WorldWideScience

Sample records for neeme univer toivo

  1. Toivo Raidmetsa show / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1999-01-01

    Toivo Raidmetsast, tema mööbli-, näituse- ja ruumikujundustest, esinemistest näitustel, tööst Eesti Kunstiakadeemia sisearhitektuuri kateedri juhatajana, koostööst Eero Jürgensoni, Jaak Arro ja Taso Mähariga. 12 illustratsiooni

  2. Kahjunõuded hakkavad tulema / Toivo Tootsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootsen, Toivo, 1943-

    2002-01-01

    Toivo Tootsen soovitab Urmi Reinde raamatut "Vilja Savisaar - ema, kes võitis" lülitada ajakirjanduse õppematerjali hulka. Autor leiab, et BNS on meelevaldselt tõlgendanud tema artiklit, mis ilmus 6.nov. Kesknädalas. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  3. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  4. Kas Tallinn vajab eristaatust? / Orm Valtson, Toivo Tootsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valtson, Orm, 1958-2010

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna linn ei toeta minister Jaan Õunapuu haldusreformi kava, kuna seal ei tähtsustata piisavalt Tallinna kui pealinna rolli. Oma nägemuse esitavad Harju maavanem Orm Valtson ja Tallinna volikogu eestseisuse liige Toivo Tootsen

  5. Viinistu kunstimuuseum / Jaan Manitski, Emil Urbel, Toivo Raidmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manitski, Jaan, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    3 välis- ja 4 sisevaadet, asendi- ja restorani põhiplaan, arhitektuurse ideeprojekti autor Jaan Manitski, restoran-hotelli arhitektuurse osa autor Emil Urbel (AB Emil Urbel), restorani sisekujundaja Toivo Raidmets

  6. Kyushu Univ.; Kyushu daigaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Groups such as Kyushu Univ. the perfume the Netherlands Co. confirmed having the effect in which the porous tile made in industrial waste eases the heat island phenomenon of the city. It was proven that it took a heat of the circumference by the process in which the water evaporates, when the water is scattered in the tile, and lowers the temperature near the largest 3 degrees C surface. Research group mainly on Yoshinori Suzuki professors of Kyushu Univ. noticed having water retentiveness of the degree in which the porous cost tile in which small hole opened enough is equal to the sand. The experiment which confirmed the cooling effect of the tile was carried out. By burning stone powder and passage mud of lakes and marshes which came out, when the stone material is cut down, the tile made it. The temperature of ground 1.2m was examined, after sidewalks of housing complex in the Fukuoka City and school building in Kyushu Univ., etc. are covered with this tile, and after the water is scattered. As the result, it was low a little, even if it passed over 2 hours, shade. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Mida tohib ja mida ei tohi teha teadlane / Toivo Maimets ; intervjueerinud Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Toivo, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Intervjuu Tartu Ülikooli Molekulaar- ja Rakubioloogia Instituudi direktori, UNESCO rahvusvahelise bioeetika komitee aseesimehe professori Toivo Maimetsaga. Samas ka Oxfordi ülikooli professorist Richard Dawkinist

  8. Viinistu Kunstimuuseum, hotell ja restoran / Jaan Manitski, Emil Urbel, Toivo Raidmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manitski, Jaan, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    plaan, välisvaade; arhitekt kunstimuuseumi arhitektuurne ideeprojekt: Jaan Manitski, restorani ja hotelliosa arhitektuurne osa: Emil Urbel, AB Emil Urbel OÜ; sisekujundus: restorani ja hotelliosa - Toivo Raidmets

  9. Mida tohib ja mida ei tohi teha teadlane / Toivo Maimets ; intervjueerinud Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Toivo, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Intervjuu Tartu Ülikooli Molekulaar- ja Rakubioloogia Instituudi direktori, UNESCO rahvusvahelise bioeetika komitee aseesimehe professori Toivo Maimetsaga. Samas ka Oxfordi ülikooli professorist Richard Dawkinist

  10. Merendusajalugu läbi Toivo Kusmini kaamera / Urmas Dresen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dresen, Urmas, 1958-

    1997-01-01

    Toivo Kusmini merefilmid "Suur Tõll" ("Tallinnfilm", 1992), "Saa vabaks, Eesti meri" ("Tallinnfilm", 1989-1990), "Randlased" ("Tallinnfilm", 1990), "Mereväravad" ("Eesti Kroonikafilm", 1994), "Vabaduse eest" ("Filmtek", 1994) ja "Lipule... güüsile... valvel!" ("Eesti Kroonikafilm", 1996); lisa : S.Teinemaa koostatud režissööri filmograafia

  11. Merendusajalugu läbi Toivo Kusmini kaamera / Urmas Dresen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dresen, Urmas, 1958-

    1997-01-01

    Toivo Kusmini merefilmid "Suur Tõll" ("Tallinnfilm", 1992), "Saa vabaks, Eesti meri" ("Tallinnfilm", 1989-1990), "Randlased" ("Tallinnfilm", 1990), "Mereväravad" ("Eesti Kroonikafilm", 1994), "Vabaduse eest" ("Filmtek", 1994) ja "Lipule... güüsile... valvel!" ("Eesti Kroonikafilm", 1996); lisa : S.Teinemaa koostatud režissööri filmograafia

  12. Neem (Azadirachta indica): towards the ideal insecticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Canale, Angelo; Toniolo, Chiara; Higuchi, Akon; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Pavela, Roman; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide resistance is going to change rapidly our antibiotics and insecticides arsenal. In this scenario, plant-derived natural products are considered valuable candidates to reverse this negative trend. Growing research attention is focused on neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae), exploring the utility of its products as insecticides and antibiotics. In this review, we summarised the knowledge on neem oil and neem cake by-products in arthropod pest control, with special reference to mosquito vectors of public health importance. To the best of our knowledge, neem-borne products currently showed effective and eco-friendly features, including little non-target effects, multiple mechanisms of action, low cost, easy production in countries with limited industrial facilities. In particular, the potentiality of neem cake as ideal and affordable source of mosquitocidal compounds in anopheline and aedine control programmes is outlined. Overall, we propose the employ of neem-based products as an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer arthropod control tools.

  13. Värskete mõtetega rahulik mees / Toivo Pilli ; intervjueerinud Erki Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilli, Toivo, 1962-

    2009-01-01

    Intervjuu pastor Toivo Pilliga 24.-26. juuli Amsterdamis toimunud baptismiliikumise 400. aastapäevale pühendatud konverentsist ning tööst pastorina ja Kõrgema Usuteadusliku Seminari rektorina aastatel 1998-2002, 2006-2009

  14. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O’Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9,...

  15. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh A. Kuravadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC. Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  16. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, H B; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, B N; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC-600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To identify genes and pathways in neem, we sequenced neem genomes and transcriptomes using next generation sequencing technologies. Assembly of Illumina and 454 sequencing reads resulted in 267 Mb, which accounts for 70% of estimated size of neem genome. We predicted 44,495 genes in the neem genome, of which 32,278 genes were expressed in neem tissues. Neem genome consists about 32.5% (87 Mb) of repetitive DNA elements. Neem tree is phylogenetically related to citrus, Citrus sinensis. Comparative analysis anchored 62% (161 Mb) of assembled neem genomic contigs onto citrus chromomes. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (UHPLC-MS/SRM) method was used to quantify azadirachtin, nimbin, and salanin from neem tissues. Weighted Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) of expressed genes and metabolites resulted in identification of possible candidate genes involved in azadirachtin biosynthesis pathway. This study provides genomic, transcriptomic and quantity of top three neem metabolites resource, which will accelerate basic research in neem to understand biochemical pathways.

  17. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. ... Key words: Azadirachta indica (neem), Aedes aegypti (mosquito), LC50, emergency, histopathology. ..... larvae of Culex fatigans Wild Strain at 390 ppm. In the.

  18. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    potential of neem seed oil cream as mosquito repellent particularly at higher ... In the present study, neem Seed oil extracted from Azadirachta indica plant .... repellency was in two phases, first to determine the repellency properties of.

  19. Comprehensive analyses of genomes, transcriptomes and metabolites of neem tree

    OpenAIRE

    Kuravadi, Nagesh A.; Yenagi, Vijay; Rangiah, Kannan; Mahesh, HB; Rajamani, Anantharamanan; Shirke, Meghana D.; Russiachand, Heikham; Loganathan, Ramya Malarini; Shankara Lingu, Chandana; Siddappa, Shilpa; Ramamurthy, Aishwarya; Sathyanarayana, BN; Gowda, Malali

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile tropical evergreen tree species known in India since the Vedic period (1500 BC–600 BC). Neem tree is a rich source of limonoids, having a wide spectrum of activity against insect pests and microbial pathogens. Complex tetranortriterpenoids such as azadirachtin, salanin and nimbin are the major active principles isolated from neem seed. Absolutely nothing is known about the biochemical pathways of these metabolites in neem tree. To...

  20. Neem oil limonoids induces p53-independent apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Yadav, Neelu; Lella, Ravi; Schneider, Andrea; Jones, Anthony; Marlowe, Timothy; Lovett, Gabrielle; O'Loughlin, Kieran; Minderman, Hans; Gogada, Raghu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2012-11-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has a wide range of medicinal properties. Neem extracts and its purified products have been examined for induction of apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types; however, its underlying mechanisms remain undefined. We show that neem oil (i.e., neem), which contains majority of neem limonoids including azadirachtin, induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Gene silencing demonstrated that caspase cascade was initiated by the activation of caspase-9, whereas caspase-8 was also activated late during neem-induced apoptosis. Pretreatment of cancer cells with pan caspase inhibitor, z-VAD inhibited activities of both initiator caspases (e.g., caspase-8 and -9) and executioner caspase-3. Neem induced the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of both caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis. p21 deficiency caused an increase in caspase activities at lower doses of neem, whereas p53 deficiency did not modulate neem-induced caspase activation. Additionally, neem treatment resulted in the accumulation of LC3-II in cancer cells, suggesting the involvement of autophagy in neem-induced cancer cell death. Low doses of autophagy inhibitors (i.e., 3-methyladenine and LY294002) did not prevent accumulation of neem-induced LC3-II in cancer cells. Silencing of ATG5 or Beclin-1 further enhanced neem-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or autophagy inhibitors increased neem-induced caspase-3 activation and inhibition of caspases enhanced neem-induced autophagy. Together, for the first time, we demonstrate that neem induces caspase-dependent and AIF-mediated apoptosis, and autophagy in cancer cells.

  1. Eestlased rahastavad Venemaa arvutimänguäri / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2008-01-01

    Allan Martinsonile ja Joakim Heleniusele kuuluv riskikapitalifond MartinsonTrigon investeeris koos partneritega Venemaa suurimasse arvutimängude tootja- ja levifirmasse Novõi Disk 200 miljonit krooni, Skype'i endine juhtinsener Toivo Annus paigutas kaks miljonit dollarit Singapuri tarkvarafirmasse Garena

  2. Tõeline modernist Allan Murdmaa / Toivo Tammik, Arne Maasik, Martin Pedanik, Heie Treier ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Allan Murdmaast (4. 08. 1934-15. 11. 2009) vestlevad 18. novembril Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis avatud Allan Murdmaa näituse ja raamatu "Monumentaalne : Allan Murdmaa" autorid arhitektid Toivo Tammik ja Arne Maasik ning graafiline disainer Martin Pedanik, lisaks kunstiteadlane Heie Treier

  3. THE NATURE'S GIFT TO MANKIND: NEEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is popularly known as the miracle tree. It is known as ‘Nimba’ in India. The Sanskrit name of neem is ‘Arishtha’ meaning the reliever of the sickness. Neem also holds medicinal value. Each and every part of neem is used in the medicines. It has been used in Ayurvedic medicines for more than 4000 years. Its important phytoconstituents are nimbin, nimbinene acetylnimbinase, nimbandial, nimbolide and quercentin. Medicinal uses are purgative, antihemorrhoidal, antihelminthic, antileprotic and antipoisonous in nature. Neem bark is cool, astringent, acrid and refrigerant. It is useful in tiredness, cough, fever, loss of appetite, worm infestation. Nimibidin present in used as antipyretic and non-irritant, and it has found to be effective in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, furunculosis, arsenical dermatitis, burn ulcers, herpes labialis, scabies and seborrheic dermatitis. Nimbidin and sodium nimbidmate contained in bark are reported to possess spermicidal and anti-inflammatory activity. So it is a tree that has a long history of use by humans. It is said to have medicinal, cosmetic and insecticidal potential.

  4. La naissance de l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Lizhi, Fang

    1990-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, excellente introduction à la cosmologie, expose la théorie du Big Bang dans ses derniers développements, de l'expansion de l'Univers à la cosmologie quantique, de la formation de structures à grande échelle à la physique de l'ère de Planck.

  5. Metals Bioaccumulation Mechanism in Neem Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnani, Kishore K; Boddu, Veera M; Moon, Deok Hyun; Ghadge, S V; Sarkar, Biplab; Brahmane, M P; Choudhary, K; Kathiravan, V; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as Hg(2+) Neem bark can be used as bioindicators, bioaccumulators and biomonitors while determining environmental pressures. Metal bioaccumulative properties and structural investigation of plant bark has potential in providing quantitative information on the metal contamination in the surrounding environment.

  6. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  7. Neeme Jõgi usub Pan-Balti piimanduskontserni rajamisse / Neeme Jõgi ; interv. Viljar Rääsk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Neeme

    2008-01-01

    Läti piimatööstuse Rigas Piensaimnieksi juhatuse esimees Neeme Jõgi vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtte olukorda, ülebaltikumilise piimafirma tulekut, ärikultuuri erinevusi Lätis, sisulise austuse saavutamist, tema põhimõtteid äritegevuses, vajadust skaneerimisoskustega juhi järele ning Parexiga juhtunu mõju lätlastele. Lisa: Neeme Jõgi

  8. Des univers multiples nouveaux horizons cosmiques

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Notre univers ne serait-il qu’une fraction d’un vaste multivers ? À l’heure des résultats expérimentaux de Planck et du LHC, de nouvelles questions essentielles se posent quant à l’unicité de l’Univers lui-même. Se pourrait-il que notre cosmos ne soit qu’un îlot dérisoire perdu dans un vaste multivers ? Il est aujourd’hui légitime de le supposer. Mais cette proposition vertigineuse est-elle encore scientifique ? La récente mesure détaillée du rayonnement cosmologique fossile ouvre la voie à de nouvelles approches. Faisant le point sur ces avancées, Aurélien Barrau nous dévoile, dans cette édition actualisée, les théories cosmologiques les plus audacieuses.

  9. L'Univers avant le Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Rouat, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    "Tout n'a pas commencé par une explosion. L'historie du cosmos avait débuté biena vant le Big Bang, si l'on suit la théorie défendue par les partisans d'une nouvelle cosmologie issue de la mystérieuse théorie des cordes. A l'heure où vacillent les scénarios classiques du XXe siècle, se prépare un grand chamboulement de nos idées sur la naissance de l'Univers et son devenir, sur l'existence possible d'univers parallèles. Des théories séduisantes qui seront mises à l'épreuve au cours de la prochaine décennie" (11 pages)

  10. Metals bioaccumulation mechanism in neem bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to define the bioaccumulation mechanism of metals onto the non-living biomaterial prepared from an extensively available plant bark biomass of neem (Azadirachta indica). Based on maximum ultimate fixation capacities (mmol/g) of the product, metals ions could be arranged as H...

  11. Stress, storage & survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display intermediate or recalcitrant s

  12. Stress, storage and survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display

  13. L'Univers chiffonné

    CERN Document Server

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Quelle est la forme de l'univers ? Est-il courbe, refermé sur lui-même ? Est-il en expansion ? Vers quoi tend-il ? L'espace serait-il « chiffonné » au point de créer des images fantômes des lointaines galaxies ? Telles sont les questions que pose Jean-Pierre Luminet avant d'y répondre dans une langue toujours claire et fluide. Spécialiste des trous noirs et du big bang, il nous fait voyager dans de surprenants couloirs de l'espace-temps où topologies de l'univers, explorations de l'infini et mirages cosmiques conjuguent leurs mystérieux attraits pour dérouter nos sens. La construction de l'ouvrage épouse la forme de son sujet: une lecture à multiples entrées, des pistes à explorer pour s'y perdre, bifurquer à nouveau ou revenir en arrière, au gré du plaisir ou de la curiosité de chacun. Anecdotes cocasses et révélations historiques étonnantes agrémentent un parcours très visuel. Dans quel univers sommes-nous plongés ? A travers les concepts les plus déconcertants de la cosmologie, l...

  14. Neeme Külm in abstract autarchic ambience / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Neeme Külma ruumiinstallatsioonidest. Neeme Külma isikunäitus "Pinnavirvendus" ("Shimmer on the Surface") Hobusepea galeriis 11.-24.04.2012. Näituse eest pälvis kunstnik Eesti Kultuurkapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapitali 2012. aasta aastapreemia. Neeme Külma ja Krista Möldri näitus "Kohalolu" ("Being Present") Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 30.11.-28.12.2012

  15. Neeme Külm in abstract autarchic ambience / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Neeme Külma ruumiinstallatsioonidest. Neeme Külma isikunäitus "Pinnavirvendus" ("Shimmer on the Surface") Hobusepea galeriis 11.-24.04.2012. Näituse eest pälvis kunstnik Eesti Kultuurkapitali kujutava ja rakenduskunsti sihtkapitali 2012. aasta aastapreemia. Neeme Külma ja Krista Möldri näitus "Kohalolu" ("Being Present") Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 30.11.-28.12.2012

  16. Neem components as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Neelu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2014-08-01

    Azadirachta indica, also known as neem, is commonly found in many semi-tropical and tropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The components extracted from neem plant have been used in traditional medicine for the cure of multiple diseases including cancer for centuries. The extracts of seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of neem have consistently shown chemopreventive and antitumor effects in different types of cancer. Azadirachtin and nimbolide are among the few bioactive components in neem that have been studied extensively, but research on a great number of additional bioactive components is warranted. The key anticancer effects of neem components on malignant cells include inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, suppression of cancer angiogenesis, restoration of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance, and enhancement of the host immune responses against tumor cells. While the underlying mechanisms of these effects are mostly unclear, the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway is, at least partially, involved in the anticancer functions of neem components. Importantly, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of neem components are tumor selective as the effects on normal cells are significantly weaker. In addition, neem extracts sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy and radiotherapy, and enhance the efficacy of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current updates on the anticancer effects of neem components and their possible impact on managing cancer incidence and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kapten Brus : "Tank on argument." / Neeme Brus ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brus, Neeme, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Bagdadis avalike suhete ohvitserina teeniv kapten Neeme Brus Iraagi elanike suhtumisest rahutagamismissioonil olevatesse sõduritesse, koalitsioonivägede omavahelisest suhtlemisest, terrorismiohust. Lisa: Valitsus toetas missiooni pikendamist

  18. Kapten Brus : "Tank on argument." / Neeme Brus ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brus, Neeme, 1957-

    2005-01-01

    Bagdadis avalike suhete ohvitserina teeniv kapten Neeme Brus Iraagi elanike suhtumisest rahutagamismissioonil olevatesse sõduritesse, koalitsioonivägede omavahelisest suhtlemisest, terrorismiohust. Lisa: Valitsus toetas missiooni pikendamist

  19. EFFICACY OF THAI NEEM OIL AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silapanuntakul, Suthep; Keanjoom, Romnalin; Pandii, Wongdyan; Boonchuen, Supawadee; Sombatsiri, Kwanchai

    2016-05-01

    Trees with larvicidal activity may be found in Thailand. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and length of efficacy of Thai neem (Azadirachta siamensis) oil emulsion and an alginate bead of Thai neem oil formulation against early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae using a dipping test. The Thai neem oil emulsion had significantly greater larvicidal activity than the alginate bead formulation at 12 to 60 hours post-exposure (p neem oil formulation resulted in 100% mortality among the early fourth stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 48 hours, while the alginate bead formulation resulted in 98% larval mortality at 84 hours and 100% mortality at 96 hours. The mean larval mortality using the Thai neem oil emulsion dropped to < 25% by 12 days and with the alginate beads dropped to < 25% by 15 days of exposure.

  20. Neem (Azadirachta indica) in the management of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogen of charcoal rot

    OpenAIRE

    C. Devakumar; Usha Dev

    2011-01-01

    (Abstract selected from presentation in National Conference on Biodiversity of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Collection, Characterization and Utilization, held at Anand, India during November 24-25, 2010)   Neem has been hailed as the kalpataru of modern times and a tree for solving global problems. Ten neem products comprising of hexane-extracted neem seed kernel oil (HENSK), cold-pressed neem oil, dewaxed oil, odour-free oil, neem fat, unsaturated fraction of the oil, steam volatil...

  1. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, RS; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity s...

  2. Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary. PMID:23835719

  3. Neem (Azadirachta indica: Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  4. Cosmicflows Constrained Local UniversE Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Sorce, Jenny G; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Helene M; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tully, R Brent; Pomarede, Daniel; Carlesi, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines observational datasets and cosmological simulations to generate realistic numerical replicas of the nearby Universe. These latter are excellent laboratories for studies of the non-linear process of structure formation in our neighborhood. With measurements of radial peculiar velocities in the Local Universe (cosmicflows-2) and a newly developed technique, we produce Constrained Local UniversE Simulations (CLUES). To assess the quality of these constrained simulations, we compare them with random simulations as well as with local observations. The cosmic variance, defined as the mean one-sigma scatter of cell-to-cell comparison between two fields, is significantly smaller for the constrained simulations than for the random simulations. Within the inner part of the box where most of the constraints are, the scatter is smaller by a factor 2 to 3 on a 5 Mpc/h scale with respect to that found for random simulations. This one-sigma scatter obtained when comparing the simulated and the observatio...

  5. Le vide univers du tout et du rien

    CERN Document Server

    Diner, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Pourquoi l'Univers plutôt que le vide ? Le temps et l'espace existent-ils en l'absence de l'Univers ? Que reste-t-il quand tout est enlevé ? Pourquoi quelque chose plutôt que rien ? Depuis des siècles, ces interrogations mobilisent philosophes et physiciens. Mais aujourd'hui, le vide n'est pas le rien. Il serait même l'acteur central de l'histoire de la matière et de l'Univers, le partenaire privilégié de la physique. Vide et matière ne sont plus deux manifestations séparées de la nature, mais deux aspects d'une même réalité. Le vide est l'état de base dont la matière émerge, sans couper son cordon ombilical Le vide comme Univers du rien cède la place au vide comme Univers du tout. Que le vide puisse être conçu par les physiciens comme réservoir potentiel d'univers, voici qui ne devrait laisser personne indifférent. Ce livre ouvre un débat et nous convie à une réflexion surprenante.

  6. "Kalevipoja" illustreerija kunstnik Gunnar Neeme 85 / Aimi Hollo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hollo, Aimi

    2003-01-01

    Austraalias elava eesti kunstniku elust ja loomingust. Avatakse ka näitused "Ühe vana pallaslase rikas kunstielu : Gunnar Nneeme 85" EARis ja "Gunnar Neeme Kalevipoja-ainelised tööd" Võrumaa Keskraamatukogus

  7. Application of neem tree in agriculture, industry, medicine, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of neem tree in agriculture, industry, medicine, and environment: a review. ... and it purifies the blood and prevents damage caused by free radicals to the body, ... Key words: Energizing, pharmacy, healing, purgative, pesticide.

  8. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves (Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIZE

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... energy supply), and reduce the ecological destruction ... Energy potential of the dead neem leaves biomass ..... Valorization of agricultural and other organic wastes ... Modernization strategies of wood chain energy value.

  9. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  10. Study on antimicrobial potential of neem oil nanoemulsion against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prabhakar; R S, Suresh Kumar; Jerobin, Jayakumar; Thomas, John; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Presence of several biochemical constituents in neem makes it an efficient antimicrobial agent for pathogenic diseases. The current investigation was aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of neem nanoemulsion as a control measure for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in freshwater fish Labeo rohita. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for the neem oil and neem nanoemulsion was 73.9 and 160.3 mg/L, respectively. The biomarker enzymes of treated fish tissues showed a significant difference in the level of glutathione reductase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation in neem oil-treated samples than in neem nanoemulsion-treated samples at Pneem nanoemulsion was more effective in both in vitro and in vivo methods. Present findings suggest that neem-based nanoemulsion has negligible toxicity to Rohu fishes. This makes neem-based nanoemulsion as an efficient therapeutic agent against P. aeruginosa infection, leading to its possible usage in the aquaculture industry. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-09-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  12. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Jayakumar, Jerobin; Makwana, Pooja; Kumar, Suresh; Mukherjee, Amitava; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Jayakumar Jerobin, Pooja Makwana, RS Suresh Kumar, Rajiv Sundaramoorthy, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibac...

  13. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  14. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Stanley; Preetha, G.; Chandrasekaran, S; Gunasekaran, K.; S. Kuttalam

    2014-01-01

    The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO) (acetic acid & citric acid), were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control a...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  16. Discours sur l'origine de l'univers

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    D'où vient l'univers ? Et d'où vient qu'il y a un univers ? Irrépressiblement, ces questions se posent à nous. Et dès qu'un discours prétend nous éclairer, nous tendons l'oreille, avides d'entendre l'écho du tout premier signal : les accélérateurs de particules vont bientôt nous révéler l'origine de l'univers en produisant des "big bang sous terre" ; les données recueillies par le satellite Planck nous dévoiler le "visage de Dieu" ; certains disent même qu'en vertu de la loi de la gravitation l'univers a pu se créer de lui-même, à partir de rien... Le grand dévoilement ne serait donc devenu qu'une affaire d'ultimes petits pas ? Rien n'est moins sûr... Car de quoi parle la physique quand elle parle "d'origine" ? Qu'est-ce que les théories actuelles sont réellement en mesure de nous révéler ? A bien les examiner, les perspectives que nous offre la cosmologie contemporaine sont plus vertigineuses encore que tout ce que nous avons imaginé : l'univers a-t-il jamais commencé ?

  17. Georges et les secrets de l'univers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Un voyage ex-tra-or-di-naire dans l'Univers! Le jour où Georges rencontre ses nouveaux voisins, il est loin d'imaginer que sa vision du monde va être totalement bouleversée. Chez la jeune Annie et Éric, son scientifique de père, le garçon découvre Cosmos, l'ordinateur le plus perfectionné qui soit. Sa super intelligence permet de protéger Georges et ses amis aux quatre coins de l'Univers ! Hélas, quelqu'un nourrit de sombres projets... et quand on sait qu'il n y a rien de plus dangereux dans l'espace qu'un trou noir, il y a du souci à se faire ! Un roman essentiel sur l'Univers avec les découvertes de Stephen Hawking.

  18. Aqueous neem extract versus neem powder on Culex quinquefasciatus: implications for control in anthropogenic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudom, Andreas A; Mensah, Ben A; Botchey, Mary A

    2011-01-01

    Control programs using conventional insecticides to target anthropogenic mosquito habitats are very expensive because these habitats are widespread, particularly in cities of most African countries. Additionally, there are serious environmental concerns regarding large-scale application of most conventional insecticides. Clearly there is a need for alternative methods that are more effective, less expensive, and environmentally friendly. One such method would be the application of preparations made from parts of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu (Sapindales: Meliaceae). In this study, aqueous crude extracts and crude powder were prepared from different parts of neem, and the efficacies of the preparations on juvenile stages of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) were evaluated in the laboratory. When larvae were exposed to a concentration of 0.1 g/mL extract for 24 hours, percent mean mortality (± SE) was 72.7 plusmn; 1.8 for the bark, 68.7 ± 1.6 for fruits and 60 ± 1.6 for leaves. These means were not significantly different (χ(2) = 4.12; df = 2; p = 0.127). At a concentration of 0.01 g/mL, > 95% of the larvae died within 24 hours of exposure to powdered neem leaf, but it took 120 hours to reach the same level of larval mortality in aqueous leaf extract. The crude extract slowly inhibited the growth and development of mosquitoes while the crude powder acted more as a barrier; the mosquitoes probably died from suffocation. However, both types of preparations can be made and used by local people to control mosquito breeding in anthropogenic habitats, especially in urbanized areas.

  19. Ethnomedicine: Applications of Neem (Azadirachta indica in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnomedicine is the study of traditional medicines having relevant written sources (Ayurveda, traditional Chinese Medicine as well as those whose knowledge and practices have been orally transmitted over the centuries. The Neem tree (Azadirachta indica has been known as the wonder tree for centuries in the Indian subcontinent. It has become important in the global context today because it offers solutions to the multiple concerns faced by mankind. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property and the broad range of biologic activities and pharmacologic actions of Neem tree are very well established. Although literature search reveals that Neem tree has multiple potential uses in dentistry, its application is limited in routine dental practice. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on the potential and immense uses of Neem tree products for oral care, which forms a critical issue in both developing countries where professional dental care is limited and in developed nations where populations are aging.

  20. Biodegradable polymer based encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion for controlled release of Aza-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Sureshkumar, R S; Anjali, C H; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-11-06

    Azadirachtin a biological compound found in neem have medicinal and pesticidal properties. The present work reports on the encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion using sodium alginate (Na-Alg) by cross linking with glutaraldehyde. Starch and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as coating agents for smooth surface of beads. The SEM images showed beads exhibited nearly spherical shape. Swelling of the polymeric beads reduced with coating which in turn decreased the rate of release of Aza-A. Starch coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion was found to be effective when compared to PEG coated encapsulation of neem oil nanoemulsion. The release rate of neem Aza-A from the beads into an aqueous environment was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometer (214 nm). The encapsulated neem oil nanoemulsion have the potential for controlled release of Aza-A. Neem oil nanoemulsion encapsulated beads coated with PEG was found to be toxic in lymphocyte cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of neem-based insecticides on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOILM.GREENBERG; ALLANT.SHOWLER; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    Three commercial neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]-based insecticides, Agroneem, Ecozin, and Neemix, and a non-commercial neem leaf powder,were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect on larvae, and toxicity to eggs and larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),on cotton leaves in the laboratory. Oviposition deterrence in no-choice, and two- and fivechoice assays, was observed for the neem-based insecticide treatments when compared with a non-treated control. Neem-based insecticides also deterred feeding by beet armyworm larvae. Direct contact with neem-based insecticides decreased the survival of beet armyworm eggs. Survival of beet armyworm larvae fed for 7 days on leaves treated with neembased insecticides was reduced to 27, 33, 60, and 61% for neem leaf powder, Ecozin,Agroneem, and Neemix, respectively. Possibilities for adoption of neem-based insecticides in commercial cotton for beet armyworm control are discussed.

  2. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(Diptera:Culicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balamurugan Chandramohan Kadarkarai Murugan Pari Madhiyazhagan Kalimuthu Kovendan Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar Chellasamy Panneerselvam Devakumar Dinesh Jayapal Subramaniam Rajapandian Rajaganesh Marcello Nicoletti Angelo Canale Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(An.culicifacies).Methods...

  3. A first chronology for the NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Rasmussen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05 from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the Electrical Conductivity Measurement (ECM and Dielectrical Profiling (DEP records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide additional horizons used for the time scale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard–Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age–gas age difference (Δage has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification–heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onsets of interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, and based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed, providing the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  4. REVIEW ON NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA: THOUSAND PROBLEMS ONE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pankaj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem has become important in the global context today because it offers answers to the major concerns facing mankind. Azadirachta indica is a fast growing evergreen popular tree found commonly in India, Africa and America. This review gives a bird’s eye view mainly on the biological activity and its preventive-promotive medicinal uses and applications over all this review also tell you that how the “neem is the one solution of thousand problems”, like Antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities.

  5. Use of neem cake as an organic substrate component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursery and greenhouse growers continue to seek materials to decrease costs of plant production while maintaining environmental stewardship. Incorporation of neem cake as a substrate component could potentially impact nitrogen release as a result of altering substrate bacterial activity. The study...

  6. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  7. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,

  8. Physico-Chemical Stability Studies of Neem (Azadirachta indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    stability is not a problem for neem oil in a vanishing cream base formulation. Keywords: ... widely distributed in many countries of the world, it is believed that Indians .... application for the data at first month of determination and 12th month.

  9. Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2), Neeme Järvi / Werner Pfister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pfister, Werner

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch. Orchesterlieder (Vol. 2): Sechs Romanzen op. 21, Sechs Gedichte op. 143a, Suite auf Verse von Michelangelo Buonarroti op. 145a. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 447 085-2 (WD: 71'06") DDD

  10. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulce

  11. Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71, Neeme Järvi / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71 [World Premiere REcording of the Complete Score]. Hochzeitmarsch aus der Musik zum Drama Die Sprache der Vögel [Wedding March "The Language of the Birds"]. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Ccenter CD 502 (WD:68'28") DDD

  12. Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71, Neeme Järvi / Rainer Wagner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wagner, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Scaramouche op. 71 [World Premiere REcording of the Complete Score]. Hochzeitmarsch aus der Musik zum Drama Die Sprache der Vögel [Wedding March "The Language of the Birds"]. Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Ccenter CD 502 (WD:68'28") DDD

  13. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Extraction of the residual bitter component (neem seed cake alcoholic extract) ... for 6 h as described by modified method of Mitra (1963) to remove ... Daily feed intake was measured, as decrease in the quantity of weighed ...

  14. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  15. Neeme Külm: esmakordselt on kunstnikud seljatanud meie muuseumi maja / Neeme Külm ; intervjueerinud Anna-Liisa Villmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Külm, Neeme, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumi üks asutajaid ja tehniline direktor Neeme Külm 22. augustini 2010 avatud Anders Härmi kureeritud näitusest "Next to Nothing" (15 osalejat loetletud), oma tööst "Alasi" näitusel, tööstusarhitektuurist muuseumipinnana, EKKM-i kontseptsioonis toimunud muutustest, praegusest muuseumist ja tulevikuplaanidest

  16. Neem Limonoids as Anticancer Agents: Modulation of Cancer Hallmarks and Oncogenic Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile medicinal plants, widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Neem is a rich source of limonoids that are endowed with potent medicinal properties predominantly antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Azadirachtin, gedunin, and nimbolide are more extensively investigated relative to other neem limonoids. Accumulating evidence indicates that the anticancer effects of neem limonoids are mediated through the inhibition of hallmark capabilities of cancer such as cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, inflammation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The neem limonoids have been demonstrated to target oncogenic signaling kinases and transcription factors chiefly, NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Neem limonoids that target multiple pathways that are aberrant in cancer are ideal candidates for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cosmologie l'univers avant le Big Bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Larousserie, David

    2003-01-01

    Tout n'a pas commencé par une explosion. L'histoire du cosmos avait débuté bien avant le Big Bang, si l'on suit la théorie défendue par les partisans d'une nouvelle cosmologie issue de la mystérieuse théorie des cords. A l'heure où vacillent les scénarios classiques du XXe siècle, se prépare un grand chamboulement de nos idées sur la naissance de l'Univers et son devenir, sur l'existence possible d'univers parallèles.

  18. Det børnelitterære digitale univers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Pia Maria

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kigger på et udsnit af den mangfoldighed af genrer, der findes i det børnelitterære digitale univers.Der skelnes i artiklen mellem digital og digitaliseret børnelitteratur og graden af interaktion med læseren. Ved at foretage denne skelnen er det muligt at se nærmere på forskelle og...... ligheder mellem den trykte børnelitteratur og genrerne i den digitale børnelitteratur....

  19. Mortality Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by neem and citronella oils

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Camila Renata Gonçalves; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Mikami, Adriana Yatie; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Pissinati, Aline; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Piva, Leonardo Boiani; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Santos, Odair José Andrade Pais; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Ventura, Maurício Ursi; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2013-01-01

    The effects of neem oil and citronela essential oil, alone or associated on Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) were studied. Three bioassays were achieved. For the first study, treatments were neem oil (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9%.) and control (water). In the second bioassay, treatments were citronella oil (5, 10 15 and 20%) emulsified with coconut soap and control [coconut soap and water (10g / L)]. For the third bioassay, treatments were neem oil and citronella essential oil (1 and 3%), associated or n...

  20. L'Univers dans une coquille de noix

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Après Une brève histoire du temps et Trous noirs et bébés univers, Stephen Hawking fait le point sur les stupéfiantes percées théoriques qui ont eu lieu depuis la publication de son précédent livre. Avec le style à la fois érudit et accessible qui le caractérise, il nous fait découvrir tour à tour la relativité einsteinienne, le principe d'incertitude, la mécanique quantique, les cinq théories des cordes, la théorie M et les mystérieuses p-branes - voie d'accès, peut-être, au Graal de la physique : la " théorie de tout ". Nous faisant partager l'enthousiasme croissant de la communauté scientifique, il nous guide, telle Alice au pays des merveilles, à travers un univers à onze dimensions qui ne correspond peut-être qu'à l'une des innombrables histoires alternatives dans lesquelles les trous noirs s'évaporent, les supercordes s'enroulent sur elles-mêmes et des univers parallèles se contractent jusqu'à disparaître.

  1. La plénitude de l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Bohm, David

    1987-01-01

    "Selon les calculs de Bohm, chaque centimètre cube d'espace vide contient plus d'énergie que ce qu'on pourrait trouver dans toute la matière de l'univers connu. L'univers entier, tel que nous le connaissons, n'est qu'une simple petite trace d'excitation quantifiée en forme de vague, une ride dans cet immense océan d'énergie cosmique. C'est cet arrière-plan énergétique caché qui engendre les projections tridimensionnelles constituant le monde phénoménal que nous percevons dans notre vie de tous les jours... " N'importe quel événement, objet ou entité, observable et descriptible, quel qu'il soit, est abstrait, d'un flux uni, indéfinissable et inconnu, le holomouvement... " David Bohm offre une nouvelle vision globale du monde qui représente une révision radicale de l'image de l'univers découlant de la science traditionnelle. Bien qu'inspiré à l'origine par les paradoxes de la physique quantique relativiste, son modèle offre de profondes implications concernant un vaste éventail de discipl...

  2. Experimental Analysis of Performance and Emission Parameters of Neem Oil Ethyl Ester and HHO Gas Addition with Neem Oil Ethyl Ester in a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    .... Present work is focussed on analysing experimentally the performance and emission characteristics of Neem oil biodiesel and addition of HHO gas along with Neem oil biodiesel in a single cylinder...

  3. Antibacterial activity of neem nanoemulsion and its toxicity assessment on human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerobin, Jayakumar; Makwana, Pooja; Suresh Kumar, R S; Sundaramoorthy, Rajiv; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity studies on human cells are still lacking. The neem NE showed a decrease in cellular viability in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of exposure. The neem NE at lower concentration (0.7-1 mg/mL) is found to be nontoxic while it is toxic at higher concentrations (1.2-2 mg/mL). The oxidative stress induced by the neem NE is evidenced by the depletion of catalase, SOD, and GSH levels in human lymphocytes. Neem NE showed a significant increase in DNA damage when compared to control in human lymphocytes (P<0.05). The NE is an effective antibacterial agent against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus, and it was found to be nontoxic at lower concentrations to human lymphocytes.

  4. Use of plant residues on growth of mycorrhizal seedlings of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte Júnior, Inácio P; Maia, Leonor C; Silva, Fábio S B; Cavalcante, Uided M T

    2012-02-01

    Owing to its multiple uses in veterinary medicine, biofertilizers, pest control, etc., the commercial cultivation of neem (Azadirachta indica) has been increasing in various countries. The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant by-products (composted leaves and residues of neem and sugarcane) for the propagation of seedlings can be an efficient alternative to stimulate plant growth, reducing the propagation time and conferring increased tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant substrates and inoculation with AMF on the production of neem seedlings. Beneficial effects of the application of neem by-products to neem seedlings were observed on most of the variables analysed. However, the treatment with sugarcane cake did not improve the growth of neem seedlings. In general, the inoculation treatments using Glomus etunicatum in the composted neem substrates improved seedling growth. Neem by-products benefit the growth of seedlings of this plant under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with G. etunicatum enhances plants growth mainly in substrates with residues of neem leaves, providing an alternative for the production of seedlings of this crop under nursery conditions, which can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers that impact the environment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The use of Neem biomass for the biosorption of zinc from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Mamoona [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Bioprocess Technology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box 577, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: MNadeem.Zafar@analykem.lu.se; Younis, Sadaf; Nadeem, Raziya [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    An adsorbent was developed from mature leaves and stem bark of the Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree for removing zinc from water. Adsorption was carried out in a batch process with several different concentrations of zinc by varying pH. The uptake of metal was very fast initially, but gradually slowed down indicating penetration into the interior of the adsorbent particles. The data showed that optimum pH for efficient biosorption of zinc by Neem leaves and stem bark was 4 and 5, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity showed that the Neem biomass had a mass capacity for zinc (147.08 mg Zn/g for Neem leaves and 137.67 mg Zn/g Neem bark). The experimental results were analyzed in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic assessment of the metal ion-Neem tree biomass system indicated the feasibility and spontaneous nature of the process and {delta}G{sup o} values were evaluated as ranging from -26.84 to -32.75 (Neem leaves) kJ/mol and -26.04 to -29.50 (Neem bark) kJ/mol for zinc biosorption. Due to its outstanding zinc uptake capacity, the Neem tree was proved to be an excellent biomaterial for accumulating zinc from aqueous solutions.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica: MELIACEAE EXTRACTS AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván OSPINA SALAZAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis. Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitosSe determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  7. 40 CFR 180.1161 - Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1161 Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil...

