Sample records for nebulae iv synthesis

  1. The [NeIV] Lines in High Excitation Gaseous Nebulae. (United States)

    Aller, L H


    The "forbidden" lines of three times ionized neon are among the most precious indicators of electron temperature and excitation. They are also predicted to be among the strongest lines observed in the far ultraviolet spectra of high excitation nebulae.

  2. Kinetic model of ammonia synthesis in the solar nebula (United States)

    Norris, T. L.


    Kinetic model of ammonia formation by iron catalysis in the primordial solar nebula is developed. The maximum time to reach equilibrium concentration is determined for various temperatures between 1000 and 200 K on the basis of reaction rates derived from industrial data on iron catalysts for ammonia. Application of the method for calculating the equilibrium time to an arbitrary nebula cooling model which maximizes the time available for ammonia synthesis results in an upper limit of 3% of the equilibrium value to the proportion of nitrogen in the form of ammonia at the time of planetary accretion, with ammonia abundance decreasing with distance from the sun. It is concluded that kinetic rather than equilibrium considerations control the abundance of ammonia in the solar nebula, and implications of the dominance of nitrogen for the evolution of the atmospheres of the terrestrial and Jovian planets and the composition of comets are indicated.

  3. Synthesis of Organics in the Early Solar Nebula (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Manning, S.; Nuth, J. A., III


    It is unknown what process or processes made the organics that are found or detected in extraterrestrial materials. One process that forms organics are Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions. Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis produces complex hydrocarbons by hydrogenating carbon monoxide via surface mediated reactions. The products of these reactions have been well-studied using `natural’ catalysts [1] and calculations of the efficiency of FTT synthesis in the Solar Nebula suggest that these types of reactions could make significant contributions to material near three AU [2]. We use FTT synthesis to coat Fe-silicate amorphous grains with organic material to simulate the chemistry in the early Solar Nebula. These coatings are composed of macromolecular organic phases [3]. Previous work also showed that as the grains became coated, Haber-Bosch type reactions took place resulting in nitrogen-bearing organics [4]. Our experiments consist of circulating CO, N2, and H2 gas through Fe- amorphous silicate grains that are maintained at a specific temperature in a closed system. The gases are passed through an FTIR spectrometer and are measured to monitor the reaction progress. Samples are analyzed using FTIR, and GCMS (including pyrolysis) and extraction techniques are used to analyze the organic coatings. These experiments show that these types of reactions are an effective means to produce complex hydrocarbons. We present the analysis of the produced organics (solid and gas phase) and the change in the production rate of several compounds as the grains become coated. Organics generated by this technique could represent the carbonaceous material incorporated in comets and meteorites. References: [1] Hayatsu and Anders 1981. Topics in Current Chemistry 99:1-37. [2] Kress and Tielens 2001. MAPS 36:75-91. [3] Johnson et al. 2004. #1876. 35th LPSC. [4] Hill and Nuth 2003. Astrobiology 3:291-304. This work was supported by a grant from NASA.

  4. N IV emission lines in the ultraviolet spectra of gaseous nebulae (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Bell, K. L.; Berrington, K. A.; Hibbert, A.; Feibelman, W. A.; Blair, W. P.


    Theoretical electron density sensitive emission-line ratios, determined using electron impact excitation rates calculated with the R-matrix code, are presented for R = I(2s(sup 2) (1)S-2s2p 3P(sub 2))/I(2s(sup 2) (1)S-2s2p 3P(sub 1) = 1(1483 A)/I(1486 A) in N IV. These are found to be up to an order of magnitude different from those deduced by previous authors, principally due to the inclusion of excitation rates for transitions among the 2s2p (3)p fine-structure levels. The observed values of R for several planetary nebulae, symbiotic stars and the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, measured from spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite and the Hopkins Ultraviolet Explorer (HUT), lead to electron densities which are in excellent agreement with those deduced from line ratios in other species. This provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the present calculations.

  5. Synthesis and reactivity of triscyclopentadienyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthet, J.C.


    The reactions of (RC 5 H 4 ) 3 U with R=trimethylsilylcyclopentadienyl or tertiobutylcyclopentadienyl are studied for the synthesis of new uranium organometallic compounds. Reactions with sodium hydride are first described uranium (III) anionic hydrides obtained are oxidized for synthesis of stable uranium (IV) organometallic hydrides. Stability of these compounds is discussed. Reactivity of these uranium (III) and (IV) hydrides are studied. Formation of new binuclear compounds with strong U-O and U-N bonds is examined and crystal structure are presented. Monocyclooctatetraenylic uranium complexes are also investigated

  6. Radio synthesis observations of planetary nebulae. II. A search for sub-arcsecond structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.; Terzian, Y.


    Observations of 11 planetary nebulae with spatial resolutions from 0''.2 to 2'' at 2695 and 8085 MHz failed to show any very bright structure smaller than about 2''. The observations are shown to be consistent with the present understanding of the temperatures and density distributions thought to typify most planetary nebulae

  7. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) complexes with Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radoske, Thomas; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements


    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of several imine complexes of tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) and uranium (U(IV)). The ligands investigated in this study are a Schiff base type, including the well-known salen ligand (H{sub 2}Le, Fig. 1). The complexation in solution was investigated by NMR measurements indicating paramagnetic effects of unpaired f-electrons of U(IV) on the ligand molecule. We also determined the solid-state molecular structures of the synthesized complexes by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The synthesized complexes show an eight-fold coordination geometry around the actinide center surrounded by two tetradentate ligands with 2N- and 2O-donor atoms.

  8. Organic Analysis of Catalytic Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Products and Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites by Stepwise Pyrolysis-GCMS: Organics in the Early Solar Nebula (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Yazzie, Cyriah A.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.; Johnson, Natasha M.


    Abiotic generation of complex organic compounds, in the early solar nebula that formed our solar system, is hypothesized by some to occur via Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. In its simplest form, FT synthesis involves the low temperature (300degC) produces FT products that include lesser amounts of n-alkanes and greater alkene, alcohol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. We have begun to experimentally investigate FT synthesis in the context of abiotic generation of organic compounds in the early solar nebula. It is generally thought that the early solar nebula included abundant hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and nano-particulate matter such as iron and metal silicates that could have catalyzed the FT reaction. The effect of FT reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experiment duration on the resulting products is being investigated. These solid organic products are analyzed by thermal-stepwise pyrolysis-GCMS and yield the types and distribution of hydrocarbon compounds released as a function of temperature. We show how the FT products vary by reaction temperature, catalyst type, and experimental duration and compare these products to organic compounds found to be indigenous to ordinary chondrite meteorites. We hypothesize that the origin of organics in some chondritic meteorites, that represent an aggregation of materials from the early solar system, may at least in part be from FT synthesis that occurred in the early solar nebula.

  9. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.


    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  10. Synthesis and Properties of Group IV Graphane Analogues (United States)

    Goldberger, Joshua

    Similar to how carbon networks can be sculpted into low-dimensional allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene with fundamentally different properties, it is possible to create similar ligand terminated sp3-hybridized honeycomb graphane derivatives containing Ge or Sn that feature unique and tunable properties. Here, we will describe our recent success in the creation of hydrogen and organic-terminated group IV graphane analogues, from the topochemical deintercalation of precursor Zintl phases, such as CaGe2. We will discuss how the optical, electronic, and thermal properties of these materials can be systematically controlled by substituting either the surface ligand or via alloying with other Group IV elements. Additionally, we have also developed an epitopotaxial approach for integrating precise thicknesses of germanane layers onto Ge wafers that combines the epitaxial deposition of CaGe2 precursor phases with the topotactic interconversion into the 2D material. Finally, we will describe our recent efforts on the synthesis and crystal structures of Sn-containing graphane alloys in order to access novel topological phenomena predicted to occur in these graphanes.

  11. Gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.


    Gaseous nebulae are large, tenuous clouds of ionized gas that are associated with hot stars and that emit visible light because of the energy that they receive from the ultraviolet radiation of the stars. Examples include H II regions, planetary nebulae, and nova/supernova remnants. The emphasis is on the physical processes that occur in gaseous nebulae as opposed to a study of the objects themselves. The introduction discusses thermodynamic vs. steady-state equilibrium and excitation conditions in a dilute radiation field. Subsequent sections take up important atomic processes in gaseous nebulae (particle--particle collision rates, radiative interaction rates, cross sections), the ionization equilibrium (sizes of H II regions, ionization of the heavier elements), kinetic temperature and energy balance (heating of the electrons, cooling of the electrons), and the spectra of gaseous nebulae (line fluxes in nebulae). 7 figures, 5 tables

  12. Deep He II and C IV Spectroscopy of a Giant Lyα Nebula: Dense Compact Gas Clumps in the Circumgalactic Medium of a z ~ 2 Quasar (United States)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano


    The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (˜500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 1045 erg s-1) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ˜ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 1012 M⊙, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass Mc ≲ 6.4 × 1010 M⊙ of cool gas on ˜200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (nH ≳ 3 cm-3) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s-1), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ˜10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic medium. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  14. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin


    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  15. Synthesis of uranium (IV) complexes of Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashidhara, G.M.; Goudar, T.R.


    Uranium (IV) complexes with Schiff bases formed by condensation of 3-substituted-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole and substituted salicylaldehyde have been synthesized in dry benzene under nitrogen atmosphere. A coordination number eight is suggested for these uranium (IV) complexes with cubic geometry. (author)

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Organ Tin (IV) Complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 21, 2012 ... the reference drug. In addition, within the diorganotin(IV) complexes, monomeric type (3) exhibited a slightly better activity as compared to the organodistannoxane dimer types (1 and 4). Key words: Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assay, organotin(IV) complexes, comparison study. INTRODUCTION. Although ...

  17. The ursa major cluster of galaxies - IV. HI synthesis observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, MAW; Sancisi, R

    In this data paper we present the results of an extensive 21 cm-line synthesis imaging survey of 43 spiral galaxies in the nearby Ursa Major cluster using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. Detailed kinematic information in the form of position-velocity diagrams and rotation curves is

  18. Direct synthesis of macrodiolides via hafnium(IV) catalysis. (United States)

    de Léséleuc, Mylène; Collins, Shawn K


    Efficient direct synthesis of macrodiolides via catalysis using Hf(OTf)4 is possible in high yields, forming water as the sole by-product. The first protocol for the direct synthesis of macrodiolides from equimolar mixtures of diols and dicarboxylic acids was developed (58-96%). In addition, modification of the reaction concentration allows for the synthesis of head-to-tail macrodiolides from the corresponding seco acids. The catalytic preparation of the macrodiolides using a commercially available catalyst without the need for slow addition or azeotropic condition provides an operationally simple alternative to protocols which employ toxic tin catalysts or stoichiometric activation strategies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Schaub, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Frew, David J. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Bodman, Eva H. L., E-mail: [Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) (United States)


    We explore the photometrically variable central stars of the planetary nebulae HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2. Both have been classified as close binary star systems previously based on their light curves alone. Here, we present additional arguments and data confirming the identification of both as close binaries with an irradiated cool companion to the hot central star. We include updated light curves, orbital periods, and preliminary binary modeling for both systems. We also identify for the first time the central star of HaTr 4 as an eclipsing binary. Neither system has been well studied in the past, but we utilize the small amount of existing data to limit possible binary parameters, including system inclination. These parameters are then compared to nebular parameters to further our knowledge of the relationship between binary central stars of planetary nebulae and nebular shaping and ejection.

