Yingying; Fu, Jia; Xu, Liqing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Shi, Yuejiang [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Minyou [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wan, Baonian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The absolute wavelength calibration method for X-ray crystal spectrometer using X-ray fluorescence of the appropriate materials was first tested on EAST, and the preliminary experimental results were obtained. • The experimental results were thoroughly discussed and suggestion for further improvements of the experimental arrangement was proposed. • Rotation calibration of X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST using MHD frequency was presented when the absolute wavelength calibration method is unavailable currently. - Abstract: Imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers (XCS) are currently operating on several major tokamaks to provide profiles of ion temperature and rotation velocity. In order to acquire absolute rotation velocity, several indirect methods were pursued previously, however the direct and effective method is to use known X-ray lines for wavelength calibration. One way to produce standard spectral lines is X-ray fluorescence, which could be excited by X-rays from tokamak plasmas. As part of the upgrade of XCS system on EAST, wavelength calibration was studied using cadmium's L-shell lines, namely Lα{sub 1} line (3.9564 Å) and Lα{sub 2} line (3.9650 Å) as the reference wavelength. The Geant 4 code was used to optimize foil thickness to achieve a reasonable X-ray fluorescence intensity. The Cd foil was placed between the beryllium window and crystal and could be retracted to provide in situ wavelength calibration. The detailed arrangement and preliminary wavelength calibration results of imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer on EAST are presented, plus the calibration using MHD frequency.

  6. Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina

    2012-05-01

    Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed.

  7. Improvement in low-temperature and instantaneous high-rate output performance of Al-free AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy for negative electrode in Ni/MH battery: Effect of thermodynamic and kinetic regulation via partial Mn substituting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanhai; Zhu, Ding; Tang, Zhengyao; Wu, Chaoling; Huang, Liwu; Ma, Zhewen; Chen, Yungui

    2017-03-01

    A series of Al-free Mn-modified AB5-type hydrogen storage alloys have been designed and the effects of thermodynamic stability and electrochemical kinetics on electrochemical performance via Mn substituting have been investigated. Compared with high-Al alloys, the Al-free alloys in this study have better low-temperature performance and instantaneous high-rate output because of the higher surface catalytic ability. After partial substitution of Ni by Mn, both the hydrogen desorption capacity and plateau pressure decrease, and correspondingly results in an improved thermodynamic stability which is adverse to low-temperature delivery. Additionally, with the improvement of charge acceptance ability and anti-corrosion property via Mn substitution, the room-temperature discharge capacity and cycling stability increase slightly. However, Mn adversely affects the electrochemical kinetics and deteriorates both the surface catalytic ability and the bulk hydrogen diffusion ability, leading to the drop of low-temperature dischargeability, high-rate dischargeability and peak power (Ppeak). Based on the thermodynamic and kinetic regulation and overall electrochemical properties, the optimal composition is obtained when x = 0.2, the discharge capacity is 243.6 mAh g-1 at -40 °C with 60 mA g-1, and the Ppeak attains to 969.6 W kg-1 at -40 °C.

  8. Trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Akande, Samuel O.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Gutowski, William J.

    2017-01-01

    In recent times, Ibadan has been experiencing an increase in mean temperature which appears to be linked to anthropogenic global warming. Previous studies have indicated that the warming may be accompanied by changes in extreme events. This study examined trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan during 1971-2012 at annual and seasonal scales using the high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth-century dataset (ERA-20C) at 15 grid points. Magnitudes of linear trends in mean and extreme temperatures and their statistical significance were calculated using ordinary least squares and Mann-Kendall rank statistic tests. The results show that Ibadan has witnessed an increase in annual and seasonal mean minimum temperatures. The annual mean maximum temperature exhibited a non-significant decline in most parts of Ibadan. While trends in cold extremes at annual scale show warming, trends in coldest night show greater warming than in coldest day. At the seasonal scale, we found that Ibadan experienced a mix of positive and negative trends in absolute extreme temperature indices. However, cold extremes show the largest trend magnitudes, with trends in coldest night showing the greatest warming. The results compare well with those obtained from a limited number of stations. This study should inform decision-makers and urban planners about the ongoing warming in Ibadan.

  9. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, P D; Lye, J E; Ramanathan, G; Butler, D J; Hall, C J; Stevenson, A W; Johnston, P N

    2014-05-01

    The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3.9%. The good agreement of

  10. Toward a Negative Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Johannssen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Can philosophy say what man is? What is gained or lost by making theoretical assumptions about the human being? This essay examines the “negative anthropology” of the early Frankfurt School by asking how Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno and Ulrich Sonnemann engage with the question “What is man?” Negative anthropology turns out to be more than the critique of philosophical anthropology: By understanding the human being as the ensemble of what it is not, negative anthropology avoids the predi...