  8. Ovicidal activity of neem products (azadirachtin) against Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, T; Mulla, M S

    1998-06-01

    Bioactive compounds contained in the seed kernel and other parts of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) have been found to show insecticidal activities and other effects in many species of insects. These activities include antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression, male sterility, oviposition repellency, changes in biological fitness such as loss of flying ability, immunodepression, enzyme inhibition, splitting of biological rhythms, and so forth. We investigated the ovicidal effects of various formulations of azadrirachtin (AZ) against the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The formulations tested were wettable powder Azad WP10, emulsifiable concentrate Azad EC4.5, and technically pure AZ. The ovicidal activity of the test neem products was influenced by concentration of AZ, age of the egg rafts, and age of the neem preparations. Other factors such as formulation and mosquito species were also involved in the degree of ovicidal activity. When the egg rafts were deposited directly in fresh neem suspension and left there for 4 h before transfer to untreated water, 1 ppm of AZ produced almost 100% mortality in eggs. When egg rafts aged for 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were exposed to 10 ppm neem suspensions for 36 h, the ovicidal activity was only attained in the egg rafts deposited directly (0 h old) in the neem suspension, not in those with ages of 4-24 h. On aging, depending on the formulations and mosquito species, the neem suspensions at 1 ppm completely lost ovicidal activity within 7-20 days. The egg rafts of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the test neem products than those of Cx. tarsalis. The formulated neem products were more persistent and effective than the technical AZ. The wettable powder (WP) formulation was slightly more persistent and effective than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The ovicidal activity of the neem products against mosquitoes from the current research clearly demonstrated

  9. Deformation of Eemian and Glacial ice at NEEM, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Kaitlin; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Montagnat, Maurine; Weikusat, Ilka; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2015-04-01

    New findings from deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images show that basal ice flow is very unstable, and a basal layer of disturbed ice is often observed. At NEEM, Greenland this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, suggesting that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy (Burke, 1957) and ice (Hammer et al., 1978; Langway et al., 1988; Dahl-Jensen et al., 1997), suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution, and therefore deformation, which we hypothesize to be analogous to the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  10. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  11. BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND MICROPROPAGATION STUDIES ON NEEM FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithviraj Bhandare

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value , free fatty acid, saponification value, flash point and fire point which were estimated for selection of the elite neem biotype. The best shoot regeneration (60%-80% was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with naphthalene acetic acid NAA (0.2-0.4 mg/L and benzyl amino purine BAP (0.2-0.4 mg/L. Root induction (80% was successfully obtained in MS medium supplemented with IBA (0.05 mg/L and IAA (0.05 mg/L. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with survival rate of 60%.

  12. Aqueous extract of neem leaves in treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A double blind clinical drug trial was conducted to see the efficacy of an indigenous drug made up of aqueous extract of Neem leaves in 50 cases of uncomplicated psoriasis taking conventional coal tar regime. Patients taking drug in addition to coal tar had shown a quicker and better response in comparison to placebo group. No any untoward effect was noticed during the period of trial. Probable mode of action is discussed.

  13. Une invitation au voyage dans l'univers

    CERN Multimedia

    Garay, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    "Philippe de la Catardière, écrivain et journaliste originaire de Priay, publie un essai chez l'Archipel. "Comsmologie à usage du piéton". Il vulgarise pour le grand public les connaissances sur le ciel et l'étude de l'univers. Sa passion pour l'astronomie est née dans son enfance en regardant les ciels étoilés... elle ne l'a plus quitté" (2 pages)

  14. Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Sanders, Alan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sanders, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 520 - 2GH Grieg: Land Sighting, Op.32, Olav Trygvason, Op.50, Per Gynt Suites N1,Op.46, N2,Op.55. Randi Stene, Anne Gjevang, Hakan Hagegard, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 523 - 2 GH

  15. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayan

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The result concluded that Neem oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with more lecithin content in their colloid exhibit sustained effect which satisfactorily produced the antibacterial action on Acne microbes. Therefore Neem oil loaded SLN was used successfully for prolonged treatment of Acne.

  16. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  17. Mechanism of neem limonoids-induced cell death in cancer: Role of oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Neelu; Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Rahul; Srivastava, Pragya; Sun, Leimin; Rapali, Peter; Marlowe, Timothy; Schneider, Andrea; Inigo, Joseph R; O'Malley, Jordan; Londonkar, Ramesh; Gogada, Raghu; Chaudhary, Ajay K; Yadava, Nagendra; Chandra, Dhyan

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that neem limonoids (neem) induce multiple cancer cell death pathways. Here we dissect the underlying mechanisms of neem-induced apoptotic cell death in cancer. We observed that neem-induced caspase activation does not require Bax/Bak channel-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, permeability transition pore, and mitochondrial fragmentation. Neem enhanced mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biomass. While oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex-I activity was decreased, the activities of other OXPHOS complexes including Complex-II and -IV were unaltered. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were associated with an increase in mitochondrial biomass and apoptosis upon neem exposure. Complex-I deficiency due to the loss of Ndufa1-encoded MWFE protein inhibited neem-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, but cell death induction was enhanced. Complex II-deficiency due to the loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit C (SDHC) robustly decreased caspase activation, apoptosis, and cell death. Additionally, the ablation of Complexes-I, -III, -IV, and -V together did not inhibit caspase activation. Together, we demonstrate that neem limonoids target OXPHOS system to induce cancer cell death, which does not require upregulation or activation of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Sanders, Alan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sanders, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Grieg: Works for String Orchestra. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 520 - 2GH Grieg: Land Sighting, Op.32, Olav Trygvason, Op.50, Per Gynt Suites N1,Op.46, N2,Op.55. Randi Stene, Anne Gjevang, Hakan Hagegard, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. CD 437 523 - 2 GH

  19. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formentini, M A; Alves, L F A; Schapovaloff, M E

    2016-01-01

    Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul) is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality), demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  20. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  1. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  2. Content of trace elements and chromium speciation in Neem powder and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Total concentrations of selected trace elements in Neem powder and in Neem tea were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that despite high total concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Al and Ni in Neem powder, their amounts dissolved in Neem tea were low. Total concentrations of the other toxic elements Pb, As and Cd were also very low and do not represent a health hazard. In contrast, total concentrations of the essential elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Se Mo and Cr in Neem powder were high and also considerable in Neem tea. Consuming one cup of Neem tea (2g per 200 mL of water) covers the recommended daily intakes for Cr and Se and represents an important source of Mo and Cu. Speciation analysis of Cr by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS with the use of enriched Cr isotopic tracers to follow species interconversions during the analytical procedure demonstrated that toxic Cr(VI) was not present either in Neem powder or in Neem tea. Its concentrations were below the limits of detection of the HPLC-ICP-MS procedure applied. The speciation analysis data confirmed that even Cr(VI) was added, it was rapidly reduced by the presence of antioxidants in Neem leaves. By the use of enriched Cr isotopic spike solutions it was also demonstrated that for obtaining reliable analytical data it is essential to apply the extraction procedures which prevent Cr species interconversions, or to correct for species transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  4. Sustainable management of root-knot disease of tomato by neem cake and Glomus fasciculatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted during winter season of 2009–2010 in the department of Botany, AMU, Aligarh, India, to determine the nematicidal potential of organic matter, neem cake at third level of dose, and bioagent, Glomus fasciculatum in terms of various growth parameters of tomato, when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly with respect to root-knot development. Neem cake and G. fasciculatum showed potential for sustainable management while providing nutrient sources for proper plant growth. Disease intensity of root-knot nematode decreased while increasing the doses of neem cake along with the G. fasciculatum. Chlorophyll contents have been found to be increased in single and combined application as well. There is a progressive increase in growth parameters raised in soil amended with 10, 20, and 30 g neem cake/kg soil and inoculated with G. fasciculatum. Significant improvement in the plant growth was observed when G. fasciculatum and neem cake were inoculated simultaneously. Neem cake plus G. fasciculatum reduced the nematodes’ multiplication and root-galling, and increased the plant growth of tomato as compared to unamended and Meloidogyne incognita-inoculated plants. Mycorrhyzation and agronomic parameters were increased due to application of G. fasciculatum alone, but enhanced further when inoculated with neem cake.

  5. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed.

  6. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPOSOMAL NEEM GEL

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    ASMITA SINGH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Liposomal formulations have been successfully used in the treatment of a number of dermatological diseases. Various synthetic as well as herbal drugs are incorporated into liposome to improve its efficacy. Incorporation of herbal extract into liposome reduces side effects which are associated with the synthetic ones. Azadirachta indica leaves possesse good anti bacterial activity, confirming the great potential of bioactive compounds of neem. Among aqueous extract and alcoholic extract, alcoholic leaf extracts of A. indica were found to be more active towards the bacterial species. Hence, this extract was incorporated into liposomes to enhance its activity in skin delivery. The objective of the present research work is to convert this age old miraculous herb into nanotechnology based formulations i.e. liposomes. An attempt has been made to prepare liposomal Neem gel for topical use for anti-microbial activity. Methods: Methanolic Neem Extract (MeNE was incorporated into liposomes by thin film hydration method. The batch having lipid ratio i.e. Soya lecithin: Cholesterol (4:1; MeNE concentration 80 mg with entrapment efficiency 69.52 ±1.9% was finalized. Results and Conclusions: The vesicle size was found to be 3.2μm ± 0.67. In vitro drug diffusion and skin retention from liposomal gel was found to be 62.178% ± 0.91 and 20.03% ± 0.63 respectively. Stability studies indicated that formulation was stable over a period of 3 months when stored at 2-8°C.

  8. Sublethal effect of neem extract on mediterranean fruit fly adults

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    Márcio Alves Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effect of extracts of Azadirachta indica on Ceratitis capitata was evaluated. Two pairs of flies were treated in plastic tubes with cotton placed in plastic cages. An artificial diet (hydrolyzed protein + sugar was provided ad libitum. The extracts affected significantly the longevity of C. capitata. The pre-oviposition period were not significantly affected by the extracts. The A. indica branches extracted with dichloromethane (888 ppm affected significantly the fecundity and fertility, reducing the number of eggs laid to approximately 80 % and the egg hatching by 30 % at the 8th day. Therefore, the neem branches extracted with dichloromethane affected the reproduction of C. capitata.

  9. Neem (Azadirachta indica):Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venugopalan Santhosh Kumar; Visweswaran Navaratnam

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80%of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world’s population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  10. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

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    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  11. The preparation of neem oil microemulsion (Azadirachta indica) and the comparison of acaricidal time between neem oil microemulsion and other formulations in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Fan, Qiao-Jia; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Geng, Yi; Su, Gang; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ting-Xiu; Shi, Fei; Zhang, Li; Wu, Chang-Long; Tao, Cui; Zhang, Ya-Xue; Shi, Dong-Xia

    2010-05-11

    The preparation of neem oil microemulsion and its acaricidal activity in vitro was developed in this study. In these systems, the mixture of Tween-80 and the sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) (4:1, by weight) was used as compound surfactant; the mixture of compound surfactant and hexyl alcohol (4:1, by weight) was used as emulsifier system; the mixture of neem oil, emulsifier system and water (1:3.5:5.5, by weight) was used as neem oil microemulsion. All the mixtures were stired in 800 rpm for 15 min at 40 degrees C. The acaricidal activity was measured by the speed of kill. The whole lethal time value of 10% neem oil microemulsion was 192.50 min against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. The median lethal time value was 81.7463 min with the toxicity regression equations of Y=-6.0269+3.1514X. These results demonstrated that neem oil microemulsion was effective against Sarcoptes scabie var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Neeme Järvi / Joachim Salau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salau, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Kantate zum 20. Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op.74, Auszüge aus Das Märchen von der steinernen Blume. Gennadij Roshdestwenskij (Sprecher), Philharmonia Chorus, Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9095

  13. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... The rooted plants were transplanted to pots for hardening. Key words: .... Plant regeneration in neem was reported ..... induce shoot differentiation and complete plantlet development ... Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult., 34: 13-18.

  14. Effect of Neem containing Toothpaste on Plaque and Gingivitis--A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, K N; Supreetha, S; Sam, George; Khan, S Nubesh; Chaithanya, K H; Abdul, Nishad

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the effect of toothpaste containing neem on plaque and gingivitis. Randomized, double blind clinical trial was designed. Thirty first year dental students volunteered to participate in the study. Neem containing tooth paste was used as an intervention. Clinical examination was carried out using Silness and Loe plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index (GI). Independent t-test and paired t-test was used for the intergroup and the intragroup comparison. Out of 30 participants, 22 (73.3%) were females and eight (26.7%) were males. A statistically significant difference was found between the test and control group after intervention with respect to the PI and GI. Neem containing toothpaste can be used as an adjunct for maintenance of oral hygiene. Regular brushing with neem toothpaste might act as an adjunct to maintenance of good oral hygiene, and thus improve oral health.

  15. Action of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on cocoon spinning in Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is a biopesticide that disturbs the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems of pests and may interfere with molting, metamorphosis and cocoon spinning. The cocoon serves protective functions for the pupa during metamorphosis, and these functions are dependent on cocoon structure. To assess the changes in cocoon spinning caused by neem oil ingestion, Ceraeochrysa claveri larvae, a common polyphagous predator, were fed with neem oil throughout the larval period. When treated with neem oil, changes were observed on the outer and inner surfaces of the C. claveri cocoon, such as decreased wall thickness and impaired ability to attach to a substrate. These negative effects may reduce the effectiveness of the mechanical and protective functions of cocoons during pupation, which makes the specimen more vulnerable to natural enemies and environmental factors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPACT OF MONOCROTOPHOS AND NEEM OIL MIXTURE ON DEFOLIATOR MANGMENT IN GROUNDNUT

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    K SAHAYARAJ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrated effect of intercropping, a synthetic pesticide (monocrotopas (M and neem based biopesticide (neem oil - 2% (NO on three-groundnut defoliators damage and also the groundnut production was studied. The monocrotopas and neem oil combination was found to be very effective in reducing the defoliator infestation. Defoliator’s incidence was signifi cantly higher in untreated plots, resulting in signifi cantly lower yield (1539.03 Kg h-1. The groundnut yield was increased (2011.18 Kg h-1 when monocrotophos and neem oil mixture was applied than monocrotophos (1877.77 Kg h-1 and control categories. The estimated avoidable groundnut and black gram yield loss were lower in monocrotopas.

  17. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  18. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  19. Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, Neeme Järvi / Gerhard Pätzig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pätzig, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, (Vorspiel und Konzertsuiten zu Shakespeares Drama), Cassazione, Op.6, Preludio, Tiera. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". BIS/ Disco-Center CD 448 71'43") DDD

  20. Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, Neeme Järvi / Gerhard Pätzig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pätzig, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Der Sturm, Op. 109, (Vorspiel und Konzertsuiten zu Shakespeares Drama), Cassazione, Op.6, Preludio, Tiera. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". BIS/ Disco-Center CD 448 71'43") DDD

  1. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  2. Lethal and sublethal effects of neem on Aphis gossypii and Cycloneda sanguinea in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Ribeiro Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oil extract of neem, Azadirachta indica, on the watermelon aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemy Cycloneda sanguinea. Toxicity bioassays were conducted with the commercial product DalNeem (1,475 g L-1 azadirachtin at 0.0037 µg a.i. mL-1, 0.0074 µg a.i. mL-1 and 0.0148 µg a.i. mL-1, Malathion at 1 µg a.i. mL-1 and distilled water as a control treatment. The products were sprayed to watermelon leaf discs, and the insects were exposed to the product residues. The instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii and the survival of C. sanguinea larvae exposed to the different treatments were calculated. A decrease in the instantaneous population growth rate of A. gossypii with increasing concentrations of neem was observed, and the aphids did not reproduce on the leaf discs treated with malathion during the first 24 hours of exposure due to its rapid lethal effect on adult insects. The larvae of the predator C. sanguinea exposed to malathion survived only for 24 hours. The survival of the predator exposed to different concentrations of neem was also significantly reduced compared to the predators exposed only to water. However, laboratory experiments may overestimate the effect of neem on predators because the individuals cannot employ escape behavior caused by neem repellency.

  3. Ultra structural study of the rat cheek epithelium treated with Neem extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Khatoon, Nasira; Ghaffar, Rizwana Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of neem extract (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the ultrastructure of the rat oral epithelium, because neem extract has been added in the tooth paste as an anti-plaque-forming substance in Asian countries. The non-toxic dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight of Neem extract (NBE) was applied daily to the surface of buccal epithelium for four weeks and controls did not receive Neem extract. After four weeks cheek epithelial tissues were excised and processed for light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy did not show significant differences between NBE-treated and control epithelium. Difference between control and treated rats weight was non-significant. Moreover, time period was also non-significant. Irregular cell surfaces were noticed when compared to control specimens when examined by scanning electron microscopy. Under transmission electron microscopy, wider intercellular spaces were observed in the treated epithelial spinous cellular layers when compared to control. Further, more keratohyalin granules were present in experimental granular cells. It was concluded that present study showed differences between Neem-treated and control in epithelial tissues but these structural differences may not be related to adverse side effects of the Neem extract.

  4. Antibacterial Efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Extract against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Debridement and disinfection of the root canal is a crucial step in the success of endodontic treatment. Several antimicrobial agents alone or in combination are used to achieve this. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Neem leaf extract, 2% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite were used to assess the antimicrobial efficiency. Agar well diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial efficacy with saline as control. The zone of inhibition was recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically with the help of IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences statistics version 20 using analysis of variance test. All the three medicaments showed well-defined and comparable zones of inhibition around their respective wells. All values were significantly higher than the control group. Analysis of variance showed significant difference between zone diameters of chlorhexidine, neem leaf extract, and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis (p neem leaf extract shows comparable zones of inhibition with that of chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Neem leaf extract has significant antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis and thus opens the perspectives for the use of neem extract as an intracanal medication.

  5. Efficacy evaluation of a commercial neem cake for control of Haematobia irritans on Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Calura, Fernando Henrique; Ferrenzini, Jenifer; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de

    2010-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg(-1)) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg(-1)) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.

  6. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  9. Formulation and characterization of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded Neem oil for topical treatment of acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Vijayan; Shaik Aafreen; S. Sakthivel; K. Ravindra Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the treatment of acne and pimples as well as improves skin elasticity by solid lipid nanoparticles(SLNs) loadedNeem oil.Method:Neem oil as a natural agent was incorporated intoSLNs prepared by double emulsification method using different concentration of lecithin andTween80.The characteristics ofSLNs with different concentration of lipid were investigated.Result:The average particlesize ofNeem oil loadedSLNs decreased with increasing concentration of surfactant.SLNs of(221.6±2.0) nm with aPolydispersity index of (0.948±0.040) were obtained at higher concentration of lipid and surfactant.High entrapment efficiency of82.10% revealed the ability of solid lipid nanoparticles to incorporate a high quantity ofNeem oil.Furthermore the stability ofSLNs indicated with negligible drug leakage after3 weeks.Conclusion:The result concluded thatNeem oil loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with more lecithin content in their colloid exhibit sustained effect which satisfactorily produced the antibacterial action onAcne microbes.ThereforeNeem oil loadedSLN was used successfully for prolonged treatment ofAcne.

  10. An extract of neem leaves reduces anxiety without causing motor side effects in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxter, K A; Young, L E; Young, R E; Parshad, O; Addae, J

    2010-06-01

    Anxiety modulation often requires pharmaceutical intervention, and though effective in the short-term, benzodiazepines may cause impaired motor function. As a potential alternative, anxiety-modulating effects of a neem leaf (Azadirachta indica, A Juss) extract were investigated using ethological analysis of rat behaviour on an elevated X maze and compared with diazepam treatment. Sexually immature female Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.07 or 7 mg/kg neem leaf steroidal extract, a sham injection, a 1% DMSO/saline vehicle, 2 mg/kg diazepam or no treatment one hour prior to a recorded five-minute exploration of the elevated X maze. Neem matched diazepam in anxiety reduction as both treatments caused a decrease in per cent protected stretched-attend postures (PPSAP). Neem treatment had no effect on closed arm entries or total rears, distinguishing it pharmacologically from diazepam which resulted in a predictable decrease in those locomotor measures. Whereas both neem and diazepam reduced anxiety in complex ethological behavioural indices, only neem produced anxiolysis without motor deficiency.

  11. Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk., and Organoleptic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The neem tree contains promising pest control substances which are effective against many pests. Oil extracted from neem seeds was used against cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi, a severe and economic pest of cardamom. Neem oil formulations, namely, Tamil Nadu Agricultural univeristy neem oil (TNAU NO (acetic acid & citric acid, were found effective against the pest with a overall damage reduction of 30% after 14 days of treatment. The percent damage reduction in capsules over control after three consecutive sprays of TNAU NO(C 2% and TNAU NO(A 2% was 78.3 and 75.2 percent, respectively. The newly extracted and unformulated neem oil, though found inferior to the formulated one, still found to cause 50% and 70% reduction in damage caused by thrips at two and three rounds of sprays, making it useful in pest management. Organoleptic tests conducted on cardamom capsules sprayed with neem oil revealed no significant difference in taste, aroma, and overall acceptability of cow milk boiled with cardamom. Thus, TNAU NO (A and C 2% was found effective against cardamom thrips with no adverse organoleptic properties and can be recommended.

  12. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-06

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  13. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  14. Effect of commercial neem extract NeemAzal-T/S on controlling leafminer Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae in comparison with common synthetic insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baniameri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Serpentine leaf miner is one of the serious pests of vegetable crops in greenhouse and open fields, especially on cucumber and tomato. Reduction of synthetic insecticides’ use in order to minimize pesticide residues on these crops is an important basis of food safety. Application of bio-insecticides, especially neem products’ oil, is a very important alternative. Investigation on the efficacy of the commercial neem extract formulation with different concentrations was experimented on cucumber under greenhouse conditions. In the first year, experiments were performed in a completely randomized blocks design with six treatments and three replications. Five treatments included various concentrations of NeemAzal-T/S including 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 1.5 ml/m2 and the sixth one was control without any chemicals. The results showed that on the third and seventh day of the treatment with concentrations of 0.75, 1 and 1.5 ml/m2, more than 80% mortality was observed, which shows a significant difference with 0.25 and 0.5 ml/m2 treatments. In the second year, the efficiency of two concentrations (1 and 1.5 ml/m2 of NeemAzal-T/S was evaluated in comparison with chlorpyrifos, abamectin and permethrin. Results revealed that efficiency of the two neem concentrations had no significant difference compared with chlorpirophos and abamectin. Therefore, it could be concluded that NeemAzal-T/S could be successfully recommended to replace the chemical insecticides.

  15. Si tu devais me dessiner l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Saison-Marsollier, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel; Goldberg, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Le CERN a lancé en 2014 un concours de dessins dans les classes de primaire des villes des environs : les enfants étaient invités à s’interroger sur l’Univers, la matière et le métier de chercheur. Le succès de l’opération a été tel qu’il a été décidé d’en faire un livre que l’enseignant pourra parcourir en classe avec ses élèves, discuter avec eux des questions et découvrir ensemble les réponses. Le livre est en effet construit ainsi : sur une double page la question que s’est posée l’enfant et le dessin l’illustrant trouvent leur réponse sur la page d’en face, via un court texte écrit par le chercheur référent (Michel Spiro), qu’accompagne une citation tirée du domaine culturel, destinée à montrer les passerelles entre science, littérature et philosophie. Exemples de questions : Qu’y avait-il avant le Big Bang ? Les chercheurs sont-ils des personnes comme les autres ? Pourquoi les lois de la physique ne changent-elles pas ? Peut-on attraper les particules ?...

  16. Einstein dans l'Univers - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l'Année internationale de la physique, la section de physique de l'Université de Genève organise une série de conférences pour les non-initiés. Chacune des conférences débute par une démonstration de détection de rayons cosmiques dans l'auditoire et l'utilisation de ces signaux venus du fond de l'Univers pour créer une « musique cosmique », en collaboration avec le Professeur Ellberger du Conservatoire de musique de Genève. La cinquième conférence, donnée par le professeur Michele Maggiore de l'Université de Genève, s'intéresse à l'une des contributions les plus remarquables d'Einstein, la relativité générale. L'une des prédictions de cette théorie est l'existence des ondes gravitationnelles, véritables vibrations de l'espace-temps qui peuve...

  17. Biodegradable Detergents from Azadirachta Indica (neem Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodegradable detergent from Azadirachta Indica (neem seed oil was studied in this work. The synthesized detergent was characterised and compared with commercially available detergents. 33g of biodegradable detergent was produced from 30ml of the oil. In the foamability test, the height of liquid and foam of detergent rose to 3cm in a 250ml beaker thus indicating its effectiveness since it compared favourably with the foam heights of commercial detergents. The surface tension of solution of 5g of the synthesized detergent in 100ml of water determined to be 0.00523 N/m was found to be better that of the commercial detergent of same concentration. The oxygen demand for a solution of the synthesized detergents over a five day period found to be 0.4ppm indicated it was biodegradable.

  18. Neem Oil and Crop Protection: From Now to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Estefânia V. R.; de Oliveira, Jhones L.; Pascoli, Mônica; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. In current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. In this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. However, limitations of biopesticides, including short shelf life, photosensitivity, and volatilization, make it difficult to use them on a large scale. Here, we review the potential use of neem oil in crop protection, considering the gaps and obstacles associated with the development of sustainable agriculture in the not too distant future. PMID:27790224

  19. Neem oil and crop protection: from now to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In current agricultural practices, the control of pests is often accomplished by means of the excessive use of agrochemicals, which can result in environmental pollution and the development of resistant pests. A major challenge of agriculture is to increase food production to meet the needs of the growing world population, without damaging the environment. In this context, biopesticides can offer a better alternative to synthetic pesticides, enabling safer control of pest populations. However, limitations of biopesticides, including short shelf life, photosensitivity, and volatilization, make it difficult to use them on a large scale. Here, we investigate the potential use of neem oil in crop protection, considering the gaps and obstacles associated with the development of sustainable agriculture in the not too distant future.

  20. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used

  1. Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used se

  2. A first chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, S. O.; Abbott, P. M.; Blunier, T.; Bourne, A. J.; Brook, E.; Buchardt, S. L.; Buizert, C.; Chappellaz, J.; Clausen, H. B.; Cook, E.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Davies, S. M.; Guillevic, M.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Laepple, T.; Seierstad, I. K.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Steffensen, J. P.; Stowasser, C.; Svensson, A.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-12-01

    A stratigraphy-based chronology for the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core has been derived by transferring the annual layer counted Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) and its model extension (GICC05modelext) from the NGRIP core to the NEEM core using 787 match points of mainly volcanic origin identified in the electrical conductivity measurement (ECM) and dielectrical profiling (DEP) records. Tephra horizons found in both the NEEM and NGRIP ice cores are used to test the matching based on ECM and DEP and provide five additional horizons used for the timescale transfer. A thinning function reflecting the accumulated strain along the core has been determined using a Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model and an isotope-dependent accumulation rate parameterization. Flow parameters are determined from Monte Carlo analysis constrained by the observed depth-age horizons. In order to construct a chronology for the gas phase, the ice age-gas age difference (Δage) has been reconstructed using a coupled firn densification-heat diffusion model. Temperature and accumulation inputs to the Δage model, initially derived from the water isotope proxies, have been adjusted to optimize the fit to timing constraints from δ15N of nitrogen and high-resolution methane data during the abrupt onset of Greenland interstadials. The ice and gas chronologies and the corresponding thinning function represent the first chronology for the NEEM core, named GICC05modelext-NEEM-1. Based on both the flow and firn modelling results, the accumulation history for the NEEM site has been reconstructed. Together, the timescale and accumulation reconstruction provide the necessary basis for further analysis of the records from NEEM.

  3. Effects of a foliar neem formulation on colonization and mortality of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on collard plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of foliar sprays of a selected neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) product (GOS Neem 7-Way) on colonization and development by the Middle-East Asia Minor-1 (= B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on collard (Brassica oleracea variety...

  4. A study on antioxidant and apoptotic effect of Azadirachta Indica (neem) in cases of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenwala, Shaista M; Seth, Reema; Haider, Nazima; Islam, Najmul; Khan, Tamkin; Maheshwari, Veena; Ur Rehman, Suhail

    2012-11-01

    To study the anti-oxidant properties of neem (Azadirachta indica) in inducing apoptosis of cervical cancer cells and estimation of caspase activity and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in monocytes of cervical cancer patients and controls. Monocytes were cultured from blood samples of 65 study cases and 30 controls for the estimation of caspase 3, 8 and 9 with specific inhibitors and TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in culture supernatant of monocytes. Two cervical biopsies were taken from 18 cases of moderately differentiated SCC. One biopsy was formalin fixed for histopathology and the other for tissue culture was kept in RPMI-1640 medium to evaluate the apoptotic effect of neem extract on malignant cells. Neem-treated monocytes from cervical cancer patients showed high activity levels of caspase 3, 8, and 9. A decrease in TNF-α and an increase in IFN-γ levels was seen in culture supernatant of monocytes. Cyto- and histomorphology of neem-treated cervical cancer cells exhibited increased apoptosis. Neem is a potent inducer of apoptosis in biopsies of cervical cancer patients.

  5. Moisture Sorption Isotherms and Properties of Sorbed Water of Neem ( Azadirichta indica A. Juss) Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngono Mbarga, M. C.; Bup Nde, D.; Mohagir, A.; Kapseu, C.; Elambo Nkeng, G.

    2017-01-01

    A neem tree growing abundantly in India as well as in some regions of Asia and Africa gives fruits whose kernels have about 40-50% oil. This oil has high therapeutic and cosmetic qualities and is recently projected to be an important raw material for the production of biodiesel. Its seed is harvested at high moisture contents, which leads tohigh post-harvest losses. In the paper, the sorption isotherms are determined by the static gravimetric method at 40, 50, and 60°C to establish a database useful in defining drying and storage conditions of neem kernels. Five different equations are validated for modeling the sorption isotherms of neem kernels. The properties of sorbed water, such as the monolayer moisture content, surface area of adsorbent, number of adsorbed monolayers, and the percent of bound water are also defined. The critical moisture content necessary for the safe storage of dried neem kernels is shown to range from 5 to 10% dry basis, which can be obtained at a relative humidity less than 65%. The isosteric heats of sorption at 5% moisture content are 7.40 and 22.5 kJ/kg for the adsorption and desorption processes, respectively. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to give the important parameters necessary for drying and storage of neem kernels, a potential raw material for the production of oil to be used in pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and biodiesel manufacturing.

  6. Neem (Azadirachta indica): An indian traditional panacea with modern molecular basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash Chandra; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-10-15

    For centuries, agents derived from natural sources (mother nature), especially plants have been the primary source of medicine. Neem, also referred to as Azadirachta indica is one such plant that has been so named because it provides freedom from all diseases, and used for thousands of years in Indian and African continents. Different parts of the plant including flowers, leaves, seeds and bark have been used to treat both acute and chronic human diseases; and used as insecticide; antimicrobial, larvicidal, antimalarial, antibacterial, antiviral, and spermicidal. What is there in neem and how it manifests its wide variety of effects is the focus of this review. How neem and its constituents modulate various cellular pathways is discussed. The animal and human studies carried out with neem and its constituents is also discussed. Over 1000 research articles published on neem has uncovered over 300 structurally diverse constituents, one third of which are limonoids including nimbolide, azadarachtin, and gedunin. These agents manifest their effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) mouthrinse in plaque and gingivitis control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, K; Vandana, K L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem)-based herbal mouthrinse in improving plaque control and gingival health. Literature search was accomplished using electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) and manual searching, up to February 2015, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) presenting clinical data for efficacy of neem mouthrinses when used alone or as an adjunct to mechanical oral hygiene as compared to chlorhexidine mouthrinses for controlling plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Of the total 206 articles searched, three randomized controlled trials evaluating neem-based herbal mouthrinses were included. Due to marked heterogeneity observed in study characteristics, meta-analysis was not performed. These studies reported that neem mouthrinse was as effective as chlorhexidine mouthrinse when used as an adjunct to toothbrushing in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in gingivitis patients. However, the quality of reporting and evidence along with methods of studies was generally flawed with unclear risk of bias. Despite the promising results shown in existing randomized controlled trials, the evidence concerning the clinical use of neem mouthrinses is lacking and needs further reinforcement with high-quality randomized controlled trials based on the reporting guidelines of herbal CONSORT statement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  9. Evaluation of anti-plaque microbial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) in vitro: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Abinaya, P; Elanchezhiyan, S; Thangakumaran; Vennila, K; Naziya, K B

    2012-08-01

    Probably microbial plaque is the main etiology for periodontal tissue inflammation. Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their antimicrobial effects in the oral cavity. However, all are associated with side effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of Azadirachta indica (neem) against plaque formation is considered to be vital, with lesser side effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and prove the antimicrobial activity of neem using plaque samples. Culture was prepared using brain heart infusion broth reagent. Dental plaque samples were used for that. Kirby-Bauer antimicrobial susceptibility test procedure was carried away with the sample. Neem oil was kept in the agar plate with culture and the diameter of inhibition zones was calculated. Results showed inhibition zones on the agar plate around neem oil. Study shows definite antiplaque activity of neem oil.

  10. Processing Of Neem And Jatropha Methyl Esters –Alternative Fuels From Vegetable Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, S.; Manavalan, S.; Gnanavel, C.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2017-03-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are becoming increasingly popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine. This paper deals with the manufacturing process of Biodiesel from jatropha and neem oil. Biodiesel was prepared from neem oil and jatropha oil, the transestrified having kinematic viscosity of 3 & 2.6 centistokes, methanol ratio is 6:1 & 5.1respectively. The secondary solution is preheated at 65 C & 60 C and reaction temperature is maintained at 60C & 55 C and reaction time is 60 minutes approximately with NaOH catalyst and low viscosity oil is allowed to settle 24 hours. The average yield of neem and jatropha methyl esters was about 85%. These methyl esters shows excellent alternative under optimum condition for fossil fuels.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  12. Leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem): a potential antibiofilm agent for Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, Kusum; Bala, Anju; Gupta, Ravi K; Sharma, Radhika

    2013-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well known for its ability to form biofilm on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms are difficult to remove because of their high tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, there is a need to look for alternative agents such as medicinal plants, which can eradicate or inhibit biofilm effectively. This study evaluated the role of neem in inhibiting biofilm formation by P aeruginosa Factors contributing to adherence and biofilm formation were also studied. Results demonstrated that neem leaves extract was quite effective in disrupting formation and structure of biofilms. Moreover, the level of exopolysaccharide, alginate, hydrophobic interactions and uroepithelial cell attachment, which contributes to biofilm formation, was also affected significantly. Results confirm the effectiveness of neem extract in inhibiting biofilm formation. Such studies can lead to the discovery of safe antimicrobial drugs from natural sources without the risk of resistance. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  13. Therapeutics Role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Their Active Constituents in Diseases Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed because it is rich source of antioxidant. It has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unani medicines worldwide especially in Indian Subcontinent in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and modulates the numerous biological processes without any adverse effect. In this review, I summarize the role of Azadirachta indica in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various biological and physiological pathways.

  14. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  15. Cytotoxic effects of neem oil in the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda Felipe; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Studies of morphological and ultrastructural alterations in target organs have been useful for evaluating the sublethal effects of biopesticides regarded as safe for non-target organisms in ecotoxicological analyses. One of the most widely used biopesticides is neem oil, and its safety and compatibility with natural enemies have been further clarified through bioassays performed to analyze the effects of indirect exposure by the intake of poisoned prey. Thus, this study examined the cellular response of midgut epithelial cells of the adult lacewing, Ceraeochrysa claveri, to neem oil exposure via intake of neem oil-contaminated prey during the larval stage. C. claveri larvae were fed Diatraea saccharalis eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval stage. The adult females obtained from these treatments were used at two ages (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) in morphological and ultrastructural analyses. Neem oil was found to cause pronounced cytotoxic effects in the adult midgut, such as cell dilation, emission of cytoplasmic protrusions, cell lysis, loss of integrity of the cell cortex, dilation of cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, swollen mitochondria, vesiculated appearance of the Golgi complex and dilated invaginations of the basal labyrinth. Epithelial cells responded to those injuries with various cytoprotective and detoxification mechanisms, including increases in cell proliferation, the number of calcium-containing cytoplasmic granules, and HSP 70 expression, autophagic processes and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but these mechanisms were insufficient for recovery from all of the cellular damage to the midgut. This study demonstrates that neem oil exposure impairs the midgut by causing sublethal effects that may affect the physiological functions of this organ, indicating the importance of studies of different life stages of this species and similar species to evaluate the

  16. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  17. Hexane neem leaf extract more potent than ethanol extract against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Aspergillus flavus is one of the causes of aspergillosis, with a high virulence and resistance to standard antifungals, resulting in a high mortality rate. Medicinal plants are increasingly used as they are relatively safer with minimal side effects. Previously we found that the ethanol extract of neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss leaves inhibits A. flavus growth in vitro. However, most chemical compounds with antifungal effect are nonpolar. The purpose of this research was to compare the antifungal effect of neem leaves extracted in a nonpolar solvent to that of leaves extracted in a polar solvent. METHODS An in vitro experimental research was conducted between October 2013 and January 2014. Neem leaves were extracted in ethanol or hexane at various concentrations. A macrodilution test with 48-hour incubation time was done in triplicate on 8 groups of samples. These comprised the neem leaf ethanol extract (NLEE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, neem leaf hexane extract (NLHE at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/dL, positive control, and negative control groups. Fungal growth was detected on Sabouroud dextrose agar. Statistical analysis used Chi square and Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS NLHE had a higher, but statistically non-significant, inhibitory effect on A. flavus than NLEE (p=0.996. At higher concentrations, the antifungal effect of NLHE is better than that of NLEE. CONCLUSION There is no significant difference in in-vitro inhibitory effectivity on A. flavus of neem leaves between extracts in polar and nonpolar solvents.

  18. Control of tomato early blight and wilt using aqueous extract of neem leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziha M. HASSANEIN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of neem (Azadiracta indica leaf extract against Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agents of early blight and wilt of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. respectively, was studied. Concentrations (5, 10 and 20% of aqueous neem extract suppressed mycelial growth of both pathogenic fungi and the degree of suppression gradually increased with increasing concentration. A concentration of 20% aqueous neem leaf extract sprayed on tomato plants lowered the incidence of Alternaria early blight from 53.2 to 42.5% after two weeks and from 100 to 79.2% after 4 weeks. Spraying plus irrigation with the same extract lowered the severity of Alternaria early blight from 26.8 to 11.4% after 2 weeks and from 61.7 to 17.9% after 4 weeks (control ratio of 43.71% after 4 weeks. For F. oxysporum wilt, germination of tomato seeds was highest in pots containing the negative control (soil free of pathogen and in pots irrigated with the aqueous neem extract. The lowest disease incidence (19.04% was obtained in pots treated with the pathogen and irrigated with aqueous neem extract, where an 81% control of Fusarium wilt was achieved. Growth parameters of tomato (shoot and root length, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were studied 4, 6 and 8 weeks after sowing in the presence of the pathogens. There was a significant gradual increase in growth parameters when the plants were sprayed and irrigated with aqueous neem extract with the greatest improvement recorded 8 weeks after sowing.

  19. Application of diethanolamide surfactant derived from palm oil to improve the performance of biopesticide from neem oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisya, F. N.; Prijono, D.; Nurkania, A.