  20. Synthetic Strategies for the Synthesis of Ternary Uranium(IV) and Thorium(IV) Fluorides. (United States)

    Klepov, Vladislav V; Felder, Justin B; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad


    A series of new U(IV) and Th(IV) fluorides, Na 7 U 6 F 31 (1), NaUF 5 (2), NaU 2 F 9 (3), KTh 2 F 9 (4), NaTh 2 F 9 (5), (H 3 O)Th 3 F 13 (6), and (H 3 O)U 3 F 13 (7), was obtained using hydrothermal and low-temperature flux methods. Mild hydrothermal reactions with uranyl acetate as a precursor yielded 1, 7, and the monoclinic polymorph of NaU 2 F 9 , whereas direct reactions between UF 4 and NaF led to the formation of 2 and orthorhombic NaU 2 F 9 (3). This highlights an unexpected difference in reaction products when different starting uranium sources are used. All seven compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are compared on the basis of cation topology, revealing a close topological resemblance between fluorides on the basis of the layers observed in NaUF 5 (H 2 O). Phase-pure samples of 1, 2, and both polymorphs of NaU 2 F 9 were obtained, and their spectroscopic and magnetic properties were measured. The UV-vis data are dominated by the presence of U 4+ cations and agree well with the electronic transitions. Effective magnetic moments of the studied compounds were found to range from 3.08 to 3.59 μ B .

  1. Synthesis and studies of some organometallic compounds of uranium IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet-Ellis, Hubert; Folcher, Gerard.


    The organometallic compounds of uranium IV have been well known for a long-time but some difficulties in the synthese subsist. The procedures and the apparatus allowing to obtain these compounds with good yields are described. The cyclopenta dienyl compounds U(C 5 H 5 ) 3 Cl, U(C 5 H 5 ) 4 are prepared by reaction of UCl 4 with Na(C 5 H 5 ) in tetrahydrofurane. The cyclooctatetraene compound U(C 8 H 8 ) 2 ''Uranocene'' is obtained by reaction of K 2 (C 8 H 8 ) on UCl 4 in tetrahydrofurane. The NMR spectrum of the solution during the reaction shows the appearance of the product. These compounds have been identified by chemical analysis and X rays. The visible spectra of U(C 5 H 5 ) 2 Cl and U(C 8 H 8 ) 2 in gaseous phase have been obtained [fr

  2. Ant nebula (United States)


    A new Hubble Space Telescope image of a celestial object called the Ant Nebula may shed new light on the future demise of our Sun. The image is available at . The nebula, imaged on July 20, 1997, and June 30, 1998, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, was observed by Drs. Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Bruce Balick of the University of Washington in Seattle; and Vincent Icke of Leiden University in the Netherlands. JPL designed and built the camera. The Ant Nebula, whose technical name is Mz3, resembles the head and thorax of an ant when observed with ground-based telescopes. The new Hubble image, with 10 times the resolution revealing 100 times more detail, shows the 'ant's' body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun- like star. The Ant Nebula is located between 3,000 and 6,000 light years from Earth in the southern constellation Norma. The image challenges old ideas about what happens to dying stars. This observation, along with other pictures of various remnants of dying stars called planetary nebulae, shows that our Sun's fate will probably be much more interesting, complex and dramatic than astronomers previously believed. Although the ejection of gas from the dying star in the Ant Nebula is violent, it does not show the chaos one might expect from an ordinary explosion, but instead shows symmetrical patterns. One possibility is that the central star has a closely orbiting companion whose gravitational tidal forces shape the outflowing gas. A second possibility is that as the dying star spins, its strong magnetic fields are wound up into complex shapes like spaghetti in an eggbeater. Electrically charged winds, much like those in our Sun's solar wind but millions of times denser and moving at speeds up to 1,000 kilometers per second (more than 600 miles per second) from the star, follow the twisted field lines on their way out into space

  3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of oxovanadium (IV) complexes of heterocyclic acid hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Manju; Sunaja Devi, K.R.; Sreeja, P.B.


    Two acid hydrazones, Furan-2-carbaldehyde nicotinic hydrazone (L 1 ) and Furan-2-carbaldehyde benzhydrazone (L 2 ) have been synthesised and they are characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR and UV spectral analysis. Oxovanadium (IV) complexes of these two hydrazones were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, IR, UV, EPR, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Conductivity measurements reveal that the complexes are nonelectrolytes. Spectral data indicates the square pyramidal geometry for the monomeric give coordinated oxovanadium (IV) complexes with the general formula (VO(L)(OCH 3 )). The complex was studied for its catalytic activity and was found to be a good catalyst in quinoxaline synthesis. (author)

  4. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.


    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  5. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis byEscherichia coliMutagenic DNA Polymerase IV. (United States)

    Tashjian, Tommy F; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Godoy, Veronica G


    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB's fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability.

  6. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV (United States)

    Tashjian, Tommy F.; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.


    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB’s fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability. PMID:28298904

  7. Fast and Straightforward Synthesis of Luminescent Titanium(IV Dioxide Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štengl


    Full Text Available The nucleus of titania was prepared by reaction of solution titanium oxosulphate with hydrazine hydrate. These titania nuclei were used for titania quantum dots synthesis by a simple and fast method. The prepared titanium(IV dioxide quantum dots were characterized by measurement of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The optical properties were determined by photoluminescence (PL spectra. The prepared titanium(IV dioxide quantum dots have the narrow range of UV excitation (365–400 nm and also a close range of emission maxima (450–500 nm.

  8. The Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitton, S.


    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: A.D.1054, a star explodes (historical account of observations of the supernova of which the Crab Nebula is the remnant); the telescope takes over (discovery and subsequent observation of the Crab Nebula); the message of the fiery remnant (detailed structure and its interpretation); the invisible nebula (electromagnetic radiation from the Crab Nebula and its interpretation); a beacon in the night (the discovery of pulsars, with special reference to the pulsar in the Crab Nebula; observation and theory); the strange world of a neutron star (theory, prediction and observation); magnetic fields and energy flow from the pulsar (stellar magnetosphere; luminosity of the nebula); how does the pulsar pulse (observation; models to explain beaming); outburst and aftermath (types of supernovae and their evolution; nucleosynthesis); supernovae and their remnants (account of observations since early records); the Crab Nebula and modern astronomy. (U.K.)

  9. Electron densities in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanghellini, L.; Kaler, J.B.


    Electron densities for 146 planetary nebulae have been obtained for analyzing a large sample of forbidden lines by interpolating theoretical curves obtained from solutions of the five-level atoms using up-to-date collision strengths and transition probabilities. Electron temperatures were derived from forbidden N II and/or forbidden O III lines or were estimated from the He II 4686 A line strengths. The forbidden O II densities are generally lower than those from forbidden Cl III by an average factor of 0.65. For data sets in which forbidden O II and forbidden S II were observed in common, the forbidden O II values drop to 0.84 that of the forbidden S II, implying that the outermost parts of the nebulae might have elevated densities. The forbidden Cl II and forbidden Ar IV densities show the best correlation, especially where they have been obtained from common data sets. The data give results within 30 percent of one another, assuming homogeneous nebulae. 106 refs

  10. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.


    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  11. Synthesis and photophysical and electrochemical properties of novel unsymmetrical phthalocyanines with a Sudan IV moiety (United States)

    Özçeşmeci, Ibrahim; Büyük, Pınar; Nar, Ilgın; Gül, Ahmet

    The synthesis of novel, A3B type unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines bearing one aza dye group Sudan IV and three nitro terminal moieties was achieved by cyclotetramerization of novel 4-((1-((E)-(2-methyl-4-((E)-o-tolyldiazenyl)phenyl)diazenyl)naphthalen-2-yl)oxy)phthalonitrile and 4-nitrophthalonitrile. The new unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines have been characterized using elemental analyses, 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis and mass spectroscopic data. The aggregation properties of the compounds were investigated in a concentration range of 1.0 × 10‑4 M-6.25 × 10‑6 M. General trends were also studied for fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of these phthalocyanine compounds in tetrahydrofuran. The fluorescence of the synthesized unsymmetrical metal-free and metallophthalocyanines is effectively quenched by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) in THF. In-depth investigation of the electrochemical properties showed that nitro groups extended the reduction potentials. The synthesis of novel, A3B type unsymmetrical metal-free and metallo phthalocyanines bearing one aza dye group Sudan IV and three nitro terminal moieties was achieved by cyclotetramerization of novel 4-((1-((E)-(2-methyl-4-((E)-o-tolyldiazenyl)phenyl)diazenyl) naphthalen-2-yl)oxy)phthalonitrile and 4-nitrophthalonitrile. The aggregation properties of the compounds were investigated. General trends were also studied for fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes of these phthalocyanine compounds. In-depth investigation of the electrochemical properties showed that nitro groups extended the reduction potentials.

  12. IV-VI monochalcogenide SnSe nanostructures: synthesis, doping and thermoelectric properties (United States)

    Liu, Shuhao; Sun, Naikun; Sucharitakul, Sukrit; Liu, Mei; Gao, Xuan

    Recently IV-VI monochalcogenide SnSe or SnS has been proposed as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for valleytronics and thermoelectrics. Despite much theoretical interest and many experimental reports on the thermoelectric characterizations of SnSe single crystal, experimental studies on SnSe in the nanostructured form are still limited. We report the synthesis of SnSe nanoflakes and thin films with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and their thermoelectric properties. As grown SnSe nanostructures are found to be intrinsically p-type and different types of dopants (In, Pb and Ag) were explored to control the carrier density. We will present the electrical transport property of SnSe nanoflake field effect transistor devices and the effects of doping on the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, power factor and anisotropy in SnSe films. By doping, the power factor of SnSe films can be improved by at least one order of magnitude compared to the ''intrinsic'' as grown materials. Our work provides an initial step in the pursuit of IV-VI monochalcogenides as novel 2D semiconductors for electronics and thermoelectrics. The authors acknowledge NSF Grant # DMR-1151534 for financial support.

  13. Stimulation of protein synthesis in stage IV Xenopus oocytes by microinjected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.S.


    The effects of intracellular insulin on protein synthesis were examined in intact cells and isolated, undiluted cellular components. [35S]Methionine incorporation into protein was measured in Stage IV oocytes from Xenopus laevis maintained under paraffin oil. Radiolabel and insulin were introduced into the cytoplasm by microinjection. After a short delay (approximately 15 min), injected insulin stimulated the rate of methionine incorporation. Stimulation was dose-dependent, increasing with injected doses in the 7-50-fmol range. Neither proinsulin nor insulin-like growth factor 1 were as effective as insulin in stimulating protein synthesis; microinjected epidermal growth factor and the A and B chains of insulin were without effect. When oocyte surface membranes were removed under oil, the resulting cytoplasm-nucleus samples exhibited methionine incorporation rates that were comparable to those found in intact cells. Microinjection of insulin increased rates of methionine incorporation in cytoplasm-nucleus samples; the effects of external (prior to transfer to oil) and internal (microinjection in oil) insulin exposure were additive. Cytoplasm samples (nuclei and surface membranes removed under oil) also synthesized protein and responded to microinjected insulin. However, insulin responses were reduced relative to cells and to cytoplasm-nucleus samples. 125I-Insulin was degraded rapidly after microinjection into oocytes. Degradation occurred in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Degradation was delayed by injecting bacitracin into the cells and delaying degradation increased the effectiveness of a low dose of injected insulin

  14. Bioenergetics and ATP Synthesis during Exercise: Role of Group III/IV Muscle Afferents. (United States)

    Broxterman, Ryan M; Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J; Morgan, David E; Bledsoe, Amber D; Jessop, Jacob E; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the group III/IV muscle afferents in the bioenergetics of exercising skeletal muscle beyond constraining the magnitude of metabolic perturbation. Eight healthy men performed intermittent isometric knee-extensor exercise to task failure at ~58% maximal voluntary contraction under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate group III/IV leg muscle afferents (FENT). Intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pH were determined using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS). The magnitude of metabolic perturbation was significantly greater in FENT compared with CTRL for [Pi] (37.8 ± 16.8 vs 28.6 ± 8.6 mM), [H2PO4] (24.3 ± 12.2 vs 17.9 ± 7.1 mM), and [ATP] (75.8% ± 17.5% vs 81.9% ± 15.8% of baseline), whereas there was no significant difference in [PCr] (4.5 ± 2.4 vs 4.4 ± 2.3 mM) or pH (6.51 ± 0.10 vs 6.54 ± 0.14). The rate of perturbation in [PCr], [Pi], [H2PO4], and pH was significantly faster in FENT compared with CTRL. Oxidative ATP synthesis was not significantly different between conditions. However, anaerobic ATP synthesis, through augmented creatine kinase and glycolysis reactions, was significantly greater in FENT than in CTRL, resulting in a significantly greater ATP cost of contraction (0.049 ± 0.016 vs 0.038 ± 0.010 mM·min·N). Group III/IV muscle afferents not only constrain the magnitude of perturbation in intramuscular Pi, H2PO4, and ATP during small muscle mass exercise but also seem to play a role in maintaining efficient skeletal muscle contractile function in men.