  11. Negative transverse impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1989-06-12

    Recently, measurements in the SPS show that the coherent tune shift in the horizontal direction has positive values whereas that in the vertical direction has negative ones. Thus the existence of negative transverse impedance gets confirmed in a real machine. This stimulates us to start a new round of systematic studies on this interesting phenomenon. The results obtained from our computer simulations are presented in this note. Our simulations demonstrate that the negative transverse impedance may appear when the rotational symmetry embedded in a discontinuity is broken, and that the geometries that we have studies may be the source of the positive horizontal tune shift measured in the SPS.

  12. Absolute dimensions of the metallic-line eclipsing binary V501 Monocerotis

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Fekel, Francis C; Muterspaugh, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    We report extensive high-resolution spectroscopic observations and V-band differential photometry of the slightly eccentric 7.02-day detached eclipsing binary V501 Mon (A6m+F0), which we use to determine its absolute dimensions to high precision (0.3% for the masses and 1.8% for the radii, or better). The absolute masses, radii, and temperatures are M(A) = 1.6455 +/- 0.0043 M(Sun), R(A) = 1.888 +/- 0.029 R(Sun), and T(A) = 7510 +/- 100 K for the primary, and M(B) = 1.4588 +/- 0.0025 M(Sun), R(B) = 1.592 +/- 0.028 R(Sun), and T(B) = 7000 +/- 90 K for the secondary. Apsidal motion has been detected, to which General Relativity contributes approximately 70%. The primary star is found to be a metallic-line A star. A detailed chemical analysis of the disentangled spectra yields abundances for more than a dozen elements in each star. Based on the secondary, the system metallicity is near solar: [Fe/H] = +0.01 +/- 0.06. Lithium is detected in the secondary but not in the primary. A comparison with current stellar ev...

  13. Absolute photoabsorption cross section of C{sub 60} in the extreme ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kou, J. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Haruyama, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kubozono, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Mitsuke, K. [Department of Vacuum UV Photoscience, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan) and Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)]. E-mail: mitsuke@ims.ac.jp

    2005-06-15

    The absolute photoabsorption cross section curve of C{sub 60} has been determined by means of mass spectrometry with the photon source of monochromatized synchrotron radiation of h{nu} = 24.5-150 eV. Description has been made on a high-temperature source of gaseous fullerenes and an efficient time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cross section was estimated by assuming an approximate expression of the number density of C{sub 60} in the ionization region. The resultant values were 762, 241, and 195 Mb at h{nu} = 24.5, 90, and 110 eV, respectively, with about 10% errors. The cross section curve was then normalized at h{nu} = 25 eV to the absolute photoabsorption cross section reported by Jaensch and Kamke [R. Jaensch, W. Kamke, Mol. Mater. 13 (2000) 143], the most reliable data so far available in the valence excitation region of C{sub 60}. Accordingly, the present cross section data were altered to 407, 144, and 114 Mb at h{nu} = 25, 90, and 110 eV, respectively.

  14. Absolute versus relative ascertainment of pedophilia in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip E; Dickey, Robert

    2009-12-01

    There are at least two different criteria for assessing pedophilia in men: absolute ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is intense) and relative ascertainment (their sexual interest in children is greater than their interest in adults). The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (DSM-III) used relative ascertainment in its diagnostic criteria for pedophilia; this was abandoned and replaced by absolute ascertainment in the DSM-III-R and all subsequent editions. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the continuing need for relative ascertainment, particularly in the laboratory assessment of pedophilia. A total of 402 heterosexual men were selected from a database of patients referred to a specialty clinic. These had undergone phallometric testing, a psychophysiological procedure in which their penile blood volume was monitored while they were presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults.The 130 men selected for the Teleiophilic Profile group responded substantially to prepubescent girls but even more to adult women; the 272 men selected for the Pedophilic Profile group responded weakly to prepubescent girls but even less to adult women. In terms of absolute magnitude, every patient in the Pedophilic Profile group had a lesser penile response to prepubescent girls than every patient in the Teleiophilic Profile group. Nevertheless, the Pedophilic Profile group had a significantly greater number of known sexual offenses against prepubescent girls, indicating that they contained a higher proportion of true pedophiles. These results dramatically demonstrate the utility-or perhaps necessity-of relative ascertainment in the laboratory assessment of erotic age-preference.