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the performance of organic pesticide derived from neem plant using diethanolamide surfactant (DEA) derived from palm oil in controlling armyworms. The pesticide was made of neem oil. Neem oil is a neem plant product containing several active components, i.e. azadirachtin, salanin, nimbin, and meliantriol which act as a pesticide. DEA surfactant acts as a wetting, dispersing and spreading agent in neem oil pesticide. The neem oil was obtained by pressing neem seeds using a screw press machine and a hydraulic press machine. DEA surfactant was synthesized from methyl esters of palm oil olein. Pesticide formulation was conducted by stirring the ingredients by using a homogenizer at 5,000 rpm for 30 minutes. Surfactant was added to the formulation by up to 5%. Glycerol, as an emulsifier, was added in to pesticide formulations of neem oil. The efficacy of the pesticides in controlling armyworms fed soybean leaves in laboratory was measured at six concentrations, i.e. 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25 ml/L. Results showed that the neem oil used in this study had a density of 0.91 g/cm3, viscosity of 58.94 cPoise, refractive index of 1.4695, surface tension of 40.69 dyne/cm, azadirachtin content of 343.82-1.604 ppm. Meanwhile, the azadirachtin content of neem seed cake was 242.20 ppm. It was also found that palmitic (31.4%) and oleic (22.5%) acids were the main fatty acids contained in neem oil. As the additive material used in neem oil in this study, diethanolamide surfactant had a pH of 10.6, density of 0.9930 g/cm3, viscosity of 708.20 cP, and surface tension of 25.37 dyne/cm. Results of CMC, contact angle, and droplet size analyzes showed that diethanolamide surfactant could be added into insecticide formulation by 5%. Results of LC tests showed that on Spodoptera litura the LC50 and LC95 values were 13 and 22 ml/L, respectively. Neem oil was found to inhibit the development of Spodoptera litura and its larval molting process.

  20. 印楝果实脱皮机的研制%Development of Neem Peeling Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪峰; 王成达; 李伟; 郭克君; 满大为

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of developing neem peeling machines and determination of the development scheme are expounded, the working principle of such neem peeling machines is analyzed and the materials used for equipment manufacturing are described.%阐述了开发印楝脱皮机的必要性及其研制方案的确定,分析了印楝脱皮机的工作原理,并对设备制造材料进行了说明。

  1. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao V. Ravva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica, known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  2. Effect of traditionally used neem and babool chewing stick (datun) on streptococcus mutans: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Sankhla, Bharat; Parkar, Sujal M; Hongal, Sudheer; K, Thanveer; Cg, Ajithkrishnan

    2014-07-01

    There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans. The present invitro study was conducted to assess effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% neem and babool extract on Streptococcus mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 6mm diameter. The plates were left for 1h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48h and examined for zone of inhibition. There was no zone of inhibition observed with 5% babool and neem aqueous extract. There was significant difference in mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 10% neem and babool extract (p-value 0.001 neem and babool extract was found to be significant (p-value neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract.

  3. Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) on the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Korn, Anna

    2015-07-10

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) shed in cattle manure can survive for extended periods of time and intervention strategies to control this pathogen at the source are critical as produce crops are often grown in proximity to animal raising operations. This study evaluated whether neem (Azadirachta indica), known for its antimicrobial and insecticidal properties, can be used to amend manure to control EcO157. The influence of neem materials (leaf, bark, and oil) on the survival of an apple juice outbreak strain of EcO157 in dairy manure was monitored. Neem leaf and bark supplements eliminated the pathogen in less than 10 d with a D-value (days for 90% elimination) of 1.3 d. In contrast, nearly 4 log CFU EcO157/g remained after 10 d in neem-free manure control. The ethyl acetate extractable fraction of neem leaves was inhibitory to the growth of EcO157 in LB broth. Azadirachtin, a neem product with insect antifeedant properties, failed to inhibit EcO157. Application of inexpensive neem supplements to control pathogens in manure and possibly in produce fields may be an option for controlling the transfer of foodborne pathogens from farm to fork.

  4. Effect of Traditionally Used Neem and Babool Chewing Stick (Datun) on Streptococcus Mutans: An In–Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhla, Bharat; Parkar, Sujal M; Hongal, Sudheer; K, Thanveer; CG, Ajithkrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There are various plants, which are used as chewing sticks in different parts of the world. Several studies have been reported on the antimicrobial effects of chewing sticks on oral bacteria. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of traditionally used neem and babool chewing sticks (datun) extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The present invitro study was conducted to assess effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% neem and babool extract on Streptococcus mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 6mm diameter. The plates were left for 1h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: There was no zone of inhibition observed with 5% babool and neem aqueous extract. There was significant difference in mean diameter of zone of inhibition of 10% neem and babool extract (p-value 0.001 neem and babool extract was found to be significant (p-value neem and babool extracts had antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, while antimicrobial activity was significantly higher in neem aqueous extract than babool aqueous extract. PMID:25177629

  5. Morphological alterations in salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) exposed to neem seed oil with known azadirachtin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2016-04-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  7. Combined antioxidant effects of Neem extract, bacteria, red blood cells and Lysozyme: possible relation to periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Leali; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Heyman, Samuel N; Ginsburg, Isaac; Gleitman, Yossi; Feuerstein, Osnat

    2017-08-10

    The common usage of chewing sticks prepared from Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in India suggests its potential efficacy in periodontal diseases. The objective of this study is to explore the antibacterial effects of Neem leaf extract on the periodontophatic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, and its antioxidant capacities alone and in combination with bacteria and polycationic peptides that may be at the site of inflammation. Neem leaf extract was prepared by ethanol extraction. The growth kinetics of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum under anaerobic conditions in the presence of Neem leaf extract were measured. Broth microdilution test was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Neem leaf extract against each bacterial strain. The effect of Neem leaf extract on the coaggregation of the bacteria was assessed by a visual semi-quantitative assay. The antioxidant capacities of Neem leaf extract alone and in combination with bacteria, with the addition of red blood cells or the polycationic peptides chlorhexidine and lisozyme, were determined using a chemiluminescence assay. Neem leaf extract showed prominent dose-dependent antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis, however, had no effect on the growth of F. nucleatum nor on the coaggregation of the two bacteria. Yet, it showed intense antioxidant activity, which was amplified following adherence to bacteria and with the addition of red blood cells or the polycationic peptides. Neem leaf extract, containing polyphenols that adhere to oral surfaces, have the potential to provide long-lasting antibacterial as well as synergic antioxidant activities when in complex with bacteria, red blood cells and lisozyme. Thus, it might be especially effective in periodontal diseases.

  8. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  9. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  10. Le jardin des particules l'Univers tel que le voient les physiciens

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Que savons-nous de l'Univers ? Que nous reste-t-il encore à comprendre ? Ce livre explique de façon limpide - et non sans humour - comment les physiciens travaillent, quels sont leurs outils, leurs certitudes et leurs interrogations.

  11. A Needs Assessment for the Introduction of a Food Science Program at the Univ. of Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This research describes the outcome of a needs assessment to determine whether the Univ. of Guyana should introduce a Food Science program. The research design utilized interviews and questionnaires to large manufacturing organizations and agroprocessors to determine if the required skills are available for the manufacturing process. Results…

  12. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan; Marcello Nicoletti; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Kadarkarai Murugan; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Devakumar Dinesh; Jayapal Subramaniam; Rajapandian Rajaganesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies). Methods: Neem cake fractions' total methanol extract (NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract (NTAcOEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRAcOEt), butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH (NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults. Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAcOEt and NRAcOEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and 3.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  13. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Devakumar Dinesh; Jayapal Subramaniam; Rajapandian Rajaganesh; Marcello Nicoletti; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies(An.culicifacies).Methods: Neem cake fractions’ total methanol extract(NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract(NTAc OEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMe OH(NRAc OEt),butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH(NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH(NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults.Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAc OEt and NRAc OEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt,NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and3.00 mg/L, respectively.Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  14. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  15. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  16. Järjekordne tunnustus maestro Neeme Järvile / Kärt Anvelt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Läti Vabariigi iseseisvuspäeva eelõhtul, 17. novembril, anti Neeme Järvile New Yorgis üle Ülemaailmse Vabade Lätlaste Liidu Kultuurifondi (The Cultural Foundation of the World Federation of Free Latvians - WFFL) audiplom

  17. Nimbolide B and nimbic acid B, phytotoxic substances in neem leaves with allelopathic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Salam, Md Abdus; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2014-05-26

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been widely used as a traditional medicine and several bioactive compounds have been isolated from this species, but to date no potent allelopathic active substance has been reported. Therefore, we investigated possible allelopathic property and phytotoxic substances with allelopathic activity in neem. An aqueous methanol extract of neem leaves inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress, lettuce, alfalfa, timothy, crabgrass, ryegrass, barnyard grass and jungle rice. The extracts were then purified by several chromatographic runs while monitoring the inhibitory activity and two phytotoxic substances were isolated. The chemical structures of the two substances were determined by spectral data to correspond to novel compounds, nimbolide B (1) and nimbic acid B (2). Nimbolide B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.1‒3.0 μM. Nimbic acid B inhibited the growth of cress and barnyard grass at concentrations greater than 0.3-1.0 μM. These results suggest that nimbolide B and nimbic acid B may contribute to the allelopathic effects caused by neem leaves.

  18. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  19. Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...

  20. Indirect effect of neem oil on Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae: biology and predatory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on the development and predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda that have ingested different concentrations of neem oil. The predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus was assessed, separating nymphs (fourth instar and adults (males and females. The treatments consisted of S. frugiperda larvae reared in neem oil aqueous solutions (0.077, 0.359 and 0.599%, deltamethrin EC 25 (0.100% and control arranged in a completely randomized design, with ten replicates. Insects were offered three larval densities (one, three and six, in the third or fourth instars. The predated larvae were examined at 24 and 48 hours after the beginning of the experiment. Biological parameters of Podisus nigrispinus were evaluated in groups of ten second-instar nymphs transferred to pots, in five replicates. Insects were offered 2-6 third and/or fourth-instar larvae reared in the same neem oil concentrations in a completely randomized design. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of each nymph stage (days, nymph mortality (%, weight of fifth-instar nymphs (mg, sex ratio, weight of males and females (mg and longevity of unfed adults (days. The predatory capacity of nymphs and adults of Podisus nigrispinus was influenced by the neem oil at the concentrations of 0.359% and 0.599% in the highest density. The concentration of 0.359% lengthened the nymphal stage and the concentration of 0.599% reduced the weight of males.

  1. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-03-08

    An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary pools and swamps were found in Nyabondo. Early anopheline instars were mainly recovered from temporary pools, artificial ponds and abandoned fish ponds. The mosquitoes collected were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (35%), An. coustani (46%) and Culex spp (19%). Both early and late instar larvae of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes were more abundant in the controls than in the Bti and neem treated habitats. Within treated habitats, early instar anopheline mosquitoes were recovered more from habitats provided with neem and fish compared to Bti treated habitats. All treated habitats recorded higher numbers of early instar larvae than late instars or pupae, indicating that gravid female mosquitoes still oviposited within treated habitats. Neem chippings are a good tool for mosquito larval source management under field conditions. However, more research needs to be done to quantify the contribution of this tool to the overall mosquito borne disease transmission.

  2. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica) nanoemulsion--a potent larvicidal agent against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, C H; Sharma, Yamini; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2012-02-01

    Nanoemulsion composed of neem oil and non-ionic surfactant Tween 20, with a mean droplet size ranging from 31.03 to 251.43 nm, was formulated for various concentrations of the oil and surfactant. The larvicidal effect of the formulated neem oil nanoemulsion was checked against Culex quinquefasciatus. O/W emulsion was prepared using neem oil, Tween 20 and water. Nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was obtained at a 1:3 ratio of oil and surfactant, and it was found to be stable. The larger droplet size (251.43 nm) shifted to a smaller size of 31.03 nm with increase in the concentration of Tween 20. The viscosity of the nanoemulsion increased with increasing concentration of Tween 20. The lethal concentration (LC50) of the nanoemulsion against Cx. quinquefasciatus was checked for 1:0.30, 1:1.5 and 1:3 ratios of oil and surfactant respectively. The LC50 decreased with droplet size. The LC50 for the ratio 1:3 nanoemulsions was 11.75 mg L(-1). The formulated nanoemulsion of 31.03 nm size was found to be an effective larvicidal agent. This is the first time that a neem oil nanoemulsion of this droplet size has been reported. It may be a good choice as a potent and selective larvicide for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Scalable synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes bundles using green natural precursor: neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Practical application of aligned carbon nanotubes (ACNTs would have to be determined by a matter of its economical and large-scale preparation. In this study, neem oil (also named Margoaa oil, extracted from the seeds of the neem--Azadirachta indica was used as carbon source to fabricate the bundles of ACNTs. ACNTs have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis of neem oil and ferrocene mixture at 825°C. The major components of neem oil are hydrocarbon with less amount of oxygen, which provided the precursor species in spray pyrolysis growth of CNTs. The bundles of ACNTs have been grown directly inside the quartz tube. The as-grown ACNTs have been characterized through Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (SEM/TEM techniques. SEM images reveal that the bundles of ACNTs are densely packed and are of several microns in length. High-resolution TEM analysis reveals these nanotubes to be multi-walled CNTs. These multi-walled CNTs were found to have inner diameter between 15 and 30 nm. It was found that present technique gives high yield with high density of bundles of ACNTs.

  4. Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9, Neeme Järvi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9. Ouvertüre School for Scandal, Op. 5; Beach: Sinfonie e-Moll, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi". Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  5. Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll, London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Martin Elste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elste, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Bruckner: Simfonie N8 c-moll; Reger: Variationen und Fuge über ein Thema von Beethoven op. 86. London Philharmonic Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/ Koch Records 2 CD 8843/44 (WD: 107'13") DDD

  6. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  7. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  8. Treated Neem Kernel Cake. *1A. Aruwayo, 2S.A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the white blood cell value in treatment A. (11.67x109l) was ... treatment did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference except in SGOT and unconjugated bilirubin. ..... fed fore-stomach digesta and poultry litter waste. ... neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds on performance of young Rabbits. Pakistan. Journal of ...

  9. Extreme 13C depletion of CCl2F2 in firn air samples from NEEM, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of 12 high volume air samples collected from the S2 firn core during the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) 2009 campaign have been measured for mixing ratio and stable carbon isotope composition of the chlorofluorocarbon CFC- 12 (CCl2F2). While the mixing ratio measurements compare

  10. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  11. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a pos

  12. Effect of Neem Seed Kernel Extracts in the Management of Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (Azadirachta indica; (Neem) and synthetic insecticide (Carbofuradan) against rice ... Rice plant is an ideal host for a large number of insect pests in ..... crop would be protected via the primary gustatory repellent action of the extracts which ... Anon (2000) Findings alternative to persistent organic pollutants (POPS) for termite.

  13. Can neem oil help eliminate lice? Randomised controlled trial with and without louse combing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Brown

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem oil and wet combing with conditioner are both claimed to facilitate elimination of head louse infestation. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether a 1% neem oil lotion showed activity itself and/or enhanced the effectiveness of combing in treating infestation. Methods: We treated 47 participants with 1% neem-based lotion on four occasions 3-4 days apart in a randomised, community based trial, analysed by intention to treat. The participants were randomly divided between two groups: One group used a grooming comb (placebo and the other a head louse detection and removal comb (wet combing with conditioner method to systematically comb the hair. Cure was defined as no lice on both Day 10 and Day 14. Results: The cure rates of 6/24 (25.0% for the placebo comb group and 8/23 (34.8% for the louse comb group were not significantly different. Conclusion: These results indicate that this formulation of neem oil was ineffective in the treatment of head louse infestations, even when accompanied by combing. Both combing methods were also ineffective, despite being implemented throughout by trained professionals.

  14. Neem: the miracle tree for meeting India's growing energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R.

    1983-04-01

    Neem trees are now destined for a crucial multifaceted role in providing natural insecticides and nematicides have no toxic residues, oil for the soap industry and cake for increasing the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen. As a nitrogen regulator it can significantly contribute towards the country's energy needs for agriculture. Its performance in several field trials is discussed.

  15. Kas oleme valmis NATO vägede saabumiseks? / Neeme Väli ; intervjueeris Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väli, Neeme

    2016-01-01

    NATO rahvusvahelise sõjalise staabi ülema esimene asetäitja, poliitika ja planeerimise osakonna direktor kindralmajor Neeme Väli räägib ees seisvatest ülesannetest seoses liitlasvägede Eestisse saabumisega

  16. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  17. Fabric along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and its comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnat, M.; Azuma, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Eichler, J.; Fujita, S.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Samyn, D.; Svensson, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2014-07-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland was measured in the field by an automatic ice texture analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening rate is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin (HW) climatic transition. From a simple model we estimate that this depth is located at a transition from a state dominated by vertical compression to a state dominated by vertical shear. Comparisons are made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core, drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. This comparison tends to demonstrate that the ice viscosity change with the HW climatic transition must be associated with the shear-dominated state to induce the abrupt fabric strengthening observed at NEEM. This comparison therefore reflects the increasing role of shear deformation on the coring site when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NGRIP. Further along the core, centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the observed folding layers in Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013).

  18. Recent North West Greenland climate variability documented by NEEM shallow ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Steen-Larsen, Hans-Christian; Popp, Trevor; Vinther, Bo; Oerter, Hans; Ortega, Pablo; White, Jim; Orsi, Anais; Falourd, Sonia; Minster, Benedicte; Jouzel, Jean; Landais, Amaelle; Risi, Camille; Werner, Martin; Swingedouw, Didier; Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Gudlaugsdottir, Hera; Box, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Short water stable isotope records obtained from NEEM ice cores (North West Greenland) have been shown to be sensitive to NW Greenland temperature variations, and sea-ice extent in the Baffin Bay area (Steen-Larsen et al, JGR, 2011), with maximum snowfall deposition during summer, therefore providing information complementary to other Greenland ice core records. At the NEEM deep drilling camp, several snow pits and shallow ice cores have been retrieved and analysed at high resolution (seasonal to annual) for water stable isotopes using mass spectrometry and laser instruments in order to document recent climate variability, complementing and facilitating the interpretation of the long records obtained from the deep ice core which extends back to the last interglacial period (NEEM, Nature, 2013). The different pits and shallow ice core records allow to document the signal to noise ratio and to produce a robust stack back to 1750, and up to 2011. The stack record of annual mean d18O depicts a recent isotopic enrichment in parallel with the Greenland warming inferred from coastal weather stations, and shows that many features of decadal variations are in fact well captured by the low resolution profiles measured along the deep ice core data. Recent variations can therefore be compared to long-term trends and centennial variations of the last Holocene, documented at about 5 year resolution. For the past decades to centuries, the NEEM isotopic records are compared with estimations and simulations of local temperature for different seasons, results from NEEM borehole temperature inversions, d18O records from other Greenland ice cores, large scale modes of variability (NAO and AMO) and with simulations from atmospheric general circulation models equiped with water stable isotopes.

  19. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  20. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Pei Pei, Chong

    2011-01-01

    Azadirachta indica (Neem) has been used traditionally for many centuries. Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeutic effect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extract in an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice. A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into 7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups) consisting of 12 mice per group. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (NC), 250 mg/kg Neem (N250) or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500). The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS (CC), and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), 250 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 250) or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to evaluate apoptosis (cell death) in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p≤0.05. Non parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays. Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA. TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidence of apoptosis compared with the cancer controls. The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.

  1. The neem Azadirachta indica as a means to control soil nematodes and its application in vegetable cultures in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin, JE.

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of neem extracts for pest control is less common in nematology than in entomology. The purpose of this paper is to make a short review of the agronomical potential of the neem tree, with particular emphasis on its role for the control of deleterious nematodes. A specifie case for the control of Meloidogyne, which was carried out in Benin, is presented.

  2. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemia nominent 2016

  3. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemia nominent 2016

  4. Jan Gehli teose "Linnad inimestele" ilmumine = Publication of an Estonian-language Edition of Jan Gehl's Cities for People / Yoko Alender, Liina Teder, Neeme Lopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alender, Yoko, 1979-

    2016-01-01

    Taani arhitektist Jan Gehlist ja tema raamatust "Linnad inimestele". Eestikeelse väljaande toimkond: Yoko Alender, Neeme Lopp, Liina Teder, Eneli Rohtla. Maastikuarhitektuuri aastapreemiate nominent 2016

  5. ACADEMIC TRAINING (O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics , CERN-EST)

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    21, 22, 23 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The LHC Machine/Experiment Interface by O. BRUNING / CERN-SL, S. TAPPROGGE / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, E. TSESMELIS / Helsinki Univ. of Physics, CERN-EST     This series of three lectures will provide an overview of issues arising at the interface between the LHC machine and the experiments, which are required for guiding the interaction between the collider and the experiments when operation of the LHC commences. A basic description of the LHC Collider and its operating parameters, such as its energy, currents, bunch structure and luminosity, as well as variations on these parameters, will be given. Furthermore, the optics foreseen for the experimental insertions, the sources and intensities of beam losses and the running-in scenarios for the various phases of operation will be discussed. A second module will cover the specific requirements and expectations of each experiment in terms of the layout of experiment...

  6. Application of Neem Gum for Aqueous Film Coating of Ciprofloxacin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Kulkarni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. At present the pharmaceutical industry and academia are focusing on the use of natural materials and resources for development of pharmaceutical product. In previous study, neem gum (NG, obtained from Azadirachata indica plant revealed satisfactory film forming ability. The present study evaluates the application potential of neem gum, as an aqueous film coating material, using ciprofloxacin hydrchloride (drug as a model drug. Initial study of physical mixture indicated absence of chemical interaction in between drug and NG. Aqueous coating solution of NG was optimized and consisted of neem gum (13.34%w/w, triethyl citrate (1.25%w/w, talc (0.25%w/w and titanium dioxide (0.17%w/w. The coating parameters such as pan revolutions (rpm, inlet air pressure, inlet temperature, and pan load were optimized. The uncoated and coated tablets were evaluated for hardness, disintegration time, dissolution, drug content. The coated tablets were subjected to accelerated stability conditions for 1 month and the results were compared with marketed drug tablet. Any coating defects, except surface roughness, were absent in case of NG coated tablets. NG coated tablets depicted satisfactory mechanical strength. Dissolution study of NG coated tablets depicted 90% of drug release in 10 minutes and 100% of drug release at 30minutes. Accelerated storage conditions didn’t affect the tablet hardness and % drug release. The coating process efficiency, coating uniformity and loss on drying confirmed that the coating solution was optimum and coating parameters were robust. Industrial relevance. A paradigm shift, from organic solvent-based to water-based film coating of pharmaceutical dosage forms, apparent in pharmaceutical industries, is due to Government regulation, high cost of the organic solvents, safety issues associated with the use of organic solvents. Currently, the commercially available edible coatings utilize synthetic cellulosic polymers namely

  7. LHC : sur la piste des mystères de l’Univers par Michael Doser

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN / Audiovisual Service

    2007-01-01

    Le CERN, le plus grand centre en physique des particules au monde, va mettre en service le Grand collisionneur de hadrons (Large Hadron Collider), le LHC. Cette machine, le plus grand rouage du complexe d’accélérateurs du CERN, doit répondre aux énigmes qui subsistent sur les briques élémentaires de la matière et l’histoire de l’Univers.

  8. LHC : sur la piste des mysteres de l`Univers par Michael Doser

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Le CERN, le plus grand centre en physique des particules au monde, va mettre en service le Grand collisionneur de hadrons (Large Hadron Collider), le LHC. Cette machine, le plus grand rouage du complexe d’accélérateurs du CERN, doit répondre aux énigmes qui subsistent sur les briques élémentaires de la matière et l’histoire de l’Univers.

  9. Big Bang et au-delà les nouveaux horizons de l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Barrau, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Notre Univers a-t-il un début ? Est-il unique ? La science moderne a révolutionné notre compréhension de l’Univers. Bien que l’étude du cosmos soit sans doute aussi ancienne que la pensée, notre image du réel est en ce moment même en train de se redessiner. Il est maintenant possible de connaître certains aspects des processus qui eurent lieu moins d’un milliardième de milliardième de milliardième de seconde après le Big Bang. À la lumière des dernières découvertes du satellite Planck, Aurélien Barrau décrit en termes simples le cosmos qui se dessine sous nos yeux. Trous noirs, modèle standard de la physique des particules, gravité… les piliers et les énigmes du Big Bang sont abordés les uns après les autres, à la manière d’une balade aux origines de l’Univers. « Parce que la science est avant tout une aventure humaine, j’ai esquissé, ici et là, en contrepoint des explications physiques fournies dans la langue la plus simple et la plus accessible possible, mon expér...

  10. All-in-one 3D printed microscopy chamber for multidimensional imaging, the UniverSlide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Kevin; Andrique, Laetitia; Feyeux, Maxime; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Nassoy, Pierre; Recher, Gaëlle

    2017-02-01

    While live 3D high resolution microscopy techniques are developing rapidly, their use for biological applications is partially hampered by practical difficulties such as the lack of a versatile sample chamber. Here, we propose the design of a multi-usage observation chamber adapted for live 3D bio-imaging. We show the usefulness and practicality of this chamber, which we named the UniverSlide, for live imaging of two case examples, namely multicellular systems encapsulated in sub-millimeter hydrogel shells and zebrafish larvae. We also demonstrate its versatility and compatibility with all microscopy devices by using upright or inverted microscope configurations after loading the UniverSlide with fixed or living samples. Further, the device is applicable for medium/high throughput screening and automatized multi-position image acquisition, providing a constraint-free but stable and parallelized immobilization of the samples. The frame of the UniverSlide is fabricated using a stereolithography 3D printer, has the size of a microscopy slide, is autoclavable and sealed with a removable lid, which makes it suitable for use in a controlled culture environment. We describe in details how to build this chamber and we provide all the files necessary to print the different pieces in the lab.

  11. All-in-one 3D printed microscopy chamber for multidimensional imaging, the UniverSlide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Kevin; Andrique, Laetitia; Feyeux, Maxime; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Nassoy, Pierre; Recher, Gaëlle

    2017-01-01

    While live 3D high resolution microscopy techniques are developing rapidly, their use for biological applications is partially hampered by practical difficulties such as the lack of a versatile sample chamber. Here, we propose the design of a multi-usage observation chamber adapted for live 3D bio-imaging. We show the usefulness and practicality of this chamber, which we named the UniverSlide, for live imaging of two case examples, namely multicellular systems encapsulated in sub-millimeter hydrogel shells and zebrafish larvae. We also demonstrate its versatility and compatibility with all microscopy devices by using upright or inverted microscope configurations after loading the UniverSlide with fixed or living samples. Further, the device is applicable for medium/high throughput screening and automatized multi-position image acquisition, providing a constraint-free but stable and parallelized immobilization of the samples. The frame of the UniverSlide is fabricated using a stereolithography 3D printer, has the size of a microscopy slide, is autoclavable and sealed with a removable lid, which makes it suitable for use in a controlled culture environment. We describe in details how to build this chamber and we provide all the files necessary to print the different pieces in the lab. PMID:28186188

  12. Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. / Hulot, Jean-Claude

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hulot, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. Paganini: Concerto pour violon no. 1; Tchaikovski: Concerto pour violon op. 35; Concerto pour piano no. 1; Saint-Saens: Concerto pour piano no. 2; Beethoven: Concerto pour piano no. 4; R. Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Don Juan; Cherubini: Requiem en re mineur; Chostakovitch: Fidelite, 8 ballades pour choeur d'hommes op. 136; Haydn: Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2; Tchaikovski: Variations Rococo. Pezzo capriccioso. Andante cantabile. Nocturne. Choeur d'hommes Academique de l'Etat d'Estonie, Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Orchestre Symphonique d'URSS, Grand Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'URSS, Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'Estonie, Gustav Ernesaks, Neeme Järvi. Melodiya 74 321 40 719-2 a 40 724-2, distribution BMG (6 CD:96 F chacun)

  13. Rapid, Bioassay-Guided Process for the Detection and Identification of Antibacterial Neem Oil Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüzselyi, Dániel; Nagy, Róbert; Ott, Péter G; Móricz, Ágnes M

    2016-08-01

    Bioassay guidance was used along the whole process including method development, isolation and identification of antibacterial neem (Azadirachta indica) oil compounds. The biomonitoring was performed by direct bioautography (DB), a combination of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and antimicrobial detection. DB of neem oil showed one antibacterial zone that was not UV-active; therefore, the TLC separation was improved under DB control. The chromatographic zone that exhibited activity against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Aliivibrio fischeri, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was characterized by TLC reagents, indicating a lipophilic, fatty acid-like chemical feature. Two compounds were found and identified in the active zone by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as linoleic and oleic acids. Both fatty acids inhibited B. subtilis, but A. fischeri was sensitive only against linoleic acid.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide-neem oil-chitosan bionanocomposite for food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuja, S; Agalya, A; Umapathy, M J

    2015-03-01

    Nano zinc oxide at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and neem essential oil were incorporated into the chitosan polymer by solution cast method to enhance the properties of the bionanocomposite film. The functional groups, crystalline particle size, thermal stability and morphology were determined using FTIR, XRD, TGA and SEM, respectively. The results showed that 0.5% nano zinc oxide incorporated composite film have improved tensile strength, elongation, film thickness, film transparency and decreased water solubility, swelling and barrier properties due to the presence of neem oil and nano zinc oxide in the polymer matrix. Further antibacterial activity by well diffusion assay method was followed against Escherichia coli which were found to have good inhibition effect. In addition to this food quality application were carried against carrot and compared with the commercial film.

  15. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically combed. Head lice were collected and examined. The neem seed extract shampoo proved to be highly effective against all stages of head lice. No obvious differences regarding the efficacy of the shampoo were observed between an exposure time of 10, 15 or 30 min. No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed.

  16. Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. / Hulot, Jean-Claude

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hulot, Jean-Claude

    1998-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Neeme Järvi. "The Early Recordings", vol. 1 a 6. Paganini: Concerto pour violon no. 1; Tchaikovski: Concerto pour violon op. 35; Concerto pour piano no. 1; Saint-Saens: Concerto pour piano no. 2; Beethoven: Concerto pour piano no. 4; R. Strauss: Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche. Don Juan; Cherubini: Requiem en re mineur; Chostakovitch: Fidelite, 8 ballades pour choeur d'hommes op. 136; Haydn: Concerto pour violoncelle no. 2; Tchaikovski: Variations Rococo. Pezzo capriccioso. Andante cantabile. Nocturne. Choeur d'hommes Academique de l'Etat d'Estonie, Orchestre Philharmonique de Moscou, Orchestre Symphonique d'URSS, Grand Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'URSS, Orchestre Symphonique de la Radio d'Estonie, Gustav Ernesaks, Neeme Järvi. Melodiya 74 321 40 719-2 a 40 724-2, distribution BMG (6 CD:96 F chacun)

  17. Extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem Leaf Induces Apoptosis in 4T1 Breast Cancer BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Othman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Azadirachta indica (Neem has been used traditionally for many centuries.Some impressive therapeutic qualities have been discovered. However, the therapeuticeffect of neem leaf extract in 4T1 breast cancer has not been documented. The purposeof the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of ethanolic Neem leaf extractin an in vivo 4T1 breast cancer model in mice.Materials and Methods: A total of 84 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into7 groups (3 non-cancerous groups and 4 cancerous groups consisting of 12 mice pergroup. The 3 non-cancerous groups were normal mice treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 inphosphate buffer saline (PBS (NC, 250 mg/kg Neem (N250 or 500 mg/kg Neem (N500.The 4 cancerous groups were; cancer controls treated with 0.5% of Tween 20 in PBS(CC, and cancerous mice treated with 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, 250 mg/kg Neemleaf extract (CN 250 or 500 mg/kg Neem leaf extract (CN 500. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays were used to evaluate apoptosis(cell death in the breast cancer tissues. SPSS software, version 14 was used for statisticalanalysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Non parametric analysis ofvariance (ANOVA was performed with the Kruskal Wallis test for the TUNEL assays.Parametric data among the groups was compared using ANOVA.Results: TUNEL assays showed that the CN 250 and CN 500 groups had a higher incidenceof apoptosis compared with the cancer controls.Conclusion: The findings showed that neem leaf extract induces apoptosis in 4T1 breastcancer BALB/c mice.

  18. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANDIDIAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS AND ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudalkar Mithun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of humans since the dawn of civilization. In recent years, multiple drug resistance has developed due to indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. This drives the need to screen medicinal plants for novel bioactive compounds as plant based drugs are biodegradable, safe and have fewer side effects. Neem (Azadirachta indica is perhaps the most commonly used traditional medicinal plant of India. Almost all parts of the plant are endowed with medicinal properties. Several pharmacological activities and medicinal applications of various parts of Neem have been documented in the ancient literature. Teeth and their supporting structures are subject to infections by Streptococcus species, a number of facultative anaerobes like Enterococcus faecalis, and opportunistic pathogens like Candida albicans. Literature shows that Neem is a powerful agent that inhibits the increase and establishment of microorganisms that cause infectious diseases in the oral cavity.In the present study we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of Neem leaf aqueous and alcohol extracts. To determine the inhibitory effect of Azadirachta indica (aqueous and alcoholic extract of neem on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The activity of Azadirachta indica against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was tested by serial broth dilution method and was expressed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the aqueous neem extract to all the organisms was 7.5%. The MIC of the alcoholic neem extract for E. faecalis, S.mutans, C. albicans were 1.88%, 7.5%, and 3.75% respectively.

  19. Seismic Imaging of Sub-Glacial Sediments at Jakobshavn Isbræ and NEEM Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Velez-Gonzalez, J. A.; Black, R. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-glacial sediment conditions can have a major control on glacier flow yet these are difficult to measure directly. We present active source seismic reflection experiments that imaged sub-glacial sections at Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland and at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) location. At Jakobshavn Isbræ we re-processed an existing 9.8 km-long high-resolution seismic line using an iterative approach to determine seismic velocities for enhancing sub-glacial imaging. The seismic profile imaged sediments ranging in thickness between 35 and 200 meters, and the underlying bedrock. Based on the geometry of the reflections we interpret three distinct seismic facies: a basal till layer, accreted sediments and re-worked till. The basal till and accreted sediments vary in thickness from less than 5 m to nearly 100 m thick and are interpreted as the zone of most recent deposition. A reflection polarity reversal observed at a low topographic region along the ice-sediment interface suggests the presence of liquid water spanning approximately 200 m along the profile. At NEEM we acquired a 5.8 km long-offset shot gather. Seismic imaging revealed two prominent reflections at the base of the ice. The upper reflection is interpreted at the base of ice - top of till interface whereas the lower reflection is interpreted as the base of till - top of bedrock. The thickness of the subglacial sediment section at NEEM is estimated to approximately 50 m using seismic imaging. The NEEM ice core drilled through the upper part of this section and ceased drilling before reaching bedrock.

  20. Effect of Neem oil and Haridra on non-healing wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anjali; Singh, Anil Kumar; Narayan, G; Singh, Teja B; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In Ayurveda, Vrana (wound) has stated as tissue destruction and discoloration of viable tissue due to various etiology. In Sushruta Samhita, Sushruta described Vrana as a main subject. Most commonly Vrana can be classified into Shuddha and Dushta Vrana (chronic wound/nonhealing ulcers). Among the various drugs mentioned for Dushta Vrana, two of them, Neem (Azadirechta indica A. Juss) oil and Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) powder are selected for their wide spectrum action on wound. To compare the effect of Neem oil and Haridra in the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds. Total 60 patients of wounds with more than 6 weeks duration were enrolled and alternatively allocated to Group I (topical application of Neem oil), Group II (Haridra powder capsules, 1 g 3 times orally) and Group III (both drugs). Duration of treatment was considered until complete healing of the wound, whereas 4(th) and 8(th) week were considered for assessment of 50% healing. Wound size was measured and recorded at weekly intervals. Wound biopsy was repeated after 4 weeks for assessment of angiogenesis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) analysis. After 8 weeks of treatment, 50% wound healing was observed in 43.80% patients of Group I, 18.20% patients of Group II, and 70.00% patients of Group III. Microscopic angiogenesis grading system scores and DNA concentration showed highly significant effect of combined use of both drugs when compared before and after results of treatment (P Neem oil and oral use of Haridra powder capsule used in combination were found effective for chronic non-healing wounds.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Neem Mouthwash on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Double-blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaluddin, Md; Rajasekaran, U B; Paul, Sam; Dhanya, R S; Sudeep, C B; Adarsh, V J

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of neem-containing mouthwash on plaque and gingivitis. This randomized, double-blinded, crossover clinical trial included 40 participants aged 18 to 35 years with washout period of 1 week between the crossover phases. A total of 20 participants, each randomly allocated into groups I and II, wherein in the first phase, group I was provided with 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate and group II with 2% neem mouthwash. After the scores were recorded, 1-week time period was given to the participants to carry over the effects of the mouthwashes and then the second phase of the test was performed. The participants were instructed to use the other mouthwash through the second test phase. There was a slight reduction of plaque level in the first phase as well as in the second phase. When comparison was made between the groups, no statistically significant difference was seen. Both the groups showed reduction in the gingival index (GI) scores in the first phase, and there was a statistically significant difference in both groups at baseline and after intervention (0.005 and 0.01 respectively). In the second phase, GI scores were reduced in both groups, but there was a statistically significant difference between the groups only at baseline scores (0.01). In the present study, it has been concluded that neem mouthwash can be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash based on the reduced scores in both the groups. Using neem mouthwash in maintaining oral hygiene might have a better impact in prevention as well as pervasiveness of oral diseases as it is cost-effective and easily available.

  2. Repellent, antifeedant and insecticidal effects of neem oil on Microtheca punctigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of concentrations (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica - Meliaceae oil emulsion on the behavioral and biological parameters of M. punctigera were investigated in the laboratory. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. host plant was used. Multiple and no-choice feeding preference assays were conducted which shown multiple effects. The males were repelled by the neem oil in multiple-choice assay. The adult (multiple-choice and larvae (multiple and no-choice feeding were deterred. The larvae mortality was higher in the neem oil treated than the control leaves. Further investigations are suggested to test neem oil in the management of the pest in the field.Besouros Microtheca punctigera (Achard são pragas sérias de plantas hospedeiras da família Brassicaceae. Efeitos das concentrações (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; e 1,00% do óleo emulsionável de nim (Azadirachta indica Meliaceae sobre parâmetros de comportamento e biologia de M. punctigera foram investigados em laboratório. Nabiça (Raphanus raphanistrum L. foi a planta hospedeira utilizada. Ensaios de preferência alimentar com múltipla e sem chance de escolha foram conduzidos. Múltiplos efeitos do óleo de nim foram observados. Machos foram repelidos pelo óleo de nim em teste de múltipla escolha. Adultos (múltipla escolha e larvas (múltipla e sem chance de escolha sofreram deterrência. A mortalidade de larvas foi mais elevada nos tratamentos com óleo de nim que no tratamento controle. Futuras investigações são sugeridas para testar o óleo de nim no manejo de pragas no campo.

  3. Efficacy of neem chippings for mosquito larval control under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Imbahale, Susan S; Mukabana, Wolfgang R

    2015-01-01

    Background An in depth understanding of mosquito breeding biology and factors regulating population sizes is fundamental for vector population control. This paper presents results from a survey of mosquito breeding habitats and the efficacy of neem chippings as a potential larvicide that can be integrated in mosquito control on Nyabondo Plateau in western Kenya. Results Six main mosquito habitat types namely artificial ponds, abandoned fish ponds, active fish ponds, open drains, temporary poo...

  4. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identi...

  5. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  6. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival.

  7. Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  8. Synthesis of chitosan incorporated neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) for medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, T; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, eco-friendly biosynthesis of Chitosan-Neem seed (CS-NS) composite was prepared by co-precipitation method using aqueous neem seed extract. Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents (Glutaraldehyde and Citric acid) then the synthesized composite coated on cotton fabric by chemical linkage between the composite and the cellulose structure. As synthesized composite materials and treated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional groups confirmation, X-ray diffraction for crystalline behavior determination, UV-vis spectroscopy analysis for optical property and High resolution scanning electron microscopy for Surface morphological properties. The antibacterial activity of CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric and CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric with crosslinking agents were tested against the gram-positive and gram negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The results demonstrated that CS-NS composite with crosslinked coated cotton fabric has higher antibacterial activity than without crosslinked cotton fabric. Thus the chitosan-neem seed composite may be applied to the medical textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil.