  15. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.


    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  16. Nebulae and interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) has investigated the IRAS source 1912+172. This source appears to be a young planetary nebula with a binary central star. During 1986 SAAO has also studied the following: hydrogen deficient planetary nebulae; high speed flows in HII regions, and the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. 2 figs

  17. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.


    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  18. Effect of macrophage and matrix metalloproteinase-9 on proliferation of pulmonary fibroblast and synthesis of collagen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Sun Li; Diao Ruiying; Li Yang; Zhang Yong; Yin Jiye


    Objective: To explore pathogenetic mechanism in initiation of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Alveolar macrophages in Wistar rats irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray were collected by alveolar lavage; condition medium was prepared for stimulating human lung fibroblast (HLF) proliferation; HLF proliferation activity was determined by MTT method; collagen IV (Col IV) in HLF was determined by Western blot; the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was determined by zymography. Results: HLF proliferation activity was significantly increased after stimulation of condition medium, and the increase was most evident within 48-72 hs. Col IV synthesis in HLF was increased and reached a peak at 12 h after stimulation and then began to decrease. MMP-9 activity began to increase at 12 h and reached a peak at 48 h and then decreased after 72 h. Conclusions: Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiation of 20 Gy can stimulate secretion of some cytokines in alveolar macrophage to promote pulmonary interstitial fibroblast proliferation and synthesis of Col IV . Col IV can stimulate MMP-9 increase; MMP-9 can degrade excess Col IV. Such changes are involved in remodeling process of early pulmonary injury. (authors)

  19. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.


    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  20. Wolf-Rayet nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, You-Hua


    Since the discovery of nebulae around Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the 1960s, it has been established that WR stars are massive stars at advanced evolutionary stages and that their surrounding nebulae result from the interactions between the stellar mass loss and the ambient interstellar medium. Surveys of WR nebulae have been made in the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and other nearby galaxies in the Local Group. Some WR nebulae exhibit He II λ4686 line emission, indicating stellar effective temperatures of 90 — 100 x 10 3 K. The shocked fast stellar winds from WR nebulae have been detected in soft X-rays, but theoretical models have not been able to reproduce the observed X-ray spectral properties. Elemental abundances of WR nebulae consisting of synthesized stellar material can constrain stellar evolution models, but high-dispersion spectra are needed to kinematically separate the expanding shell of a WR nebula and the background interstellar medium for accurate abundance analyses. (paper)

  1. Synthesis, characterization, antitumoral and osteogenic activities of quercetin vanadyl(IV) complexes. (United States)

    Ferrer, Evelina G; Salinas, María V; Correa, María J; Naso, Luciana; Barrio, Daniel A; Etcheverry, Susana B; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M


    The development of new vanadium derivatives with organic ligands, which improve the beneficial actions (insulin-mimetic, antitumoral) and decrease the toxic effects, is of great interest. A good candidate for the generation of a new vanadium compound is the flavonoid quercetin because of its own anticarcinogenic effect. The complex [VO(Quer)(2)EtOH]( n ) (QuerVO) has been synthesized and characterized by means of different spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis, Fourier transform IR, electron paramagnetic resonance) and its magnetic and stability properties. The inhibitory effect on bovine alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been tested for the free ligand, the complex as well as for the vanadyl(IV) (comparative purposes). The biological activity of the complex on the proliferation of two osteoblast-like cells in culture, a normal one (MC3T3E1) and a tumoral one (UMR106), has been compared with that of the vanadyl(IV) cation and quercetin. The differentiation osteoblast markers ALP specific activity and collagen synthesis have been also tested. In addition, the effect of QuerVO on the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is reported. The bone antitumoral effect of quercetin alone was established with the cell proliferation assays (it inhibits the proliferation of the tumoral cells and does not exert any effect on the normal osteoblasts). Moreover, the complex exerts osteogenic effects since it stimulates the type I collagen production and is a weak inhibitory agent upon ALP activity. Finally, QuerVO stimulated the ERK phosphorylation in a dose-response manner and this activation seems to be involved as one of the possible mechanisms for the biological effects of the complex.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin (IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sadanandan


    Full Text Available Tin (IV tungstate, a tetravalent metal acid salt was synthesized in the nanoform by chemical coprecipitation method using EDTA as capping agent. The material was found to be stable in mineral acids, bases and organic solvents except  in HF and aquaregia. The material was characterized using EDS, TG/DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM and BET surface area measurement. The molecular formula of the compound is 2SnO2 3WO3.5H2O determined from elemental analysis using TG/DTA. Surface morphology and particle size were obtained using SEM and HRTEM. The surface area was found to be 205-225m2/g. The Na+ exchange capacity found to be 3.8 meq/g, indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl group and hence the presence of Bronsted acid sites. The catalytic activity of the material was tested by using esterification and oxidation as model reactions. For the esterification of different alcohols, the percentage yield was found to be high for n-alcohol compared to isomeric alcohols. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol gives benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as the only products. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd June 2012, Revised: 23rd July 2012, Accepted: 29th July 2012[How to Cite: S. Manoj, R. Beena, (2012. Synthesis and Characterization of tin(IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 105-111. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3622.105-111] [How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  3. Planetary nebulae with UVIT: Far ultra-violet halo around the Bow Tie nebula (NGC 40) (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Sutaria, F.; Murthy, J.; Krishna, S.; Mohan, R.; Ray, A.


    Context. NGC 40 is a planetary nebula with diffuse X-ray emission, suggesting an interaction of the high-speed wind from WC8 central star (CS) with the nebula. It shows strong C IV 1550 Å emission that cannot be explained by thermal processes alone. We present here the first map of this nebula in C IV emission using broad band filters on the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT). Aim. We aim to map the hot C IV-emitting gas and its correspondence with soft X-ray (0.3-8 keV) emitting regions in order to study the shock interaction between the nebula and the ISM. We also aim to illustrate the potential of UVIT for nebular studies. Methods: We carry out a morphological study of images of the nebula obtained at an angular resolution of about 1.3″ in four UVIT filter bands that include C IV 1550 Å and [C II] 2326 Å lines as well as UV continuum. We also make comparisons with X-ray, optical, and IR images from the literature. Results: The [C II] 2326 Å images show the core of the nebula with two lobes on either side of CS similar to [N II]. The C IV emission in the core shows similar morphology and extent to that of diffuse X-ray emission concentrated in nebular condensations. A surprising UVIT discovery is the presence of a large faint far UV (FUV) halo in an FUV filter with λeff of 1608 Å. The UV halo is not present in any other UV filter. The FUV halo is most likely due to UV fluorescence emission from the Lyman bands of H2 molecules. Unlike the optical and IR halo, the FUV halo trails predominantly towards the south-east side of the nebular core, opposite to the CS's proper motion direction. Conclusions: Morphological similarity of C IV 1550 Å and X-ray emission in the core suggests that it results mostly from the interaction of strong CS wind with the nebula. The FUV halo in NGC 40 highlights the extensive existence of H2 molecules in the regions even beyond the optical and IR halos. Thus UV studies are important to estimate the amount of H2, which is

  4. Cool gaseous nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Shaver, P A; Pottasch, S R


    The electron temperatures of diffuse gaseous nebulae have long been thought to be close to 10/sup 4/K. Much lower temperatures were derived from some of the early radio continuum and recombination line work, but these were generally considered to be wrong for a variety of reasons. While there is little doubt that the bright nebulae do indeed have temperatures of approximately 8000-9000K, there are strong indications that some nebulae of lower densities have much lower temperatures, nebulae were made in order to determine electron temperatures in the absence of such effects as collisional de-excitation, stimulated emission, and pressure broadening. Several of these nebulae have been found to have temperatures below 5000K and for two of them which are discussed (RCW94 and G339.1-0.2) absolute upper limits of approximately 4700 K are imposed by the line widths alone. (11 refs).

  5. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.


    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  6. The filamentary nebulae S 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, M.; Kwitter, K.B.


    The crescent shaped nebula S 188 is identified as a planetary nebula (PN) of Peimbert's Type I on the basis of its observed nebula spectrum. New FP interferometric work allows to determine the systemic motion of this nebula. The derived kinematical distance exceeds Cudworth's distance estimate supporting the idea that Peimbert's Type I PNs have larger ejected masses than typical PNs. A discussion about the origin of its non-spherical shape is also given. (author)

  7. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of metastable group-IV alloy semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoto; Hasegawa, Masataka; Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Makita, Yunosuke; Shibata, Hajime [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Katsumata, Hiroshi; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro


    New Group-IV metastable alloy semiconductors and their heterostructures based on combinations of C-Si-Ge-Sn are recently attracting interest because of feasible new electronic and optoelectronic application in Si-technology and here research works on synthesis and characterization of the epitaxial heterostructures of Si-C, Si-Sn on Si fabricated by ion implantation together either with ion-beam-induced epitaxial crystallization (IBIEC) or solid phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) have been investigated. Formations of layers of Si{sub 1-y}C{sub y} (y=0.014 at peak concentration) on Si(100) have been performed by high-dose implantation of 17 keV C ions and successive IBIEC with 400 keV Ar or Ge ion bombardments at 300-400degC or SPEG up to 750degC. Crystalline growth by IBIEC has shown a lower growth rate in Si{sub 1-y}C{sub y}/Si than in intrinsic Si due mainly to the strain existence, which was observed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Photoluminescence(PL) measurements have revealed I{sub 1} or G line emissions that are relevant to small vacancy clusters or C pair formation, respectively. The crystalline growth of Si{sub 1-z}Sn{sub z} layers by 110 keV {sup 120}Sn ion implantation (z=0.029 and z=0.058 at peak concentration) into Si(100) followed either by IBIEC or by SPEG has been also investigated. PL emission from both IBIEC-grown and SPEG-grown samples with the lower Sn concentration has shown similar peaks to those by ion-implanted and annealed Si samples with intense I{sub 1} or I{sub 1}-related (Ar) peaks. Present results suggest that IBIEC has a feature for the non-thermal equilibrium fabrication of Si-C and Si-Sn alloy semiconductors. (J.P.N.)