  15. Consequences count: against absolutism at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2004-05-01

    There has been a considerable amount of debate in the nursing literature about euthanasia, and especially the distinctions between acts and omissions, and killing and letting die. These distinctions are required by opponents of euthanasia to justify allowing some cases of passive euthanasia while forbidding all cases of active euthanasia. This paper adds to the debate by arguing that the position that absolutely forbids euthanasia is theoretically inconsistent. The paper first considers the place of moral theory in analysing moral problems, within the framework of the principles of biomedical ethics. It is argued that despite a moral pluralism that operates in many areas, the legal status of euthanasia is based upon an absolute deontological position against deliberate killing, which cannot be overridden by appeals to favourable consequences. In order that certain forms of passive euthanasia can be allowed, this position allows distinctions within three pairs of concepts--acts and omissions, killing and letting die, and ordinary and extraordinary means. A further method of justifying certain actions near the end of life is the doctrine of double effect. These paired concepts and the doctrine of double effect are analysed with special reference to their consequences. The application of the doctrine of double effect and the three distinctions relies on consideration of their consequences, allowing in practice what in theory is denied. This is important because it weakens the absolute case against euthanasia, which disallows any direct consequentialist appeal. If consequences count in the application of the doctrine and the distinctions, then they should also count directly prior to their application. This strengthens the argument for active euthanasia in certain cases.

  16. Automated absolute activation analysis with californium-252 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    A 100-mg /sup 252/Cf neutron activation analysis facility is used routinely at the Savannah River Laboratory for multielement analysis of many solid and liquid samples. An absolute analysis technique converts counting data directly to elemental concentration without the use of classical comparative standards and flux monitors. With the totally automated pneumatic sample transfer system, cyclic irradiation-decay-count regimes can be pre-selected for up to 40 samples, and samples can be analyzed with the facility unattended. An automatic data control system starts and stops a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and/or a delayed-neutron detector; the system also stores data and controls output modes. Gamma ray data are reduced by three main programs in the IBM 360/195 computer: the 4096-channel spectrum and pertinent experimental timing, counting, and sample data are stored on magnetic tape; the spectrum is then reduced to a list of significant photopeak energies, integrated areas, and their associated statistical errors; and the third program assigns gamma ray photopeaks to the appropriate neutron activation product(s) by comparing photopeak energies to tabulated gamma ray energies. Photopeak areas are then converted to elemental concentration by using experimental timing and sample data, calculated elemental neutron capture rates, absolute detector efficiencies, and absolute spectroscopic decay data. Calculational procedures have been developed so that fissile material can be analyzed by cyclic neutron activation and delayed-neutron counting procedures. These calculations are based on a 6 half-life group model of delayed neutron emission; calculations include corrections for delayed neutron interference from /sup 17/O. Detection sensitivities of < or = 400 ppB for natural uranium and 8 ppB (< or = 0.5 (nCi/g)) for /sup 239/Pu were demonstrated with 15-g samples at a throughput of up to 140 per day. Over 40 elements can be detected at the sub-ppM level.

  17. Experimental study of absolute instability over a rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman Bekhit, Hesham Abdel Ghafar

    2005-07-01

    A series of experiments were performed to study the absolute instability of Type I traveling cross-flow modes in the boundary layer on a smooth disk rotating at constant speed. The basic flow agreed with analytic theory, and the growth of natural disturbances matched linear theory predictions. Controlled temporal disturbances were introduced by a short-duration air pulse from a hypodermic tube located above the disk and outside the boundary layer. The air pulse was positioned just outboard of the critical radius for Type I cross-flow modes. A hot-wire sensor primarily sensitive to the azirnuthal velocity component, was positioned at different spatial locations on the disk to document the growth of disturbances produced by the air pulses. Ensemble averages conditioned on the air pulses revealed wave packets that evolved in time and space. Two amplitudes of air pulses were used. The lower amplitude produced wave packets with linear amplitude characteristics that agreed with linear-theory wall-normal eigenfunction distributions and spatial growth rates. The higher amplitude pulse produced wave packets that had nonlinear amplitude characteristics. The space-time evolution of the leading and trailing edges of the wave packets were followed well past the critical radius for the absolute instability based on Lingwood (1995). With the linear amplitudes, the absolute instability was dominated by the convective modes, agreeing with the linear DNS simulations of Davies and Carpenter (2003). With the nonlinear amplitudes, larger temporal growth of the wave packets existed which supports the finite amplitude analysis of Pier (2003), and more closely resembles the wave packet evolution in the experimental study of Lingwood (1996). This suggests that the disturbance levels in the experiment that was intended to demonstrate the linear analysis, were likely fuite.