  10. The Eemian ice from the new Greenland ice core at NEEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2010-12-01

    Bedrock has been reached Tuesday July 27 2010 at the deep ice core drilling site, NEEM, on the Greenland Ice Sheet at the depth 2537.36 m. The NEEM scientists from the 14 nations participating in NEEM project are very excited and happy. The goals of 5 years work are reached and we have got what we came for. Ice from the warm interglacial Eemian period 130.000 to 115.000 years before present and even older ice found under the Eemian ice. The last 2 m of ice before the bedrock is full of material from the bedrock under the ice. We find stones from bedrock, conglomerates and mud and expect the ice to be rich in traces of DNA and pollen that can tell us how about the vegetation before the site was covered with ice and hopefully we will be able to determine how old these traces are. A flow model will be presented based on ice core data and internal radio echo sounding data discussing the origin of the ice from the Eemian climate period and the path of flow it has followed. A very important question to answer is how far back in time and at what depth we expect to have an undisturbed climate record and how what the record can tell us about the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet.

  11. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Aliboni, Andrea; D'Andrea, Armando; Mariani, Susanna

    2010-06-01

    In order to investigate its insecticide potential, the neem cake methanol extract was first analyzed and then separated by different solvents. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the neem cake methanol extract still contained relevant quantities of nortriterpenes. Fractions of increasing polarity were obtained from the separation process: hexane fraction (Hp), EtOAc fraction (Ep), n-BuOH fraction (Bp), and aqueous fraction (Wp). The activity of the fractions on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eggs and larvae was tested, and the Ep fraction exhibits the most relevant larvicide effect. The nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprint analysis of this phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc fraction was performed. The larvicidal effectiveness of the phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc, compared to that of pure and commercial azadirachtin solutions of different concentrations, was checked. The results showed that the activity of the phytocomplex, as a whole, was significantly higher than those of isolated compound solutions. As a consequence, the neem cake is a promising low-cost, easily available on the market, and natural resource to develop a new bioinsecticide, mainly in developing countries.

  12. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  13. Fire in Ice: Glacial-Interglacial biomass burning in the NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, Piero; Kehrwald, Natalie; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet. Fire is a key Earth system process with a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, affecting carbon cycle mechanisms, land-surface properties, atmospheric chemistry, aerosols and human activities. However, human activities may have also altered biomass burning for thousands of years, thus influencing the climate system. We analyse the specific marker levoglucosan to reconstruct past fire events in ice cores. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is an organic compound that can be only released during the pyrolysis of cellulose at temperatures > 300°C. Levoglucosan is a major fire product in the fine fraction of woody vegetation combustion, can be transported over regional to global distances, and is deposited on the Greenland ice sheet. The NEEM, Greenland ice core (77 27'N, 51 3'W, 2454 masl) documents past fire activity changes from the present back to the penultimate interglacial, the Eemian. Here we present a fire activity reconstruction from both North American and Eurasian sources over the last 120,000 yrs based on levoglucosan signatures in the NEEM ice core. Biomass burning significantly increased over the boreal Northern Hemisphere since the last glacial, resulting in a maximum between 1.5 and 3.5 kyr BP yet decreasing from ~2 kyr BP until the present. Major climate parameters alone cannot explain the observed trend and thus it is not possible to rule out the hypothesis of early anthropogenic influences on fire activity. Over millennial timescales, temperature influences Arctic ice sheet extension and vegetation distribution at Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and may have altered the distance between NEEM and available fuel loads. During the last Glacial, the combination of dry and cold climate conditions, together with low boreal insolation and decreased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may have also limited the production of available biomass. Diminished boreal forest extension and the southward

  14. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchemin Jean-Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in

  15. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  16. Antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem (Azadirachta indica and Babool (Acacia nilotica on Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pandya Sajankumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine because of their natural origin, easy availability, efficacy, and safety. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial effectiveness of Neem and Babool on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of 5%, 10%, and 50% of Neem and Babool aqueous extract with 5%, 10%, and 50% of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on S. mutans. The ditch plate method was used to test the antimicrobial activity. Ditches were prepared on blood agar plates with the help of punch having 7 mm diameter. The plates were left for 1 h at room temperature and then incubated at 37°C for 48 h and examined for zone of inhibition. Results: Inhibitory effect of 5% Neem is significantly better than 5% Babool and 5% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. At 10% and 50%, Neem and Babool are significantly better than chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Inhibitory effect of Babool increases as the concentration increases (P < 0.05. The inhibitory effect of 5% and 50% chlorhexidine mouthwash is better than 10% chlorhexidine mouthwash (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Neem exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity compared with Babool and chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  17. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of neem, green tea, triphala and sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Bhargava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of root canal treatment is to disinfect the entire root canal system. Although cleaning and shaping and use of antimicrobial medicaments are effective in reducing the bacterial load some bacteria do remain behind and multiply, causing reinfection of the canal. Considering the ineffectiveness, potential side effects and safety concerns of synthetic drugs, the herbal alternatives for endodontic usage might prove to be advantageous. Aim: To check the antimicrobial efficacy of Neem, Green Tea, Triphala and sodium hypochlorite against the endodontic microflora. Materials and Methods: Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from patients, with carious teeth and associated with periapical radiolucencies. A paper point was inserted into the canal to obtain a sample of a mixed culture of micro organisms. These paper points were cultured and agar diffusion test was done for the different irrigants. The irrigants were divided into Group I: Neem (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO,Group II: Green Tea Polyphenols (60mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group III: Triphala (60 mg/ml in 10% DMSO, Group IV: 3% NaOCI, Group V: Sterile saline. Results: Sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum antimicrobial activity, followed by Neem. There was no statistical difference between the activity of sodium hypochlorite and Neem. This was followed by Triphala and Green Tea, respectively. Conclusion: Neem is as effective as Sodium Hypochlorite against endodontic microflora.

  18. Application of full 42 Factorial Design for the Development and Characterization of Insecticidal Soap from Neem Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the extraction, characterization and production of insecticidal soap from Neem oil using full 42 factorial design. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. N-hexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.38%, confirming the earlier literature result giving ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows, saponification value 215.95ml/g, acid value 1.122g/mol, unsaponifiable matter 19.66 etc. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.Full 42 factorial design and mathematical model was applied to the extraction process and a first order regression equation of the form:Y = 9.548 + 0.144X1 + 0.1931X2 + 0.1892 X12was obtained growing the individual effect of time and solvent type as parameter and their interaction in the entire extraction process the Neem insecticidal soap was found to be effective in insect and pest control.

  19. Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbehery Huda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S were used in an artificial diet, to study the mortality of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. A Neem formulation and different ages of natural beeswax combs were used for the effective management of the wax moth. While the diet was being prepared, Neem Azal-T/S was directly added ensure that the Neem formulation was distributed evenly in the diet at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. The obtained results showed that the different concentrations of Neem Azal-T/S mixed in the prepared artificial diet had a significant efficacy against the tested 2nd instar larvae. An outstanding elongation of the 2nd larval instar was clear in comparison with the control, even at the least tested concentration (0.25%. Neem Azal-T/S at 4, 2,1, and 0.5% caused 100% mortality for all tested larvae. When using a 4% concentration, all the tested larvae died in the 2nd instar. However, when using a 2% concentration, the larvae died in the fifth instar. When using a decreased concentration of 1.0 and 0.5%, some of the larvae were tolerant and lived till the 6th instar. Feeding the larvae on beeswax combs treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, caused 100% mortality when fed on very old wax. When the diet was old wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 91% mortality was recorded. When the diet was new wax treated with 2% Neem Azal-T/S, a 90% mortality was recorded. A 4% Neem formulation caused mortality for all larvae during the first week of treatment on the different tested ages of beeswax combs.

  20. Evaluation of mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay and in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Tiwari, P K; Meshram, G P

    2011-04-12

    The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of neem oil (NO) and its DMSO extract (NDE) were, examined in the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay. Eight different strains of Salmonella typhimurium were, used to study the genotoxicity of neem oil both in the presence and absence of Aroclor-1254 induced rat liver homogenate (S9). Two-dose treatment protocol was, employed to study the cytogenetic activity in micronucleus assay. Similarly, the antimutagenic activity of neem oil and NDE was studied against mitomycin (MMC) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in the above two test systems. Neem oil was non-mutagenic in all the eight tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium both in the presence and absence of S9 mix. In the present study, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) in neem oil treated groups over the negative control (DMSO) group of animals, indicating the non-clastogenic activity of neem oil in the micronucleus test. Neem oil showed good antimutagenic activity against DMBA induced mutagenicity compared to its DMSO extract. However, neem oil showed comparatively less antimutagenicity against MMC in the Ames assay. In vivo anticlastogenic assays shows that neem oil exhibited better activity against DMBA induced clastogenicity. These results indicate non-mutagenic activity of neem oil and significant antimutagenic activity of neem oil suggesting its pharmacological importance for the prevention of cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Univers: The construction of an internet-wide descriptive naming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. Mic

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive naming systems allow clients to identify a set of objects by description. Described here is the construction of a descriptive naming system, called Univers, based on a model in which clients provide both an object description and some meta-information. The meta-information describes beliefs about the query and the naming system. Specifically, it is an ordering on a set of perfect world approximations, and it describes the preferred methods for accommodating imperfect information. The description is then resolved in a way that respects the preferred approximations.

  2. Antimatière Est-elle la clé de l'Univers?

    CERN Multimedia

    Grousson, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    "De quoi est fait l'Univers? De matière ordinaire et, selon la théorie actuelle, de matière noire et d'énergie noire... dont nul ne sait rien! Et s'il s'agissait plutôt d'antimatière? Car elle permet de réécrire l'histoire du cosmos sans déroger à ses lois et, cette fois, sans nulle zone d'ombre. Reste à vérifier qu'elle antigravite bien..." (14 pages)

  3. L'univers créativité cosmique et créativité artistique

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Hubert; Champion, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Avec le talent de vulgarisateur qu'on lui connaît, Hubert Reeves explique, en faisant d'habiles parallèles avec la créativité humaine, ce que l'on sait aujourd'hui de la création de l'Univers. Avec ses mots et ses idées simples, épurées comme des haïkus, Hubert Reeves arrive à faire comprendre l'infiniment complexe, tout en amenant ses lecteurs au bord du gouffre métaphysique.

  4. Religion er Guds fiende. Egentlig og uegentlig eksistens i U2s tekst-musikalske univers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalvaag, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Den irske rockegruppa U2 har for lengst skrevet seg inn i populærmusikkens historie som et av rockens viktigste og mest omtalte band. Et sentralt kjennetegn ved U2 er at de opererer i et musikalsk univers som er til dels sterkt preget av religiøs språkbruk og av kristen symbolikk. I mange av U2s tekster befinner mennesket seg i et spenning sforhold mellom Gud og verden, mellom det hellige og det profane og mellom det som all...

  5. A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf and dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Syed Md. Mosaddek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of neem leaf (400 mg/kg body weight was compared with that of dexamethasone (0.75 mg, intraperitoneally by administering one hour before the formalin injection and once daily for 7 days in rats. The percentage of inhibition of paw edema in case of neem after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 28%, 40%, 45%, 58% respectively and that in case of dexamethasone after 3 hours, 6 hours, on day 3, on day 7 after formalin injection were 43%, 58%, 61%, 65% respectively. The reduction was statistically significant in each case (p<0.001. The present study suggests that anti-inflammatory effect of neem extract is less than that produced by dexamethasone.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-12-01

    Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P neem extract and tulsi extract. Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate.

  7. Characterization of rapid climate changes through isotope analyses of ice and entrapped air in the NEEM ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillevic, Myriam

    Greenland ice core have revealed the occurrence of rapid climatic instabilities during the last glacial period, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, while marine cores from the North Atlantic have evidenced layers of ice rafted debris deposited by icebergs melt, caused by the collapse...... four Greenland deep ice cores (GRIP, GISP2, NGRIP and NEEM) are investigated over a series of Dansgaard– Oeschger events (DO 8, 9 and 10). Combined with firn modeling, δ15N data allow us to quantify abrupt temperature increases for each drill site (1σ = 0.6°C for NEEM, GRIP and GISP2, 1.5°C for NGRIP...

  8. Comparative efficacy of neem and dimethyl phthalate (DMP)against malaria vector,Anopheles stephensi (dip-tera:culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HVatandoos; FRafi; AKhazani; JRafinejad; MKhoobdel; AKebriai-Zadeh; MRAbai; AAHanafi Bojd; AAAkhavan; SMAbtahi

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world which is transmitted by the Anopheles mos-quitoes.There are several methods for malaria control.One of them is application of repellents on skin in ma-larious area as an intergrated vectro management measures.This study evaluated two repellents of DMP as a synthtic and locally product of neem oil as a botanical repellent against Anopheles stephensi.The modified method of K &D was used for the tests.Probing/biting rates on the shaved belly of white rabbits were coun-ted.ED50 and ED95 values were calculated by probit statistic software.Calculation of effective dose (ED50, ED90)on human volunteer and white rabbit was performed using regression line.Protection and failure time of DMP and neem oil was also determined.ED50 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0.0076 and 0. 159 mg/cm2 respectively on white rabit.The figures of ED90 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0. 046 and 1.388 mg/cm2 .DMP and neem oil showed repellency effects against An.stephensi on human volun-teers with ED50 value of 0.0037 and 0.127 mg/cm2 respectively.ED90 value of DMP was determined as 0. 032 mg/cm2 .neem oil exhibited a ED90 value of 1.066 mg/cm2 on human volunteer.The protection time of 6-7 hours for DMP and 31 minute for neem oil was determined.The failure times for DMP and Neem was 9 hours and 65 minutes rspectively on human bait.Our results exhibited that plant-based repellent is generally less effective than synthetic repellents.However,use of locally made botanical materials would be of great ad-vantages for personal protection against mosquito biting.

  9. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  10. Centre d'Observacio de l'Univers: first year of activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, S. J.

    2011-11-01

    The Centre d'Observacio de l'Univers is one of the parts of the Parc Astronomic Montsec (PAM). PAM is an initiative of the Catalan government, through the Consorci del Montsec (Montsec Consortium), to take advantage of the capabilities and potential of the Montsec region to develop scientific research, training, and outreach activities, particularly in the field of astronomy. The choice of the Montsec mountains to install the PAM was motivated by the magnificent conditions for observing the sky at night; the sky above Montsec is the best (natural sky free of light pollution) in Catalonia for astronomical observations. The PAM has two main parts: the Observatori Astronomic del Montsec (OAdM) and the Centre d'Observacio del'Univers (COU). The OAdM is a professional observatory with an 80 cm catadioptric telescope (Joan Oro Telescope). The COU is a large multipurpose center which is intended to become an educational benchmark for teaching and communicate astronomy and other sciences in Catalonia. Since the opening more than 50000 visitors went to this center to enjoy science with Montsec dark skies and an special natural environment.

  11. Morphological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil with known azadirachtin concentrations on the oocytes of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2015-02-01

    The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

  12. Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Allah Dad; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to address the possible evaluation of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf-supplemented diets on innate immune response in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer fingerlings against Vibrio harveyi infection. Fish were fed for two weeks diets containing six graded levels of neem leaf at 0 g, 1 g, 2 g, 3 g, 4 g and 5 g per kg feed. Fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet displayed significant differences (p neem leaf-supplemented diet. Various innate immune parameters were examined pre-challenge and post-challenge. Fish was injected intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of V. harveyi containing 10(8) cells mL(-1). Supplementation of neem leaf diet significantly increased phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme, serum bactericidal activity, serum anti-protease activity throughout the experimental period when compared with the control group. Dietary doses of neem leaf diet significantly influenced the immune parameters, haematological parameters and blood biochemical indices of treated fish. The results suggested that fish fed neem leaf-supplemented diet improved the immune system and increased survival rate in L. calcarifer fingerlings against V. harveyi infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy of neem extract on four microorganisms responsible for causing dental caries viz Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chava, Venkateswara Rao; Manjunath, S M; Rajanikanth, A V; Sridevi, N

    2012-11-01

    HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES: From the ancient time, neem used to be the traditional medicine for many diseases and was mainly used for cleaning the oral cavity. The incidence of dental caries was less a few decades ago but now the incidence of caries is very aggressive. This might be due to change in dietary habits, life style and more tendency toward processed food. The objective of this study is to find out the truth that if the neem is really efficacious against caries-inducing microorganisms, mainly Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. The dried neem sticks ground into a coarse powder and weighed into 5, 10 and 50 gm were added to 100 ml of deionized double distilled water. After soaking for 2 days, the water was filtered at 4 °C and the fine filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates contains individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 °C for 2 days. At maximum concentrations, neem extract has shown the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans. At less concentration, the efficacy of neem has shown some inhibition of growth for all the four species of microorganisms. Neem chewing provides the maximum benefits. Hence, the use of chewing sticks of neem can be recommended.

  14. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael; Pettit, Erin; Kluskiewicz, Dan; Waddington, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occuring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also combine sonic-velocity measurements and thin-section measurements to produce a more accurate and spatially-complete representation of ice-crystal orientations in the vicinity of the NEEM core.

  15. Fire in ice: two millennia of Northern Hemisphere fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zennaro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales, but there remains a need for broad-scale fire proxies that span millennia in order to understand the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. We use the specific biomarker levoglucosan, and multi-source black carbon and ammonium concentrations to reconstruct fire activity from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM ice cores (77.49° N; 51.2° W, 2480 m a.s.l. over the past 2000 years. Increases in boreal fire activity (1000–1300 CE and 1500–1700 CE over multi-decadal timescales coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past two millennia. The NEEM biomass burning tracers coincide with temperature changes throughout much of the past 2000 years except for during the extreme droughts, when precipitation changes are the dominant factor. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low and high latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the NEEM camp. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back-trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  16. Surface elevation change artifact at the NEEM ice core drilling site, North Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Larsen, Lars; Schøtt Hvidberg, Christine; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Lilja Buchardt, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    The NEEM deep drilling site (77.45°N 51.06°W) is located at the main ice divide in North Greenland. For the ice core drilling project, a number of buildings was erected and left on the snow surface during the five-year project period. The structures created snowdrifts that formed accordingly to the predominant wind direction on the lee side on the buildings and the overwintering cargo. To get access to the buildings, the snowdrifts and the accumulated snow were removed and the surface in the camp was leveled with heavy machinery each summer. In the camp a GPS reference pole was placed as a part of the NEEM strain net, 12 poles placed in three diamonds at distances of 2,5 km, 7,5 km and 25 km they were all measured with high precision GPS every year. Around the reference pole, a 1 km x 1 km grid with a spacing of 100 m was measured with differential GPS each year. In this work, we present results from the GPS surface topography measurements in and around the campsite. The mapping of the topography in and around the campsite shows how the snowdrifts evolve and are the reason for the lift of the camp site area. The accumulated snowdrifts are compared to the dominant wind directions from year to year. The annual snow accumulation at the NEEM site is 0.60 m. The reference pole in the camp indicates an additional snow accumulation of 0.50 m per year caused by collected drifting snow. The surface topography mapping shows that this artificially elevated surface extends up to several kilometers out in the terrain. This could have possible implications on other glaciological and geophysical measurements in the area i.e. pit and snow accumulation studies.

  17. Extraction method for high free radical scavenging activity of Siamese neem tree flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worarat Chaisawangwong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. var. siamensis Valeton is a medicinal plant found in Thailand. Youngleaves and young flowers of this plant are commonly consumed as a bitter tonic vegetable. The flowers are also used fortreatment of fever. The flower extract has been reported to exhibit in vitro free radical scavenging activity and can inhibitlipid peroxidation of bronchogenic cancer cell line. Active compounds in the flowers are flavonoids such as rutin andquercetin. The content of these compounds in the crude extract depends on the method of extraction. Therefore, the appropriateextraction method promoting high yield of total flavonoids and high free radical scavenging activity was investigated inthis study. Six different extraction methods, i.e. maceration, percolation, decoction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction(UE, and microwave assisted extraction (MA were carried out for extracting dried powder of Siamese neem tree young flowers. The solvent used for maceration, percolation, and soxhlet extraction was 50% ethanol, while distilled water was used for decoction and MA, and both solvents were used for UE. The content of crude extract, free radical scavenging activity, and total flavonoids content of each extract were investigated and compared. Comparing the various extraction methods, decoction provided an extract containing a high amount of total flavonoids (17.54 mgRE/g extract and promoting the highest scavenging activity at EC50 11.36 g/ml. Decoction is also simple, cheap, and convenient and could be used in developing countries. Thus, it should be the recommended extraction method for the flowers of Siamese neem tree for furtherdevelopment of antioxidant pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Ethnobotanical uses of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Meliaceae) leaves in Bali (Indonesia) and the Indian subcontinent in relation with historical background and phytochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary P; Caneva, Giulia; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-08-02

    Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive

  19. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  20. Isolation,Purification and Identification of the Spermicidal Active Compound from Neem Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhongqiong(殷中琼); Gao Ping; Gao Rong; Jiang Dehong; Liu Kun; Liu Shigui

    2004-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the chloroform extract of the neem oil has resulted in the isolation of one new esters derivatives named 2-Octadecanoic acid-4-Palmitic acid-2,4-Pentanediyl ester (compound 1). Its structure is deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The test of in vitro spermicidal activity of the compound 1 shows that the compound 1 can kill all sperms of Kunming mice in vitro in less than 20 sec at the concentration of 2mg/ml.

  1. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  2. Kontserthuset Göteborg. Göteborgs Symfoniker, chefdirigent: Neeme Järvi. Dirigent: Neeme Järvi. Solist: Paata Burchuladze, bas. Kontsertmästare: Per Enoksson, Christer Thorvaldsson. Onsdag 12. mars 1997 Stora salen (brun serie)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Kontserdi kavas juttu: Eduard Tubin. Süit balletist "Kratt", Modest Mussorgski "Surma laulud ja tantsud" ja Jean Sibeliuse sümfoonia N 1, e-moll op. 39 Lk. 2-4: Kruckenberg, Sven: Tubin - Svit ur Kratt. Lk. 8 lühidalt Neeme Järvi edaspidisest tööst

  3. Protective Effect of Aqueous Crude Extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves on Plasmodium berghei-Induced Renal Damage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Chachiyo, Sukanya; Jaihan, Ubonwan; Nakinchat, Somrudee

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in the world because it can cause of death in patients. Malaria-associated renal injury is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. Therefore, new plant extracts to protect against renal injury induced by malaria infection are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves on renal injury induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice. ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 1 × 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of PbANKA, and neem extracts (500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg) were given orally for 4 consecutive days. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were subsequently measured. Malaria-induced renal injury was evidenced as marked increases of BUN and creatinine levels. However, the oral administration of neem leaf extract to PbANKA infected mice for 4 days brought back BUN and creatinine levels to near normalcy, and the highest activity was observed at doses of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg. Additionally, no toxic effects were found in normal mice treated with this extract. Hence, neem leaf extract can be considered a potential candidate for protection against renal injury induced by malaria.

  4. Production of Bio-Diesel to Neem oil and its performance and emission Analysis in two stroke Diesel Engine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Mahesh BABU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In India Neem tree is a widely grown up termed as a divine tree due to its wide relevance in many areas of study. This paper deals with Biodiesel production from neem oil, which is monoester produced usingtransesterification process. Biodiesel is a safe alternative fuel to replace traditional petroleum diesel. It has high lubricity, clean burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing unmodified diesel engine. Neem (Azadirachita Indica is an evergreen tree, which is endemic to the Indian Sub-continent and has beenintroduced to many other areas intropics. The fuel properties of biodiesel including flash point-and fire point were examined. The engine properties and pollutant emissions characteristics under different biodiesel percentages were also studied. The results shows that the biodiesel produced using neem oil could reduce Carbon monoxide and smoke emissions significantly while the Nitrogen oxide emission changed slightly. Thus, the ester of this oil can be used as environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engine.

  5. Toxicity of neem pesticides on a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) of Darjeeling district in West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debashri; Barat, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, M K

    2007-01-01

    Static renewal bioassay tests were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of two neem based biopesticides, applied widely on tea plantation namely, Nimbecidine and Neem Gold either separately as well as, in combination to the fingerlings (mean body length- 4.46 +/- 0.15 cm; mean body weight- 0.49 +/- 0.15g) of a fresh water loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton Buchanan) acclimatized to laboratory conditions prior to experiment. The 96 hours LC50 values for Nimbecidine and Neem Gold and the combination of the two were 0.0135 mgl(-1), 0.0525mgl(-1) and 0.0396 mgl(-1), respectively. The regular water quality analysis showed, that with increasing doses of biopesticides, dissolved oxygen level was lower and other parameters like pH, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity total hardness, chloride ions of water increased. The fish under toxicity stress suffered several abnormalities such as erratic and rapid movement, body imbalance and surface floating responding proportionately to the increase in concentrations of the toxicant biopesticides. The 96 hours LC50 values proved Nimbecidine more toxic than Neem Gold and the combination of the two biopesticides.

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Biochar Improved Early Growth of Neem (Melia azedarach Linn. Seedling Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wilarso Budi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of biochar on the seedling quality index and growth of neem tree seedlings and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF development  grown on ultisol  soil medium.  Two factors in completely randomised experimental design was conducted under green house conditions and Duncan Multiple Range Test was used to analyse the data. The results showed that neem seedling quality index was improved by interaction of AMF fungi and biochar amandment. The growth of neem seedling was significantly increased by interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biochar.  The combination  treatment of Glomus etunicatum and biochar 10% gave best results of height and diameter, and significantly increased by 712% and 303% respectively, as compared to control plant, while the combination treatment of Gigaspora margarita and biochar 10% gave the best result of shoot dry weight, and root dry weight and significantly increase by 4,547% and 6,957% as compared to control plant.  The mycorrhizal root colonization was increased with increasing biochar added, but decreases when 15% of biochar was applied.  N, P, and K uptake of 12 weeks neem seedling old was higher and significantly increased as compared to control plant.Keywords: AMF development, nutrient uptake , plant growth , seedling quality index, biochar  DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.103

  7. Peterburis pakutakse valgeid öid täis muusikat ning Neeme Järvit / Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tali, Piret, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    Peterburis toimuvast 7 nädalat kestvast süvamuusikafestivalist "Valgete ööde tähed/Stars of the White Nights", kontsertidel esinejatest. 25. juunil toimuvast Neeme, Paavo ja Kristjan Järvi ühiskontserdist

  8. Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf extract on resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelemes, Patrick V; Perfeito, Márcia L G; Guimarães, Maria A; dos Santos, Raimunda C; Lima, David F; Nascimento, Carlos; Silva, Marcos P N; Soares, Maria José dos S; Ropke, Cristina D; Eaton, Peter; de Moraes, Josué; Leite, José Roberto S A

    2015-12-04

    There are ethnopharmacological reports supporting the use of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf against bacterial and worm infections. However there is a lack of studies about its effect on bacterial biofilm formation and Schistosoma mansoni worms. This study reports the in vitro effects of neem leaf ethanolic extract (Neem EE) on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm and planktonic aggregation formation, and against S. mansoni worms. Quantification of the Azadirachtin (AZA), thought to be one of their main compounds related to biological effects, was performed. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of Neem EE on biofilm formation and planktonic aggregates of S. aureus was tested using the crystal violet dye method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, respectively. Changes in S. mansoni motor activity and death of worms were analyzed in vitro after exposition to the extract. Treated schistosomes were also examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was observed the presence of AZA in the extract (0.14 ± 0.02 mg/L). Testing Neem EE sub-inhibitory concentrations, a significant biofilm adherence inhibition from 62.5 µg/mL for a sensitive S. aureus and 125 µg/mL for two MRSA strains was observed. AFM images revealed that as the Neem EE concentration increases (from 250 to 1000 µg/mL) decreased ability of a chosen MRSA strain to form large aggregates. In relation of anti-schistosoma assay, the extract caused 100% mortality of female worms at a concentration of 50 µg/mL at 72 h of incubation, while 300 µg/mL at 24h of incubation was required to achieve 100% mortality of male worms. The extract also caused significant motor activity reduction in S. mansoni. For instance, at 96 h of incubation with 100 µg/mL, 80% of the worms presented significant motor activity reduction. By the confocal microscopy analysis, the dorsal surface of the tegument of worms exposed to 300 µg/mL (male) and 100 µg/mL (female) of the extract

  9. Symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in neem plants cultivated in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnky Chaell Braga da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The planting of forest species is an activity that, besides introducing new exotic types of plants, can lessen the environmental impacts resulting from extractivism. Nevertheless, such success depends, upon other factors, on the knowledge of the nutritional needs of the species to be used. This study intended to check the typical symptoms of nutritional deficiency of macronutrients in the culture of Neem, through the visual observation of the plants. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the College of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine (FAMEV of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT in Cuiabá/MT, and it was set up in randomized blocks, with seven treatments and three repetitions. Each experimental unit was represented by a plastic vase, two liters capacity. The treatments used were: complete nutritive solution and solution with the omission of the following nutrients: -N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg and -S. It was ascertained that the visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were, as a general rule, of easy characterization except for the treatment with omission of sulphur. Therefore, the omission of macronutrients decreases the production of total dry matter of the Neem plants, except for the omission of the S nutrient.

  10. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990–2010 times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623–1750 times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  11. Mineral dust and major ion concentrations in snowpit samples from the NEEM site, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Hwang, Heejin; Hong, Sang Bum; Hur, Soon Do; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Jeonghoon; Hong, Sungmin

    2015-11-01

    Polar ice sheets conserve atmospheric aerosols at the time of snowfall, which can be used to reconstruct past climate and environmental conditions. We investigated mineral dust and major ion records in snowpit samples obtained from the northwestern Greenland ice sheet near the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) camp in June 2009. We analyzed the samples for mineral dust concentrations as well as stable water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and deuterium excess) and major ions (Cl-, SO42-, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), Na+, and Ca2+). Seasonal δ18O and δD cycles indicate that the snowpit samples covered a six-year period from spring 2003 to early summer 2009. Concentrations of mineral dust, nss-Ca2+, and nss-SO42- showed seasonal deposition events with maxima in the winter-spring layers. On the other hand, the Cl-/Na+ ratio and the concentrations of MSA exhibited maxima in the summer layers, making them useful indicators for the summer season. Moreover, an anomalous atmospheric mineral dust event was recorded at a depth of 165-170 cm corresponding to late winter 2005 to spring 2006. A back trajectory analysis suggests that a major contributor to the Greenland aerosol was an air mass passing over the Canadian Arctic and North America. Several trajectories point to Asian regions as a dust source. The mineral dust deposited at NEEM was strongly influenced by long-range atmospheric transport and dust input from arid source areas in northern China and Mongolia.

  12. Beta Cell Regenerating Potential of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Extract in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, G; Parshad, O; Brown, P D; Gardner, M T

    2015-05-05

    This study evaluated the ability of 0.8% neem leaf extract (NLE) to treat diabetes mellitus by assessing its effects on blood glucose, insulin levels and islet morphology in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetes was induced in two to three-day old rat pups by STZ intraperitoneally (60 mg/kg), followed by a further 40 mg/kg dose 12-23 weeks later. The diabetic treated (DT) rats received 0.8% w/v NLE in tap water while diabetic control (DC) and normal control (NC) rats received water ad libitum. Body weight, water and chow consumption, and blood glucose were evaluated weekly. Blood and pancreas were collected at the end of the study to evaluate serum insulin and islet histology, respectively. Neem leaf extract (0.8%) improved weight gain and beta cell regeneration but did not reduce blood glucose. Serum insulin increased slightly in the treated group and three-fold in the DC group (p < 0.05). The results suggest that NLE has beta cell regenerating potential.

  13. Neem Seed Oil Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Kaushik, Shweta; Shyam, Hari; Agarwal, Satish; Balapure, Anil Kumar

    2017-08-27

    Background: In traditional Indian medicine, azadirachta indica (neem) is known for its wide range of medicinal properties. Various parts of neem tree including its fruit, seed, bark, leaves, and root have been shown to possess antiseptic, antiviral, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal and anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells were exposed to various concentrations of 2% ethanolic solution of NSO (1-30 μl/ml) and further processed for cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. In addition, cells were analyzed for alteration in Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) using JC-1 and DCFDA staining respectively. Results: NSO give 50% inhibition at 10 μl/ml and 20 μl/ml concentration in MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells respectively and, arrests cells at G0/G1 phase in both the cell types. There was a significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential that leads to the generation of ROS and induction of apoptosis in NSO treated MCF-7 and MDA MB-231 cells. Conclusion: The results showed that NSO inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and G1 phase arrest. Collectively these results suggest that NSO could potentially be used in the management of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  14. Neem (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-09

    Plant-derived extracts (PDEs) are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO) as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm) ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000). Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat), except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™) dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE) by using a broth model system.

  15. Expedient preparative isolation and tandem mass spectrometric characterization of C-seco triterpenoids from Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Saikat; Mulani, Fayaj A; Aarthy, Thiagarayaselvam; Dandekar, Devdutta S; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2014-10-31

    C-seco triterpenoids are widely bioactive class of natural products with high structural complexity and diversity. The preparative isolation of these molecules with high purity is greatly desirable, although restricted due to the complexity of natural extracts. In this article we have demonstrated a Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) based protocol for the isolation of eight major C-seco triterpenoids of salannin skeleton from Neem (Azadirachta indica) oil. Successive application of normal phase pre-packed silica-gel columns for the fractionation followed by reverse phase in automated MPLC system expedited the process and furnished highly pure metabolites. Furthermore, eight isolated triterpenoids along with five semi-synthesized derivatives were characterized using ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole/orbitrap-MS/MS spectrometry as a rapid and sensitive identification technique. The structure-fragment relationships were established on the basis of plausible mechanistic pathway for the generation of daughter ions. The MS/MS spectral information of the triterpenoids was further utilized for the identification of studied molecules in the complex extract of stem and bark tissues from Neem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a new controlled pesticide delivery system based on neem leaf powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Baljit, E-mail: baljitsinghhpu@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Sharma, D.K.; Kumar, Ramesh; Gupta, Atul [Department of Chemistry, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India)

    2010-05-15

    In order to minimize the agro-environmental pollution and health hazards caused by pesticides, in the present study, the neem leaf powder '(NLP)', a bio-pesticide, has been exploited to develop the pesticide delivery devices. The presence of neem in the formulations along with the pesticide may enhance the potential of these systems due to its inherent pesticidal activity. We have prepared the NLP and alginate based beads by using CaCl{sub 2} as crosslinker. To study the effect of composition of the beads on the release dynamics of fungicide (thiram), beads were prepared by varying the amount of NLP and crosslinker. The beads formed were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron micrograph (SEM), energy dispersion analysis by X-rays (EDAX), thermogravimetric analysis and swelling study. Formulation characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, bead size, percentage equilibrium swelling of the beads and diffusion mechanism for thiram release have been evaluated. Maximum (78.33 {+-} 2.89)% swelling has occurred in the beads prepared with 1.5% NLP, 2.5% alginate and 0.1 M crosslinker solution. In most of the formulations the values for the diffusion exponent 'n' have been obtained >1 and hence the release of fungicides occurred through Case II diffusion mechanism.

  17. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, G.; Fischer, H.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Leuenberger, D.; Mini, O.

    2014-10-01

    The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate) in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in northwest Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species) making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern (AD 1990-2010) times as well as for pre-industrial (AD 1623-1750) times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively) for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July-August and nitrate during June-July.

  18. ANTIFUNGAL EFFICACY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF NEEM CAKE, KARANJ CAKE AND VERMICOMPOST AGAINST SOME PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIPAL SINGH CHOUDHARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several agro-based waste and byproducts are known and cited to play an important role in the management ofplant diseases in ancient texts. They act directly or indirectly on plant pathogens to inhibit the growth andmultiplication or by inducing resistance in crop plants. In the present experiments, aqueous extracts of neemcake, karanj cake and vermicompost were tested against some important phytopathogenic fungi viz.,Helminthosporium pennisetti, Curvularia lunata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae for theirantifungal activities. H. pennisetti was found to be most sensitive one followed by C. gloeosporioides f. sp.mangiferae and C. lunata against all the tested drugs. Against C. gloeosporioides f. sp. mangiferae, aqueous extractof karanj cake was most effective where GI50 was found to be 0.41% drug concentration followed by neem cake(0.46% and vermicompost (0.86%. In case of C. lunata and H. pennisetti, neem cake extract was most effectivewith GI50 value of 0.27% and 0.11% respectively. The GI50 values noted for C. lunata with extracts of karanj cake(0.70%, vermicompost (0.88% and for H. pennisetti were (0.20% and (0.22% respectively.

  19. Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayanithi, N B; Kumar, T T Ajith; Kathiresan, K

    2010-07-01

    Marine ornamental fishes are exceedingly valuable due to their high demand in domestic and international markets. There is a growing global interest to rear the fishes in captivity. But problem due to bacteria and fungi are the major hitch in captive condition. Since, the use of antibiotics is banned, an attempt was made to ascertain in vitro assay of the neem leaves extract against the bacterial pathogens isolated from infected fishes. Bacterial strains isolated from infected regions of the clown fishes Amphiprion sebae and A. ocellaris were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sp., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Streptococcus sp., Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Ethanol and methanol extracts were highly inhibitory to the bacterial isolates when compared to other solvents. Ethanol extracts exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (75-250 microg ml(-1)) as compared to other extracts. The present finding revealed that the neem leaf extract significantly reduces the bacterial pathogens and their infection in marine ornamental fishes.

  20. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  1. Pretreatment and Process to Control Mycotoxin in Sustainable Feed Production Using Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Idayu Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By some recent estimates, mycotoxins affect as much as 25% of the world’s food crops each year. These highly toxic, naturally occurring compounds are by products (metabolites of the growth of fungi or moulds. Mycotoxins can result in significant economic loss for crop producers and broiler producers since it represent an ongoing risk to profitability. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. This paper highlights the use of naturally derived aflatoxin inhibitors from Azadirachtin compound of neem oil, and tray drying in controlling moisture content to inhibit the aflatoxin contamination in pretreated soy based animal feed. High moisture content found in soy based animal feed increases the risk of fungal growth during storage. Neem extract has shown potential as an effective feed additive to minimize the growth of fungi and possibly reduce the risk of toxic effects from mycotoxin production. Preservation methods by means of tray drying have also shown positive results towards the control of fungal growth.

  2. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila D. Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  3. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  4. Representativeness and seasonality of major ion records derived from NEEM firn cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gfeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal and annual representativeness of ionic aerosol proxies (among others, calcium, sodium, ammonium and nitrate in various firn cores in the vicinity of the NEEM drill site in north-west Greenland have been assessed. Seasonal representativeness is very high as one core explains more than 60% of the variability within the area. The inter-annual representativeness, however, can be substantially lower (depending on the species making replicate coring indispensable to derive the atmospheric variability of aerosol species. A single core at the NEEM site records only 30% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in some species, while five replicate cores are already needed to cover approximately 70% of the inter-annual atmospheric variability in all species. The spatial representativeness is very high within 60 cm, rapidly decorrelates within 10 m but does not diminish further within 3 km. We attribute this to wind reworking of the snow pack leading to sastrugi formation. Due to the high resolution and seasonal representativeness of the records we can derive accurate seasonalities of the measured species for modern times as well as for pre-industrial times. Sodium and calcium show similar seasonality (peaking in February and March respectively for modern and pre-industrial times, whereas ammonium and nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activities. Nitrate and ammonium both peak in May during modern times, whereas during pre-industrial times ammonium peaked during July–August and nitrate during June–July.

  5. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalakshmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO and its methyl ester (NOME on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at full load, peak cylinder pressure is higher for NOME; peak heat release rate during the premixed combustion phase is lower for neat NeO and NOME. Ignition delay is lower for neat NeO and NOME when compared with diesel at full load. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly lower for NeO at all engine loads, but in the case of NOME slightly higher at full load. It has been observed that there is a reduction in NOx emission for neem oil and its methyl ester along with an increase in CO, HC and smoke emissions.

  6. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil: A Natural Preservative to Control Meat Spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-derived extracts (PDEs are a source of biologically-active substances having antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of neem oil (NO as a preservative of fresh retail meat. The antibacterial activity of NO against Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Lactobacillus curvatus and L. sakei was assessed in a broth model system. The bacterial growth inhibition zone (mm ranged from 18.83 ± 1.18 to 30.00 ± 1.00, as was found by a disc diffusion test with 100 µL NO. The bacterial percent growth reduction ranged from 30.81 ± 2.08 to 99.70 ± 1.53 in the broth microdilution method at different NO concentrations (1:10 to 1:100,000. Viable bacterial cells were detected in experimentally-contaminated meat up to the second day after NO treatment (100 µL NO per 10 g meat, except for C. maltaromaticum, which was detected up to the sixth day by PCR and nested PCR with propidium monoazide (PMA™ dye. In comparison to the previously published results, C. maltaromaticum, E. coli, L. curvatus and L. sakei appeared more susceptible to NO compared to neem cake extract (NCE by using a broth model system.