  8. Modelling pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server


    In view of the current and forthcoming observational data on pulsar wind nebulae, this book offers an assessment of the theoretical state of the art of modelling them. The expert authors also review the observational status of the field and provide an outlook for future developments. During the last few years, significant progress on the study of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) has been attained both from a theoretical and an observational perspective, perhaps focusing on the closest, more energetic, and best studied nebula: the Crab, which appears in the cover. Now, the number of TeV detected PWNe is similar to the number of characterized nebulae observed at other frequencies over decades of observations. And in just a few years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will increase this number to several hundreds, actually providing an essentially complete account of TeV emitting PWNe in the Galaxy. At the other end of the multi-frequency spectrum, the SKA and its pathfinder instruments, will reveal thousands of new pulsa...

  9. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.


    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  10. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Biological Studies on New Zirconium(IV) Porphyrins with Axial Ligand


    Bajju, Gauri D.; Devi, Gita; Katoch, Sapna; Bhagat, Madhulika; Deepmala; Ashu; Kundan, Sujata; Anand, Sunil Kumar


    A series of parasubstituted tetraphenylporphyrin zirconium(IV) salicylate complexes (SA/5-SSAZr(IV)RTPP, R = p-H, p-CH3, p-NO2, p-Cl, SA = salicylate, and 5-SSA = 5-sulfosalicylate) have been synthesized, and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins, their corresponding metallated, and axially ligated zirconium(IV) porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), proton nulcear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR...

  11. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Biological Studies on New Zirconium(IV) Porphyrins with Axial Ligand (United States)

    Bajju, Gauri D.; Devi, Gita; Katoch, Sapna; Bhagat, Madhulika; Deepmala; Ashu; Kundan, Sujata; Anand, Sunil Kumar


    A series of parasubstituted tetraphenylporphyrin zirconium(IV) salicylate complexes (SA/5-SSAZr(IV)RTPP, R = p-H, p-CH3, p-NO2, p-Cl, SA = salicylate, and 5-SSA = 5-sulfosalicylate) have been synthesized, and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins, their corresponding metallated, and axially ligated zirconium(IV) porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), proton nulcear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to zirconium(IV) porphyrins. The ability of the metal in this complex for extra coordination of solvent molecules was confirmed by ESI-MS spectra. Besides the fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and thermogravimetric studies, the complexes were also screened for antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Among all the complexes, 5-SSAZr(p-NO2TPP) shows high antibacterial activity. PMID:24106455

  12. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Biological Studies on New Zirconium(IV) Porphyrins with Axial Ligand. (United States)

    Bajju, Gauri D; Devi, Gita; Katoch, Sapna; Bhagat, Madhulika; Deepmala; Ashu; Kundan, Sujata; Anand, Sunil Kumar


    A series of parasubstituted tetraphenylporphyrin zirconium(IV) salicylate complexes (SA/5-SSAZr(IV)RTPP, R = p-H, p-CH3, p-NO2, p-Cl, SA = salicylate, and 5-SSA = 5-sulfosalicylate) have been synthesized, and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins, their corresponding metallated, and axially ligated zirconium(IV) porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), proton nulcear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to zirconium(IV) porphyrins. The ability of the metal in this complex for extra coordination of solvent molecules was confirmed by ESI-MS spectra. Besides the fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and thermogravimetric studies, the complexes were also screened for antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Among all the complexes, 5-SSAZr(p-NO2TPP) shows high antibacterial activity.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of complexing and extracting properties of diamides for the U(VI)/Pu(IV) partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahu, S.


    This work concerns the synthesis and evaluation of new diamides for co-extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) from spent nuclear fuels in concentrated nitric acid medium and the subsequent selective back-extraction of Pu(IV) at lower nitric acidity. Thus, three diamides series, namely R 2 NOC(CH 2 ) n CONR 2 , RR'NOC(CH 2 ) n CONRR' and R 2 NOC(CH 2 CHR')CONR 2 (series 1, 2 and 3, respectively) were synthesized and studied in the expectation to establish a structure-activity relationship regarding the extraction properties of such compounds towards actinides. Extraction tests showed that these diamides can effectively and selectively extract U(VI) and Pu(IV) from Am(III) at high acidity. In addition, it was found that the selective back-extraction of Pu(IV) from U(VI) can be achieved, as expected, merely by changing the acidity, when the nitrogen atoms of these diamides are substituted by branched alkyl chains. The mode of coordination of actinides by the above diamides has also been studied through the use of short chain diamides model compounds, allowing the crystallization of the actinide complexes and, thus, their characterization by X-ray diffraction. EXAFS investigation suggested that the uranium coordination sphere in the complexes formed with long chain diamides and extracted into the organic phase is identical to the one observed in U(VI) complexes obtained with short chain diamides model compounds. However, the stoichiometry of model complexes is 1:1, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 TEDA, whereas extracted U(VI) complexes exhibit 1:2 stoichiometry, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (TEHDA) 2 . Finally, Th (IV) complexes were also prepared and characterized and further compared to U(VI) complexes. (author) [fr

  14. Tin(IV Complexes of Schiff Base Derived from Amino Acid: Synthesis and Characteristic Spectral Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robina Aman


    Full Text Available A new series of tin(IV complexes of general formula [Sn(L-1(Opri2] (1, [Sn(HL-12(Opri2] (2, [Sn(L-2(Opri2] (3, [Sn(HL-22(Opri2] (4, (L is dianion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with glycine (L-1 and Lβ-alanine (L-2 was synthesized by reaction of tin(IV tetraisopropoxide with the ligands, in appropriate stoichiometric ratios (1 : 1 and 1 : 2. This would result in the replacement of the isopropoxide group from the tin(IV tetraisopropoxide and hydrogen(s from ligand with the azeotropical removal of isopropanol. An attempt has been made to prove the structure of the resulting complexes on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The binding site of the ligand was identified by IR spectroscopic measurement. In these complexes, the tin(IV centre is bonded to oxygen atom of the hydroxyl or carboxylate group. The spectra data suggest that the carboxylate group is coordinated to tin(IV centre in monodentate manner.

  15. 4-Substituted boro-proline dipeptides: synthesis, characterization, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, 8, and 9 activities. (United States)

    Wu, Wengen; Liu, Yuxin; Milo, Lawrence J; Shu, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Li, Youhua; Woznica, Iwona; Yu, Gengli; Sanford, David G; Zhou, Yuhong; Poplawski, Sarah E; Connolly, Beth A; Sudmeier, James L; Bachovchin, William W; Lai, Jack H


    The boroProline-based dipeptidyl boronic acids were among the first DPP-IV inhibitors identified, and remain the most potent known. We introduced various substitutions at the 4-position of the boroProline ring regioselectively and stereoselectively, and incorporated these aminoboronic acids into a series of 4-substituted boroPro-based dipeptides. Among these dipeptidyl boronic acids, Arg-(4S)-boroHyp (4q) was the most potent inhibitor of DPP-IV, DPP8 and DPP9, while (4S)-Hyp-(4R)-boroHyp (4o) exhibited the most selectivity for DPP-IV over DPP8 and DPP9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. C,N-Chelated Organotin(IV) Azides: Synthesis, Structure and Use within the Click Chemistry.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, P.; Bartoš, K.; Růžičková, Z.; Cuřínová, Petra; Dušek, L.; Turek, J.; de Proft, F.; Růžička, A.


    Roč. 40, č. 7 (2016), s. 5808-5817 ISSN 1144-0546 Grant - others:FWO(BE) 12T6615N Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organotin(IV) azides * click chemistry * chelation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  17. Synthesis and reactivity of a mononuclear non-haem cobalt(IV)-oxo complex (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Tcho, Woon-Young; Tussupbayev, Samat; Kim, Seoung-Tae; Kim, Yujeong; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Dede, Yavuz; Keegan, Brenna C.; Ogura, Takashi; Kim, Sun Hee; Ohta, Takehiro; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Ray, Kallol; Shearer, Jason; Nam, Wonwoo


    Terminal cobalt(IV)-oxo (CoIV-O) species have been implicated as key intermediates in various cobalt-mediated oxidation reactions. Herein we report the photocatalytic generation of a mononuclear non-haem [(13-TMC)CoIV(O)]2+ (2) by irradiating [CoII(13-TMC)(CF3SO3)]+ (1) in the presence of [RuII(bpy)3]2+, Na2S2O8, and water as an oxygen source. The intermediate 2 was also obtained by reacting 1 with an artificial oxidant (that is, iodosylbenzene) and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the resonance Raman spectrum of 2 reveals a diatomic Co-O vibration band at 770 cm-1, which provides the conclusive evidence for the presence of a terminal Co-O bond. In reactivity studies, 2 was shown to be a competent oxidant in an intermetal oxygen atom transfer, C-H bond activation and olefin epoxidation reactions. The present results lend strong credence to the intermediacy of CoIV-O species in cobalt-catalysed oxidation of organic substrates as well as in the catalytic oxidation of water that evolves molecular oxygen.

  18. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico


    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  19. Synthesis of new oxovanadium (IV) complexes of potential insulinmimetic activity with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid ligands and substituted derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Fernandez, Paloma; Alvino de la Sota, Nora; Galli Rigo-Righi, Carla


    This work comprises the design and synthesis of four new oxovanadium (IV) complexes, a metal which possesses insulin-mimetic action. Coumarin-3-carboxylic acid and three of its 6 -and 6,8- derivatives were used as ligands. Coumarins are of interest due to their well-known biological properties and pharmacological applications; these include the insulino-sensibilizing effect of certain alcoxy-hydroxy-derivatives which might lead to the eventual existence of a synergetic effect with the active metal center. The synthesis of the vanadyl complexes was preceded by the synthesis of the coumarin-3-carboxylic acid and its 6-bromo- derivative, as well as the syntheses of three derivatives not previously reported: 6-bromo-8-metoxi-, 6-bromo-8-nitro-, and 6-bromo-8-hydroxy-, which were prepared by a Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The complexes, on their part, were prepared by a metathesis reaction between VOSO 4 and the corresponding ligands, on the basis of methods reported for other vanadyl complexes and under strict pH control. The coumarin-3-carboxylic ligands and the derivatives were characterized by 1 H-NMR-, FTIR- and UV-Vis-spectroscopy. In the case of the complexes, their paramagnetic character did not allow for NMR characterization, being thus identified by FT-IR-spectroscopy and by the quantitative determination of their vanadium contents. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of crystalline phosphates of plutonium(III) and plutonium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, C.E.; Haire, R.G.; Hellwege, H.E.; Begun, G.M.


    The formation of both PuPO 4 and PuP 2 O 7 from reactions of PuO 2 with (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 or BPO 4 was studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The oxidation of plutonium(III), in PuPO 4 , to plutonium(IV), in PuP 2 O 7 by air in the presence of BPO 4 and the thermal reduction of PuP 2 O 7 to PuPO 4 were demonstrated. In addition plutonium(III) trimetaphosphate Pu(PO 3 ) 3 was synthesized and characterized. Attempts to prepare plutonium(IV) orthophosphate, Pu 3 (PO 4 ) 4 , by high temperature reactions were unsuccessful; instead, mixtures of PuP 2 O 7 and a new phase identified tentatively as (PuO) 2 P 2 O 7 were obtained. (Auth.)

  1. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) antimonate and study of its ion-exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Halim, S.H.; El-Shahat, M.F.