  18. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  19. Strategy for the absolute neutron emission measurement on ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, M; Bertalot, L; Ishikawa, M; Popovichev, S

    2010-10-01

    Accuracy of 10% is demanded to the absolute fusion measurement on ITER. To achieve this accuracy, a functional combination of several types of neutron measurement subsystem, cross calibration among them, and in situ calibration are needed. Neutron transport calculation shows the suitable calibration source is a DT/DD neutron generator of source strength higher than 10(10) n/s (neutron/second) for DT and 10(8) n/s for DD. It will take eight weeks at the minimum with this source to calibrate flux monitors, profile monitors, and the activation system.

  20. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    OpenAIRE

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson,; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...

  1. Absolute Measurement Fiber-optic Sensors in Large Structural Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The security of civil engineering is an important task due to the economic, social and environmental significance. Compared with conventional sensors, the optical fiber sensors have their unique characteristics.Being durable, stable and insensitive to external perturbations,they are particular interesting for the long-term monitoring of civil structures.Focus is on absolute measurement optical fiber sensors, which are emerging from the monitoring large structural, including SOFO system, F-P optical fiber sensors, and fiber Bragg grating sensors. The principle, characteristic and application of these three kinds of optical fiber sensors are described together with their future prospects.

  2. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)

    2003-01-01

    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  3. Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.

  4. Absolute regularity and ergodicity of Poisson count processes

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of observation-driven Poisson count processes where the current value of the accompanying intensity process depends on previous values of both processes. We show under a contractive condition that the bivariate process has a unique stationary distribution and that a stationary version of the count process is absolutely regular. Moreover, since the intensities can be written as measurable functionals of the count variables, we conclude that the bivariate process is ergodic. As an important application of these results, we show how a test method previously used in the case of independent Poisson data can be used in the case of Poisson count processes.

  5. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapp, J V [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Department of Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Warrington, A P [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Partridge, M [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Philps, A [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Leach, M O [Cancer Research UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Webb, S [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  6. Analysis of Absolute Stability for Time-delay Teleoperation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Wen Deng; Qing Wei; Ze-Xiang Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new bilateral control algorithm based on absolute stability theory is put forward, which aims at the time-delay teleoperation system with force feedback from the slave directly. In the new control algorithm, the delay-dependent stability,instead of delay-independent stability, is taken as the aim of control design. It improves the transparency of the system at the price of unnecessary stability. With this algorithm, the time-delay teleoperation systems have good transparency and stability. A simulation system is established to verify the effect of this algorithm.

  7. Absolute cross-section normalization of magnetic neutron scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Zhijun; Tranquada, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss various methods to obtain the resolution volume for neutron scattering experiments, in order to perform absolute normalization on inelastic magnetic neutron scattering data. Examples from previous experiments are given. We also try to provide clear definitions of a number of physical quantities which are commonly used to describe neutron magnetic scattering results, including the dynamic spin correlation function and the imaginary part of the dynamic susceptibility. Formulas that can be used for general purposes are provided and the advantages of the different normalization processes are discussed.

  8. Absolute efficiency measurements with the 10B based Jalousie detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzel, G.; Henske, M.; Houben, A.; Klein, M.; Köhli, M.; Lennert, P.; Meven, M.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, U.; Schweika, W.

    2014-04-01

    The 10B based Jalousie detector is a replacement for 3He counter tubes, which are nowadays less affordable for large area detectors due to the 3He crisis. In this paper we investigate and verify the performance of the new 10B based detector concept and its adoption for the POWTEX diffractometer, which is designed for the detection of thermal neutrons with predicted detection efficiencies of 75-50% for neutron energies of 10-100 meV, respectively. The predicted detection efficiency has been verified by absolute measurements using neutrons with a wavelength of 1.17 Å (59 meV).

  9. System Design of the ATLAS Absolute Luminosity Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Franz, Sebastien; Iwanski, W; Lundberg, B; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS absolute luminosity monitor is composed of 8 roman pots symmetrically located in the LHC tunnel. Each pot contains 23 multi anode photomultiplier tubes, and each one of those is fitted with a front-end assembly called PMF. A PMF provides the high voltage biasing of the tube, the frontend readout chip and the readout logic in a very compact arrangement. The 25 PMFs contained in one roman pot are connected to a motherboard used as an interface to the backend electronics. The system allows to configure the front-end electronics from the ATLAS detector control system and to transmit the luminosity data over Slink.