  7. Comparative transcripts profiling of fruit mesocarp and endocarp relevant to secondary metabolism by suppression subtractive hybridization in Azadirachta indica (neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Rajakani, Raja; Sangwan, Neelam S; Gupta, Vikrant; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem) is a medicinally important plant that is valued for its bioactive secondary metabolites. Higher levels of the bioactive phytochemicals are accumulated in fruits than in other tissues. In the present study, a total of 387 and 512 ESTs, respectively, from endocarp and mesocarp of neem fruits were isolated and analyzed. Out of them 318 ESTs (82.17%) clones from endocarp and 418 ESTs (81.64%) from mesocarp encoded putative proteins that could be classified into three major gene ontology categories: biological process, molecular function and cellular component. From the analyses of contigs, 73 unigenes from the forward subtracted library and 35 unigenes from the reverse subtracted library were obtained. The ESTs from mesocarp encoded cytochrome P450 enzymes, which indicated hydroxylation to be a major metabolic event and that biogeneration of hydroxylated neem fruit phytochemicals was differentially regulated with developmental stage-specificity of synthesis. Through this study, we present the first report of any gene expression data in neem tissues. Neem hydroxy-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (NHMGR) gene was used as expressing control vis-a-vis subtracted tissues. NHMGR was present in fruit, endocarp and mesocarp tissues, but absent in subtractive libraries, revealing that it was successfully eliminated during subtraction. Eight genes of interest from subtracted libraries were profiled for their expression in fruit, mesocarp and endocarp. Expression profiles validated the quality of the libraries and functional diversity of the tissues. The subtractive cDNA library and EST database described in this study represent a valuable transcript sequence resource for future research aimed at improving the economically important medicinal plant.

  8. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  9. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  10. Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / G. W.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. (AD: 1991). Chandos/Koch CD 9096

  11. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  12. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  13. Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / G. W.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Krieg und Frieden (Sinfonische Suite), Die Verlobung im Kloster (Sommernacht-Suite), Russische Overtüre. Philharmonia Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. (AD: 1991). Chandos/Koch CD 9096

  14. Organic neem compounds inhibit soft‐rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelsey, D.J; Nieto‐Delgado, C; Cannon, F.S; Brennan, R.A

    2015-01-01

    To examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source...

  15. Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; Falourd, S.; Fettweis, X.; Gallée, H.; Garnier, E.; Gkinis, V.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Minster, B.; Paradis, N.; Orsi, A.; Risi, C.; Werner, M.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-08-01

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope-temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825 and 1836-1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation-temperature and δ18O-temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979-2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C-1 and the δ18O-temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C-1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  16. Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Ortega, P.; Swingedouw, D.; Popp, T.; Vinther, B. M.; Oerter, H.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E.; Gudlaugsdottir, H.; Box, J. E.; Falourd, S.; Fettweis, X.; Gallée, H.; Garnier, E.; Jouzel, J.; Landais, A.; Minster, B.; Paradis, N.; Orsi, A.; Risi, C.; Werner, M.; White, J. W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (north-west Greenland), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterize the isotope-temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic SST, and enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multi-decadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O anomaly values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825 and 1836-1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multi-decadal accumulation-temperature and δ18O-temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979-2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2% °C-1 and the δ18O-temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2‰ °C-1, about twice larger than previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core.

  17. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Wazed [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sultana, Parveen [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Joshi, Mangala [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Rajendran, Subbiyan, E-mail: sr2@bolton.ac.uk [Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, The University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. - Highlights: • A novel technique whereby the antibacterial components of neem oil are imbued into the compact structure of PET polyester • Trichloroacetic acid-Methylene Chloride treatment facilitated the easy entry of neem ingredients into the PET structure • Neem oil treated PET registered substantial antibacterial efficacy • Antibacterial effect is retained even after multiple use-wash cycles.

  18. Old ingredients for a new recipe? Neem cake, a low-cost botanical by-product in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent an important threat to millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for important pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue and West Nile. Control programmes mainly rely on chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. In recent years, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, with a special focus on the evaluation of plant-borne mosquitocidal compounds. Major examples are neem-based products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) that have been proven as really effective against a huge range of pests of medical and veterinary importance, including mosquitoes. Recent research highlighted that neem cake, a cheap by-product from neem oil extraction, is an important source of mosquitocidal metabolites. In this review, we examined (i) the latest achievements about neem cake metabolomics with special reference to nor-terpenoid and related content; (ii) the neem cake ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquito vectors; (iii) its non-target effects against vertebrates; and (iv) its oviposition deterrence effects on mosquito females. Overall, neem cake can be proposed as an eco-friendly and low-cost source of chemicals to build newer and safer control tools against mosquito vectors.

  19. Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Kyphuong; Dunkel, Florence V; Coulibaly, Keriba; Beckage, Nancy E

    2012-11-01

    Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system.

  20. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; dos Santos, Daniela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, on the midgut cells of predatory larvae Ceraeochrysa claveri were analyzed. C. claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% during throughout the larval period. Light and electron microscopy showed severe damages in columnar cells, which had many cytoplasmic protrusions, clustering and ruptured of the microvilli, swollen cells, ruptured cells, dilatation and vesiculation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, enlargement of extracellular spaces of the basal labyrinth, intercellular spaces and necrosis. The indirect ingestion of neem oil with prey can result in severe alterations showing direct cytotoxic effects of neem oil on midgut cells of C. claveri larvae. Therefore, the safety of neem oil to non-target species as larvae of C. claveri was refuted, thus the notion that plants derived are safer to non-target species must be questioned in future ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of 10% whole Azadirachta indica (neem) chip as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in chronic periodontitis: A clinical and microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, K; Elanchezhiyan, S; Ilavarasu, Sugumari

    2016-01-01

    Anti-microbial therapy is essential along with conventional therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Instead of systemic chemical agents, herbal products could be used as antimicrobial agents. Herbal local drug delivery systems are effective alternative for systemic therapy in managing the chronic periodontal disease. In this study, 10% neem oil chip was used as a local drug delivery system to evaluate the efficacy in the periodontal disease management. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with the bilateral periodontal probing depth of 5-6 mm were included in the study. After scaling and root planning (SRP), 10% nonabsorbable neem chip was placed in the pocket in one side of the arch. Other side was done with SRP only. Clinical parameters were recorded on the baseline, 7th day, and 21st day. Plaque samples were obtained for a microbiological study on the baseline and 21st day. Porphyromonas gingivalis strains were seen using quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay. All results were statistically evaluated. Clinical parameters showed statistically improved on the neem chip sites and presence of P. gingivalis strains were significantly reduced on the neem chip sites. Hence, 10% neem oil local delivery system delivers desired effects on P. gingivalis. Further research is needed to evaluate the neem oil efficacy on other periodontal pathogens.

  2. Effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on the replacement of the midgut epithelium in the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri during larval-pupal metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2014-06-01

    Larvae of the lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri were fed on eggs of Diatraeasaccharalis treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 2% throughout the larval period. Pupae obtained from treated larvae were used in the study at five days after the completion of cocoon spinning to investigate the effects of neem oil on the replacement of the midgut epithelium during the larval-pupal transition. We observed that the old larval epithelium was shed into the midgut lumen and transformed into the yellow body. Old cells from the yellow body were destroyed by apoptosis and autophagy and were not affected by neem oil. However, neem oil did affect the new pupal epithelium. Cells from treated pupae showed cellular injuries such as a loss of microvilli, cytoplasmic vacuolization, an increase of glycogen stores, deformation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilation of the perinuclear space. Additionally, the neem oil treatment resulted in the release of cytoplasmic protrusions, rupture of the plasma membrane and leakage of cellular debris into the midgut lumen, characteristics of cell death by necrosis. The results indicate that neem oil ingestion affects the replacement of midgut epithelium, causing cytotoxic effects that can alter the organism's physiology due to extensive cellular injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) or Curcuma longa (Turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis Compared with That of 5% Sodium Hypochlorite or 2% Chlorhexidine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Sinha, Dakshita; D S Nandha, Kanwar; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Prabha Tyagi, Shashi; Pratap Singh, Udai

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial properties of Azadirachta indica (neem) or Curcuma longa (turmeric) against Enterococcus faecalis with those of 5% sodium hypochlorite or 2% chlorhexidine as root canal irrigants in vitro. The activity of neem, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, or turmeric against E. faecalis was measured on agar plates using the agar diffusion method. The tube dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the irrigants used. Chlorhexidine or neem exhibited the greatest antibacterial activity when used as endodontic irrigants against E. faecalis, followed by sodium hypochlorite. No statistically significant difference was observed between neem, sodium hypochlorite, or chlorhexidine. The MIC of neem was 1: 128, which was similar to that of chlorhexidine. The MBC for each of these irrigants was 1: 16. Neem yielded antibacterial activity equivalent to 2% chlorhexidine or sodium hypochlorite against E. faecalis, suggesting that it offers a promising alternative to the other root canal irrigants tested.

  4. La face cachée de l'Univers comment explorer les âges sombres et le contenu manquant?

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    La matière connue n’est qu’une goutte d’eau dans l’Univers. De quoi celui-ci est-il majoritairement constitué ? Que sont ces étranges matière noire et énergie sombre ? Comment imaginer les débuts et la fin de l’Univers ? Y a-t-il même eu un début, ou l’Univers ne fait-il que se dilater et se contracter dans un éternel rebond ? Avec ce dossier, faites le point sur les grandes questions actuelles de la cosmologie.

  5. Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da ação inseticida The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rossi Forim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect.

  6. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  7. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  8. A rare case of toxic optic neuropathy secondary to consumption of neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Suresha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female was referred to our hospital with bilateral loss of vision of two days duration. She gave history of consumption of about 150 ml of neem oil five days back.Examination revealed no perception of light in both eyes. Both pupils were dilated and sluggishly reacting to light. Her fundus examination showed bilateral hyperemic, edematous discs and also edema extending along the superior and inferior temporal vascular arcade. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan showed bilateral putaminal regions with altered signal, hypointensities in T1-weighted images, hyperintensities on T2-weighted, images and hyperintense on Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR images suggestive of cytotoxic edema due to tissue hypoxia. Her vision improved to 20/200 in both eyes with treatment after two months. This is the first case report of such nature in the literature to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols reconstructed from NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Mulvaney, Robert; Hansson, Margareta

    2015-04-01

    Polar ice core preserve past atmospheric aerosols, which is a useful proxy for understanding the interaction between climate changes and atmospheric aerosols. One useful technique for reconstructing past soluble aerosols from ice core is the determination of dissolved ion species. However, since salts and acids melt into ions, chemical compositions of soluble aerosols in the ice cores have not been cleared. To clarify the temporal variations in the chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols, this study investigated chemical compositions of soluble particles preserved in the NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores using new method 'ice-sublimation method'. The ice-sublimation method can extract soluble salts particles as a solid state without melting. The ice core samples are selected from the sections from the last termination (the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene) of Dome C (inland Antarctica) and NEEM ice cores. Using ice-sublimation method, soluble salts particles were extracted. Chemical components of extracted particles were analysed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The major components of soluble salts particles in the Dome C ice core are CaSO4, Na2SO4 and NaCl. The CaSO4 and NaCl fractions were high in the first half of the last termination, whereas the Na2SO4 fraction is high in the latter half of the last termination. The major components of soluble salts particles in the NEEM ice core are CaCO3, CaSO4, NaCl and Na2SO4. The fractions of CaCO3, CaSO4 and NaCl were high in LGM, whereas those of NaCl and Na2SO4 were high in Holocene. The changes in the salts compositions in Dome C ice core are mainly controlled by concentration of terrestrial material (Ca2+). In the first half of the last termination, most of the terrestrial material (CaCO3) reacted with H2SO4 but some of sea-salt (NaCl) was not reacted with H2SO4 due to high Ca2+ concentration. As a result, the CaSO4 and Na

  10. Natural control of bacteria affecting meat quality by a neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cake extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, P; Failla, S; Nicoletti, M

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of an ethylacetate neem cake extract (NCE) against bacteria that affect meat quality, namely Campylobacter jejuni, Carnobacterium spp., Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc sp., is reported. The antibacterial activity was detected using standardised disc diffusion and macrodilution methods. The bacterial growth inhibition zone ranged from 11.33 ± 0.58 to 22.67 ± 0.58 mm (100 μL NCE). There is significant difference between the growth inhibition zone of NCE and the control (ciprofloxacin 100 μg). The percent of bacterial growth reduction range was 79.75 ± 1.53 to 90.73 ± 1.53 (100 μg NCE) as compared with control (without NCE). NCE in different amounts counteracted the growth of all tested bacteria.

  11. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  12. Biogenic Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots at Ambient Temperature Using Azadirachta indica (Neem) gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Chinmay; Mewada, Ashmi; Dharmatti, Roopa; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Sharon, Madhuri

    2015-07-01

    Synthesis of fluorescent Carbon Dots (CDs) from various carbonaceous materials apparently has acquired lots of interest amongst researchers as the corollary of the properties of CDs; which are subsequently getting unveiled. In this study we report the use of Azadirachta indica (Neem) Gum as a novel natural pre-cursor for synthesis of CDs at room temperature. Water soluble CDs of around 5-8 nm were obtained after treatment of the gum with ethanol and NaOH. These CDs exhibited green fluorescence in UV-light (λ = 365 nm). These CDs were found to be stable, having many bio-linkers attached on their surface, making it suitable for drug attachment and hence can serve as potential candidates for applications like drug delivery vehicles as well as for biosensors.

  13. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin-Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice-Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M.; Pettit, E. C.; Waddington, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occurring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also assimilate the sonic measurements with the thin-section data using a Bayesian inference procedure. This procedure allows us to combine the respective strengths of the two fabric measurement methods, to produce a more

  14. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  15. Neem leaf extract inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by altering cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Arunkumar; Agullo, Pamela; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Nandy, Sushmita; Lopez, Rebecca; Gutierrez, Christina; Narayan, Mahesh; Rajkumar, Lakshmanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Plant-based medicines are useful in the treatment of cancer. Many breast cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine in parallel with conventional treatments. Neem is historically well known in Asia and Africa as a versatile medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of biological activities. The experiments reported herein determined whether the administration of an ethanolic fraction of Neem leaf (EFNL) inhibits progression of chemical carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rat models. Seven-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Upon the appearance of palpable mammary tumors, the rats were divided into vehicle-treated control groups and EFNL-treated groups. Treatment with EFNL inhibited MNU-induced mammary tumor progression. EFNL treatment was also highly effective in reducing mammary tumor burden and in suppressing mammary tumor progression even after the cessation of treatment. Further, we found that EFNL treatment effectively upregulated proapoptotic genes and proteins such as p53, B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein (Bad) caspases, phosphatase and tensin homolog gene (PTEN), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In contrast, EFNL treatment caused downregulation of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), angiogenic proteins (angiopoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor A [VEGF-A]), cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [Cdk2], and Cdk4), and pro-survival signals such as NFκB, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). The data obtained in this study demonstrate that EFNL exert a potent anticancer effect against mammary tumorigenesis by altering key signaling pathways.

  16. Gas transport in firn: multiple-tracer characterisation and model intercomparison for NEEM, Northern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buizert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Air was sampled from the porous firn layer at the NEEM site in Northern Greenland. We use an ensemble of ten reference tracers of known atmospheric history to characterise the transport properties of the site. By analysing uncertainties in both data and the reference gas atmospheric histories, we can objectively assign weights to each of the gases used for the depth-diffusivity reconstruction. We define an objective root mean square criterion that is minimised in the model tuning procedure. Each tracer constrains the firn profile differently through its unique atmospheric history and free air diffusivity, making our multiple-tracer characterisation method a clear improvement over the commonly used single-tracer tuning. Six firn air transport models are tuned to the NEEM site; all models successfully reproduce the data within a 1σ Gaussian distribution. A comparison between two replicate boreholes drilled 64 m apart shows differences in measured mixing ratio profiles that exceed the experimental error. We find evidence that diffusivity does not vanish completely in the lock-in zone, as is commonly assumed. The ice age- gas age difference (Δage at the firn-ice transition is calculated to be 182+3−9 yr. We further present the first intercomparison study of firn air models, where we introduce diagnostic scenarios designed to probe specific aspects of the model physics. Our results show that there are major differences in the way the models handle advective transport. Furthermore, diffusive fractionation of isotopes in the firn is poorly constrained by the models, which has consequences for attempts to reconstruct the isotopic composition of trace gases back in time using firn air and ice core records.

  17. Gas transport in firn: multiple-tracer characterisation and model intercomparison for NEEM, Northern Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buizert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Compacted snow (firn preserves a continuous record of atmospheric composition up to a century back in time. Firn air transport modeling is essential for interpretation of firn gas records. Each site needs to be characterised individually through a tuning procedure, in which the effective diffusivity at each depth is adjusted to optimise the agreement between modeled and measured mixing ratios of a selected reference gas (usually CO2. We present the characterisation of the NEEM site, Northern Greenland (77.45° N 51.06° W, where an ensemble of ten reference tracers is used to constrain the diffusivity reconstruction. By analysing uncertainties in both data and the reference gas atmospheric histories, we can objectively assign weights to each of the gases used for the model tuning, and define a root mean square criterion that is minimised in the tuning. Each tracer constrains the firn profile differently through its unique atmospheric history and free air diffusivity, making our multiple-tracer characterisation method a clear improvement over the commonly used single-tracer tuning. Six firn air transport models are tuned to the NEEM site; all models successfully reproduce the data within a 1σ Gaussian distribution. The modern day Δage, i.e. the difference between gas age and ice age, is calculated to be 182 ± 8 yr. We find evidence that diffusivity does not vanish completely in the firn lock-in zone, as is commonly assumed. We further present the first intercomparison study of firn air models, where we introduce diagnostic scenarios designed to probe specific aspects of the model physics. Our results show that there are major differences in the way the models handle advective transport. Furthermore diffusive fractionation of isotopes in the firn is poorly constrained by the models, which has consequences for attempts to reconstruct the isotopic composition of trace gases back in time using firn air and ice core records.

  18. Toivo Tulevile tunnustus Monacos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    13. juunil Monacos toimunud prints Pierre'i fondi igaaastasest kompositsioonipreemiate jagamisest, kus T. Tulevi teos "Sans mesure" pälvis teise koha. Võitja oli prantsuse helilooja Frederic Durieux. Žüriisse kuulus ka Arvo Pärt

  19. Toivo Tulevile tunnustus Monacos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    13. juunil Monacos toimunud prints Pierre'i fondi igaaastasest kompositsioonipreemiate jagamisest, kus T. Tulevi teos "Sans mesure" pälvis teise koha. Võitja oli prantsuse helilooja Frederic Durieux. Žüriisse kuulus ka Arvo Pärt

  20. La mélodie secrète et l'homme créa l'univers

    CERN Document Server

    Trinh, Xuan Thuan

    1991-01-01

    L'Univers nous sera-t-il un jour révélé dans la totalité de sa réalité? Parviendrons-nous à percer le secret de sa vraie mélodie? Comment l'infiniment petit a-t-il accouché de l'infiniment grand et comment l'univers tout entier, avec ses centaines de milliards de galaxies, a-t-il jailli d'un "vide microscopique"? Comment, grâce à l'alchimie créatrice des étoiles et à l'existence des planètes, la vie et la conscience ont-elles surgi? Telles sont quelques-unes des questions que ce livre aborde. Il s'adresse à 1"`honnête homme'; curieux du monde qui l'entoure et intéressé par les progrès récents dans l'étude du Cosmos, sans être pour autant équipé du bagage scientifique du spécialiste. En retraçant l'évolution, à travers les âges, de la vision de l'Univers que s'est faite l'homme, il accorde une attention particulière à l'univers actuel, celui du big bang. Mais il sait dépasser l'argument proprement scientifique pour aborder les questions qui se posent inévitablement dans tou...

  1. Experimental Analysis of Performance and Emission Parameters of Neem Oil Ethyl Ester and HHO Gas Addition with Neem Oil Ethyl Ester in a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subramanian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Need for alternate fuel is increasing day by day due various problems associated with the conventional fuels. Present work is focussed on analysing experimentally the performance and emission characteristics of Neem oil biodiesel and addition of HHO gas along with Neem oil biodiesel in a single cylinder compression ignition engine. Biodiesel is extracted by tranesterification of non edible crude Neem oil using ethanol and Naoh as catalyst. The biodiesel is blended with diesel. The blends used are N30 and N40. HHO gas is produced from the process of electrolysis the HHO gas is the combination of hydrogen and oxygen. The produced gas is made to pass through a moisture separator and sent along the intake manifold with the intake air. The performance and emission characteristics are noted down and compared. It was observed that there was a rise in brake thermal efficiency and lesser specific fuel consumption, Reduced Oxygen content in exhaust gases, lesser HC and CO emission and there was a rise in NOX emission when HHO is supplemented with biodiesel Keywords –

  2. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  3. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  4. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  5. Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ricci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6 and a tumor cell line (HeLa. The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy.

  6. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  7. Effect of sowing dates and vernalization on Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers C-leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mohammed M; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2011-07-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of three different sowing dates (15th October, 15th November and 15th December) and two vernalization treatments (5 °C and -20 °C) on leaf structure of Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers. The obtained data are summarized as follows: The maximum values of the most studied parameters; lower epidermis + spongy tissue thickness, midrib, mesophyll tissue, vascular bundle, collenchymatous tissue and number of xylem vessels per arm were found as a result of 15th October sowing date treatment compared with the two other sowing dates. Furthermore, effect of the cooling treatments varied according to the recorded character, sowing date and cooling degree. Most of the vernalization treatments at early sowing dates increased the mesophyll tissue, midrib, number of vascular bundles per transverse section, vascular bundle thickness and number of xylem arms per transverse section. The two studied cooling treatments at 15th October sowing date increased both stomatal index and average number of stomata: average number of epidermis cells compared with the control. Furthermore, 15th October under -20 °C treatment led to small epidermal cells and stomata formation, straight epidermal cell walls and closed stomata in comparison to the control.

  8. L'état de plasma le feu de l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Dans l'Antiquité, les Grecs considéraient que les constituants du monde dérivaient de quatre éléments essentiels : la terre, l'eau, l'air et le feu. Il n'est pas difficile de voir dans les trois premiers l'équivalent de nos états solide, liquide et gazeux. Mais l'état physique le plus répandu dans l'Univers - correspondant au feu des Anciens - n'est apparu que récemment et n'a été reconnu par la communauté des physiciens qu'en 1928 : c'est le plasma. Cet état très étrange - gazeux, électrique, lumineux, impalpable - reste le plus exotique et le plus inattendu. Il a donné naissance aux trois autres états puisque, à l'exception des éléments ultra-légers que sont l'hydrogène et l'hélium, tous ceux qui constituent notre monde (carbone, oxygène, fer, etc.) sont apparus dans ces fourneaux gigantesques, ces monstres de plasma, qu'étaient les premières étoiles. La vie elle-même en découle par ricochet, ce qui a permis de dire que nous ne sommes que des " poussières d'étoiles ". Décou...

  9. Un accélérateur de particules pour sonder l'Univers

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2011-01-01

    L'accélérateur de particules du CERN est la plus grande machine jamais construite par l'homme. Son but est d'accélérer deux faisceaux de protons en sens inverse, de les porter à une collision frontale, et d'étudier les produits de cette collision. Pourquoi ? La première réponse est de voir l'accélérateur comme un microscope. Avec lui notre pouvoir de résolution sera augmenté et révolutionnera ainsi notre compréhension de l'infiniment petit. La seconde réponse est de le voir comme un télescope. La densité d'énergie produite pendant la collision ressemble à celle qui a prévalu pendant les premières fractions de seconde de l'histoire de l'Univers. Il nous offre donc un moyen d'étudier les mécanismes physiques qui sont à l'origine de la création de la matière dans le Cosmos.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrappa, Pradeep Muttagadur; Dupper, Akash; Tripathi, Pragya; Arroju, Ramakrishna; Sharma, Preeti; Sulochana, Konthoujam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medi...

  11. Isolation, morphological identification and in vitro antibacterial activity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit Kumar; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Varsha; Singh, Tanmay; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumari, Dimple

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Fresh leaves of A. indica (neem) was procured from the Department of Botany, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Five samples were taken, and each sample was divided into five subsamples and separated for further isolation of endophytic bacteria. For sterilization leaves were treated with double distilled water, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.01% bavistin, 0.05% and 70% ethanol. Sterilized leaves of the plants were embedded in Kings B (KB) petri plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Characterization of the bacteria was done according to its morphology and by Gram-staining. After that, a single colony was transferred into brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The antibacterial effect was studied by the disk diffusion method with known antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Ci) as standard. A total of 25 bacterial isolates from A. indica (neem) were obtained and identified morphologically. Most of the samples on KB media depicted irregular shape, flat elevation, undulated, rough, opaque, and white in color. Most of the samples on blood agar showed irregular, raise elevation, undulated, smooth, opaque and all the isolates were nonhemolytic and nonchromogenic. The growth of endophytic bacteria in BHI broth were all isolates showed turbidity. The microscopic examination revealed that maximum isolates were Gram-positive and rod shaped. Good antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and K. pneumoniae. Endophytic bacteria are present in leaves of A. indica (neem) and it possesses antibacterial activity against few Gram-positive and Gram

  12. Designing and screening of universal drug from neem (Azadirachta indica) and standard drug chemicals against influenza virus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-12-16

    Different strains of influenza virus are affecting a large number of people worldwide. Many synthetic antiviral medicines are available for influenza virus in the market. But still there is a need for the development of universal drugs against these strains of influenza virus. For this purpose conserved residues within the influenza virus nucleoprotein have been retrieved. The drugs, previously known to have antiviral properties, were screened to identify the best candidate universal drug against Influenza virus strains. Compounds from leaf extracts of neem, were also screened to identify the natural drugs without side effects. Molecular docking identified three potential compounds (Nimbaflavone, Rutin, and Hyperoside) having perfect binding with reported conserved residues (ASP302, SER50) of influenza virus nucleoprotein that is involved in the binding of drugs. Further analysis showed Hyperoside as a universal drug against various influenza strains. Some chemical drugs were also evaluated through screening against nucleoprotein. The results showed six drugs (OMS, CBX, LGH, Naproxen, BMS-883559, and BMS-885838) which were interacting with same conserved residues (ASP302, TYR52, SER50, GLY288, SER376, and ARG99) as were found in the case of neem phytochemicals. Hyperoside from neem leaf extract along with drugs LGH, Naproxen, BMS-885838, and BMS-883559 showed best interactions with conserved residues of nucleoprotein. The compound Hyperoside from neem leaf extract along with drugs LGH, Naproxen, BMS-885838, and BMS-883559 showed best interactions with conserved residues of nucleoprotein. So these compounds have been identified for their potential against influenza strains to be utilized as a universal drug.

  13. The effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans compared with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankariya, Amit R; Patel, Alok R; Kunte, Sanket S

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases. This study aims to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) against chlorhexidine. Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU) was enumerated using a digital colony counter. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. The results show that there was no statistically significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans between 40% concentration of water soluble azadirachtin and chlorhexidine. This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

  14. ESolvent-free, enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel production from mango, neem, and shea oils via response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nde, Divine Bup; Astete, Carlos; Boldor, Dorin

    2015-12-01

    Mango, neem and shea kernels produce non-conventional oils whose potentials are not fully exploited. To give an added value to these oils, they were transesterified into biodiesel in a solvent-free system using immobilized enzyme lipozyme from Mucor miehei. The Doehlert experimental design was used to evaluate the methyl ester (ME) yields as influenced by enzyme concentration-EC, temperature-T, added water content-AWC, and reaction time-RT. Biodiesel yields were quantified by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and subsequently modeled by a second order polynomial equation with interactions. Lipozyme enzymes were more tolerant to high temperatures in neem and shea oils reaction media compared to that of mango oil. The optimum reaction conditions EC, T, AWC, and RT assuring near complete conversion were as follows: mango oil 7.25 %, 36.6 °C, 10.9 %, 36.4 h; neem oil EC = 7.19 %, T = 45.7 °C, AWC = 8.43 %, RT = 25.08 h; and shea oil EC = 4.43 %, T = 45.65 °C, AWC = 6.21 % and RT = 25.08 h. Validation experiments of these optimum conditions gave ME yields of 98.1 ± 1.0, 98.5 ± 1.6 and 99.3 ± 0.4 % for mango, neem and shea oils, respectively, which all met ASTM biodiesel standards.

  15. Isolation, morphological identification and in vitro antibacterial activity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Azadirachta indica (neem leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic bacteria from Azadirachta indica (neem leaves, their identification and investigate their antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of A. indica (neem was procured from the Department of Botany, JNKVV, Jabalpur. Five samples were taken, and each sample was divided into five subsamples and separated for further isolation of endophytic bacteria. For sterilization leaves were treated with double distilled water, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.01% bavistin, 0.05% and 70% ethanol. Sterilized leaves of the plants were embedded in Kings B (KB petri plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Characterization of the bacteria was done according to its morphology and by Gram-staining. After that, a single colony was transferred into brain heart infusion (BHI broth and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The antibacterial effect was studied by the disk diffusion method with known antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Ci as standard. Results: A total of 25 bacterial isolates from A. indica (neem were obtained and identified morphologically. Most of the samples on KB media depicted irregular shape, flat elevation, undulated, rough, opaque, and white in color. Most of the samples on blood agar showed irregular, raise elevation, undulated, smooth, opaque and all the isolates were nonhemolytic and nonchromogenic. The growth of endophytic bacteria in BHI broth were all isolates showed turbidity. The microscopic examination revealed that maximum isolates were Gram-positive and rod shaped. Good antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and K. pneumoniae. Conclusion: Endophytic bacteria are present in leaves of A. indica (neem and it possesses

  16. The effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite on Streptococcus mutans compared with chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit R Kankariya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the development of anticaries chemotherapy, the newer agents are unable to control the initiation of dental caries. Research and development of natural antibacterial agents that are safe for the host as well as specific for oral pathogens is awaited. Neem tree extracts have been used for thousands of years for maintaining overall well-being. Chewing neem sticks in the morning is the most common indigenous method of cleaning the mouth in rural population. This has generated the interest of the dentists for the use of neem for controlling dental diseases. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative effect of different concentrations of water soluble azadirachtin (neem metabolite on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans against chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: Plaque was collected from 30 children aged 8-12 years reporting to the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Bharti Vidyapeeth Dental College, Pune and transported to the laboratory. After incubation of the plates the inhibitory zones were noted and the diameter of the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded to check the inhibition of growth of S. mutans. For testing the bacterial survival, the biofilms were prepared and colony forming units (CFU was enumerated using a digital colony counter. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s test. Results: The results show that there was no statistically significant difference in the inhibition of S. mutans between 40% concentration of water soluble azadirachtin and chlorhexidine. Conclusions: This study concluded that 40% water soluble azadirachtin is as effective as 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse in reducing the S. mutans count in dental plaque. Hence, a water soluble formulation of azadirachtin may provide the maximum benefit to mankind to prevent dental caries.

  17. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  18. Abundance, viability and diversity of the indigenous microbial populations at different depths of the NEEM Greenland ice core

    OpenAIRE

    Miteva, Vanya; Rinehold, Kaitlyn; Sowers, Todd; Sebastian, Aswathy; Brenchley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The 2537-m-deep North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) core provided a first-time opportunity to perform extensive microbiological analyses on selected, recently drilled ice core samples representing different depths, ages, ice structures, deposition climates and ionic compositions. Here, we applied cultivation, small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene clone library construction and Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) targeting the V4–V5 region, to examine the microbial abundance, viability an...

  19. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  20. The bioavailable iron in NEEM ice core related to Asian dust records over the past 110 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cunde

    2016-04-01

    The mineral dust can indirectly affect climate by supplying iron and other essential bioavailable elements into ocean. In this study, we present dissolved iron (DFe) and total dissolved iron (TDFe) concentrations in NEEM ice core over the past 110 kyr B.P. The concentrations of bioavailable reactive element Fe have good positive correlation with the concentrations of dust and Ca2+ in NEEM ice core, while show significantly negative relationship with δ18O and CO2 concentration. The ratios of DFe/TDFe are higher in warm periods (Holocene and last interglacial) than in cold period (LGM), indicating the iron-biological pump effect is more significant in warm periods than that in cold periods, this result may provide a new insight for reevaluating the iron hypothesis over glacial/interglacial periods. Our study also shows that the iron flux changes between NEEM ice core and Asian loess records are good consistent with the northern Hemisphere summer insolation. These results emphasize that the variability of Fe flux is most likely driven by solar radiation and dust in northern hemisphere.

  1. Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf extract deteriorates oocyte quality by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaube, Shail K; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Tiwari, Meenakshi; Prasad, Shilpa; Tripathi, Anima; Pandey, Ajai K

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica L.) leaf has been widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine for fertility regulation for a long time. The molecular mechanism by which neem leaf regulates female fertility remains poorly understood. Animal studies suggest that aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) - mediated granulosa cell apoptosis. Granulosa cell apoptosis deprives oocytes from nutrients, survival factors and cell cycle proteins required for the achievement of meiotic competency of follicular oocytes prior to ovulation. Under this situation, follicular oocyte becomes more susceptible towards apoptosis after ovulation. The increased level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inside the follicular fluid results in the transfer of H2O2 from follicular fluid to the oocyte. The increased level of H2O2 induces p53 activation and over expression of Bax protein that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger cytochrome c release. The increased cytosolic cytochrome c level induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities that trigger destruction of structural and specific proteins leading to DNA fragmentation and thereby oocyte apoptosis. Based on these animal studies, we propose that NLE induces generation of ROS and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis both in granulosa cells as well as in follicular oocyte. The induction of apoptosis deteriorates oocyte quality and thereby limits reproductive outcome in mammals.

  2. Real-Time Study of Noxious Gas Emissions and Combustion Efficiency of Blended Mixtures of Neem Biodiesel and Petrodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neem biodiesel is currently being explored as a future biofuel and was extracted chemically from the vegetable oil. Many of its properties are still under investigation and our aim was to study its noxious-gas emission profiles from blends with regular petroleum diesel. The distinct advantage of a real-time study is acquisition of in situ data on the combustion behavior of gas components with actual progression of time. Mixtures of neem biodiesel and petroleum diesel corresponding to neem additives of 5%, 10%, 15% and 25% were tested for combustion efficiency and emitted gases using a high-performance gas analyzer. Our study, therefore, investigated the overall efficiency of the combustion process linked to emissions of the following gases: O2, CO2, NO, NOx and SO2. The results for the 95/5% blend compared to the neat sample were most promising and showed no serious change in performance efficiency (<2%. NO/NOx emission trends displayed maxima/minima, suggestive of interconvertible chemical reactivity. Declining CO and SO2 emissions were consistent with rapid chemical conversion. The CO and SO2 concentrations fell well below the toxic atmospheric limits in less than 300 s. The results are generally encouraging for blends below 10%. The potential environmental impact of the study is discussed.

  3. The impact of ice layers on gas transport through firn at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) site, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Albert, M. R.; Baker, I.

    2014-10-01

    Typically, gas transport through firn is modeled in the context of an idealized firn column. However, in natural firn, imperfections are present, which can alter transport dynamics and therefore reduce the accuracy of reconstructed climate records. For example, ice layers have been found in several firn cores collected in the polar regions. Here, we examined the effects of two ice layers found in a NEEM, Greenland firn core on gas transport through the firn. These ice layers were found to have permeability values of 3.0 and 4.0 × 10-10 m2, and are therefore not impermeable layers. However, the shallower ice layer was found to be significantly less permeable than the surrounding firn, and can therefore retard gas transport. Large closed bubbles were found in the deeper ice layer, which will have an altered gas composition than that expected because they were closed near the surface after the water phase was present. The bubbles in this layer represent 12% of the expected closed porosity of this firn layer after the firn-ice transition depth is reached, and will therefore bias the future ice core gas record. The permeability and thickness of the ice layers at the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) site suggest that they do not disrupt the firn-air concentration profiles and that they do not need to be accounted for in gas transport models at NEEM.

  4. Transmission blocking activity of a standardized neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extract on the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in its vector Anopheles stephensi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The wide use of gametocytocidal artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) lead to a reduction of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in several African endemic settings. An increased impact on malaria burden may be achieved through the development of improved transmission-blocking formulations, including molecules complementing the gametocytocidal effects of artemisinin derivatives and/or acting on Plasmodium stages developing in the vector. Azadirachtin, a limonoid (tetranortriterpenoid) abundant in neem (Azadirachta indica, Meliaceae) seeds, is a promising candidate, inhibiting Plasmodium exflagellation in vitro at low concentrations. This work aimed at assessing the transmission-blocking potential of NeemAzal®, an azadirachtin-enriched extract of neem seeds, using the rodent malaria in vivo model Plasmodium berghei/Anopheles stephensi. Methods Anopheles stephensi females were offered a blood-meal on P. berghei infected, gametocytaemic BALB/c mice, treated intraperitoneally with NeemAzal, one hour before feeding. The transmission-blocking activity of the product was evaluated by assessing oocyst prevalence, oocyst density and capacity to infect healthy mice. To characterize the anti-plasmodial effects of NeemAzal® on early midgut stages, i.e. zygotes and ookinetes, Giemsa-stained mosquito midgut smears were examined. Results NeemAzal® completely blocked P. berghei development in the vector, at an azadirachtin dose of 50 mg/kg mouse body weight. The totally 138 examined, treated mosquitoes (three experimental replications) did not reveal any oocyst and none of the healthy mice exposed to their bites developed parasitaemia. The examination of midgut content smears revealed a reduced number of zygotes and post-zygotic forms and the absence of mature ookinetes in treated mosquitoes. Post-zygotic forms showed several morphological alterations, compatible with the hypothesis of an azadirachtin interference with the functionality of the microtubule

  5. Morphological alterations in the synganglion and integument of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks exposed to aqueous extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the necessity of controlling infestation by ticks, especially by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has led researchers and public health managers around the world to search for new and more efficient control methods. This way, we can highlight neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf, bark, and seed extracts, which have been very effective on tick control, and moreover causing less damage to the environment and to the host. This study showed the potential of neem as a control method for R. sanguineus through morphological and morphometric evaluation of the integument and synganglion of females, in semiengorged stage. To attain this, routine techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of the cuticle and subcuticle of the integument were applied. Expressive morphological alterations were observed in both organs, presenting a dose-dependent effect. Integument epithelial cells and nerve cells of the synganglion showed signs of cell vacuolation, dilated intercellular boundaries, and cellular disorganization, alterations not previously reported in studies with neem. In addition, variations in subcuticle thickness were also observed. In general, the effects of neem are multiple, and affect the morphology and physiology of target animals in various ways. The results presented in this work are the first evidence of its effects in the coating and nervous system of ticks, thus allowing an indication of neem aqueous extracts as a potential control method of the brown dog tick and opening new perspectives on acaricide use. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica) on c-Myc Oncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Fauziah; Motalleb, Gholamreza; Lam Tsuey Peng, Sally; Rahmat, Asmah; Basri, Rusliza; Pei Pei, Chong

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice. In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC) treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 µg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT), iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250), and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500). in situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR) was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue. The C500 group showed significant (pneem leaf extract.