    Tin(IV) antimonate with different Sb/Sn molar ratios has been prepared. The characterization of the product materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and infrared spectra. The saturation capacities of sodium and cesium were found to increase with Sb/Sn molar ratios. The K d values on thermal treatment of tin(IV) antimonate, as a cation exchanger, have been measured for some heavy metal ions in the temperature range of 50-400 deg C. The maximum adsorption of 10 -4 M of the metal ions studied was obtained at 400 deg C. The selectivity sequence was Eu 3+ > Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Cs + for the sample heated up to 400 deg C. No adsorption was observed on the sample heated at 700 deg C because of the formation of SnO 2 and Sb 6 O 13 . (author) 9 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  2. A Simple and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydro pyridines (Hantzsch pyridines catalyzed by Germanium (IV iodide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramouleswararao Jillepalli


    Full Text Available A simple and efficient protocol has been developed for the synthesis of Hantzsch pyridines. In the reported synthesis, a variety of aldehydes undergo smooth condensation reaction with ethyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate in presence of Germanium (IV iodide in acetonitrile. This method is applicable to a variety of substrates to afford the corresponding 1,4-dihydropyridines in one-pot reaction in excellent yields.

  3. Synthesis, Spectral, and In Vitro Antibacterial Studies of Organosilicon(IV) Complexes with Schiff Bases Derived from Amino Acids. (United States)

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur; Mukherjee, A


    The present work stems from our interest in the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial evaluation of organosilicon(IV) complexes of a class of amino-acid-based Schiff base which have been prepared by the interaction of ethoxytrimethylsilane with the Schiff bases (N OH) in 1 : 1 molar ratio. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and spectroscopic studies including electronic IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (29)Si) spectroscopy. The analytical and spectral data suggest trigonal bipyramidal geometry around the silicon atom in the resulting complexes. The ligands and their organosilicon complexes have also been evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Nocardia spp., E. aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Staphylococcus spp.). The complexes were found to be more potent as compared to the ligands.

  4. Synthesis and ferromagnetically coupled heterodinuclear oxamido-bridged copper(II)-oxovanadium(IV) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yantuan; Yan Cuiwei; Wu Zhiyong; Zhu Chunyuan


    Three novel copper(II)-oxovanadium(IV) heterodinuclear complexes bridged by dianions of N,N'-oxamidobis(propionato)cuprate, [Cu(obp)], and endcapped with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me 2 phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Ph 2 phen) or 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Mephen), respectively, have been synthesized and identified as [Cu(obp)VO(Me 2 phen)] (1), [Cu(obp)VO(Ph 2 phen)] (2) and [Cu(obp)VO(Mephen)] (3). The three dinuclear complexes have not yet been isolated in crystalline form suitable for X-ray structure analysis, but based on elemental analyses, IR and electronic spectra studies, magnetic moments at room temperature and molar conductivity measurements, these complexes are proposed to have an extended oxamido-bridged structure consisting of planar copper(II) and square-pyramidal oxovanadium(IV) ions. The three heterodinuclear complexes were further characterized by variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (4.2-300K) measurements and the magnetic data have been used to deduce the indicated heterodinuclear structure. The results derived from least-squares fit of the experimental data have confirmed that the operation of a ferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent copper(II) and oxovanadium(IV) ions through the oxamido bridge within each molecule takes place. Based on spin Hamiltonian, H at=-2JS at 1 .S at 2 , the exchange integral (J) was evaluated as J=+21.9cm -1 for (1), J=+18.8cm -1 for (2) and +26.5cm -1 for (3). The influence of the symmetry of the magnetic orbitals and different terminal ligands on the nature and magnitude of the magnetic interaction between the paramagnetic centers is also discussed

  5. Hafnium(IV) chloride complexes with chelating β-ketiminate ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and volatility study. (United States)

    Patil, Siddappa A; Medina, Phillip A; Antic, Aleks; Ziller, Joseph W; Vohs, Jason K; Fahlman, Bradley D


    The synthesis and characterization of four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes dichloro-bis[4-(phenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4a), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methylphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4b), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methoxyphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4c), and dichloro-bis[4-(4-chlorophenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4d) are reported. All the complexes (4a-d) were characterized by spectroscopic methods ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR), and elemental analysis while the compound 4c was further examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing that the complex is monomer with the hafnium center in octahedral coordination environment and oxygens of the chelating N-O ligands are trans to each other and the chloride ligands are in a cis arrangement. Volatile trends are established for four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes (4a-d). Sublimation enthalpies (ΔHsub) were calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, which show that, the dependence of ΔHsub on the molecular weight (4a-c) and inductive effects from chlorine (4d). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, coordination and structure of pentacoordinated oxovanadium(IV) complexes of hippuric and nicotinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, G.; Singh, Ranjana; Singh, N.P.


    Pentacoordinated oxovanadium(IV) complexes formed with hippuric acid (VOL 2 ) and nicotinic acid ((VO) 2 L 2 (OH) 2 ) 5 H 2 O have been synthesized and their structures investigated by magnetochemical and spectra (i.r., U.V. and reflectance) measurements. The I.R. studies indicate that in the bis-hippurato complex the carboxylate group itself acts as a bidentate chelating group, whereas, with nicotinic acid, coordination occurs through both the pyridine N and COO - group. Electronic spectra show them to have pentacoordinated structures. Magnetic studies suggest that the complex formed with nicotinic acid possibly has a binuclear structure with subnormal magnetic moment. (author)

  7. Synthesis and magnetic Properties of dinuclear oxovanadium(IV) complexes bridged by tetracarboxylato groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-T.; Guan, H.-S.; Yan, C.-W.


    Three novel μ-tetracarboxylato-bridged oxovanadium(IV) complexes described by the overall formula [(VO) 2 (PMTA)L 2 ] where PMTA stands for the tetraanion of pyromellitic acid, and L denotes 2,2'-bipyridine(bpy), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me 2 bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), respectively, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity and room-temperature magnetic moment measurements, IR, ESR, and electronic spectral studies. It is proposed that these complexes have PMTA-bridged structures and consist of two oxovanadium(IV) ions, each in the square-pyramidal environment. The [(VO) 2 (PMTA)(bpy) 2 ] (1) and [(VO) 2 (PMTA)(phen) 2 ] (2) complexes were further characterized by variable temperature (4.2 - 300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements and the observed data were fitted to the modified Bleaney-Bowers equation by the least-squares, giving the exchange integral J = -2.75 cm -1 for (1) and J -3.91 cm -1 for (2). This results indicates that there is a weak antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction between the two VO 2+ ions within each molecule. (author)

  8. Synthesis and molecular structure of (monoaqua) oxovanadium (IV) thiosemicarbazide-diacetate monohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeleu, N.V.; Bologa, A.O.; Burshtein, I.F.; Filippova, I.G.; Kiosse, G.A.


    This paper describes the structure for a new complex of oxovanadium (IV) with H 2 L. This compound was obtained by mixing warm aqueous solutions containing 1.0 g VOSO 4 .2H 2 O and H 2 L at room temperature. The coordinates and the individual temperature factors of the basis atoms in the structure VOLH 2 O .H 2 O are presented. It is shown that the vanadium atom in both complexes has a distorted octahedral environment. The geometrical isomerism is accompanied by differences in the conformations of the molecular ligand. Two geometrical isomers of a previously unknown type are concurrently present in the VOLH 2 O structure. The formation of these isomers is made possible by the different arrangement of inequivalent branches of the organic ligand. This type of isomerism should be expected in the complexes of other metals with H 2 L and in the coordination compounds of metals with other B-type tripod ligands

  9. Infrared nebula in the Chamaeleon T association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.; Henize, K.G.


    Data are tabulated for seven nebulae in the Chamaeleon T association. Three, which are large and clearly related to illuminating stars, appear to be typical reflection nebulae. Three are small wisps attached to stars and are probably cometary-type reflection nebulae. The remaining nebula is a triangular wisp having an unusually red spectral energy distribution and showing no illuminating star on visual wavelength photographs. The western tip of this nebula coincides closely with the position of a recently reported infrared source. The nebula is probably one lobe of a bipolar nebula

  10. Methanol synthesis on ZnO(0001¯). IV. Reaction mechanisms and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Johannes; Marx, Dominik


    Methanol synthesis from CO and H 2 over ZnO, which requires high temperatures and high pressures giving rise to a complex interplay of physical and chemical processes over this heterogeneous catalyst surface, is investigated using ab initio simulations. The redox properties of the surrounding gas phase are known to directly impact on the catalyst properties and thus, set the overall catalytic reactivity of this easily reducible oxide material. In Paper III of our series [J. Kiss, J. Frenzel, N. N. Nair, B. Meyer, and D. Marx, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064710 (2011)] we have qualitatively shown that for the partially hydroxylated and defective ZnO(0001 ¯ ) surface there exists an intricate network of surface chemical reactions. In the present study, we employ advanced molecular dynamics techniques to resolve in detail this reaction network in terms of elementary steps on the defective surface, which is in stepwise equilibrium with the gas phase. The two individual reduction steps were investigated by ab initio metadynamics sampling of free energy landscapes in three-dimensional reaction subspaces. By also sampling adsorption and desorption processes and thus molecular species that are in the gas phase but close to the surface, our approach successfully generated several alternative pathways of methanol synthesis. The obtained results suggest an Eley-Rideal mechanism for both reduction steps, thus involving “near-surface” molecules from the gas phase, to give methanol preferentially over a strongly reduced catalyst surface, while important side reactions are of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Catalyst re-reduction by H 2 stemming from the gas phase is a crucial process after each reduction step in order to maintain the catalyst's activity toward methanol formation and to close the catalytic cycle in some reaction channels. Furthermore, the role of oxygen vacancies, side reactions, and spectator species is investigated and mechanistic details are discussed based on

  11. N44C nebula (United States)


    Resembling the hair in Botticelli's famous portrait of the birth of Venus, an image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured softly glowing filaments streaming from hot young stars in a nearby nebula. The image, presented by the Hubble Heritage Project, was taken in 1996 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The image is available online at , or . On the top right of the image is a source of its artistic likeness, a network of nebulous filaments surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star. This type of rare star is characterized by an exceptionally vigorous 'wind' of charged particles. The shock of the wind colliding with the surrounding gas causes the gas to glow. The Wolf-Rayet star is part of N44C, a nebula of glowing hydrogen gas surrounding young stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Visible from the Southern Hemisphere, the Large Magellanic Cloud is a small companion galaxy to the Milky Way. What makes N44C peculiar is the temperature of the star that illuminates it. The most massive stars -- those that are 10 to 50 times more massive than the Sun -- have maximum temperatures of 30,000 to 50,000 degrees Celsius (54,000 to 90,000 degrees Fahrenheit). The temperature of this star is about 75,000 degrees Celsius (135,000 degrees Fahrenheit). This unusually high temperature may be due to a neutron star or black hole that occasionally produces X-rays but is now inactive. N44C is part of a larger complex that includes young, hot, massive stars, nebulae, and a 'superbubble' blown out by multiple supernova explosions. Part of the superbubble is seen in red at the very bottom left of the Hubble image. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Novel Organotin(IV: Purine Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Jain


    Full Text Available A new series of organotin(IV complexes with purine bases theophylline (HL1 and theobromine (L2 of the types R3Sn(L1, R2Sn(L1Cl, R3Sn(L2Cl, and R2Sn(L2Cl2 (R = C6H5CH2–; p-ClC6H4CH2– have been synthesized in anhydrous THF. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, UV-vis, IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectral studies. Various kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of these complexes have also been determined using TG/DTA technique. The thermal decomposition techniques indicate the formation of SnO2 as a residue. The results show that the ligands act as bidentate, forming a five-member chelate ring. All the complexes are 1 : 1 metal-ligand complexes. In order to assess their antimicrobial activity, the ligands and their corresponding complexes have also been tested in vitro against bacteria (E. coli, S. aureus, and P. pyocyanea and fungi (Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. All the complexes exhibit remarkable activity, and the results provide evidence that the studied complexes might indeed be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and molecular structure of tetraethylammonium pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, R.O.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Brown, T.M.