  10. Predicting accurate absolute binding energies in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Halborg

    2015-01-01

    Recent predictions of absolute binding free energies of host-guest complexes in aqueous solution using electronic structure theory have been encouraging for some systems, while other systems remain problematic. In this paper I summarize some of the many factors that could easily contribute 1-3 kcal......-represented by continuum models. While I focus on binding free energies in aqueous solution the approach also applies (with minor adjustments) to any free energy difference such as conformational or reaction free energy differences or activation free energies in any solvent....

  11. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  12. Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.

    1983-01-01

    Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480

  13. Electromagnetic Hydrophone with Tomographic System for Absolute Velocity Field Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Mari, Jean-Martial; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; 10.1063/1.4726178

    2012-01-01

    The velocity and pressure of an ultrasonic wave can be measured by an electromagnetic hydrophone made of a thin wire and a magnet. The ultrasonic wave vibrates the wire inside a magnetic field, inducing an electrical current. Previous articles reported poor spatial resolution of comparable hydrophones along the axis of the wire. In this study, submillimetric spatial resolution has been achieved by using a tomographic method. Moreover, a physical model is presented for obtaining absolute measurements. A pressure differential of 8% has been found between piezoelectric and electromagnetic hydrophone measurements. These characteristics show this technique as an alternative to standard hydrophones.

  14. Absolutely stable solitons in two-component active systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malomed, B A; Malomed, Boris; Winful, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    As is known, a solitary pulse in the complex cubic Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation is unstable. We demonstrate that a system of two linearly coupled GL equations with gain and dissipation in one subsystem and pure dissipation in another produces absolutely stable solitons and their bound states. The problem is solved in a fully analytical form by means of the perturbation theory. The soliton coexists with a stable trivial state; there is also an unstable soliton with a smaller amplitude, which is a separatrix between the two stable states. This model has a direct application in nonlinear fiber optics, describing an Erbium-doped laser based on a dual-core fiber.

  15. Dichotomy and perceptual distortions in absolute pitch ability

    OpenAIRE

    Athos, E. Alexandra; Levinson, Barbara; Kistler, Amy; Zemansky, Jason; Bostrom, Alan; Freimer, Nelson; Gitschier, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify the pitch of a tone without the aid of a reference tone. Understanding both the nature and genesis of AP can provide insights into neuroplasticity in the auditory system. We explored factors that may influence the accuracy of pitch perception in AP subjects both during the development of the trait and in later age. We used a Web-based survey and a pitch-labeling test to collect perceptual data from 2,213 individuals, 981 (44%) of whom proved...

  16. Absolute and Convective Ion Beam Instability Studied through Green's Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul; Hsuan, H. C. S.

    1974-01-01

    A Vlasov plasma with a double‐humped, unstable ion velocity distribution function is considered. A δ function in space is assumed as the initial perturbation and the plasma response to this perturbation is calculated, i.e., the Green's function for the problem is found. The response can be divide...... into two parts: a self‐similar, damped part of the form t−1h(x/t), and an unstable, exponentially growing part. The conditions for absolute and convective growth of the latter are discussed....

  17. The absolute frequency of the 87Sr optical clock transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian;

    2008-01-01

    The absolute frequency of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition of 87Sr has been measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.65 (37) Hz using lattice-confined atoms, where the fractional uncertainty of 8.6 × 10-16 represents one of the most accurate measurements of an atomic transition frequency to date. After a d...... is made possible using a femtosecond laser based optical frequency comb to phase coherently connect the optical and microwave spectral regions and by a 3.5 km fibre transfer scheme to compare the remotely located clock signals....

  18. Absolute Measurement of Quantum-Limited Interferometric Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    Thiel, Valérian; Treps, Nicolas; Roslund, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A methodology is introduced that enables an absolute, quantum-limited measurement of sub-wavelength interferometric displacements. The technique utilizes a high-frequency optical path modulation within an interferometer operated in a homodyne configuration. All of the information necessary to fully characterize the resultant path displacement is contained within the relative strengths of the various harmonics of the phase modulation. The method, which is straightforward and readily implementable, allows a direct measurement of the theoretical Cram\\'er-Rao limit of detection without any assumptions on the nature of the light source.

  19. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William

    2007-07-17

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  20. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.