  7. A solvent induced crystallisation method to imbue bioactive ingredients of neem oil into the compact structure of poly (ethylene terephthalate) polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wazed; Sultana, Parveen; Joshi, Mangala; Rajendran, Subbiyan

    2016-07-01

    Neem oil, a natural antibacterial agent from neem tree (Azadarichtaindica) has been used to impart antibacterial activity to polyester fabrics. Solvent induced polymer modification method was used and that facilitated the easy entry of neem molecules into the compact structure of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polyester. The polyester fabric was treated with trichloroacetic acid-methylene chloride (TCAMC) solvent system at room temperature prior to treatment with neem oil. The concentration of TCAMC and the treatment time were optimised. XRD and SEM results showed that the TCAMC treatment causes polymer modification and morphological changes in the PET polyester. Antibacterial activity of TCAMC pre-treated and neem-oil-treated polyester fabric was tested using AATCC qualitative and quantitative methods. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. It was observed that the treated fabric registers substantial antimicrobial activity against both the Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and the Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of TCAMC treatment. The antibacterial effect remains substantial even after 25 launderings. A kinetic growth study involving the effect of antibacterial activity at various incubation times was carried out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Neem Leaf Extract (Azadirachta indica on c-MycOncogene Expression in 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells of BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women both worldwide and in Malaysia. Azadirachta indica (A. Juss, commonly known as neem, is one of the most versatile medicinal plants that has gained worldwide prominence due to its medicinal properties. However, the anticancer effect of ethanolic neem leaf extract against breast cancer has not been documented. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of neem leaf extract on c-Myc oncogene expression in 4T1 breast cancer BALB/c mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, A total of 48 female BALB/c mice were divided randomly into four groups of 12 mice per group: i.cancer control (CC treated with 0.5% Tween 20 in PBS, ii. 0.5 μg/mL tamoxifen citrate (CT, iii. 250 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C250, and iv. 500 mg/kg neem leaf extract (C500. In situ reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (in situ RT-PCR was applied to evaluate suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression in breast cancer tissue.Results: The C500 group showed significant (p<0.05 suppression of c-Myc oncogene expression compared to the CC group.Conclusion: c-Myc was found to be down regulated under the effect of 500 mg/kg ethanolicneem leaf extract.

  9. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goossens

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice–bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and to refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD, ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project ice core. Below a depth of 2533.85 m, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The sequence is composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice: clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. The use of water stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δD together with other parameters, allows to discriminate between the different types of ice and to unravel the processes involved in their formation and transformation. The basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values [−39.9 ‰; −34.4 ‰] within the range of the above last 300 m of unaltered meteoric ice [−44.9 ‰; −30.6 ‰] spanning a glacial–interglacial range of values. This rules out the hypothesis of a basal ice layer originating from pre-ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet (as previously suggested e.g. in the case of the GRIP ice core, since the latter would result in an heavier isotopic signature for ice formed at a much lower altitude. We show that clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice where a climatic signal is preserved. On the other hand, both stratified debris-rich layers and ice containing dispersed debris layers express an "open" or "closed" system melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Climatic reconstruction is therefore prohibited from these ice types. We

  10. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, T.; Sapart, C. J.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Popp, T.; El Amri, S.; Tison, J. L.

    2015-10-01

    Basal ice is a common expression to describe debris-laden ice layers found close to the ice-bedrock interface under glaciers and ice sheets. The study of basal ice properties provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and to refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), ice fabrics, debris weight and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project) ice core. Below a depth of 2533.85 m, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material were retrieved from the borehole. The sequence is composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice: clear ice with specks of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers, and ice containing dispersed debris. The use of water stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δD) together with other parameters, allows to discriminate between the different types of ice and to unravel the processes involved in their formation and transformation. The basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values [-39.9 ‰; -34.4 ‰] within the range of the above last 300 m of unaltered meteoric ice [-44.9 ‰; -30.6 ‰] spanning a glacial-interglacial range of values. This rules out the hypothesis of a basal ice layer originating from pre-ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet (as previously suggested e.g. in the case of the GRIP ice core), since the latter would result in an heavier isotopic signature for ice formed at a much lower altitude. We show that clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice where a climatic signal is preserved. On the other hand, both stratified debris-rich layers and ice containing dispersed debris layers express an "open" or "closed" system melting/refreezing signature, somewhat blurred by mixing processes. Climatic reconstruction is therefore prohibited from these ice types. We propose a first

  11. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A; Dendooven, L

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO(2) from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N(2)O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH(4)(+), NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH(4)(+) and NO(2)(-), but the concentration of NO(3)(-) was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  12. Comparison of Two Adsorbent Based de-Bittering Procedures for Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Tea- Effect on Polyphenols, Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Color and Volatile Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhinandya; Grün, Ingolf U; Kwasniewski, Misha T; Fernando, Lakdas N

    2017-03-01

    Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable. The objective of this study was to apply two adsorbent based strategies, namely solid phase extraction (SPE) and Amberlite XAD-16 (AMB) resin, to achieve de-bittering of neem tea and to determine the effects of the de-bittering on the bio-active, color and volatile properties. The solid SPE treatment completely removed the flavonol, quercetin, from neem tea while in Amberlite XAD-16 treated tea (AMB) it was only insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced. We also observed decreases in total phenolic content and consequently anti-oxidant activities after de-bittering. A 62% mean reduction of limonoid aglycones indicated diminished levels of bitterness. The loss of phenolics lead to a visually appreciable color changes in the treated teas. The de-bittering also leads to a loss of sesquiterpenes, ketones and acids from neem tea. In conclusion, we found that while SPE cartridges were more efficient in removing bitterness, they caused a greater reduction in bio-active compounds than AMB XAD-16 resins, which may ultimately affect the health properties of neem tea.

  13. Un marketing générateur de contenus pour l’univers transmédia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurichesse, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Hélène Laurichesse met en avant le phénomène de brand content et d’advertainment pour expliquer l’hybridité des contenus entre marketing et narration transmédia. À travers de nombreux exemples tirés du cinéma, de la télévision et des marques, elle montre comment les stratégies de transmedia storytelling sont réinvesties pour raconter des histoires et des univers comme des marques.

  14. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A Mahmoud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20% prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens.

  15. Neem leaf glycoprotein prophylaxis transduces immune dependent stop signal for tumor angiogenic switch within tumor microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptak Banerjee

    Full Text Available We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation.

  16. Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Prophylaxis Transduces Immune Dependent Stop Signal for Tumor Angiogenic Switch within Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saptak; Ghosh, Tithi; Barik, Subhasis; Das, Arnab; Ghosh, Sarbari; Bhuniya, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation. PMID:25391149

  17. Neem leaves mediated preparation of NiO nanoparticles and its magnetization, coercivity and antibacterial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helan, V.; Prince, J. Joseph; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Ayeshamariam, A.; Madhumitha, G.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Jayachandran, M.

    Nickel oxides nanoparticles (NiO NPs) were synthesized by biosynthesis method with the help of phytoconstituents present in the neem leaf. Further the synthesized NiO NPs were subjected for structural, optical, morphological and magnetic properties. The XRD patterns clearly infer the presence of polycrystalline nature of samples (0 1 0), (0 1 1) and (0 1 2) with hexagonal crystal phase. Morphological studies using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) reveals that the biosynthesized NiO NPs were in shape of oblong with 12 nm in size. Elemental analysis (EDAX) confirms the quantity of Ni is present at 51% and remaining O as 49% as well as the mass magnetization values of 61 emu/g are also recorded for NiO NPs and its coercivity values in the range of 0.2-0.4 of nanoparticles respectively. Finally the NiO NPs was studied for bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 1430) and followed by Escherichia coli (MTCC 739) by agar diffusion assay.

  18. Extraction of Ice Sheet Layers from Two Intersected Radar Echograms Near Neem Ice Core in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, S.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of snow and ice over time result in ice sheet layers. These can be remotely sensed where there is a contrast in electromagnetic properties, which reflect variations of the ice density, acidity and fabric orientation. Internal ice layers are assumed to be isochronous, deep beneath the ice surface, and parallel to the direction of ice flow. The distribution of internal layers is related to ice sheet dynamics, such as the basal melt rate, basal elevation variation and changes in ice flow mode, which are important parameters to model the ice sheet. Radar echo sounder is an effective instrument used to study the sedimentology of the Earth and planets. Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) is specific kind of radar echo sounder, which extends studies of ice sheets from surface to subsurface to deep internal ice sheets depending on the frequency utilised. In this study, we examine a study site where folded ice occurs in the internal ice sheet south of the North Greenland Eemian ice drilling (NEEM) station, where two intersected radar echograms acquired by the Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) employed in the NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission imaged this folded ice. We propose a slice processing flow based on a Radon Transform to trace and extract these two sets of curved ice sheet layers, which can then be viewed in 3-D, demonstrating the 3-D structure of the ice folds.

  19. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

  20. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  1. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  2. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  3. Sustainable production of azadirachtin from differentiated in vitro cell lines of neem (Azadirachta indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mithilesh; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Azadirachtin has high industrial demand due to its immediate application as an ecofriendly, biodegradable biopesticide and also due to its various other significant bioactivities. To date, the only commercially feasible way to produce azadirachtin is extraction from seeds, but their availability is very limited as the tree flowers only once a year and only one-third of the fruits are collected due to operational problems. Further, due to the strict out-breeding nature of the plant, the seeds are highly heterozygous, resulting in inconsistent metabolite production. Therefore, in the present study, to achieve sustainable production of azadirachtin, dedifferentiated and redifferentiated calli derived from various explants of neem—zygotic embryo, leaf and ovary—were investigated for their potential to biosynthesize azadirachtin. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the in vitro cell lines showed the presence of azadirachtin in all the samples tested, the content of which in cultured cells varied with explant source and cell differentiation response. The presence of azadirachtin in samples was further confirmed by positive electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The zygotic embryo cultures of neem accumulated much higher amounts of azadirachtin than leaf and ovary cultures. Furthermore, organized in vitro callus cultures (redifferentiated) supported higher azadirachtin biosynthesis, while unorganized callus cultures (dedifferentiated) supported the least. The maximum azadirachtin content of 2.33 mg g−1 dry weight was obtained from redifferentiated immature zygotic embryo cultures.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of a Neem Cake Extract in a Broth Model Meat System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33–22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41–32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10–1:100,000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08–92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat. PMID:23917814

  5. New focuses of polar ice-core study: NEEM and Dome A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN JiaWen; XIAO CunDe; HOU ShuGui; LI YuanSheng; SUN Bo

    2009-01-01

    Ice core records from polar regions are of great value to study long-term climate and environmental change. Greenland ice-core records are celebrated for their high resolution and have provided very important knowledge for understanding the late Quaternary palaeoclimate, especially in reference to millennial-scale abrupt climatic flips during the last glaciation. Recently, a new project to retrieve a deep ice-core from Greenland known as NEEM for North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling, has been launched with the main target being the last interglacial period. The new core will help us understand further details of climate changes during a period of warmth as the present. Antarctic ice cores have a unique advantage in providing recovery of longer time-scale paleclimate information and hence are regarded as a crucial pillar to examine climatic cycles on the time-scale of Earth-orbital phenomena.Since the bottom ice in Dome A is estimated to be older than a million years, a deep drilling there becomes a new focus for ice core studies.

  6. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-21

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  7. Environmentally Benign Neem Biodiesel Synthesis Using Nano-Zn-Mg-Al Hydrotalcite as Solid Base Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Chelladurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcite, also known as aluminum-magnesium layered double hydroxide (LDH or anionic clay, is a synthetic compound that was broadly investigated in the past decade due to its many potential applications. In this work, we present an environmentally benign process for the transesterification (methanolysis of neem oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME using Zn-Mg-Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts in a heterogeneous manner. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TPD-CO2, and the BET surface area analysis. It is well-known that the catalytic performance of hydrotalcite is dramatically increased through the incorporation of Zn into the surface of Mg-Al hydrotalcite material. The optimized parameters, 10 : 1 methanol/oil molar ratio with 7.5 g catalysts reacted under stirring speed 450 rpm at 65°C for 4 h reaction, gave a maximum ester conversion of 90.5% for the sample with Zn-Mg-Al ratio of 3 : 3 : 1.

  8. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Serrone, Paola; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10-1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.

  9. 10Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturevik-Storm, Anna; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie; Muscheler, Raimund; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Vinther, Bo M.; Usoskin, Ilya

    2014-09-01

    Several deep Greenland ice cores have been retrieved, however, capturing the Eemian period has been problematic due to stratigraphic disturbances in the ice. The new Greenland deep ice core from the NEEM site (77.45°N, 51.06°W, 2450 m.a.s.l) recovered a relatively complete Eemian record. Here we discuss the cosmogenic 10Be isotope record from this core. The results show Eemian average 10Be concentrations about 0.7 times lower than in the Holocene which suggests a warmer climate and approximately 65-90% higher precipitation in Northern Greenland compared to today. Effects of shorter solar variations on 10Be concentration are smoothed out due to coarse time resolution, but occurrence of a solar maximum at 115.26-115.36 kyr BP is proposed. Relatively high 10Be concentrations are found in the basal ice sections of the core which may originate from the glacial-interglacial transition and relate to a geomagnetic excursion about 200 kyr BP.

  10. Murine carcinoma expressing carcinoembryonic antigen-like protein is restricted by antibody against neem leaf glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arnab; Barik, Subhasis; Bose, Anamika; Roy, Soumyabrata; Biswas, Jaydip; Baral, Rathindranath; Pal, Smarajit

    2014-11-01

    We have generated a polyclonal antibody against a novel immunomodulator, neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) that can react to a specific 47 kDa subunit of NLGP. Generated anti-NLGP antibody (primarily IgG2a) was tested for its anti-tumor activity in murine carcinoma (EC, CT-26), sarcoma (S180) and melanoma (B16Mel) tumor models. Surprisingly, tumor growth restriction was only observed in CT-26 carcinoma models, without any alteration in other tumor systems. Comparative examination of antigenicity between four different tumor models revealed high expression of CEA-like protein on the surface of CT-26 tumors. Subsequent examination of the cross-reactivity of anti-NLGP antibody with purified or cell bound CEA revealed prominent recognition of CEA by anti-NLGP antibody, as detected by ELISA, Western Blotting and immunohistochemistry. This recognition seems to be responsible for anti-tumor function of anti-NLGP antibody only on CEA-like protein expressing CT-26 tumor models, as confirmed by ADCC reaction in CEA(+) tumor systems where dependency to anti-NLGP antibody is equivalent to anti-CEA antibody. Obtained result with enormous therapeutic potential for CEA(+) tumors may be explained in view of the epitope spreading concept, however, further investigation is crucial.

  11. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478

  12. Recent changes in North West Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Stack records of accumulation, d18O and deuterium excess were produced from up to 4 shallow ice cores at NEEM (North-West Greenland), spanning 1724-2007 and updated to 2011 using pit water stable isotope data. Signal-to-noise ratio is high for d18O (1.3) and accumulation (1.2) but is low for deuterium excess (0.4). No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM d18O shows multi-decadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. Decadal d18O and accumulation variability is in phase with Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation indices, and enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. Large-scale spatial coherency is detected between NEEM and other Greenland ice core and temperature records, strongest for North-West Greenland d18O and summer South-West coastal temperature instrumental records. The strength of correlations with the North Atlantic Oscillation is smaller than in central or south Greenland. The strongest positive d18O values are recorded at NEEM in 2010, followed by 1928, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The coldest/driest decades are depicted at NEEM in 1815-1825 and 1836-1836. The spatial structure of these warm/ wet years and cold/dry decades is investigated using all available Greenland ice cores. During the period 1958-2011, the NEEM accumulation and d18O records are highly correlated with simulated precipitation, temperature and d18O from simulations performed with MAR, LMDZiso and ECHAM5iso atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Model-data agreement is better using ERA reanalyses than NCEP/NCAR and 20CR ones. Model performance is poor for deuterium excess. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the d18O-temperature relationship for the strong warming period in 1979-2007. The estimated slope of this relationship is 1.1±0.2‰ per °C, about twice larger than previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature

  13. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels: 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls...

  14. Freva - Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework for Scientific Infrastructures in Earth System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Schartner, Thomas; Kirchner, Ingo; Rust, Henning W.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework (Freva - freva.met.fu-berlin.de) is a software infrastructure for standardized data and tool solutions in Earth system science. Freva runs on high performance computers to handle customizable evaluation systems of research projects, institutes or universities. It combines different software technologies into one common hybrid infrastructure, including all features present in the shell and web environment. The database interface satisfies the international standards provided by the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Freva indexes different data projects into one common search environment by storing the meta data information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets in a database. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy-to-handle search tool supports users, developers and their plugins to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitation of the provision and usage of tools and climate data automatically increases the number of scientists working with the data sets and identifying discrepancies. The integrated web-shell (shellinabox) adds a degree of freedom in the choice of the working environment and can be used as a gate to the research projects HPC. Plugins are able to integrate their e.g. post-processed results into the database of the user. This allows e.g. post-processing plugins to feed statistical analysis plugins, which fosters an active exchange between plugin developers of a research project. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a database

  15. Anti-inflammatory, pro-apoptotic, and anti-proliferative effects of a methanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract are mediated via modulation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Marc; Cerella, Claudia; Reuter, Simone; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Azadirachta indica (neem tree) is used in traditional Indian medicine for its pharmacological properties including cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we studied a neem extract's anti-inflammatory potential via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, linked to cancer, inflammation, and apoptosis. Cultured human leukemia cells were treated with a methanolic neem leaf extract with or without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulation. Inhibition of NF-κB activity was demonstrated by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Inhibition of viability by neem extracts was assessed by luminescent assays. Western blot analysis allowed assessing the inhibitory effect of the neem extract on TNF-α-induced degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p50/p65 heterodimer. Inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK) activity was shown as well as the effect of neem extract on the induction of apoptotic cell death mechanisms by nuclear fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for a strong effect of the neem extract on pro-inflammatory cell signaling and apoptotic cell death mechanisms, contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms triggered by Azadirachta indica.

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of neem leaf extract, 2, 3-dehydrosalanol and quercetin dihydrate mediated silver nano particles for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, Bodaballa; Venu, Ravipati; Prasad, Tollamadugu N V K V; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu; Srinivasa Rao, Kothapalli; Srilatha, Chintamaneni

    2017-06-01

    The utility of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in veterinary medicine is steadily increasing as they have many therapeutic applications against pathogens and arthropods of livestock. In this study, green AgNPs using neem (N-AgNPs), 2,3-dehydrosalanol (2,3-DHS-AgNPs) and quercetin dihydrate (QDH-AgNPs) were synthesised and characterised. Synthesised compounds were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy and the peak absorbance was recorded at 370 nm for neem extract. For N-AgNPs, 2,3-DHS-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs, the maximum absorbance peaks were at 430, 230 and 220 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of green AgNPs. The XRD pattern of N-AgNPs showed the peaks corresponding to whole spectra of 2 θ values ranging from 10-80. The relatively higher intensity of (111, 222) planes in face centred cubic crystalline structure supports the formation of synthesised AgNPs. In DLS analysis, the hydrodynamic diameter of neem leaf extract was found to be 259.8 nm, followed by 5.3, 6.7 and 261.8 nm for 2,3-DHS-AgNPs, N-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs, respectively. Based on the transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy image analyses, confirmed the formation of N-AgNPs, 2,3-DHS-AgNPs and QDH-AgNPs. These eco-friendly phyto-AgNPs may be of use as an effective alternative to chemical control methods against the arthropods of livestock.

  17. Efficacy and Dose Response of Soil-Applied Neem Formulations in Substrates With Different Amounts of Organic Matter, in the Control of Whiteflies, Aleyrodes proletella and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Josephine; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Pallmann, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Neem products have been used frequently as an alternative to synthetic pesticides, because of their insecticidal, insect antifeedant, and growth-regulating effects. Moreover, new formulations are continually being developed and therefore, they have to be evaluated for their efficacy and persistence. In this regard, two soil-applied products-a liquid-based drenching solution NeemAzal-T and NeemAzal granules-were evaluated against two whitefly species, Aleyrodes proletella L. and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West) on Brussels sprout and tomatoes, respectively. The plants were grown in two substrates: one was a commercial substrate (CS) composed of 15% humus, 35% clay, and 50% peat, and the other was a commercial substrate and sand mixture in 1:1 ratio. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, persistence, and dose response of the two soil-applied NeemAzal formulations in substrates with different amount of organic matter. The results show that the efficacy of neem formulations was dose dependent, with the highest doses of NeemAzal granules (300 mg/kg=21 mg azadirachtin [AZA]/kg of substrate) and NeemAzal T (2 ml/kg=20 mg AZA/kg of substrate) achieving up to 100% mortality of immature stages of whiteflies. NeemAzal caused significantly higher mortality in immature stages of both whitefly species with CS + sand mixture than with pure CS. Persistence of the NeemAzal formulations was not influenced by the substrate type but rather by time span between treatment application and infestation, with significant decrease in efficacy when whiteflies were exposed 10 d after treatments.

  18. Treatment with a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) of beetle larvae parasitizing the plumage of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Volker; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Julia

    2012-02-01

    Beetles of the species Alphitobius diaperinus, Dermestes bicolor, and Dermestes lardarius may transmit severe agents of diseases on poultry and may in addition harm as larvae the skin and feathers thus leading to severe economic losses. The present study deals with a control measurement using a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) being diluted with tap water. It was shown that spraying of a 1:33 dilution kills both larvae and adults of these part-time parasites as was previously shown for other parasites such as mites, ticks, and blood sucking or biting insects.

  19. A Study On The Role Of Neem, Haldi, Sajina And Garlic Oil (Nutriderm Oil In Pyoderma And Infective Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosh Sadhan Kumar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy cases of pyoderma and infective dermatitis were studied. These included, as control, 10 patients who applied 1% gention violet only. Other 60 Patients (30 impetigo, 20 infective dermatitis, 10 folliculitis & furuncle were treated with application of Nutriderm oil for 2 weeks. 83% of impetigo, 75% of infective dermatitis and 50% of folliculitis and furuncle were cured after 2 weeks of treatment, free of side-effects. Neem, Haldi, Sajina and Garlic Oil (Nutriderm oil in judicial combination can act as an inexpensive substitute for topical antibiotics and corticosteroids.

  20. MORFO-ANATOMIA E HISTOQUÍMICA FOLIAR DE Azadirachta indica A. JUSS (Neem) (MELIACEAE), CULTIVADAS EM GOIÁS

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Amede, Soraia; Graciano Ribeiro, Alva; Rezende, Maria Helena; Faria, Maria Tereza

    2015-01-01

    O Neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss é uma árvore da família Meliaceae, originária da Índia. Nessas regiões o “Neem”, é considerado uma planta medicinal de relevante importância pelos seus efeitos positivos junto à saúde das plantações, animais e do próprio homem. Muitos compostos ativos já foram isolados de A. indica sendo que o liminóide azadiractina encontrada nas sementes, usado principalmente como repelente e inseticida. Foram registrados na literatura especializada vários trabalhos do pon...

  1. Univé customer survey: Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) insurance : Report PAYD-2. Feedback from Pay-As-You-Drive insurance, both outside and inside the car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis Evans, Ben; den Heijer, Anne; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    On the 10th of January 2013 over 3500 Univé clients were contacted and asked to fill in an online survey via Qualtrics, a survey website company licenced by the University of Groningen, about the future of car insurance at Univé. These customers could be classified under three main headings; car ins

  2. Univé customer survey: Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) insurance : Report PAYD-2. Feedback from Pay-As-You-Drive insurance, both outside and inside the car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis Evans, Ben; den Heijer, Anne; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    On the 10th of January 2013 over 3500 Univé clients were contacted and asked to fill in an online survey via Qualtrics, a survey website company licenced by the University of Groningen, about the future of car insurance at Univé. These customers could be classified under three main headings; car

  3. Preliminary assays for efficiency avaliation of neem oil for control of Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae / Ensaios preliminares para avaliação da eficiência de óleo de neem no controle de Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a commercial formulation of the neem oil (azadirachtina was evaluated in different stages of the biological cycle of the red mite of the paraguay tea Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. The formulation was shown efficient in the adults control, as well as it affected the fecundity of the females of the mite, however it didn’t inhabited oviposition, when the leaves were treated with the product.Avaliou-se o efeito de uma formulação comercial a base de neem (azadirachtina em diferentes etapas do ciclo biológico do ácaro vermelho da erva-mate Oligonychus yothersi (Acari: Tetranychidae. A formulação mostrou-se eficiente no controle de adultos, bem como afetou a fecundidade das fêmeas do ácaro, contudo não ocasionou inibição na oviposição, quando as folhas foram tratadas com o produto.

  4. Toxicity of Neem Leaf Extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on Some Haematological, Ionoregulatory, Biochemical and Enzymological Parameters of Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saravanan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC 50 of neem leaf extract to Cirrhinus mrigala for 24 h was found to be 1.035 g l-l. During the study period, the haematological parameters including Hb, Hct, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC levels were significantly decreased in neem leaf extract exposed fish when compared to the control fish whereas WBC count was increased. Similarly, plasma Na+ and Cl- levels were significantly lower and K+ level were significantly higher when compared to the control. In biochemical study, elevated plasma glucose and induced protein levels were noticed. The enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT activities were increased significantly in gill, liver and muscle of treated fish compared to that of their control groups. The results of the present investigation suggest that neem leaf extracts affects the hematological, ionoregulatory, biochemical and enzymological parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of neem based products in freshwater environment.Keywords: Azadirachta indica, Acute toxicity, Cirrhinus mrigala, Haematology, Ion regulation, Biochemical and Enzymological parameters.

  5. Post-natal development of rats` offspring treated with the ethanol extract of Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenicity and developmental abnormalities in the offspring of female rats that ingested ethanol extract of Neem plants during pregnancy and lactation period were assessed. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in control group and in three experimental groups and treated during the 4th, 5th, and 6th day of pregnancy. After birth, the lactating females received, by gavage, 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 of Neem ethanol extract, during 15 days. Results show, there was no significant difference in body mass index of neonatal rats in the 4 groups evaluated, whereas mean rate of offspring survival was 79.4%. Hair growth, incisor teeth eruption, ear detachment, eyelid opening, and spontaneous ambulation were similar for all groups. Likewise, physical development and development of motor activity, ambulation, and postural reflexes were similar for all groups. The administration of Neem ethanol extract did not cause any reproductive or systemic toxicity in animals. Results show that, Neem ethanol extract safe at doses 65, 135 and 200 mg kg-1 in pregnant or lactating rats.

  6. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assalif Demissew

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  7. A Comparative Evaluation on Antimicrobial Effect of Honey, Neem Leaf Extract and Sodium Hypochlorite as Intracanal Irrigant: An Ex-Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Divya; Narayanan, Retna Kumari; Vadakkepurayil, Kannan

    2016-08-01

    The major determinant of the success of root canal treatment depends on meticulous disinfection of the root canal using intracanal irrigants. The most commonly used root canal irrigant is sodium hypochlorite which has disadvantages of cytotoxicity and unpleasant taste. So there is a need to identify a more biocompatible root canal irrigant. The aim of this ex-vivo study was to evaluate the efficacy of 40% honey, 100% neem leaf extract and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an intracanal irrigant against the isolated microorganisms from infected root canal. The samples were collected from infected root canals of 60 primary molar teeth indicated for pulpectomy. Alpha hemolytic Streptococci, gram negative bacilli, Candida, Staphylococci, Lactobacilli, Enterococci, Spore bearing gram positive bacilli and Micrococci were the microorganisms isolated from the samples. The zone of inhibition against the microbial growth was measured by agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was done by Repeated Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni method. Statistical analysis showed that the means of the zones of inhibition measured in this study were 18.56mm, 2.09mm and 1.62mm for sodium hypochlorite, 100% neem leaf extract and 40% honey respectively. The significance was greater between sodium hypochlorite and the other two agents as p-value was neem leaf extract and 40% honey. It was also observed that 100% neem leaf extract has greater antimicrobial effect than 40% honey.

  8. Side Effects of Neem Oil on the Midgut Endocrine Cells of the Green Lacewing Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, E L; Santos, D C

    2014-04-01

    We described the ultrastructure of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás) midgut endocrine cells in larva, pupa, and adult, and evaluated the side effects of ingested neem oil, a botanical insecticide obtained from the seeds of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), on these cells. During the larval period, C. claveri were fed (ad libitum) Diatraea saccharalis (F.) eggs treated with neem oil at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two subtypes of endocrine cells, namely granular and vesicular, occurred in the midgut epithelium during the three stages of the life cycle. Both cell types did not reach the midgut lumen and were positioned basally in the epithelium. The endocrine cells did not show extensive infoldings of the basal plasma membrane, and there were numerous secretory granules in the basal region of the cytoplasm. In the granular endocrine cells, the granules were completely filled with a dense matrix. In the vesicular endocrine cells, the main secretory products consisted of haloed vesicles. Ultrastructural examination indicated that only the granular endocrine cells exhibited signs of morphologic changes of cell injury present in all life cycle stages after the larvae were chronically exposed to neem oil by ingestion. The major cellular damage consisted of dilatation and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the development of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial swelling. Our data suggest that cytotoxic effects on midgut endocrine cells can contribute to a generalized disruption of the physiological processes in this organ due to a general alteration of endocrine function.

  9. Neem cake as a promising larvicide and adulticide against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae): a HPTLC fingerprinting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Higuchi, Akon; Toniolo, Chiara; Canale, Angelo; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes are insects of huge public health importance, since they act as vectors for important pathogens and parasites. Here, we focused on the possibility of using the neem cake in the fight against mosquito vectors. The neem cake chemical composition significantly changes among producers, as evidenced by our HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) analyses of different marketed products. Neem cake extracts were tested to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies. Ovicidal activity of both types of extracts was statistically significant, and 150 ppm completely inhibited egg hatching. LC50 values were extremely low against fourth instar larvae, ranging from 1.321 (NM1) to 1.818 ppm (NA2). Adulticidal activity was also high, with LC50 ranging from 3.015 (NM1) to 3.637 ppm (NM2). This study pointed out the utility of neem cake as a source of eco-friendly mosquitocides in Anopheline vector control programmes.

  10. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  11. The effect of mango and neem extract on four organisms causing dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivavius, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. Materials and Methods: The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4°C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Results: Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. Interpretation and Conclusion: A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.

  12. EVALUACIÓN DEL EXTRACTO ACUOSO DE SEMILLA DE NEEM (Azadirachta indica COMO GARRAPATICIDA EN BOVINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Hurtado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer el efecto garrapaticida del extracto acuoso de la semilla de Neem (EASN, se seleccionaron 28 terneros (lactantes mestizos, con fines de doble propósito, del hato bovino de la ESPAM MFL; estos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos a los cuales se les aplicó los siguientes tratamientos (T: 4% de EASN (T1, 5% EASN (T2, 6% EASN (T3 y Amitraz 1 mL/L (T4, siendo este el control. Para la obtención del biopreparado (EASN se aplicó los procesos de: molienda, pesaje, preparación y colado. Se utilizó el diseño completamente al azar, teniendo como factor único el efecto de tratamientos, con una prueba de medias de Tukey al 5%, para conocer las diferencias estadísticas entre estos. La variable de respuesta (cantidad de garrapatas se cuantificó mediante observación directa del número de garrapatas vivas antes de aplicarse y tres días post aplicación del EASN. Los resultados demostraron un efecto significativo entre los tratamientos con un comportamiento similar de efectividad en T2 y T3 con respecto al control (T4. La relación costo-beneficio más acorde se obtuvo en los T1 y T2. Se concluye que el EASN al 5% puede ser utilizado como control biológico efectivo de la garrapata en terneros, que además de presentar un bajo costo económico también representa una nula incidencia de contaminación ambiental.

  13. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-12-01

    E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP

  14. Next generation sequencing of oral microbiota in Type 2 diabetes mellitus prior to and after neem stick usage and correlation with serum monocyte chemoattractant-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Rubini; Srikanth, Padma; Mani, Monika; Barani, Ramya; Seshadri, Krishna G; Janarthanan, R

    2017-08-01

    Oral microbiome impacts health and disease. T2DM and periodontitis are associated. Neem (Azadiracta indica) has antibacterial activity against oral microbiota. To characterize oral microbiota (OMB) in saliva samples of T2DM patients by Next generation sequencing. To analyze MCP-1 levels among the T2DM patients before and after a month of neem stick usage as a toothbrush. Blood and saliva samples were collected from adult T2DM patients before and after the neem stick usage. Metagenomic sequencing was performed on saliva samples targeting V6 region of 16s rRNA. Serum MCP-1 levels were determined using a quantitative sandwich Human MCP-1 standard ABTS development kit (Peprotech, USA). The profile of oral microbiota of T2DM patients (n=24) consists of Streptococcus (95.8%) counts ranging from 2644 to 27,214, Veillonella (72.2%, counts 25-19,709, Neisseria (87.5%) 453-33,445), Rothia (63.6%, 233-6734), Actinomycetes (25%, 161-3730), Fusobacterium (21%, 2252-21,334), and Pigmentiphaga (12.5% 3-16,644). Oral microbiota in healthy controls (n=10), consists of Streptococcus (26.1%), Veillonella (21.9%), Neisseria (16.9%), Haemophilus (10.7%), Actinomycetes (2.6%), Rothia (3.1%), Oribacterium (1.7%). Post neem samples showed drastic reduction in the load of bacteria which was statistically significant. The mean serum MCP-1 before the use of neem stick was 265.18±79.44 (range 141.6-980.5pg/ml) and dropped to 33.6±7.35 after a month of neem stick usage (P value>0.001). OMB of T2DM patients and healthy controls were similar, however bacterial loads were significantly higher in T2DM patients. Use of neem stick has a statistically significant reduction on bacterial loads and MCP-1 levels in T2DM patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this

  16. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  17. The estradiol 17-β concentration in mice after treated with ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (neem)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitasiwi, Agung Janika; Isdadiyanto, Sri; Mardiati, Siti Muflichatun

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) on plasma estradiol 17-β synthesis in mice. Thirty virgin female mice (Swiss Webster strain) between 2.5 and 3 months old (25 ± 2.5 g body weight) were used as the experimental sample. The mice were divided into five groups: K-group were administered tap water; K+ group were administered contraceptive pills; P1 to P3 group were administered orally with ethanolic A. indica leaf extract at doses of 8.4, 11.2, and 14 mg/animal/day, respectively. The regularity of the estrous cycle was monitored during treatment. The mice were sacrificed after being treated orally for 21 days and blood was collected by cardiac puncture under chloroform anesthesia. The estradiol concentration was measured by ELISA. Ovaries were processed with the paraffin method and HE staining. Our results showed that the estrous cycle irregularity of treated groups was higher than K-group. The estradiol concentration was significantly different (p0.05) between the treated groups. The atresia follicle number was significantly different (pNeem extracts disrupt the estradiol 17-β concentration by interference with follicle development in the ovaries so that the regularity of estrous cycle was disrupted.

  18. Process optimization and kinetics of biodiesel production from neem oil using copper doped zinc oxide heterogeneous nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Baskar; Ravi, Aiswarya

    2015-08-01

    Heterogeneous nanocatalyst has become the choice of researchers for better transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel. In the present study, transesterification reaction was optimized and kinetics was studied for biodiesel production from neem oil using CZO nanocatalyst. The highly porous and non-uniform surface of the CZO nanocatalyst was confirmed by AFM analysis, which leads to the aggregation of CZO nanoparticles in the form of multi layered nanostructures. The 97.18% biodiesel yield was obtained in 60min reaction time at 55°C using 10% (w/w) CZO nanocatalyst and 1:10 (v:v) oil:methanol ratio. Biodiesel yield of 73.95% was obtained using recycled nanocatalyst in sixth cycle. The obtained biodiesel was confirmed using GC-MS and (1)H NMR analysis. Reaction kinetic models were tested on biodiesel production, first order kinetic model was found fit with experimental data (R(2)=0.9452). The activation energy of 233.88kJ/mol was required for transesterification of neem oil into biodiesel using CZO nanocatalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Performance Characteristic of Diesel Engine by Using Methyl Ester of Linseed and Neem oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kesava Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. In addition, the use of vegetable oils as fuel is less pollution than petroleum fuels. In this thesis work, the transesterification process of linseed oil (lso and neem oil (no in order to obtain bio diesel. Different parameters for the optimization of bio diesel products were investigated in the first phase, and the effects were characterized to test their properties as fuel in diesel engines such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point and cetane number. While in the next phase lsome & nome was produced by transesterification method using linseed oil, neem oil and methyl alcohol, and its effects on reaction temperature, catalyst percentages, and reaction time for optimum bio diesel production have been studied. The blends of various proportions of the lsome & nome with diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel, and comparison was made to suggest the better option among the bio diesel understudy. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice.

  1. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies.

  2. Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) affects the ultrastructure of the midgut muscle of Ceraeochrysa claveri (Navás, 1911) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Elton Luiz; Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda Felipe; Santos, Daniela Carvalho Dos

    2017-01-01

    Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. In the adult stage, the midgut was collected from female insects at two stages of adulthood (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) and processed for ultrastructural analyses. In the newly emerged insects obtained from neem oil treatments, muscle fibers showed a reduction of myofilaments as well as swollen mitochondria and an accumulation of membranous structures. Muscular fibers responded to those cellular injuries with the initiation of detoxification mechanisms, in which acid phosphatase activity was observed in large vesicles located at the periphery of the muscle fiber. At the start of oviposition in the neem oil treated insects, muscle fibers exhibited signs of degeneration, containing vacant areas in which contractile myofilaments were reduced or completely absent, and an accumulation of myelin structures, a dilatation of cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondrial swelling and cristolysis were observed. Enzymatic activity for acid phosphatase was present in large vesicles, indicating that mechanisms of lytic activity during the cell injury were utilized but insufficient for recovery from all the cellular damage. The results indicate that the visceral muscle layer is also the target of action of neem oil, and the cytotoxic effects observed may compromise the function of that organ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effects of neem seed oil and its extract on various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens-induced bacterial mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinod; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2013-12-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), commonly called neem is a plant native to the Indian sub-continent. Neem oil extracted from the seeds of neem tree has shown promising medicinal properties. To investigate the possible anti-mutagenic activity of neem seed oil (NO) and its dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extract (NDE) on the mutagenicity induced by various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens. The possible anti-mutagenic activity of NO (100-10,000 µg/plate) and NDE (0.1-1000 µg/plate) as well as the mechanism of anti-mutagenic activity was studied in an in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. NSO and NDE inhibited the mutagenic activity of methyl glyoxal (MG), in which case the extent of inhibition ranged from 65 to 77% and against 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (NQNO); it showed a 48-87% inhibition in the non-toxic doses. Similar response of NSO and NDE was seen against the activation-dependant mutagens aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 48-88%), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 31-85%), cyclophosphamide (CP, 66-71%), 20-methylcholanthrane (20-MC, 37-83%) and acridine orange (AO, 39-72%) in the non-toxic doses. Mechanism-based studies indicated that NDE exhibits better anti-mutagenic activity in the pre- and simultaneous-treatment protocol against MG, suggesting that one or several active phytochemicals present in the extract covalently bind with the mutagen and prevent its interaction with the genome. These findings demonstrate that neem oil is capable of attenuating the mutagenic activity of various direct acting and activation-dependant mutagens.

  4. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera as compared to subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudalkar, Mithun D; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore S; Nayak, Ranganath N

    2014-01-01

    A critical outcome of periodontal diseases is degradation of collagen in the periodontal tissues, by enzymes such as Matrix Metallo-Proteinases (MMPs). Doxycycline is known to down-regulate the activity of MMPs. Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Aloe vera are herbs known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Neem and Aloe vera by way of its inhibitory effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in cases of chronic periodontitis and compare it with doxcycline. A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test. The results showed that the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly decreased by the use of doxycycline, Neem and Aloe vera. A 53.5% reduction in the MMP-2 and 52.5% reduction in the MMP-9 activity was seen when samples were subjected to Neem treatment at the concentration of 1500 μg/ml. Tissues treated with Aloe vera in the concentration of 2000 μg/ml showed a 20.09% reduction in the MMP-2 and 20.4% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. Doxycycline in the concentration of 300 μg/ml, showed an 82.1% reduction in the MMP-2 and 82.6% reduction in the MMP-9 activity. The present study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Neem and Aloe vera on MMP-2 and MMP-9, which are involved in the extracellular matrix degradation during periodontitis.