    The synthesis of tetraethylammonium pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV) has been accomplished, and it was characterized by classical physical methods. The crystal and molecular structure was determined from single-crystal x-ray data collected by the theta-2theta technique on an automated diffractometer. The compound consists of pentakis(isothiocyanato)bis (2,2'-bipyridine)uranate(IV) anions and disordered tetraethylammonium cations. Uranium is bound to nine nitrogen atoms in a highly distorted monocapped square antiprism in which one bipyridine occupies a position bridging the cap and the near square while the other bipyridine spans the opposite edge of the far square. Distortion from the ideal geometry is caused by the small ligand bite of the bipyridine ligand. An alternative description of the coordination geometry is derived from the seven-coordinate pentagonal bipyramid in which each bipyridine ligand is assumed to occupy an axial position with the five thiocyanato ligands forming the pentagonal girdle. The U-N bond distances vary from 2.35 to 2.47 A for the thiocyanato ligands and from 2.61 to 2.65 A for the bipyridine ligands. The structure was solved by standard heavy-atom techniques and refined by large-block matrix least squares to a final R value of 0.083 for 3878 independent observed reflections. The compound crystallized in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c, Z = 4, with lattice parameters a = 14.427 (10) A, b = 18.612 (17) A, c = 15.710 (10) A, and β = 105.17 (7) 0 , rho/sub obsd/ = 1.57 g cm -3

  14. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration


    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  15. Synthesis, sintering and dissolution of thorium and uranium (IV) mixed oxide solid solutions: influence of the method of precursor preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingant, N.


    Mixed actinide dioxides are currently considered as potential fuels for the third and fourth generations of nuclear reactors. In this context, thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions were studied as model compounds to underline the influence of the method of preparation on their physico-chemical properties. Two methods of synthesis, both based on the initial precipitation of oxalate precursors have been developed. The first consisted in the direct precipitation ('open' system) while the second involved hydrothermal conditions ('closed' system). The second method led to a significant improvement in the crystallization of the samples especially in the field of the increase of the grain size. In these conditions, the formation of a complete solid solution Th 1-x U x (C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O was prepared between both end-members. Its crystal structure was also resolved. Whatever the initial method considered, these compounds led to the final dioxides after heating above 400 C. The various steps associated to this transformation, involving the dehydration of precursors then the decomposition of oxalate groups have been clarified. Moreover, the use of wet chemistry methods allowed to reduce the sintering temperature of the final thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions. Whatever the method of preparation considered, dense samples (95% to 97% of the calculated value) were obtained after only 3 hours of heating at 1500 C. Additionally, the use of hydrothermal conditions significantly increased the grain size, leading to the reduction of the occurrence of the grain boundaries and of the global residual porosity. The significant improvement in the homogeneity of cations distribution in the samples was also highlighted. Finally, the chemical durability of thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions was evaluated through the development of leaching tests in nitric acid. The optimized homogeneity especially in terms of the cations distribution, allowed to limit the

  16. Polypyrrole–titanium(IV) doped iron(III) oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization with tunable electrical and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Debabrata; Ghosh, Arup Kumar; Gupta, Kaushik; De, Amitabha; Sen, Pintu; Duttachowdhury, Ankan; Ghosh, Uday Chand


    Highlights: ► Synthesis and characterization of polymer nanocomposite based on titanium doped iron(III) oxide. ► Electrical conductivity increased 100 times in composite with respect to polymer. ► Electrochemical capacitance of polymer composites increased with nanooxide content. ► Thermal stability of the polymer enhanced with nano oxide content. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-doped synthetic nanostructured iron(III) oxide (NITO) and polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites was fabricated by in situ polymerization using FeCl 3 as initiator. The polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) and pure NITO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Föurier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, etc. Thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses showed the enhancement of thermal stability of PNCs than the pure polymer. Electrical conductivity of the PNCs had increased significantly from 0.793 × 10 −2 S/cm to 0.450 S/cm with respect to the PPy, and that had been explained by 3-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanisms. In addition, the specific capacitance of PNCs had increased from 147 F/g to 176 F/g with increasing NITO content than that of pure NITO (26 F/g), presumably due to the growing of mesoporous structure with increasing NITO content in PNCs which reduced the charge transfer resistance significantly.

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization and antioxidant activity of some vanadium(IV), Mo(VI)/(IV) and Ru(II) complexes of pyridoxal Schiff base derivatives (United States)

    Elsayed, Shadia A.; Noufal, Aya M.; El-Hendawy, Ahmed M.


    New complexes containing vanadium(IV), Mo(VI)/(IV) and Ru(II) derived from Schiff base of pyridoxal and S-benzyldithiocarbazate (H2pysb) or p-toluidine (Hpytol) have been prepared. The structures of the described compounds were elucidated by elemental analyses, spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis and EPR) magnetism, molar conductivity and thermal analysis measurements. Their redox behaviors were also studied by cyclic voltammetry. The ligand H2pysb showed coordination to the metal ions in a dibasic tridenate manner through deprotonated phenolate oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur, while Hpytol behaved as monobasic bidentate through phenolate oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. The complexes were tested for their antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and the data obtained revealed that the scavenging activity of the complexes towards DPPH is high for the oxovanadium(IV) complexes with lower IC50 values which are comparable to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant. The EC50 concentration ratio together with other antioxidant parameters are also reported.

  18. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.


    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  19. Red giants as precursors of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.


    It is generally accepted that Planetary Nebulae are produced by asymptotic giant-branch stars. Therefore, several properties of planetary nebulae are discussed in the framework of the current theory of stellar evolution. (Auth.)

  20. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.P.; Aller, L.H.; Gull, T.R.; Stecher, T.P.


    Ultraviolet spectra of three high excitation planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds (LMC P40, SMC N2, SMC N5) were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The results are analyzed together with new visual wavelength spectrophotometry of LMC P40 and published data on SMC N2 and SMC N5 to investigate chemical composition and in particular to make the first reliable estimates of the carbon abundance in extragalactic planetary nebulae. Although carbon is at most only slightly less abundant in the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae than in galactic planetaries, it is almost 40 times more abundant in the SMC planetaries than in the SMC interstellar medium, and is about 6 times more abundant in the LMC planetary than in the LMC interstellar medium. According to our limited sample, the net result of carbon synthesis and convective dredgeup in the progenitors of planetary nebulae, as reflected in the nebular carbon abundance, is roughly the same in the Galaxy, the LMC, and the SMC

  1. Optical polarization in the Serpens Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M. (Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Taylor, K.N.R. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Physics)


    Optical polarization maps are presented that indicate that the object is a reflection nebula illuminated by a highly obscured star that is itself seen through magnetically aligned grains. It is proposed that the dust grains overlying the central region of the nebula including the illuminating star are aligned by the local galactic magnetic field that permeates the dark cloud in which the nebula is situated. The formation of the nebula is discussed.

  2. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.


    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  3. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.


    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  4. Synthesis of electron-rich uranium(IV) complexes supported by tridentate Schiff base ligands and their multi-electron redox chemistry. (United States)

    Camp, Clément; Andrez, Julie; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella


    The synthesis, structure, and reactivity of a new complex of U(IV) with the tridentate Schiff base ligand Menaphtquinolen are reported. The reduction of the bis-ligand complexes [UX2((Me)naphtquinolen)2] (X = Cl, (1-Cl) ; I (1-I)) with potassium metal affords the U(IV) complex of the new tetranionic hexadentate ligand μ-bis-(Me)naphtquinolen formed through the intramolecular reductive coupling of the imino groups of each (Me)naphtquinolen unit. The solid state structure of the [U(μ-bis-(Me)naphtquinolen)]2 dimer 2 isolated from toluene confirms the presence of a U(IV) complex of the reduced ligand. Reactivity studies with molecular oxygen and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone show that complex 2 can act as a multielectron reducing agent releasing two electrons through the cleavage of the C-C bond to restore the original imino function of the ligand. In the resulting U(IV) and U(VI) complexes [U(9,10-phenanthrenediol)((Me)naphtquinolen)2], 3, and [UO2((Me)naphtquinolen)2], 4, the restored tridentate Schiff base allows for the coordination of the reduced substrate to the metal. Electrochemical studies of complex 2 show the presence of irreversible ligand centered reduction processes and of a reversible U(IV)/U(III) couple.

  5. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.


    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  6. Circumnebular neutral hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Gussie, G.T.; Pottasch, S.R.


    Centimeter line observations of six compact planetary nebulae are reported. Circumnebular atomic hydrogen absorption has been observed in NGC 6790, NGC 6886, IC 418, IC 5117, and BD +30 deg 3639, while H I was not observed to a high upper limit in NGC 6741. Hydrogen was also detected in emission from BD +30 deg 3639. The expansion velocities of the circumnebular envelopes are similar to the expansion velocities observed for the ionized nebula. The optical depth of circumnebular H I appears to decrease with increasing linear radius of the ionized nebulae, indicating that these nebulae are ionization bounded and that the amount of atomic hydrogen decreases as young nebulas evolve. 28 refs

  7. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.


    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  8. Synthesis of a new insulin-mimetic anti-diabetic drug containing vitamin A and vanadium(IV) salt: Chemico-biological characterizations. (United States)

    Adam, Abdel Majid A; Naglah, Ahmed M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Refat, Moamen S


    Diabetes patients suffer from chronic disorders in the metabolism due to high blood sugar caused by anomalies in insulin excretion. Recently, vanadium compounds have been prepared and functionalized to decrease the level of hyperglycemia. Vitamin A boosts beta cell activity; therefore, the lack of this vitamin plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this article focused on the synthesis of a new anti-diabetic drug formed from the complexation of a vanadium(IV) salt with vitamin A. Vitamin A acts as a unidentate chelate through the oxygen of its -OH group. The vanadium(IV) compound is surrounded by two vitamin A molecules. The [VO(vitamin A) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] compound was synthesized in a binary solvent system consisting of MeOH/H 2 O (1:1 ratio) in alkaline media at pH = 8. This compound was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), electronic spectra (UV-vis), effective magnetic moment, electron spin resonance (ESR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)-differential thermal analysis (DTA)). Anti-diabetic efficiency for the vanadium(IV) compound was assessed in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results of the animal studies demonstrate the ability of the vanadium(IV) complex to act as an anti-diabetic agent, as measured by improvements of lipid profile, antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, methionine synthase, and kidney and liver functions.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and thermal characterizations of vanadyl(IV) adenine complex prospective as antidiabetic drug agent. (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; Hamza, Reham Z; Refat, Moamen S


    The vanadyl(IV) adenine complex; [VO(Adn)2]⋅SO4; was synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of this complex was measured in DMSO solution that showed an electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the green solid complex studied here indicate that the adenine acts as a bidentate ligand, coordinated to vanadyl(IV) ions through the nitrogen atoms N7 and nitrogen atom of amino group. Thus, from the results presented the vanadyl(IV) complex has square pyramid geometry. Further characterizations using thermal analyses and scanning electron techniques was useful. The aim of this paper was to introduce a new drug model for the diabetic complications by synthesized a novel mononuclear vanadyl(IV) adenine complex to mimic insulin action and reducing blood sugar level. The antidiabetic ability of this complex was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results suggested that VO(IV)/adenine complex has antidiabetic activity, it improved the lipid profile, it improved liver and kidney functions, also it ameliorated insulin hormone and blood glucose levels. The vanadyl(IV) complex possesses an antioxidant activity and this was clear through studying SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and methionine synthase. The current results support the therapeutic potentiality of vanadyl(IV)/adenine complex for the management and treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and thermal characterizations of vanadyl(IV) adenine complex prospective as antidiabetic drug agent (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.