  5. Administration of extract Salix tetrasperma combined with extract of turmeric and neem to improve eggs quality of chicken reared under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality of eggs might decrease when hens under heat stress. A further study found that a specific plant extracts could reduce the impacts of heat stress. The aim of this study was to determine effects of Salix tetrasperma plant extract in combination with extract of turmeric and neem to improve egg quality and productivity of laying hens under heat stress. Sixty laying hens strain Isa Brown of 6 months old were used and reared in individual cages. The feed and drinking water were supplied ad libitum. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments (two controls and three treatments and each treatment consisted of 12 replication. Treatment consisted of with (KP and without (KP commercial anti-stress supplement. Formulations of extract were S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l water (EJ, S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 250 mg / l + neem 250 mg / l (EJ+K1, and S. tetrasperma 1.000 mg / l + Turmeric 500 mg / l + neem 500 mg / l drinking water (EJ+K2. The hens were exposed to heat stress for 5 hours per day at a temperature range of 34.0±1.0°C. Supplements were dissolved in drinking water and were given for 30 days in the morning and noon. Results showed that a single extract of S. tetrasperma or the combination of an extract of turmeric and neem were significantly increased thickness of eggshell (P<0.05, but did not affect color of egg yolk, height albumin, egg weight, and HU value. Extract of S. tetrasperma combined with turmeric and neem extract dissolved in drinking water for 30 days in laying hens reared under heat stress could not improved quality of the eggs, but may increase thickness of the egg shell and cause decreased water consumption.

  6. Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch 2 CD 700/1 (WD:114'36")

  7. Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch: Fünf Ballettsuiten, Suite aus Katerina Ismailova, Festliche Ouvertüre op. 96. Royal Scottisch National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch 2 CD 700/1 (WD:114'36")

  8. Eficacia del extracto de las hojas del NeemAzadirachta indica A. Juss en el control de nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovino Pelibuey - Efficiency of the Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss leaf extract in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in Pelibuey sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dublín, Devon Ronald, MVZ (Tesista

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss sobre los nemátodos gastrointestinales en ovinos, se llevó a cabo un experimento en la colonia de ovino de CENPALAB.AbstractWith the objective of evaluating the effects of the watery extract of Neem (Azadirachtina indica A. Juss leaves on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep, an experiment in the ovine colony of CENPALAB was carried out.

  9. L’univers du récit d’enquête d’Agatha Christie à Rodolfo Walsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José García-Romeu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En tant que sous-genre spécifique, le récit d’enquête respecte des prescriptions assez constantes qui participent à l’élaboration d’un univers fictionnel particulièrement bien réglé. Agatha Christie offre par exemple un modèle très efficace où chaque élément participe à imposer un système qui, du fait de son renforcement par la répétition, atteint un caractère rituel. L’écrivain argentin Rodolfo Walsh a composé une œuvre qui joue habilement avec ces règles, soit pour les réduire à une épure abstraite, soit pour les trahir.

  10. Atomes une exploration visuelle de tous les éléments connus dans l'univers

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Quelle est leur température critique ? Qu'est-ce que la masse atomique, la densité d'un matériau, l'ordre de remplissage des électrons ? Cet ouvrage invite avec pédagogie et humour à un passionnant voyage au pays des éléments, à partir de leur tableau périodique universel. Soutenue par une exploration visuelle qui montre l'élément à l'état pur mais aussi ses composés et ses applications les plus caractéristiques dans la vie quotidienne, cette approche pratique offre une combinaison parfaite de science chimique et de photographies, qui séduira les lecteurs les plus avertis comme tous les autres habitants sensibles de l'univers.

  11. L’univers du récit d’enquête d’Agatha Christie à Rodolfo Walsh

    OpenAIRE

    José García-Romeu

    2009-01-01

    En tant que sous-genre spécifique, le récit d’enquête respecte des prescriptions assez constantes qui participent à l’élaboration d’un univers fictionnel particulièrement bien réglé. Agatha Christie offre par exemple un modèle très efficace où chaque élément participe à imposer un système qui, du fait de son renforcement par la répétition, atteint un caractère rituel. L’écrivain argentin Rodolfo Walsh a composé une œuvre qui joue habilement avec ces règles, soit pour les réduire à une épure a...

  12. Effect of pest controlling neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium Jacquin) leaf extracts on emission of green house gases and inorganic-N content in urea-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bautista, Joaquín; Fernández-Luqueño, Fabián; López-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquín A; Gutierrez-Miceli, F A; Dendooven, L

    2009-07-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as 'mata-raton', are used to control pests of maize. Their application, however, is known to affect soil microorganisms. We investigated if these extracts affected emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), important greenhouse gases, and dynamics of soil inorganic N. Soil was treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin, used as chemical control. The soil was amended with or without urea and incubated at 40% and 100% water holding capacity (WHC). Concentrations of ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) and emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O were monitored for 7d. Treating urea-amended soil with extracts of neem, mata-raton or lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the emission of CO2 significantly compared to the untreated soil with the largest decrease found in the latter. Oxidation of CH4 was inhibited by extracts of neem in the unamended soil, and by neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin in the urea-amended soil compared to the untreated soil. Neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin reduced the N2O emission from the unamended soil incubated at 40%WHC compared to the untreated soil. Extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin had no significant effect on dynamics of NH4(+), NO2(-) and NO(3)(-). It was found that emission of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 was inhibited in the urea-amended soil treated with extracts of neem, mata-raton and lambda-cyhalothrin, but ammonification, N2O emission and nitrification were not affected.

  13. 印楝油两性不育灭鼠颗粒剂对小鼠摄食系数与抗生育作用%Ingestion Coefficient and Antifertility Action of Neem Oil Granules for Rodents' Ambisexual Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东霞; 蒋忠荣; 殷中琼; 杨帆; 贾仁勇; 颜其贵; 贺常亮; 徐娇

    2012-01-01

    To choose the optimal dose of major drug and explore ils antifertility effect, the ingestion coefficient and antifertility action of neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility were studied. The ingestion coefficient was studied with the concentration of 30% , 40% and 50% of neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility respectively, and the optimal palatability of pharmaceutical preparation was selected to study its antifertility action on mice. The ingestion coefficients at concentration of 30% , 40% and 50% of neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility were 0. 67, 0.54 and 0.25 on male mice, and 0.55, 0.50 and 0.22 on female mice. The antifertility action study showed that antifertility rate at concentration of" 30% neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility was 46. 7% and 60% on female and male mice,while it al concentration of 40% neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility was 66. 7% and 80% on female and male mice, respectively. The pharmacodynamics at concentration of 40% of neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility was showed that the testicle coefficient of treated mice was (1.56 ± 0. 54 ) g/100 g, and was significantly lower than the control group ( P <0. 05 ). The Ireated groups' sperm abnormality rate was 45. 22% , which was significantly difference compared with the control group (P < 0. 01 ). The pathology study showed that 40% of neem oil granules caused serious damages on testicle, vas deferens, hystera, oviduct and ovary of mice. The 40% principle agent of neem oil granules for rodents' ambisexual sterility had good palatability and significant antifertility effect, thus it could be prospective in rodents' control on the grassland.

  14. Proyecto de evaluación para la creación de un insecticida ecológico a base de la planta neem para el cultivo de arroz en el cantón Daule.

    OpenAIRE

    Banchón Yánez, Jorge W.; Magallanes Navarrete, Luis F.; Salas Luzuriaga, Edgar L.

    2010-01-01

    This project is an assessment for the creation of an insecticide-based Eco Neem plant for growing rice in Daule canton of Guayas province, this insecticide called Arro-Ally is made from the plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), a product that will help: maintain ecological balance (soil, air, water), reduce dependence on chemicals, avoid collateral damage in occupational health and direct costs in growing this grass remain, encouraging the farmer who considers that his business is prof...

  15. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age. Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies. Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP, albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE. Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1 as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1 suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.

  16. Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com

    2005-10-17

    A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)

  17. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Department of Electromechanics, Renewable Energy Engineering, UTTulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez-Valdez, Fernando [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); C.I.B.A.-I.P.N., Tepetitla de Lardizabal, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Tecnologico de Tuxtla-Gutierrez, Tuxtla-Gutierrez (Mexico); Dendooven, L., E-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO{sub 2} from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N{sub 2}O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but the concentration of NO{sub 3}{sup -} was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant

  18. OFICINAS SOBRE QUEDAS E ACIDENTES DOMÉSTICOS GERAIS EM PESSOAS IDOSAS NO PROGRAMA UniversIDADE

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    Jane Kelly Oliveira Friestino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento é um processo normal do desenvolvimento do ser humano, caracterizado por mudanças fisiológicas (senescência ou patológicas (senilidade. Com o avançar da idade, as comorbidades podem estar presentes no idoso. O desempenho das atividades de vida diária fica prejudicado e, devido a alterações sensório-motoras, cognitivas e psicossociais, aumenta a vulnerabilidade para a ocorrência de quedas e acidentes domésticos, comprometendo a capacidade funcional e podendo levar à morte. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o relato de experiência do oferecimento de oficinas intituladas: “Acidentes domésticos com pessoa idosa: prevenção e ação” a um grupo de idosos participantes de um programa específico para essa faixa etária. As oficinas foram ofertadas como parte do Programa de Extensão Universitária–UniversIDADE de uma Universidade pública do interior de São Paulo. Os encontros da oficina foram realizados entre maio e agosto de 2015, com duração de uma hora cada encontro, totalizando sete encontros. Uma enfermeira e uma fisioterapeuta foram mediadoras voluntárias. Os temas abordados foram: quedas, alterações sensoriais, estratégias de prevenção e ação em acidentes domésticos, queimaduras e hemorragias. Quanto aos resultados das oficinas destacaram-se a participação ativa dos idosos nas discussões dos temas abordados e a relevância dos mesmos para a prevenção dos acidentes domésticos e da ocorrência de queda. Considerou-se importante a atuação dos idosos como agentes multiplicadores das informações adquiridas nas atividades, com extensão aos seus familiares, a outros idosos de seu convívio e para sua própria qualidade de vida. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Relações Comunidade-Instituição, Acidentes domésticos, Prevenção, Saúde do Idoso.   Workshops on falls and general domestic accidents in elderly people in the UniversIDADE Program Abstract: Aging is a natural

  19. Extraction of azadirachtin A from neem seed kernels by supercritical fluid and its evaluation by HPLC and LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Fresa, R; Fogliano, V; Monti, S M; Ritieni, A

    1999-12-01

    A new supercritical extraction methodology was applied to extract azadirachtin A (AZA-A) from neem seed kernels. Supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were used as extractive agents in a three-separation-stage supercritical pilot plant. Subcritical conditions were tested too. Comparisons were carried out by calculating the efficiency of the pilot plant with respect to the milligrams per kilogram of seeds (ms/mo) of AZA-A extracted. The most convenient extraction was gained using an ms/mo ratio of 119 rather than 64. For supercritical extraction, a separation of cuticular waxes from oil was set up in the pilot plant. HPLC and electrospray mass spectroscopy were used to monitor the yield of AZA-A extraction.

  20. Molecular docking based screening of neem-derived compounds with the NS1 protein of Influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahad, Ammara; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Different strains of influenza virus are affecting a large number of people worldwide to combat with Influenza virus destruction, numerous synthetic antiviral medicines are available for influenza virus in the market. But still there was a need for the development of drug which will target all the strains of influenza virus. For this purpose conserved residues within the influenza virus NS1 protein have been found by aligning all the available sequences of existing strains from the national center of biotechnology information(NCBI) protein database. The compounds from leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica), previously known to have antiviral properties, were virtually screened to identify side effects free natural drug. Molecular docking identified eight potential compounds (Tetratriacontane, 127-40-2, 6-o-ACETYLNIMBANDIOL, Rutin, Tiplasinin, Hyperoside, ( )- Nimocinolide and Quercitrin) found to have perfect binding with reported conserved residues (R19, R35, S42 and D39) of influenza virus NS1 protein involved in the binding of drugs. From, further analysis 6-o-ACETYLNIMBANDIOL, Rutin and Tiplasinin were found as drug against influenza strains because their binding residues were conserved in all strains. The potential of neem chemical against influenza virus has best been highlighted through this study and it provides direction for further consideration of these products for in-vivo and in-vitro validations. NS1 protein - Non Structural 1 protein, NA - Neuraminidase, HA - Hemagglutinin, M - Yersinia enterocolitica 8081, ypk - Yersinia pestis KIM, yps - Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Db1, KEGG - Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, KO - KEGG Orthology, KOBAS - KO Based Annotation System.

  1. Abundance, viability and diversity of the indigenous microbial populations at different depths of the NEEM Greenland ice core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Miteva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2537-m-deep North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM core provided a first-time opportunity to perform extensive microbiological analyses on selected, recently drilled ice core samples representing different depths, ages, ice structures, deposition climates and ionic compositions. Here, we applied cultivation, small subunit (SSU rRNA gene clone library construction and Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS targeting the V4–V5 region, to examine the microbial abundance, viability and diversity in five decontaminated NEEM samples from selected depths (101.2, 633.05, 643.5, 1729.75 and 2051.5 m deposited 300–80 000 years ago. These comparisons of the indigenous glacial microbial populations in the ice samples detected significant spatial and temporal variations. Major findings include: (a different phylogenetic diversity of isolates, dominated by Actinobacteria and fungi, compared to the culture-independent diversity, in which Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were more frequent; (b cultivation of a novel alphaproteobacterium; (c dominance of Cyanobacteria among the SSU rRNA gene clones from the 1729.75-m ice; (d identification of Archaea by NGS that are rarely detected in glacial ice; (e detection of one or two dominant but different genera among the NGS sequences from each sample; (f finding dominance of Planococcaceae over Bacillaceae among Firmicutes in the brittle and the 2051.5-m ice. The overall beta diversity between the studied ice core samples examined at the phylum/class level for each approach showed that the population structure of the brittle ice was significantly different from the two deep clathrated ice samples and the shallow ice core.

  2. Use of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil in The Control of Musca domestica L.(Diptera:Muscidae in Poultry Breeding Farms.

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    Amanda Flávia S Rovida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pest infestation, in general such as flies, is a problem faced by poultry workers in poultry breeding farms. Control of these populations is desirable, due to the damage they cause and, most times, it is done through chemical management, with insecticide application. Musca domestica is one of the species with the greatest ability to develop resistance to insecticides, and the digestive system, especially the midgut, is one of the most vulnerable organs to structural alteration, because in it there is production of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. Damage caused by use of synthetic insecticides reactivated studies with bioinsecticides for being one of the most selective options in pest control. Furthermore, they do not cause environmental alterations such as food, soil, water poisoning and they are practically nontoxic to mammals. Among vegetable species with insecticidal activities that have been used a lot, we have neem, subtropical plant that shows low residual power and lower risk of intoxication for mammals and poultry. Thus the objectives that guided this work, was the observation of morphological alteration in M. domestica larvae and malformation of pupae after the use of neem, powder and emulsifiable oil at different concentrations (0,5%, 1%, 1,5% were tested. Following, after the applications, the midgut of flies in larval stage was isolated, processed and analyzed under light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As in most dipterous, the cell types found were columnar cells and regenerative cells, which showed alterations such as: coalescing vacuoles, intercellular spaces, formation of cytoplasmic protrusions, broken microvilli, rough endoplasmic reticulum and dilated mitochondria. The statistical analysis registered for pupa malformation showed significant results in comparison to control, but there was no difference among treatments. The different concentrations of neem oil contributed in altering

  3. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Y Balappanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health. Materials and Methods: A randomized blinded controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers of age group 18-25 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups i.e., group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (bench mark control, Group B - 2% neem, and group C - 0.5% tea of 10 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS. Salivary pH was assessed by indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after 1 st rinse, after 1 week, 2 nd week, and 3 rd week. The 3 rd week was skipped for group A. Results: Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 3 week trial period for experimental and control groups. Anti-plaque effectiveness was observed in all groups and the highest being in group C (P < 0.05. Neem and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than chlorhexidine (P < 0.05. The salivary pH rise was sustained and significant in Group B and C compared to Group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in Group B and Group C. Conclusion: The effectiveness of 0.5% tea was more compared to 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse.

  5. To evaluate the antigingivitis and antipalque effect of an Azadirachta indica (neem mouthrinse on plaque induced gingivitis: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica (neem, a Meliaceae family tree, has been used in India for several decades for the treatment of several diseases in medicine and dentistry. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but still its use for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is not very clear. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem based mouth rinse regarding its antigingivitis effect. Materials and Methods: Forty five subjects with plaque induced gingivitis were selected for the study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group I patients were asked to rinse with 15 ml of neem mouthwash twice daily, group II with 15 ml of chlorhexidine mouthwash twice daily, and group III with 15 ml of saline twice daily. The three groups were asked to perform the routine oral hygiene procedures thought out the study period. Bleeding on probing and gingivitis were evaluated by Muhlemann and Son′s Sulcus bleeding index (1971 and Loe and Sillness gingival index (1963, respectively, at base line, after every week till one month. Results: Our result showed that an A. indica mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing periodontal indices as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 21 days as compared to placebo. Conclusion: A. indica-based mouth rinse is equally efficacious with fewer side effects as compared to chlorhexidine and may be used as an adjunct therapy in treating plaque induced gingivitis.

  6. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses.

  7. Georges Lemaître et la théorie du big bang qu'y avait-t-il au commencement de l'univers ?

    CERN Document Server

    Landa, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Découvrez enfin tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur Georges Lemaître et ses inventions en moins d'une heure !L'origine de l'univers, voilà une problématique qui a tenu en haleine de très nombreux scientifiques. Alors que l'on pourrait croire que l'homme s'est posé cette question depuis la nuit des temps, il n'en est rien. C'est Georges Lemaître, un prêtre belge et grand astrophysicien, qui le premier cherche à dater l'univers et à tenter de découvrir ce qu'il y avait au commencement, alors même que l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique était persuadé qu'il avait toujours exis

  8. Spinosad and neem seed kernel extract as bio-controlling agents for malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi and non-biting midge,Chironomus circumdatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar AN; Murugan K; Madhiyazhagan P; Prabhu K

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Midge egg masses are reported to support non-pathogenic strains of the cholera pathogen,Vibrio cholera (V. cholera). Mosquito born diseases have been reported to cause millions of death worldwide. The present research reveals the toxicity effect of spinosad and neem seed kernel extract (NSKE)against different larval stages ofAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) andChironomus circumdatus (Ch. circumdatus).Methods: The neem seeds were collected from Marudamalai hills, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. Neem seed kernels were powdered, extracted and diluted for different concentrations (2 ppm to10 ppm). Spinosad was purchased from Kalpatharu pesticide Limited, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India and thoroughly mixed with distilled water to prepare various concentrations (0.01 to0.08 ppm) and used for bioassay.Results: The results depict that spinosad is more toxic in lower concentrations when compared toNSKE and mosquitoes are more susceptible than chironomids. Lethal concentrations were evaluated using the observed mortality. The lowest LC50 value obtained from spinosad againstAn. stephensi and Ch. circumdatus were0.002 05 ppm and0.008 91 ppm. This study investigated on effect of Spinosad andNSKE on the biology of mosquito. The immature stages of both species were susceptible to Spinosad andNSKE. Spinosad andNSKE in individual as well as combined treatment provided additional days in development for mosquitoes.Conclusions:The results conclude that Spinosad andNSKE are potential larvicides against An. stephensi andCh. circumdatus.

  9. Organic neem compounds inhibit soft-rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, D J; Nieto-Delgado, C; Cannon, F S; Brennan, R A

    2015-07-01

    To examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source. Azadirachtin, crude neem oil (NO), and clarified neem oil extract (CNO) were combined with copper to inhibit the growth of the soft-rot fungus, Chaetomium globosum. A synergistic interaction was observed between CNO and a low dose of copper on nutrient media (two-factor anova with triplicate replication: P < 0·05). Interaction was confirmed on lab-scale collagen-lignin-anthracite briquettes by measuring their unconfined compressive (UC) strength. The effective collagen strength of the briquettes was enhanced by applying CNO to their surface prior to inoculation: the room temperature UC strength of the briquettes was 28 ± 4·6% greater when CNO (0·4 mg cm(-2) ) was surface-applied, and was 43 ± 3·0% greater when CNO plus copper (0·14 μg cm(-2) ) were surface-applied. Surface application of CNO and copper synergistically prevents fungal growth on bindered anthracite briquettes and increases their room temperature strength. This novel organic fungicidal treatment may increase the storage and performance of anthracite bricks in iron foundries, thereby saving 15-20% of the energy used in conventional coke production. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Novel and environmental friendly approach; Impact of Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum nano formulation (NGNF) on Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Gandhi, Pachiyappan Rajiv; Elango, Gandhi; Karthi, Sengodan; Chung, Ill-Min; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2017-08-30

    The future of this study was to prepare a natural pesticide which will not harm the environment and yet control pests. Neem gum nano formulation (NGNF), a novel biopesticide prepared from the Neem gum extract (Azadirachta indica) (NGE) was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) at 100ppm. The NGNF showed significant (100%) antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The LC50 values of 10.20, 12.49 and LC90 values of 32.68, 36.68ppm on H. armigera and S. litura, respectively at 100ppm. The NGNF treatments showed differences in the activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxylesterases, glucosidases and glutathione S-transferases in the larval gut. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 6.25ppm of chemical insecticides (cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 100ppm of NGNF and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. The NGNF were characterized and confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM and EDX analysis. Ten compounds were identified from the Neem gum extract (NGE) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds were fatty acids like Hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, and ricinoleic acid. NGNF could be used as an agent to prepare novel bio-pesticides formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index <1. ENLE significantly modulated the expression of bax, cyclin D1, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP 1A1 and CYP 1A2 in a time-dependent manner in these cells. Conclusively, these results emphasize the chemopreventive ability of neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers.

  12. Ethanolic Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extract Prevents Growth of MCF-7 and HeLa Cells and Potentiates the Therapeutic Index of Cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chhavi; Vas, Andrea J.; Goala, Payal; Gheewala, Taher M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to gain insight into the antiproliferative activity of ethanolic neem leaves extract (ENLE) alone or in combination with cisplatin by cell viability assay on human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. Nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis were performed to determine the mode of cell death. Further, to identify its molecular targets, the expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and drug metabolism was analyzed by RT-PCR. Treatment of MCF-7, HeLa, and normal cells with ENLE differentially suppressed the growth of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner through apoptosis. Additionally, lower dose combinations of ENLE with cisplatin resulted in synergistic growth inhibition of these cells compared to the individual drugs (combination index neem alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment to reduce the cytotoxic effects on normal cells, while potentiating their efficacy at lower doses. Thus, neem may be a prospective therapeutic agent to combat gynecological cancers. PMID:24624140

  13. Investigation on structural properties of M-type strontium hexaferrite synthesized in presence of neem and aloe-vera plant leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Neha; Jotania, Rajshree B.

    2017-05-01

    M-type strontium hexaferrite powder samples were synthesized using a green synthesis route with and without presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract. The dry brownish precursors of strontium hexaferrite were recovered from a mixed solution of metal salts and leaves extract, heated at 100 °C. The obtained precursors were pre-heated at 500 °C for 4 hrs. followed by final heating at 950 °C for 4 hrs. in a muffle furnace to obtain SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder. The obtained SrFe12O19 hexaferrite powder samples characterized at room temperature in order to check phase purity and structural properties. XRD analysis confirms that samples prepared without and with Aloe vera leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of α-Fe2O3 and M-phase; while the sample prepared in presence of Neem leaves extract (heated at 950 °C for 4 hrs.) show formation of mono phase of strontium hexaferrite. Lattice parameter (a) and cell volume (V) are found to increase in the samples prepared in presence of Aloe vera and Neem leaves extract.

  14. In vitro activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) on three pre-parasitic stages of susceptible and resistant strains of Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rofaai, A; Rahman, W A; Sulaiman, S F; Yahaya, Z S

    2012-08-13

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes is considered as one of the main limiting factors causing significant economic losses to the small ruminant industry. The anthelmintic properties of some plants are among the suggested alternative solutions to control these parasitic worms. The present study investigated the anthelmintic activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf extracts against the susceptible and resistant strains of one of the most important nematodes in small ruminants, Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta. Three different in vitro tests: egg hatch test, larval development assay, and larval paralysis assay were used to determine the efficiency of neem and cassava extracts on three pre-parasitic stages of T. circumcincta. The LC(50) was determined for the most potent extract in each plant as well as the phytochemical tests, total tannin quantification and cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of goats. The results revealed a high anthelmintic activity of neem methanol extract (NME) and cassava methanol extract (CME) on both strains of T. circumcincta without significant differences between the strains. The first stage larvae were more sensitive with the lowest LC(50) at 7.15 mg/ml and 10.72 mg/ml for NME and CME, respectively, compared with 44.20mg/ml and 56.68 mg/ml on eggs and 24.91 mg/ml and 71.96 mg/ml on infective stage larvae.

  15. EFFICIENCY OF NEEM OIL ON CITRUS LEPROSIS MITE Brevipalpus phoenicis (GEIJSKES, 1939 CONTROL EFICIÊNCIA DO ÓLEO DE NEEM NO CONTROLE DO ÁCARO DA LEPROSE DOS CITROS Brevipalpus phoenicis (GEIJSKES, 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Daniel de Goes Maciel

    2009-01-01

    -bidi-language:#0400;}

    In order to determine the efficiency of neem oil on citrus leprosis mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, control, a laboratory test was conducted in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, using a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six repetitions. Each plot was formed by one orange fruit (Pêra Rio variety. An area with 4 cm of diameter was delimited in each fruit, using Tanglefoot® adhesive. The methodology consisted in submerging each fruit of each treatment in the solution prepared with neem oil (Nim-I-Go®, with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% v/v; cyhexatin, with 0.025% v/v; and a check submerged in water. After 30 minutes of submersion, eight mites were placed in each fruit and evaluations were made after 24, 48, and 72 hours, determining the mite survival, mortality rate, and mites adhered to the glue. It was found that neem oil, at 1.5% v/v, showed high efficiency to control B. phoenicis on orange fruits, also obtaining the largest number of mites adhered to the glue. It may be concluded that, at this concentration, the product showed repellence action. Under laboratory conditions, the neem oil was effective for citrus leprosis mite control.

     

    KEY-WORDS: Citrus leprosis mite; Azadirachta indica.

  1. Disainerite kaks liivakasti / Toivo Rande

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rande, Toivo

    2000-01-01

    Disainer Martin Pärna (eluloolisi andmeid) laud valiti ajakirja 'MD' konkursil möödunud sajandi 200 parema mööblieseme hulka. Sai veel sertifikaadi Der Roter Punkt ja kõrgeima disainitiitli best of the best. Samal ajal Eesti näitus 'Ruum ja vorm' M. Pärna töid ei eksponeerinud.

  2. Kohalikud metsaseadused Eestis / Toivo Meikar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meikar, Toivo, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Lisatud: 1664. aastal Stockholmi Riigipäeval Tema Kuningliku Majesteedi poolt koostatud ja parandatud korraldus ja määrus metsade ja võsastike kohta, lk. 33-40 (eesti k.) ; Tema Kuningliku Majesteedi korraldus ja määrus kõigi metsa viljakandvate puude ja nende istutamise kohta riigis. Koostatud ja parandatud Riigipäeval Stockholmis 29. augustil 1664 aastal, lk. 41-55 (eesti ja saksa k.)

  3. Greenland NEEM ice core records of As, Cd, Cr and Mo during the period of 1820-1970 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Han, Y.; Moon, J.; Hur, S. D.; Hong, S.

    2016-12-01

    Greenland snow and ice core records of various trace elements showed that the large -scale atmospheric cycles of these elements have been strongly modified by human activities. However, such snow and ice core records are only available for the very few elements such as lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and thallium (Tl), because concentrations of most of elements in Greenland snow and ice are extremely low at the low and sub-pg/g level. We here present an annual resolution record of changes in the occurrence of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and Cd from Greenland NEEM ice core samples covering the period from 1820 to1970. To our knowledge, long-term trends of As, Cr, and Mo have never been reconstructed from Greenland ice cores at such a high resolution. Barium (Ba) was also analyzed to calculate the crustal enrichment factors (EFc), using concentration ratios between the four trace elements and Ba in the samples and in the mean upper continental crust. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Mo are 1.3 80.4 pg/g, 0.005 21.2 pg/g, 4.3 98.3 pg/g and 0.1 6.4 pg/g, respectively. To help emphasize the main features of anthropogenic inputs, individual data points were averaged for a decadal period, while the whole data before 1850 were averaged as the preindustrial period. All the measured elements show two distinct peaks in concentrations, but contrasting situations are observed for the different elements. As and Cd show a rapid increase in concentrations from 1870 to 1880s and from 1930 to 1940s, while Cr and Mo show peaks during the 1900s and 1960s. The temporal trends of the EFs appear to match with those of concentrations for each element. The different patterns in the periods reaching peaks in concentrations and EFs are likely due to the primary anthropogenic sources for the different element. Anthropogenic As and Cd are mainly emitted from non-ferrous metals production, while Cr and Mo are from fossil fuel combustion. Our first comprehensive

  4. A comprehensive interpretation of the NEEM basal ice build-up using a multi-parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Thomas; Sapart, Célia J.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Popp, Trevor; El Amri, Saïda; Tison, Jean-Louis

    2016-03-01

    Basal ice is a common expression to describe bottom ice layers of glaciers, ice caps and ice sheets in which the ice is primarily conditioned by processes operating at the bed. It is chemically and/or physically distinct from the ice above and can be characterized by a component of basally derived sediments. The study of basal ice properties provides a rare opportunity to improve our understanding of subglacial environments and processes and to refine ice sheet behaviour modelling. Here, we present and discuss the results of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), ice fabrics, debris weight/size distribution and gas content of the basal part of the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project) ice core. Below a depth of 2533.85 m, almost 10 m of basal debris-rich material was retrieved from the borehole, and regular occurrence of frozen sediments with only interstitial ice lenses in the bottom 5 m suggest that the ice-bedrock interface was reached. The sequence is composed of an alternation of three visually contrasting types of ice: clear ice with specks (very small amounts) of particulate inclusions, stratified debris-rich layers and ice containing dispersed debris. The use of water stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δD), together with other parameters, allows discrimination between the different types of ice and to unravel the processes involved in their formation and transformation. The basal debris-rich material presents δ18O values [-39.9 ‰; -34.4 ‰] within the range of the above last 300 m of unaltered meteoric ice [-44.9 ‰; -30.6 ‰] spanning a glacial-interglacial range of values. This rules out the hypothesis of a basal ice layer originating from pre-ice sheet ice overridden by the growing ice sheet, as previously suggested e.g. in the case of GRIP (Greenland Ice Core Project). We show that clear basal ice with specks corresponds to altered meteoric glacial ice where some of the climatic signal could have been preserved. However, the

  5. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  6. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  7. Sustainability Study on Heavy Metal Uptake in Neem Biodiesel Using Selective Catalytic Preparation and Hyphenated Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Elkadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that the presence of trace metals in biofuels can be detrimental to the environment and long-term sustainable development. This study provides an insight into selective catalytic preparation of biofuel to compare uptake of trace metals in the biodiesel fraction with preferential base catalysts. The role of specific metal hydroxides in controlling trace metal content in biofuel production is relatively unexplored, and the effect of different homogeneous catalysts (NaOH, KOH on metal retention in biodiesel from commercial neem oil was examined. A detailed study of this nature of catalyst vs. metal uptake is in the interest of sustainable living and could make a significant contribution to biofuels research. Both catalysts displayed variable uptake for certain toxic elements, which was attributed to the behavior of the catalyst in the reaction mixture. A general comparison reflected specific trends in metal retention (ICP-MS with the use of different base catalysts. Challenges encountered by extending the study and using a heterogeneous catalyst (CaO are presented. Our work could play a significant role in influencing catalyzed transesterfication processes to control elemental and toxic metal uptake in biofuels. The impact of our work on sustainable living is presented.

  8. Neem seed extract shampoo, Wash Away Louse, an effective plant agent against Sarcoptes scabiei mites infesting dogs in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sobhy, Hassan; Semmler, Margit

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of water-free neem seed extract shampoo Wash Away Louse, provided by Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Düsseldorf (Germany), was investigated against Sarcoptes scabiei infesting dogs in Egypt. Ten naturally infested dogs were collected from different areas in the Nile delta. The occurrence of lesions, hair loss, and skin inflammation were regarded as signs of infestation and proved by detection of adult parasites and their developmental stages in scrapings of infested lesions. Adequate amount of the provided shampoo was applied topically and spread on the infested areas daily for 14 successive days. Scraping examinations were used to follow up the healing process. At day 7 of application, four dogs were completely free of mites as was proven by the disappearance of adults and/or any developmental stages of mites. The remaining six dogs showed a clear decrease in mite counts. By the end of the treatment (after 14 days), only a small number of mites were found in two dogs, while eight dogs were completely cured as was proven by mite counts and disappearance of clinical signs. No remarkable signs of side effects or adverse reactions were observed throughout the study.

  9. Performance and carcass characteristics of guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder as a growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M K; Singh, S K; Sharma, R K; Singh, B; Kumar, Sh; Joshi, S K; Kumar, S; Sathapathy, S

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed at studying growth pattern and carcass traits in pearl grey guinea fowl fed on dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder (NLP) over a period of 12 weeks. Day old guinea fowl keets (n=120) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, each with 3 replicates. The first treatment was designated as control (T0) in which no supplement was added to the feed, while in treatments T1, T2 and T3, NLP was provided as 1, 2 and 3 g per kg of feed, respectively. The results revealed a significant increase in body weight at 12 weeks; 1229.7 for T1, 1249.8 for T2, and 1266.2 g T3 compared to 1220.0 g for the control group (PNeem. A significant increase was also found in the feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the treated groups over the control, showing that feeding NLP to the treated groups has lowered their residual feed efficiency. The results of the study demonstrate the beneficial effects of supplementing NLP on body weight gain and dressed yield in the treated groups in guinea fowl. NLP is, therefore, suggested to be used as a feed supplement in guinea fowl for higher profitability.

  10. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  11. Algicidal effects of aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica on Scenedesmus quadricauda (Turp. de Brébission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ahii Chia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of synthetic algaecides for the control of algae produces by-products that are sometimes toxic to the environment. There is a need for natural and cheap alternatives to synthetic algaecides. In the present study, we investigated the potential of aqueous crude extract of Azadirachta indica to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of groups of bioactive compounds that are capable of inhibiting microalgal growth. Chlorophyll a concentration, dry weight production and cell density of microalga decreased with increasing crude extract concentration. After three days of exposure, the 1000 mg/L extract concentration resulted in complete growth inhibition and cell lysis. Furthermore, the ability of S. quadricauda to form multi-celled coenobial structures was compromised in a concentration dependent manner. In general, catalase and peroxidase activities of the microalga were upregulated with increasing extract concentration. These results imply that aqueous neem extract may provide a cheap and ecofriendly alternative for the control of microalgae in aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Performance evaluation of NEEM oil and HONGE Oil as cutting fluid in drilling operation of mild steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, P. N.; Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.

    2017-04-01

    Cutting fluids are used in machining industries for improving tool life, reducing work piece and thermal deformation, improving surface finish and flushing away chips from the cutting zone. Although the application of cutting fluids increases the tool life and Machining efficiency, but it has many major problems related to environmental impacts and health hazards along with recycling & disposal. These problems gave provision for the introduction of mineral, vegetable and animal oils. These oils play an important role in improving various machining properties, including corrosion protection, lubricity, antibacterial protection, even emulsibility and chemical stability. Compared to mineral oils, vegetable oils in general possess high viscosity index, high flash point, high lubricity and low evaporative losses. Vegetable oils can be edible or non-edible oils and Various researchers have proved that edible vegetable oils viz., palm oil, coconut oil, canola oil, soya bean oil can be effectively used as eco-friendly cutting fluid in machining operations. But in present situations harnessing edible oils for lubricants formation restricts the use due to increased demands of growing population worldwide and availability. In the present work, Non-edible vegetable oil like Neem and Honge are been used as cutting fluid for drilling of Mild steel and its effect on cutting temperature, hardness and surface roughness are been investigated. Results obtained are compared with SAE 20W40 (petroleum based cutting fluid)and dry cutting condition.

  13. Atividade anti-fúngica do neem e jurema-preta sobre cepas de Candida spp isolados de vacas com mastite subclínica no Estado de Pernambuco

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Andréia. V.; Rodrigues,Onaldo G.; Lobo,Katiuscia M. da S.; Bezerra,Denise A. C.; Mota,Rinaldo A.; Coutinho,Luciana C.A.; Leonildo B. G. da Silva; Athayde,Ana C.R.

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade anti-fungica (in vitro) do neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss.) e de jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild) Poir.) sobre cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de casos de mastite subclínica em vacas no Estado de Pernambuco. As folhas do neem foram coletadas em árvores de fazendas do município de Patos-PB e a casca da jurema-preta foi coletada na UFCG, Campus de Patos e preparados extratos etanólicos. As amostras de Candida spp. foram coletadas de leite de...

  14. Pēc "Model-View-Controller" šablona izstrādāta universālā PHP darba vide Web Projektiem

    OpenAIRE

    Duhovnijs, Ņikita

    2008-01-01

    Produkts („Pēc „Model-View-Controller” šablona izstrādāta universālā PHP darba vide Web Projektiem”) ir karkass (framework, vide), kurš piedāvā efektīvo risinājumu datus no tā apstrādes un atspoguļošanas atdalīšanai, kā arī sistēmā jau esošas funkcionalitātes izmantošanai, kas var stipri palīdzēt jebkura tipiska Web-projekta izstrādei.

  15. Oxidative Stability and Physico-chemical Properties of Meat from Broilers Fed with Dietary Neem Leaf Powder, Spirulina and their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi KILLI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This 6 week study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential, maintaining quality and sensory properties of broiler meat from birds fed on dietary neem leaf powder (NLP. A total of 90 Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 6 groups of 15 birds in each. Dietary treatments consisted of normal diet (control Group I, feed containing terramycin-200 (TM-200* at the concentration of 0.05% (Group II, feed containing NLP of 0.2% (Group III, feed containing NLP of 0.2% and spirulina of 1% (Group IV, feed containing TM-200 at 0.05% and spirulina of 1% (Group V and feed containing spirulina of 1% (Group VI. At the end of the experiment liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected to evaluate the tissue peroxidation (TBARS and protein carbonyls and antioxidant markers (SOD. Physico-chemical quality determinants of both fresh and preserved meat viz. extract release volume (ERV, water holding capacity (WHC and pH were also studied. TBARS protein carbonyls indicated a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in all the treated groups when compared to control. Superoxide dismutase levels were found to be significantly increased in all the treated groups, in all the tissues collected. Compared to control group, favorable physico-chemical quality determinants were recorded in all the treated groups. The sensory attributes did not show significant (P < 0.05 differences for color, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability. This study indicates enhanced stress tolerance levels, improved meat quality with unaffected consumer acceptance levels of the meat observed in the study, from broilers fed with neem and spirulina either alone or in combinationsș this points out that neem at 0.2% level can be used in poultry diets instead of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP.

  16. Repellent efficacy of DEET, MyggA, neem (Azedirachta indica) oil and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) oil against Anopheles arabiensis, the principal malaria vector in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiy, Ephrem; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2015-05-03

    In Ethiopia, Anopheles arabiensis is the main vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in the country and its control mainly involves application of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Although the role of repellents for reducing man-vector contact is documented in the literature, the response of An. arabiensis to repellents was not previously evaluated under field conditions in Ethiopia. The trial was conducted in Sodere village assessing the repellent activities of four repellents, of which, two of them were commercially available DEET (N, N-diethyl-1,3-methylbenzamide) and MyggA (p-methane diol) and the other two were laboratory- produced, 20% neem oil and 20% chinaberry oil. A 6 by 6 Latin square design was employed by involving six volunteers who received rotated treatments of repellents and the Ethiopian Niger seed, noog abyssinia (Guizotia abyssinia), and locally called as noog oil (diluents to the two plant oils). Each volunteer also served as control. Volunteers were positioned at a distance of 20-40 m from each other and each was treated with one of the repellents, Niger seed/noog/ oil or untreated. Landing mosquitoes were collected from dusk to down using tests tubes. The tests were done in three replicates. Both DEET and MyggA provided more than 96% protection. The mean protection time for DEET was 8 hrs while the time for MyggA was 6 hrs. Protection obtained from neem oil and chinaberry oil was almost similar (more than 70%), however, the complete protection time for neem was 3 hrs, while that of chinaberry oil was one hour. The commercial products and laboratory-produced repellents can be utilized by individuals to avoid contact with An. arabiensis in Ethiopia.

  17. Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Rampino, Monica; Ostellino, Oliviero; Schena, Marina; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Garzino Demo, Paolo; Fasolis, Massimo; Arcadipane, Francesca; Martini, Stefania; Cavallin, Chiara; Airoldi, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite -Stop) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Sobhy, Hassan M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Semmler, Margit

    2008-08-01

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days.