    The vanadyl(IV) adenine complex; [VO(Adn)2]ṡSO4; was synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of this complex was measured in DMSO solution that showed an electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the green solid complex studied here indicate that the adenine acts as a bidentate ligand, coordinated to vanadyl(IV) ions through the nitrogen atoms N7 and nitrogen atom of amino group. Thus, from the results presented the vanadyl(IV) complex has square pyramid geometry. Further characterizations using thermal analyses and scanning electron techniques was useful. The aim of this paper was to introduce a new drug model for the diabetic complications by synthesized a novel mononuclear vanadyl(IV) adenine complex to mimic insulin action and reducing blood sugar level. The antidiabetic ability of this complex was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results suggested that VO(IV)/adenine complex has antidiabetic activity, it improved the lipid profile, it improved liver and kidney functions, also it ameliorated insulin hormone and blood glucose levels. The vanadyl(IV) complex possesses an antioxidant activity and this was clear through studying SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and methionine synthase. The current results support the therapeutic potentiality of vanadyl(IV)/adenine complex for the management and treatment of diabetes.

  11. Interferometric observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.


    Studies of the velocity field of planetary nebulae can be used to derive important information concerning their structure and dynamics. A description is given of the design, construction and operation of a servo-controlled Fabry Perot Interferometer, for the Cassegrain focus, which was built to perform these studies. New evidence is presented concerning the structure and internal motions of NGC 3242, NGC 6720 and NGC 7027. A technique is described which uses the velocity field to map variations in the electron temperature and density along the line of sight as well as across the face of the nebula. It is shown how a Fabry Perot may be used in conjunction with multi-element array detectors to facilitate this technique. Finally some extensions to the technique of capacitance micrometry are discussed which allow the operation of a single air-spaced etalon over a wide range of capacitor gaps

  12. The western Veil nebula (Image) (United States)

    Glenny, M.


    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  13. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.


    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  14. X-ray observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Tarafdar, S.P.


    The Einstein satellite was used to observe 19 planetary nebulae and X-ray emission was detected from four planetary nebulae. The EXOSAT satellite observed 12 planetary nebulae and five new sources were detected. An Einstein HRI observation shows that NGC 246 is a point source, implying that the X-rays are from the central star. Most of the detected planetary nebulae are old and the X-rays are observed during the later stage of planetary nebulae/central star evolution, when the nebula has dispersed sufficiently and/or when the central star gets old and the heavy elements in the atmosphere settle down due to gravitation. However in two cases where the central star is sufficiently luminous X-rays were observed, even though they were young nebulae; the X-radiation ionizes the nebula to a degree, to allow negligible absorption in the nebula. Temperature T x is obtained using X-ray flux and optical magnitude and assuming the spectrum is blackbody. T x agrees with Zanstra temperature obtained from optical Helium lines. (author)

  15. Synthesis of diorganoplatinum(IV) complexes by the Ssbnd S bond cleavage with platinum(II) complexes (United States)

    Niroomand Hosseini, Fatemeh; Rashidi, Mehdi; Nabavizadeh, S. Masoud


    Reaction of [PtR2(NN)] (R = Me, p-MeC6H4 or p-MeOC6H4; NN = 2,2‧-bipyridine, 4,4‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) with MeSSMe gives the platinum(IV) complexes cis,trans-[PtR2(SMe)2(NN)]. They are characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The geometries and the nature of the frontier molecular orbitals of Pt(IV) complexes containing Ptsbnd S bonds are studied by means of the density functional theory.

  16. A bHLH transcription factor, DvIVS, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Morita, Yasumasa; Park, Kyeung-Ii; Nakashima, Akiko; Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Iida, Shigeru; Yazawa, Susumu


    Dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) exhibit a wide range of flower colours because of accumulation of anthocyanin and other flavonoids in their ray florets. Two lateral mutants were used that spontaneously occurred in 'Michael J' (MJW) which has yellow ray florets with orange variegation. MJOr, a bud mutant producing completely orange ray florets, accumulates anthocyanins, flavones, and butein, and MJY, another mutant producing completely yellow ray florets, accumulates flavones and butein. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that expression of chalcone synthase 1 (DvCHS1), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (DvF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DvDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (DvANS), and DvIVS encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor were suppressed, whereas that of chalcone isomerase (DvCHI) and DvCHS2, another CHS with 69% nucleotide identity with DvCHS1, was not suppressed in the yellow ray florets of MJY. A 5.4 kb CACTA superfamily transposable element, transposable element of Dahlia variabilis 1 (Tdv1), was found in the fourth intron of the DvIVS gene of MJW and MJY, and footprints of Tdv1 were detected in the variegated flowers of MJW. It is shown that only one type of DvIVS gene was expressed in MJOr, whereas these plants are likely to have three types of the DvIVS gene. On the basis of these results, the mechanism regulating the formation of orange and yellow ray florets in dahlia is discussed.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray structure and evaluation of binding parameters of new triorganotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates with DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, Zia-ur; Shah, Afzal; Muhammad, Niaz; Ali, Saqib; Qureshi, Rumana; Meetsma, Auke; Butler, Ian Sydney


    Three new triorganotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates (1-3) with general formula R(3)SnL, where R=C(4)H(9) (1), C(6)H(11) (2), C(6)H(5) (3) and L=4-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, Raman, FT-IR, multinuclear NMR ((1)H, (13)C and

  18. Asteroids IV (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  19. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.


    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  20. Plerions and pulsar-powered nebulae


    Gaensler, Bryan


    In this brief review, I discuss recent developments in the study of pulsar-powered nebulae ("plerions"). The large volume of data which has been acquired in recent years reveals a diverse range of observational properties, demonstrating how differing environmental and pulsar properties manifest themselves in the resulting nebulae.

  1. Abundances in planetary nebulae : Hb 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.

    The ISO spectra of the bilobal planetary nebula Hb 5 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebula is then calculated in several ways. First by directly

  2. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC 5315

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Koornneef, J; Feibelman, WA


    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous

  3. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value


    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  4. Synthesis and spectral characterization of ternary complexes of oxovanadium(IV) containing some acid hydrazones and 2,2?-bipyridine (United States)

    Sreeja, P. B.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra


    An interesting series of heterocyclic base adducts of oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of vanadium(IV) oxide acetylacetonate with some hydrazones (H 2L) in the presence of a heterocyclic base 2,2'-bipyridine. The compounds were characterized by analytical and different physico-chemical techniques like IR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-Vis spectral studies and magnetic studies. The EPR spectra indicate that the free electron is in the d xy orbital. The coordination geometry around oxovanadium(IV) in all complexes is octahedral, with one dibasic tridentate ligand L 2-, and one bidentate heterocyclic base. The IR spectra suggest that coordination takes place through azomethine nitrogen and enolate oxygen from the hydrazide moiety and phenolate oxygen. The pyridyl nitrogens of the hydrazones, H 2L 2 and H 2L 4 are not involved in the coordination. The molar conductivities show that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. All electronic transitions were assigned. All the compounds are paramagnetic. EPR studies of all compounds suggest axial symmetry. The calculated bonding parameters indicate that in-plane σ bonding is more covalent than in-plane π bonding.

  5. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua


    The Carina Nebula is one of thc youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for approx.30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum. consistent with kT approx.130 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a, approx. 10(exp 6)-year-old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitor of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular (eta)Car, are coeval. This result demonstrates that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star would be responsible for remnants of high energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  6. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto


    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Novel 3-(aminomethyl)naphthoquinone mannich base-platinum(IV) complexes: synthesis, characterization, electrochemical and cytotoxic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gustavo B. da; Neves, Amanda P.; Vargas, Maria D., E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Alves, Wagner A. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marinho-Filho, Jose D.B.; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel O.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia


    Three novel platinum(IV) complexes cis,cis,trans-[Pt(HL1-3)Cl{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}] 1b-3b(HL = 2-hydroxy-3-[(R{sup 1} -amino)(pyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone, R{sup 1} = n-butyl, HL1; n-heptyl, HL2 and n-decyl, HL3) have been obtained from the oxidation of the respective precursors cis-[Pt(HL1-3)Cl{sub 2}] 1a-3a. Cyclic voltammetry studies of 1b-3b in MeCN showed the quasi reversible naphthoquinonate (NQO{sup -}, i.e., L{sup -}) redox process and irreversible process attributed to the reduction of the Pt{sup 4+}/Pt{sup 2+} pair, at potentials about 400 mV less negative than for the cisplatin precursor cis,cis,trans-[Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}]. Hydrogen bond interaction between the naphthoquinone 2-hydroxyl group and an axially coordinated hydroxide ligand in 1b-3b has been proposed to favor the Pt{sup 4+}/Pt{sup 2+} reduction. The cytotoxicity studies against four human cancer cell lines have shown that in general the platinum(IV) and platinum(II)derivatives exhibit the same cytotoxic profile and are all more active than cisplatin. The lowest in vitro IC{sub 50} values have been observed for 2b-3b, which bear ligands with the largest R{sup 1} groups (HL2-HL3) being the most lipophilic. Furthermore similar IC{sub 50} values for platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes of the same ligands have been associated with rapid in vitro reduction of the latter complexes to afford 1a-3a. (author)

  8. Novel 3-(aminomethyl)naphthoquinone mannich base-platinum(IV) complexes: synthesis, characterization, electrochemical and cytotoxic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gustavo B. da; Neves, Amanda P.; Vargas, Maria D.; Alves, Wagner A.; Marinho-Filho, Jose D.B.; Pessoa, Claudia; Moraes, Manoel O.; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V.