  19. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  20. Preclinical evaluation of the supercritical extract of azadirachta indica (neem) leaves in vitro and in vivo on inhibition of prostate cancer tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Kohli, Manish; Bergen, H Robert; Cheville, John C; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Cao, Hong; Young, Charles Y F; Tindall, Donald J; McNiven, Mark A; Donkena, Krishna Vanaja

    2014-05-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer.

  1. Bioatividade de nanoformulações de nim sobre a traça-do-tomateiro Bioactivity of neem nanoformulations on tomato pinworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Teresinha Rampelotti Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas inseticidas é uma importante ferramenta para o manejo de insetos-praga. Visando ao controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, nanoformulações de nim foram avaliadas. Após a estimativa de uma CL50 para uma formulação de óleo comercial de nim, bioensaios de seleção foram realizados com 22 nanoformulações. Para isso, lagartas neonatas foram alimentadas sobre folíolos tratados com soluções das nanoformulações durante 10 dias. Com as duas nanoformulações mais promissoras, NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó (NC 40=nanocápsulas de Poli- β-hidroxibutirato, foi avaliado o efeito sobre o desenvolvimento e a longevidade do inseto. A CL50 para o óleo de nim foi estimada em 0,20% ou 1,31mgL-1 de azadiractina. As nanoformulações NC40 aquoso e NC40 pó afetaram o desenvolvimento do inseto.The use of insecticide plants is an important tool in the management of insect pests. Aiming to control Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, neem nanoformulations were evaluated. After estimating the LC50 for a commercial neem oil formulation, selection bioassays were performed with 22 nanoformulations. In order to do that, newly emerged caterpillars were fed on leaflets treated with nanoformulation solutions for 10 days. The effect on the development and longevity of the insect was evaluated with the two most promising nanoformulations, aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 (NC 40 = Poly-β-hydroxibutirate nanocapsules. The LC50 for neem oil was estimated in 0.20% or 1.31mgL-1 of azadiractin. The nanoformulations aqueous NC40 and powdered NC40 affected the insect development.

  2. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry, neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay, Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thur-ingiensis israelensis (Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of in-secticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11. Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9%and 79.4%larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The cor-responding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1%and 30.3%after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3 days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100%after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m2. Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1%and 2.0%mortalities respectively. Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activ-ities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichloro-diphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  3. Larvicidal activities of chinaberry,neem and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to an insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Tolay,Southwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Assalif Demissew; Meshesha Balkew; Melaku Girma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the larvicidal potency of neem, chinaberry and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis(Bti) to larvae of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field condition and adult susceptibility/resistance to the conventionally used insecticides in Tolay,Southwestern Ethiopia.Methods: Wild collected 3rd and 4th stage larvae were exposed to neem, and chinaberry seed powder dissolved in water and Bti in artificial containers at three treatment levels:0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 and controls were free of treatments. Larval and pupal mortalities were monitored daily and residual activities were determined. The experiments were replicated three times. The World Health Organization tube test for all classes of insecticides was conducted on adult Anopheles arabiensis reared from field collected larvae and pupae. Data were analyzed using STATA software version 11.Results: In the first application, neem powder caused 88.9%, 87.9% and 79.4% larval and pupal mortality at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/m~2 after 4.3, 6.0 and 5.7 days, respectively. The corresponding killing effect of chinaberry was 80.3%, 62.1% and 30.3% after 7.0, 7.7 and 8.3days respectively. Bti at all treatments killed 100% after 24 h except 2.7 days for 0.05 g/m~2.Adult mosquitoes were susceptible only for fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl with 100%mortality while resistant to deltamethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, etofenprox and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane with only 9.0%, 3.0%, 5.1% and 2.0% mortalities respectively.Conclusions: Neem, chinaberry and Bti showed potent larvicidal and pupicidal activities. However, in the area, high level of mosquito resistance to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyl-tricgloroethane was seen which will pose serious challenge to vector control in the future. Therefore, using integrated approach including these botanical larvicides is warranted to manage insecticide resistance.

  4. Analysis of neem oils by LC-MS and degradation kinetics of azadirachtin-A in a controlled environment. Characterization of degradation products by HPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrek, Sami; Paisse, Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence

    2004-02-01

    Since it was first isolated, the oil extracted from seeds of neem (Azadirachtin indica A juss) has been extensively studied in terms of its efficacy as an insecticide. Several industrial formulations are produced as emulsifiable solutions containing a stated titer of the active ingredient azadirachtin-A (AZ-A). The work reported here is the characterization of a formulation of this insecticide marketed under the name of Neem-azal T/S and kinetic studies of the major active ingredient of this formulation. We initially performed liquid-liquid extraction to isolate the neem oil from other ingredients in the commercial mixture. This was followed by a purification using flash chromatography and semi-preparative chromatography, leading to (13)C NMR identification of structures such as azadirachtin-A, azadirachtin-B, and azadirachtin-H. The neem extract was also characterized by HPLC-MS using two ionization sources, APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) and ESI (electrospray ionization) in positive and negative ion modes of detection. This led to the identification of other compounds present in the extract-azadirachtin-D, azadirachtin-I, deacetylnimbin, deacetylsalannin, nimbin, and salannin. The comparative study of data gathered by use of the two ionization sources is discussed and shows that the ESI source enables the largest number of structures to be identified. In a second part, kinetic changes in the main product (AZ-A) were studied under precise conditions of pH (2, 4, 6, and 8), temperature (40 to 70 degrees C), and light (UV, dark room and in daylight). This enabled us to determine the degradation kinetics of the product (AZ-A) over time. The activation energy of the molecule (75+/-9 kJ mol(-1)) was determined by examining thermal stability in the range 40 to 70 degrees C. The degradation products of this compound were identified by use of HPLC-MS and HPLC-MS-MS. The results enabled proposal of a chemical degradation reaction route for AZ-A under

  5. 771 Moi Univer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... on the influence of access to information about SWM on proper solid waste handling by residents in ... consumer patterns, and improper planning and building ..... ensure both formal and self employed ... Factors influencing.

  6. Atividade anti-fúngica do neem e jurema-preta sobre cepas de Candida spp isolados de vacas com mastite subclínica no Estado de Pernambuco Anti-fungal activity of neem and jurema-preta on samples of isolated Candida spp of cows with subclinical mastitis in the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia V. Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade anti-fungica (in vitro do neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss. e de jurema preta (Mimosa tenuiflora (Wild Poir. sobre cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de casos de mastite subclínica em vacas no Estado de Pernambuco. As folhas do neem foram coletadas em árvores de fazendas do município de Patos-PB e a casca da jurema-preta foi coletada na UFCG, Campus de Patos e preparados extratos etanólicos. As amostras de Candida spp. foram coletadas de leite de vacas com mastite subclínica e semeadas em placas de Petri contendo ágar-base acrescido de 5% de sangue desfibrinado de ovino Sabouraud. As placas foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica a 37 ºC e a leitura foi realizada com 24 e 48 h. Os ensaios foram realizados em duplicata e o resultado final foi determinado pela média aritmética dos halos de inibição. A avaliação microbiológica destes ensaios demonstrou que o extrato da casca da jurema-preta apresentou atividade antifúngica bastante satisfatória sobre a levedura de C. albicans, proporcionando resultado superior aos obtidos com o extrato do neem e fluconazol.The leaves of neem were collected on farms of the city of Patos-PB, and the bark of jurema-preta was collected in the UFCG - Campus of Patos-PB, and the extracts were prepared from the ethanol. The samples of Candida spp. were collected in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis and sown in plates of Petri containing agar-base 5% increased of de-fiber blood of sheep Sabouraud. The plates were incubated in bacteriological greenhouse 37 ºC and the reading was carried through with 24 and 48 h. The assays were carried through in duplicate and the final result was determined by the arithmetic mean of inhibition halos. The microbiological evaluation of these assays demonstrated that the extract from the bark of jurema-preta showed antifungal activity quite satisfactory on the yeast C. albicans, providing superior results to those obtained

  7. Univer Project. A grid connected photovoltaic system of 200kW{sub p} at Jaen University. Overview and performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drif, M.; Perez, P.J.; Aguilera, J.; Almonacid, G.; Gomez, P.; de la Casa, J.; Aguilar, J.D. [Grupo de investigacion IDEA, Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Jaen Campus Las Lagunillas, 23071 Jaen (Spain)

    2007-05-04

    Nowadays, grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems are very popular in industrialized countries and can even be considered as the most promising PV application. The integration of these systems into urban buildings offers a large potential for cost reduction and can further increase the overall value of urban architecture. According to available statistics, by the end of 2002, more than 1.3 GWp of PV power was installed in industrialized countries world wide, which represents 70-85% of the total world capacity [J. Ohno, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications (2001) 471. ]. During recent years, a great number of European projects in the PV sector have been carried out in Spain. The Univer Project - UNIversidad VERde - is one of these European projects. It consists of four grid connected PV systems of 200kW{sub p} fully integrated into the Jaen University buildings, in order to provide the University Campus with more than 8% of its electricity needs, i.e. 210 MWh/year. The aim of this paper is to present a general overview of the Univer Project and the performance analysis of its PV systems during their first phase of operation. (author)

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) products on larvae of the sheep nose bot fly (Oestrus ovis L. Díptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Palacios, R; Servín, R; Ramírez-Orduña, J M; Ascencio, F; Dorchies, P; Angulo-Valadez, C E

    2014-02-24

    Two studies were carried out in order to test the effects of neem tree extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on sheep bot fly larvae (Oestrus ovis L. Diptera: Oestridae). First, aqueous extracts from neem seeds (ASNE) at 0, 5 y 10% (w/v) concentrations were tested on larval mortality in vitro. In a second study, the effect of oral administration with neem seed meal (0, 100 y 200mg/kg) and neem leaves (1% of diet) on number of larvae found at necropsy and larval development was evaluated in experimentally O. ovis-infected sheep. Results in Experiment 1 showed a significant (P<0.05) effect of ASNE on time to L1 mortality in a dosis-dependent manner. In Experiment 2, oral administration of seeds or leaves did not affect the number of larvae found at necropsy of the sheep, but interfered with larval development and there was a tendency to reduce larval weight at the end of the infection period (55d). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

  10. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  11. Sibelius: Karelia Suite, Op. 11. Luonnotar, Op. 70 a. Andante festivo. The Oceanides, Op. 73. King Christian II, Op. 27-Suite. Finlandia, Op. 26a. Gothenburg Symphony Orchester, Neeme Järvi / Michael Scott Rohan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohan, Michael Scott

    1996-01-01

    Sibelius: Karelia Suite, Op. 11. Luonnotar, Op. 70 a. Andante festivo. The Oceanides, Op. 73. King Christian II, Op. 27-Suite. Finlandia, Op. 26a. Gothenburg Symphony Orchester, Neeme Järvi. 1 CD Deutsche Grammophon 447 760-2GH (72 minutes: DDD)

  12. Sibelius: Karelia Suite, Op. 11. Luonnotar, Op. 70 a. Andante festivo. The Oceanides, Op. 73. King Christian II, Op. 27-Suite. Finlandia, Op. 26a. Gothenburg Symphony Orchester, Neeme Järvi / Michael Scott Rohan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rohan, Michael Scott

    1996-01-01

    Sibelius: Karelia Suite, Op. 11. Luonnotar, Op. 70 a. Andante festivo. The Oceanides, Op. 73. King Christian II, Op. 27-Suite. Finlandia, Op. 26a. Gothenburg Symphony Orchester, Neeme Järvi. 1 CD Deutsche Grammophon 447 760-2GH (72 minutes: DDD)

  13. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  14. Muusika : Virtuoosid taas tulemas. Tüüri muusika balletiks. Kaljuste Norras ja Belgias. Neeme Järvi viib Peterburi "Joonase lähetamise". Peep Lassmann jätkab rektorina. Eesti heliloojate kogumikplaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Vladimir Spivakov ja Moskva Virtuoosid esinevad Tallinnas Estonia kontserdisaalis 15. IV. Tüüri muusikat kasutatakse Heinz Spoerli balletis "...der Sonne leuchten ist ihr Kleid". Tõnu Kaljuste tegemistest Norras ja Belgias. Neeme Järvi viib Peterburi "Joonase lähetamise". Peep Lassmann jätkab rektorina kuni aastani 2007.Eesti Raadio esitles eesti heliloomingu kogumik plaate. "Klassikaraadio" sai seitsmeaastaseks

  15. Chemical compositions of solid particles present in the Greenland NEEM ice core over the last 110,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Svensson, Anders; Fukui, Manabu; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Hansson, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of particles present along Greenland's North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core, back to 110,000 years before present. Insoluble and soluble particles larger than 0.45 µm were extracted from the ice core by ice sublimation, and their chemical composition was analyzed using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We show that the dominant insoluble components are silicates, whereas NaCl, Na2SO4, CaSO4, and CaCO3 represent major soluble salts. For the first time, particles of CaMg(CO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2•4H2O are identified in a Greenland ice core. The chemical speciation of salts varies with past climatic conditions. Whereas the fraction of Na salts (NaCl + Na2SO4) exceeds that of Ca salts (CaSO4 + CaCO3) during the Holocene (0.6-11.7 kyr B.P.), the two fractions are similar during the Bølling-Allerød period (12.9-14.6 kyr B.P.). During cold climate such as over the Younger Dryas (12.0-12.6 kyr B.P.) and the Last Glacial Maximum (15.0-26.9 kyr B.P.), the fraction of Ca salts exceeds that of Na salts, showing that the most abundant ion generally controls the salt budget in each period. High-resolution analyses reveal changing particle compositions: those in Holocene ice show seasonal changes, and those in LGM ice show a difference between cloudy bands and clear layers, which again can be largely explained by the availability of ionic components in the atmospheric aerosol body of air masses reaching Greenland.

  16. Observations of grain boundary structures and inclusions in the NEEM ice core by combination of light and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeyama, Wataru; Nagatsuka, Naoko; Homma, Tomoyuki; Takata, Morimasa; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Kuiper, Ernst-Jan N.; Pennock, Gill M.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    Dynamics of ice sheets is governed by the flow of the ice and this flow results from the internal deformation of the ice aggregate. The deformation properties of the ice are known to be dependent on several factors, such as microstructure (e.g. crystal grain size and orientation) and impurities. It is well known that ice from glacial periods in ice sheets has a high impurity concentration, and the deformation is reported to be faster than that of non-glacial ice (Faria et al., 2014). However, the mechanisms of the deformation are still not well understood. For a better understanding of ice sheet dynamics, it is a prerequisite to elucidate deformation mechanisms of such impurity-rich ice. The microstructure of a material is a factor that influences mechanical properties and is also an indicator of the dominant deformation mechanisms. The effects of impurities on the deformation and the microstructure depend on chemical compositions, states (viz. insoluble inclusions or soluble ions) and locations of the impurities in the crystal lattice. Therefore, in order to better understand the deformation mechanisms in ice, investigation of relationship between the microstructure and characteristics of the impurities is important. We examined the relationship between grain boundaries and inclusions. Light microscopy (LM) is commonly used to map grain boundary structures on a large area of the ice samples (up to 10 × 10 cm); however, observation of small inclusions NEEM glacial ice (1548 m depth, 19.2 kyr BP). The initial results show inclusions observed by LM formed aggregates of sub-micrometer-sized particles, whose main constituents were silicates. Reference Faria, S. H., I. Weikusat and N. Azuma (2014). The microstructure of polar ice. Part II: State of the art, Journal of Structural Geology 61: 21-49.

  17. Small-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of the NEEM ice core: observations and numerical model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, D.; Llorens, M.-G.; Westhoff, J.; Steinbach, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Bons, P. D.; Griera, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances on the centimetre scale in the stratigraphy of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by an optical line scanner as long as the ice has visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths allow, to a certain extent, a three-dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the visible folds, discuss their characteristics and frequency, and present examples of typical fold structures. We also analyse the structures with regard to the deformation boundary conditions under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1500 m to overturned z folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their similar fold shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between alternating layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. C axes orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analysed, where available, in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which shows a single maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. Numerical modelling of crystal viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures during deformation. The modelling reproduces the development of bands of grains with a tilted-lattice orientation relative to the single maximum fabric of the matrix, and also the associated local deformation. We conclude from these results that the observed folding can be explained by formation of these tilted-lattice bands.

  18. Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract specifically suppresses the growth of tumors in H22-bearing Kunming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenxiang; Jiang, Cuihua; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi; Yin, Zengfang; Zhu, Yunfeng; Fu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, neem tree (Azadirachta indica) extract (NTE) has been reported to have various antitumor activities against gastric, breast, prostate, and skin cancer, respectively. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of NTE on hepatic cancer in a mouse model. The possible side effects elicited by NTE were also evaluated. The components in NTE were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). H22 cells-bearing Kumming mice were generated by injecting H22 cells subcutaneously into the right forelimb armpit of the mice. Then the mice were treated daily for 27 days with NTE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight) by intragastric administration, using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 1%) as blank control and cyclophosphamide (CTX, 20 mg/kg) as positive control. The antitumor effect of NTE was evaluated by assessment of survival rate, body weight, tumor volume and weight, tumor histology, thymus and spleen indexes, and liver histology. The tumor weight and volume in groups of NTE and CTX were significantly lower than those in the CMC group. The survival rate in the NTE group receiving the high dose (600 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that in the CTX and CMC groups. Compared with CTX, NTE was observed to have a tumor-specific cytotoxicity without impairing the normal liver tissue. Additionally, the higher indexes of thymus and spleen indicated that NTE could facilitate the growth of immune organs. The results indicate that NTE is a promising candidate for the antitumor treatment with high efficacy and safety.

  19. Immuno-pathological studies on broiler chicken experimentally infected with Escherichia coli and supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Sharma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of neem leaf extract (NLE supplementation on immunological response and pathology of different lymphoid organs in experimentally Escherichia coli challenged broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: For this study, we procured 192-day-old broiler chicks from local hatchery and divided them into Groups A and Group B containing 96 birds each on the first day. Chicks of Group A were supplemented with 10% NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were not supplemented with NLE throughout the experiment. At 7th day of age, chicks of Group A were divided into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2 with 54 and 42 chicks, respectively, and chicks of Groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 colony-forming units/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Six chicks from each group were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post infection; blood was collected and thorough post-mortem examination was conducted. Tissue pieces of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were collected in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Serum was separated for immunological studies. Result: E. coli specific antibody titer was significantly higher in Group A1 in comparison to Group B1. Delayed-type hypersensitivity response against 2,4 dinirochlorobenzene (DNCB antigen was significantly higher in Group A1 as compared to Group B1. Pathological studies revealed that E. coli infection caused depletion of lymphocytes in bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Severity of lesions in Group A1 was significantly lower in comparison to Group B1. Conclusion: 10% NLE supplementation enhanced the humoral as well as cellular immune responses attributed to its immunomodulatory property in experimentally E. coli infected broiler chicken.

  20. Investigation on the effect of RF air plasma and neem leaf extract treatment on the surface modification and antimicrobial activity of cotton fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaideki, K.; Jayakumar, S.; Rajendran, R.; Thilagavathi, G.

    2008-02-01

    A thorough investigation on the antimicrobial activity of RF air plasma and azadirachtin (neem leaf extract) treated cotton fabric has been dealt with in this paper. The cotton fabric was given a RF air plasma treatment to improve its hydrophilicity. The process parameters such as electrode gap, time of exposure and RF power have been varied to study their effect in improving the hydrophilicity of the cotton fabric and they were optimized based on the static immersion test results. The neem leaf extract (azadirachtin) was applied on fabric samples to impart antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial efficacy of the samples have been analysed and compared with the efficacy of the cotton fabric treated with the antimicrobial finish alone. The investigation reveals that the RF air plasma has modified the surface of the fabric, which in turn increased the antimicrobial activity of the fabric when treated with azadirachtin. The surface modification due to RF air plasma treatment has been analysed by comparing the FTIR spectra of the untreated and plasma treated samples. The molecular interaction between the fabric, azadirachtin and citric acid which was used as a cross linking agent to increase the durability of the antimicrobial finish has also been analysed using FTIR spectra.

  1. Efficacy Of Leaf Extract Of Neem Azadirachta Indica Against Shoot Dieback Disease Of Two Species Of Ficus In Atbara Town-Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A widespread stem canker and dieback diseases threatened different plant genera in Sudan. It was highly spread among different Ficus species. This research was carried out in Atbara town north Khartoum. The causal agents of this disease were Isolated from the infected shoot system of Ficus bengalensis and F. retusa. Morphological identification and relative densities of the isolated fungi were carried out with the help of authentic manuals of fungi. Biocontrol experiment was conducted for the most prevalent pathogenic fungus using aqueous neem extract in both cold and hot water. The results showed that the fungal isolates belong to three genera Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger A. terrus and A. flavus Botryosphaeria sp. and Botrytis sp. The most prevalent mycoflora was Botryosphaeria sp. relative density range 35-45 the second one was A.niger 20 then Botrytis sp. 15 A. flavus 10 and A.terreus 2-8. The efficacy of aqueous cold and hot extracts of neem leaf on the growth of Botryosphaeria sp. showed that the hot extract is effective than the cold one and the inhibition percentage were 100 and 65 respectively on the 14th days.

  2. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem) and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Garg, Paridhi; Singh, Udai Pratap; Mishra, Chandrakar Chaman; Nagpal, Rajni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem) etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem) group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted. PMID:24347888

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica (Neem and 5% sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endodontic infections are polymicrobial in nature. Candida albicans is the most common fungus isolated from failed endodontic cases. The constant increase in antibiotic resistant strains and side-effects caused by synthetic drugs has prompted researchers to look for herbal alternatives such as propolis, Morinda citrifolia and Azadirachta indica (Neem etc., since, the gold standard for irrigation, i.e., sodium hypochlorite has many disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Extracted human mandibular premolars were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to C. albicans grown on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar to form a biofilm. At the end of 2 days, all groups were treated with test solutions and control for 10 min and evaluated for Candida growth and number of colony forming units. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite and propolis groups exhibited highest antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans with no statistically significant difference. It was followed by the A. indica (Neem group. M. citrifolia had limited antifungal action followed by the negative control group of saline. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, propolis can be used as an effective antifungal agent similar to that of sodium hypochlorite, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  4. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a semi-adiabatic diesel engine using cotton seed and neem kernel oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj M. Shrigiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine are investigated using two methyl esters: One obtained from cotton seed oil and other from neem kernel oil. These two oils are transesterified using methanol and alkaline catalyst to produce the cotton seed oil methyl ester (CSOME and neem kernel oil methyl ester (NKOME respectively. These biodiesels are used as alternative fuels in low heat rejection engine (LHR, in which the combustion chamber temperature is increased by thermal barrier coating on piston face. Experimental investigations are conducted with CSOME and NKOME in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection LHR engine. It is found that, at peak load the brake thermal efficiency is lower by 5.91% and 7.07% and BSFC is higher by 28.57% and 10.71% for CSOME and NKOME in LHR engine, respectively when compared with conventional diesel fuel used in normal engine. It is also seen that there is an increase in NOx emission in LHR engine along with slight increase in CO, smoke and HC emissions. From the combustion characteristics, it is found that the values of cylinder pressure for CSOME and NKOME in LHR engine are near to the diesel fuel in normal engine.

  5. Du personnage à la figurine : les produits dérivés de Star Wars comme expansion d’un univers

    OpenAIRE

    Boillat, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ainsi que l’ont montré les articles de ce dossier, il apparaît que Star Wars est particulièrement intéressant pour aborder des questions d’intermédialité. Or le merchandising suscité par ces films, quoique souvent signalé en passant, n’est que très rarement pris en compte dans les rapports qu’il instaure avec l’univers diégétique de l’hexalogie, comme si ses fondements économiques invalidaient la pertinence d’une telle analyse paratextuelle. C’est pourquoi je tenterai d’ébaucher quelques axes...

  6. Properties of grain boundary networks in the NEEM ice core analyzed by combined transmission and reflection optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Tobias; Weikusat, Ilka; Garbe, Christoph; Svensson, Anders; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2014-05-01

    Microstructure analysis of ice cores is vital to understand the processes controlling the flow of ice on the microscale. To quantify the microstructural variability (and thus occurring processes) on centimeter, meter and kilometer scale along deep polar ice cores, a large number of sections has to be analyzed. In the last decade, two different methods have been applied: On the one hand, transmission optical microscopy of thin sections between crossed polarizers yields information on the distribution of crystal c-axes. On the other hand, reflection optical microscopy of polished and controlled sublimated section surfaces allows to characterize the high resolution properties of a single grain boundary, e.g. its length, shape or curvature (further developed by [1]). Along the entire NEEM ice core (North-West Greenland, 2537 m length) drilled in 2008-2011 we applied both methods to the same set of vertical sections. The data set comprises series of six consecutive 6 x 9 cm2 sections in steps of 20 m - in total about 800 images. A dedicated method for automatic processing and matching both image types has recently been developed [2]. The high resolution properties of the grain boundary network are analyzed. Furthermore, the automatic assignment of c-axis misorientations to visible sublimation grooves enables us to quantify the degree of similarity between the microstructure revealed by both analysis techniques. The reliability to extract grain boundaries from both image types as well as the appearance of sublimation groove patterns exhibiting low misorientations is investigated. X-ray Laue diffraction measurements (yielding full crystallographic orientation) have validated the sensitivity of the surface sublimation method for sub-grain boundaries [3]. We introduce an approach for automatic extraction of sub-grain structures from sublimation grooves. A systematic analysis of sub-grain boundary densities indicates a possible influence of high impurity contents (amongst

  7. Eficiência e efeitos subletais de nim sobre Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Efficiency and sublethal effects of neem on Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bernardi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência e os efeitos subletais de um inseticida à base de nim (10 g.L-1 de azadiractina A sobre a lagarta-enroladeira Bonagota salubricola em laboratório. Nos bioensaios, foi utilizado o produto à base de azadiractina NeemAzal-T/S® nas concentrações de 0,06%; 0,09%; 0,12%; 0,16%; 0,18% e 0,20% do produto comercial (p.c e uma testemunha (água destilada. A dieta artificial foi cortada em cubos e imersa nas caldas das respectivas concentrações do produto, e, em seguida, lagartas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas para tubos de vidro, contendo os cubos de dieta tratados. Quando a dieta artificial foi tratada com concentração de 0,20% do produto comercial, houve 100% da mortalidade aos 6 dias após a inoculação. Por outro lado, as concentrações de 0,16 e 0,18% prolongaram a fase larval, reduziram a viabilidade de pupas e afetaram negativamente a fecundidade do inseto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of control and sublethal effects of neem insecticide (10 g.L-1 of azadirachtin A to the leafroller Bonagota salubricola at laboratory condition. In the bioassays, it was used an azadirachtin based product (NeemAzal-T/S® at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.09%, 0.12%, 0.16%, 0.18% and 0.20% of the commercial product (c.p. and a control (distilled water. The artificial diet was cut in cubes and immersed in the syrups of the respective product concentrations, soon afterwards recently-emerged caterpillars were transferred to glass tubes, containing the diet cubes treated. When the artificial diet was treated with a concentration of 0.20% of the commercial product, the mortality was 100% at the 6th day after inoculation. Additionally, concentrations of 0.16% and 0.18% extended the larval stages, reduced pupae viability and negatively affected the fecundity of the insect.

  8. Study on response surface model of neem oil methyl esterification under microWave irradiation%微波辐射印楝油甲酯化响应曲面模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有琼; 马李一; 张重权; 段琼芬

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology(RSM)is used to prepare biological diesel by microwave radia-tion methyl esterification of neem oil. The better ranges of four factors such as ratio of methanol to neem oil,catalyst amount,reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated by single factor experiment. The tests were designed according to the principle of Box-Behnken. The conversion rate of neem oil was response value. A mathematical model for the conversion rate of neem oil was established based on a four-variable,three-level design. The response surface analysis was carried out to optimize the reaction condi-tions. Results showed that the optimum conditions of esterification reaction by microwave radiation of neem oil were the molar ratio of methanol to oil 5. 4: 1,catalyst dosage 1. 36% ,reaction temperature 50 ℃,re-action time 68 min. The actual conversion ratio of neem oil was 93. 17% ,which was closed to the predic-ted value of 93. 78% with an relative error of 0. 65% .%以微波辐射印楝油甲酯化制取生物柴油,通过单因素实验,找到醇油物质的量比、催化剂用量、反应温度和反应时间的较佳取值范围。根据 Box-Behnken 实验设计原理设计实验,以印楝油转化率为响应值,建立反应的回归模型,进行响应面分析和优化。结果表明,微波辐射印楝油甲酯化反应的最佳工艺条件为:醇油物质的量比5.4:1,催化剂 KOH 用量1.36%,反应温度50℃,反应时间68 min。在此条件下,印楝油的转化率为93.17%,与理论预测值93.78%的相对误差为0.65%。

  9. Characteristics of tomato plants treated with leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (L.)) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium (Jacquin)): a greenhouse experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nuricumbo-Zarate, Ibis Harumy; Hernández-Díaz, Javier; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Dendooven, Luc; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A.) and mata-raton (Gliricidia sepium) leaves were used as insect repellent during organic cultivation of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) and were compared with untreated plants or plants treated with lambda-cyhalothrin (chemical treatment). The best developed tomato plants were found in the Gliricidia treatment, while difference between other treatments were small. The number of different species of macrofauna found on tomato plants were similar in different treatments, except for corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) found in the Gliricidia treatment, but not in other treatments. It was found that leaf extract of G. sepium stimulated tomato growth and altered the leaf and fruit characteristics. This was most likely due to its action as a growth regulator and/or an inductor of changes in the tomato growth regulation, but not due to its action as an insect repellent. Consequently, leaf extract of G. sepium could be used to stimulate tomato development.

  10. Neem leaf glycoprotein optimizes effector and regulatory functions within tumor microenvironment to intervene therapeutically the growth of B16 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Barik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy with neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP inhibits murine B16-melanoma in vivo and improves survivability. Studies on tumor-microenvironment (TME from NLGP treated mice (NLGP-TME suggests that anti-tumor effect is directly associated with enhanced CD8+T cell activity, dominance of type 1 cytokines/chemokine network with downregulation of suppressive cellular functions. NLGP-TME educated CD8+T cells showed higher perforin and granzymeB expression with greater in vitro cytotoxicity against B16 melanoma. These CD8+T cells showed proportionally lower FasR expression, denotes prevention from activation induced cell death by NLGP. Accumulated evidences strongly suggest NLGP influenced normalized TME allows CD8+T cells to perform optimally to inhibit melanoma growth.

  11. Green synthesis of ZnO NPs from various parts of Azhadirachta indica (neem) plant as biotemplates for anti-bacterial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Oudhia, Anjali

    2016-05-01

    A green and cost effective method of production of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was developed using extracts from different parts of Neem plant (e.g. leaf, seed, and stem) as bio templates. ZnO NPs obtained through these bio-templates exhibit different structures, morphologies and optical properties, showing potential of the present method in preparing NPs with desired properties, FTIR and XRD techniques were used for characterization. A comparison of antibacterial activities of ZnO NPs show decreasing zone of inhibition with increasing particle sizes. The as prepared ZnO NPs functionalized with various materials to make them bio compatible. It was observed that natural tri-peptide GSH was most effective capping agents for controlling the toxicity of ZnO NPs. A mechanism is proposed to explain the variation in growth patterns and properties of ZnO NPs obtained from the aforementioned bio-templates.

  12. Proyecto de inversión para el cultivo del árbol de neem como materia prima destinado al sector industrial

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El país tiene alrededor de 3 millones de hectáreas favorables para la reforestación, es decir, son áreas en las que ya no se pueden cultivar productos agrícolas pero sí se pueden sembrar árboles. El proyecto consta de algunas etapas, en la primera etapa los inversionistas no tendrán réditos económicos, sin embargo, el beneficio social es mayor que el privado. El período de crecimiento del NEEM es de 3 a 4 años, tiempo en el que la especie podrá ser comercializada en el mercado, creando un...

  13. Influence of formulated neem seed oil and jatropha curcas seed oil on wire drawing of mild steel and medium carbon steel at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuda Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available So many facets of hot wire drawing process, despite its extensive and long time employment in the industries, still remain unclear, due to want of systematic investigation of the process. This work investigated the influence of formulated neem seed and jatropha seed oil as lubricants, using antimony dialkyl dithiocarbamates (ADTC as an additive, on wire drawing process. The suitability of the bio-based oils in friction and wear control during wire drawing process were investigated, using a four ball tester. Experimental drawing process, using a Tungsten Carbide die and the formulated lubricants was carried out on mild steel and medium carbon steel rod (6 and 8mm diameter respectively at temperatures from 20OC to 750OC, on a drawing bench. The stresses and the temperature distribution profiles along the work-piece were reported. Up to 45% of reductions in area, without wire fracture, achieved on the drawing of the medium carbon steel have equally been reported.

  14. Push-pull Strategy with Trap Crops, Neem and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus for Insecticide Resistance Management in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Duraimurugan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner is a major threat to cotton production in India. The virus infection was found to increase the susceptibility of H. armigera to the insecticides. But, use of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV on a larger scale and on cotton due to leaf alkalinity poses certain practical problems. Hence, studies were carried out to assess the effects of push-pull strategy with trap crops, neem and NPV in cotton for the management of insecticide resistant H. armigera. Field experiments were conducted on cotton (MCU5 with trap crops (okra and pigeonpea and neem was used to diversify the pests to trap crops whereby the control of these pests was assessed with the application of NPV. The preference of H. armigera was towards okra and pigeonpea as a trap crop compared to cotton. Application of NSKE on cotton diversified the H. armigera towards untreated okra and pigeonpea. Push-pull strategy with the conjunctive use of trap crops, restricted application of NSKE on cotton leaving trap crops and restricted application of NPV on trap crops was highly effective in reducing the incidence of H. armigera and damage to fruiting bodies, boll, locule and inter locule basis over cotton sole crop (untreated check. The percent recovery of NPV infected larvae varied from 37.5-47.5, 32.8-39.2 and 14.2-20.2% on okra, pigeon pea and cotton respectively. The synthetic pyrethroids resistance in field survived H. armigera at the end of the season was reduced from 87.5-93.1% to 76.4-84.3%.

  15. Insights on germinability and desiccation tolerance in developing neem seeds (Azadirachta indica): Role of AOS, antioxidative enzymes and dehydrin-like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Balram; Sahu, Alok Kumar; Chennareddy, Srinivasa Rao; Soni, Avinash; Naithani, Subhash Chandra

    2017-03-01

    The germinability and desiccation tolerance (DT) in developing seed are regulated by cellular metabolism involving active oxygen species (AOS) and protective proteins during maturation drying. The aim of the present investigation was to unravel the functions of AOS (superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical), antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT and APX) and dehydrin-like proteins in regulating the germinability and DT in undried and artificially desiccated developing neem seeds. Germination was first observed in seeds of 8 weeks after anthesis (waa) whereas DT was noticed from 9 waa. High levels of superoxide in undried and artificially desiccated seeds of 9 waa were rapidly declined up to 15 waa with simultaneous increase in levels of SOD (quantitative and isoenzymes) that dismutates superoxide with corresponding formation and accumulation of H2O2. Activities and isoenzymes of APX and CAT were promoted in seeds from 9 to 12 waa. Intensity of dehydrin-like proteins increased as development progressed in seeds with higher intensities in slow dried (SD) seeds. Desiccation modulated the metabolism for the acquisition of germinability and DT in the developing neem seeds from 8 to 15 waa by altering the levels of superoxide, H2O2 and OH-radical those possibly act as signalling molecules for reprogramming protective proteins. Desiccation mediated the expression of new bands of SOD and APX in undried as well as SD seeds during 9-12 waa but the bands were more intense in SD seeds. The superoxide and H2O2-regulated intensity of dehydrin-like protein in SD seeds further validated our conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Peegeldused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    26. ja 27. apr. tuleb Rahvusooperis Estonia maailmaesiettekandele eesti värskeim lavamuusika üldpealkirjaga "Peegeldused": Toivo Tulevi lühiballett "Cruz" (lavastaja Vladimir Arhangelski), Eino Tambergi lühiooperist "Inimeseks tahaks saada" ja lühiballetist "Elutants" koosnev kaheosaline terviketendus "Peeglimängud" (lavastaja Neeme Kuningas) ning Rene Eespere lühiooper "Gurmaanid" (lavastaja Ervin Õunapuu)

  17. Peegeldused

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    26. ja 27. apr. tuleb Rahvusooperis Estonia maailmaesiettekandele eesti värskeim lavamuusika üldpealkirjaga "Peegeldused": Toivo Tulevi lühiballett "Cruz" (lavastaja Vladimir Arhangelski), Eino Tambergi lühiooperist "Inimeseks tahaks saada" ja lühiballetist "Elutants" koosnev kaheosaline terviketendus "Peeglimängud" (lavastaja Neeme Kuningas) ning Rene Eespere lühiooper "Gurmaanid" (lavastaja Ervin Õunapuu)

  18. Studies on the subchronic oral toxicity of neem oil in mice%印楝油对小鼠的亚慢性经口毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东霞; 蒋忠荣; 殷中琼; 龙兴发; 李太强; 贾仁勇; 徐娇; 张玉群; 杨帆

    2011-01-01

    To determine the subchronic oral toxicity of neem oil in mice,eighty mice were divided into three experiment groups and one control group at random. The mice in the 3 experiment groups were orally administrated with neem oil(mixed with 10 g/L CMC) at the doses of 177,533 and 1 600 mg/kg for 90 days respectively,and the mice in the control group were orally administrated with 10 g/L CMC at the dose of 533 mg/kg, then continued to observe for 30 days post-the last administration with neem oil. On day 90 and 120 post-beginning of administration, the general clinical manifestations, serum biochemistry, organ coefficients of the heart, liver, spleen,lung, and kidney were determined,and the histopathological changes of the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and testicle were observed. The serum biochemistry and the organ coefficients of heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney in the 3 experiment groups were not statistically different from those in the control group. On day 90 post-beginning of administration,the pathological examinations showed that 177 and 533 mg/kg doses of neem oil had low damage on each organ,such as slight vascular congestion,while 1 600 mg/kg dose of neem oil had damage on each organ to some extent,mainly degeneration on cells. After recovery for 30 days,the degree of injury to the tissues was lessened or even to be the restored. The level at which no adverse effects was 177 mg/kg for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be the testicle,liver and kidneys.%为研究印楝油对小鼠的亚慢性经口毒性作用,确定印楝油的最大无作用剂量和毒作用靶器官,取健康小鼠80只,随机分成3个试验组和1个对照组,每日9点对各试验组小鼠经口给予177、533和1600mg/kg的印楝油混悬液(用10 g/L羧甲基纤维素钠与其混悬),对照组则给予533 mg/kg的10 g/L羧甲基纤维素钠溶液,连续90 d,停药后继续观察30 d.试验90 d和120 d后分别观察记录各组小鼠的一般临床

  19. The effects of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS) enriched with different concentrations of azadirachtin on the integument of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima de Souza, José Ribamar; Remedio, Rafael Neodini; Arnosti, André; de Abreu, Rusleyd Maria Magalhães; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-08-01

    Several studies searching for methods to control Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l., (dog tick) infestations have been developed aiming to minimize the damages caused by these ectoparasites to the hosts and the environment, which is harmed by the indiscriminate use of toxic acaricide products. In this scenario, neem oil has been used as a natural alternative against ticks, once this chemical has repellent properties and interferes in the growth regulation of these ectoparasites, inhibiting ecdysis. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin-enriched neem oil on the integument of semi-engorged R.sanguineus s.l., females through morphohistological techniques. The results showed the occurrence of significant morphological and histochemical alterations, mainly in the females exposed to higher concentrations, which demonstrates the dose-dependent action of the chemical. A decrease in the cuticle thickness was observed, as well as a modification in the distribution of the epithelial cells, which displayed pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, and intensely vacuolated cytoplasm, indicating that these cells would be undergoing death processes. These morphological alterations observed in the integument of the females exposed to the azadirachtin-enriched neem oil encourage the use of this chemical as a strategy to control these ectoparasites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Plaadid / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest No-Big-Silence/Kosmikud "Kuidas kuningas kuu peale kippus", Big Tymers "Big Money Heavy Weight", Lionel Richie & the commodores "The Definitive Collection", bernie Williams "The Journey Within", Junior Jack "Trust It", "La Sieste"