    Three novel platinum(IV) complexes cis,cis,trans-[Pt(HL1-3)Cl 2 (OH) 2 ] 1b-3b(HL = 2-hydroxy-3-[(R 1 -amino)(pyridin-2-yl)methyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone, R 1 = n-butyl, HL1; n-heptyl, HL2 and n-decyl, HL3) have been obtained from the oxidation of the respective precursors cis-[Pt(HL1-3)Cl 2 ] 1a-3a. Cyclic voltammetry studies of 1b-3b in MeCN showed the quasi reversible naphthoquinonate (NQO - , i.e., L - ) redox process and irreversible process attributed to the reduction of the Pt 4+ /Pt 2+ pair, at potentials about 400 mV less negative than for the cisplatin precursor cis,cis,trans-[Pt(NH 3 ) 2 Cl 2 (OH) 2 ]. Hydrogen bond interaction between the naphthoquinone 2-hydroxyl group and an axially coordinated hydroxide ligand in 1b-3b has been proposed to favor the Pt 4+ /Pt 2+ reduction. The cytotoxicity studies against four human cancer cell lines have shown that in general the platinum(IV) and platinum(II)derivatives exhibit the same cytotoxic profile and are all more active than cisplatin. The lowest in vitro IC 50 values have been observed for 2b-3b, which bear ligands with the largest R 1 groups (HL2-HL3) being the most lipophilic. Furthermore similar IC 50 values for platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes of the same ligands have been associated with rapid in vitro reduction of the latter complexes to afford 1a-3a. (author)

  9. Synthesis and characterization of mononuclear oxovanadium(IV) complexes and their enzyme inhibition studies with a carbohydrate metabolic enzyme phosphodiesterase I. (United States)

    Mahroof-Tahir, Mohammad; Brezina, Dan; Fatima, Naheed; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Atta-ur-Tahman


    The increasing interest in vanadium coordination chemistry is based on its well-established chemical and biological functions. A beta-diketonato complex of oxovanadium(IV) is known to be having numerous catalytic applications and also exhibits promising insulin mimetic properties. In continuation of our structure activity relationship studies of metal complexes, we report herein the synthesis and characterization of the vanadium complexes of beta-diketonato ligand system with systematic variations of electronic and steric factors. Two complexes, VO(tmh)(2) (tmh = 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione), and VO(hd)(2) (hd = 3,5-heptanedione) were synthesized and characterized by using different spectroscopic techniques. Elemental and mass spectral analysis supports the presence of two beta-diketonato ligands per VO(2+) unit. UV-Vis spectra in different solvents indicate coordination of coordinating solvent molecules at sixth position resulting in red shift of the band I transition. NMR and IR spectra reveal binding of coordinating solvent molecule at vacant sixth position trans to oxo group without releasing beta-diketonato ligands. Enzyme inhibition studies of these and other related oxovanadium(IV) complexes with beta-diketonato ligand system are conducted with snake venom phosphodiesterase I (SPVDE). All of these complexes showed significant inhibitory potential and were found to be non-competitive inhibitors against this enzyme.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate ion-exchanger: Its application for selective removal of lead (II from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisur Rahman


    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate was synthesized using the sol–gel technique. The synthesis conditions such as reactant concentrations and temperature were changed to optimize the ion exchange properties of the hybrid organic–inorganic ion exchange material. Zirconium oxychloride (0.1 M was added to 0.1 M potassium iodate in the presence of 0.4 M acrylamide and heated at 70 °C for 6 h to yield the polyacrylamide zirconium (IV iodate with maximum capacity. The ion exchange capacity was found to be 3.27 meq/g for Pb(II. The hybrid material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition FTIR, XRD, TGA-DTA, SEM and EDX studies. Sorption studies showed that the hybrid cation exchanger has a high selectivity to Pb(II in comparison to other metal ions. Its selectivity was evaluated by performing some important binary separations like Hg(II–Pb(II, Cu(II–Pb(II, Ni(II–Pb(II, Fe(III–Pb(II and Cd(II–Pb(II. In addition, the selective separation of Pb(II was also achieved from a synthetic mixture containing a large number of metal ions with a recovery of ∼98.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the selective removal of Pb(II from wastewater samples.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and x-ray crystal structure of a dimethyltin (IV) dichloride complex of 2-acetylpyridine benzophenone azine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaffa Shamsuddin; Md Abu Affan; Ramli Atan


    Dimethyltin dichloride react with 2-ac ethylpyridine benzophenone azine (apba) in refluxing dry hexane to give (SnMe 2 Cl 2 (apba)) where the azine ligand acts as a bidentate N-N chelating ligand. The complex has been characterized by IR spectroscopy, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopic data and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of the dimethyltin(IV) derivative has also been determined. Crystals are monoclinic with space group P2(1)/n with cell dimensions: a = 10.1819(3) Armstrong, b = 18.3113(5) Armstrong, c = 12.6451(4) Armstrong

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of histamine Schiff bases as carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV, VII, and IX activators. (United States)

    Akocak, Suleyman; Lolak, Nabih; Vullo, Daniela; Durgun, Mustafa; Supuran, Claudiu T


    A series of 20 histamine Schiff base was synthesised by reaction of histamine, a well known carbonic anhydrase (CA, E.C activator pharmacophore, with substituted aldehydes. The obtained histamine Schiff bases were assayed as activators of five selected human (h) CA isozymes, the cytosolic hCA I, hCA II, and hCA VII, the membrane-anchored hCA IV and transmembrane hCA IX. Some of these compounds showed efficient activity (in the nanomolar range) against the cytosolic isoform hCA VII, which is a key CA enzyme involved in brain metabolism. Moderate activity was observed against hCA I and hCA IV (in the nanomolar to low micromolar range). The structure-activity relationship for activation of these isoforms with the new histamine Schiff bases is discussed in detail based on the nature of the aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic moiety present in the aldehyde fragment of the molecule, which may participate in diverse interactions with amino acid residues at the entrance of the active site, where activators bind, and which is the most variable part among the different CA isoforms.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of the First Oxaliplatin Pt(IV Derivative Having a TSPO Ligand in the Axial Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Savino


    Full Text Available The first Pt(IV derivative of oxaliplatin carrying a ligand for TSPO (the 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein has been developed. The expression of the translocator protein in the brain and liver of healthy humans is usually low, oppositely to steroid-synthesizing and rapidly proliferating tissues, where TSPO is much more abundant. The novel Pt(IV complex, cis,trans,cis-[Pt(ethanedioatoCl{2-(2-(4-(6,8-dichloro-3-(2-(dipropylamino-2-oxoethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-ylphenoxyacetate-ethanolato}(1R,2R-DACH] (DACH = diaminocyclohexane, has been fully characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and tested in vitro against human MCF7 breast carcinoma, U87 glioblastoma, and LoVo colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, affinity for TSPO (IC50 = 18.64 nM, cellular uptake (ca. 2 times greater than that of oxaliplatin in LoVo cancer cells, after 24 h treatment, and perturbation of cell cycle progression were investigated. Although the new compound was less active than oxaliplatin and did not exploit a synergistic proapoptotic effect due to the presence of the TSPO ligand, it appears to be promising in a receptor-mediated drug targeting context towards TSPO-overexpressing tumors, in particular colorectal cancer (IC50 = 2.31 μM after 72 h treatment.

  14. Reactions of tin- and triorganotin(IV isopropoxides with thymol derivative: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matela Garima


    Full Text Available A new series of diisopropyloxytin- and triorganotin(IV complexes of H2hbgl (1 of the general formula Sn(OPri2(hbgl (2, Sn(OPri2(Hhbgl2 (3, Ph3Sn(Hhbgl (4, Bu3Sn(Hhbgl (5 and Me3Sn(Hhbgl (6, [where H2hbgl= a ligand of thymol derivative namely, N-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-6-methyl benzylGlycine] were synthesized by reacting tin- and triorganotin(IV chloride with the ligand, with the aid of sodium iso-propoxide in appropriate stiochiometric ratios (1:1 and 1:2. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The spectral data suggest that the carboxylate group, in complexes 2-5, was bonded in a bidentate manner, while a unidentate bonding was observed in complex 6. All five complexes were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria namely, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and two Gram-negative bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC 1652 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741. All the five complexes were also tested against three pathogenic fungal strains namely, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium sp.

  15. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb


    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae.

  16. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IV. The Identity and Sequence of the Intermediates in Sucrose Synthesis (United States)

    Calvin, M.; Benson, A.


    The synthesis of sucrose from C{sup 14}0{sub 2} by green algae has been investigated and the intermediates separated by the method of paper chromatography. It is shown that sucrose is the first free sugar appearing during photosynthesis. It is apparently formed by condensation of the glucose-I-phosphate and a fructose phosphate. A series of radioautographs of paper chromatograms of extracts from plants which have photosynthesized for different periods of time has been prepared. The results indicate that 2-phosphoglyceric acid is the first product synthesized from C0{sub 2} during photosynthesis.

  17. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiligman, G.M.


    Previous workers have found a statistical correlation between the projected directions of the interstellar magnetic field and the major axes of planetary nebulae. This result has been examined theoretically using a numerical hydromagnetic model of a cold plasma nebula expanding into a uniform vacuum magnetic field, with nebular gas accreting on the surface. It is found that magnetic pressure alone is probably not sufficient to shape most planetary nebulae to the observed degree. Phenomena are discussed which could amplify simple magnetic pressure, alter nebular morphology and account for the observed correlation. (author)

  18. Spatiokinematical models of five planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbadin, F.


    The [OOOI] and Hα expansion velocity fields in the planetary nebulae NGC6058 and 6804 and the [OIII], Hα and [NII] expansion velocity fields in NGC6309, 6751 and 6818, were obtained from high dispersion spectra. Spatiokinematical models of the nebulae were derived assuming an expansion velocity of the gas proportional to the distance from the central star and using the expansion velocity-radius correlation previously given. The observational parameters of the nebulae (radius, mass and expansion velocity) and of the exciting stars (temperature, radius and luminosity) closely fit the suggested evolutionary model for this class of objects. (author)

  19. Two ligand oxidio-vanadium(IV complexes as novel efficient catalysts in multicomponent reactions for synthesis of tetrahydrobenzopyran derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abaszadeh


    Full Text Available Two ligand oxido-vanadium(IV complexes, [VO(L(bipy] (Ι and [VO(L(phen] (ΙΙ; [H2L: 4-bromo-2-(((5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyliminomethylphenol, bipy: 2,2’-bipyridine and phen: 1,10- phenanthroline], have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis and conductivity measurements. These complexes, as new catalysts, were also used to synthesize the tetrahydrobenzopyran derivatives by three-component reaction of cyclic β-dicarbonyl compounds, malononitrile and aromatic aldehydes, in EtOH, at reflux. Inexpensiveness, stability and the potential of being easily obtained can be noted as preponderance of these catalysts. Furthermore, high conversions, short reaction times and cleaner reaction profiles, are some of the advantages of this method. These catalysts can be recovered and reused several times without loss of activity.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of the Schiff base organotin(IV) complexes based on salicylaldehyde-o-aminophenol (United States)

    Tan, Yu-Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Yang; Yu, Jiang-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Kuang, Dai-Zhi; Jiang, Wu-Jiu


    Schiff base organotin(IV) complexes C1 ∼ C5b have been synthesized via the reaction of the substituted salicylaldehyde-o-aminophenol Schiff base ligands (L1 ∼ L3) with the dibenzyltin dichloride, n-butyltin trichloride or dibutyltin oxide, respectively. The complexes have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra, elemental analysis and the crystal structures have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The anticancer activity of the Schiff base ligand and complexes C1 ∼ C5b against five species of cancer cell which are Hela, MCF7, HepG2, Colo205, NCIsbnd H460 were tested respectively, the tests showed that C1 ∼ C5b exhibited significant anticancer activity for the cancer cells in comparison with the ligand, and the activity was greater than carboplatin.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant/cytotoxic activity of oxovanadium(IV) complexes of methyliminodiacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Mersal, Gaber A. M.; Ramadan, Abdel-Motaleb M.; Shaban, Shaban Y.; Mohamed, Mahmoud A.; Al-Juaid, Salih


    Two oxovanadium(IV) complexes, viz., [VO(Me-IDA)(H2O)2] (1) and NaH[VO(EDTA)]·4H2O (2) (Me-IDA = methyliminodiacetic acid and EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) have been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, magnetic moment and thermal analysis, as well as electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry. Both compounds are monomeric with distorted octahedral geometries. Compound 2 has been structurally characterized by using X-ray crystallography. It shows an octahedral V(O)N2O3 coordination geometry, which exhibits chemically significant hydrogen bonding interactions besides showing coordination polymer formation. Compounds 1 and 2 show an irreversible redox peak around +0.80 V versus Ag/AgCl corresponding to one-electron oxidation of V(IV) to V(V). The free radical scavenging activity of compounds 1 and 2 were done using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Both compounds have shown encouraging ROS scavenging activities. The cytotoxicity effects of both compounds toward two different tumor cells (HePG2 and MCF-7) have been also studied by MTT assay. The IC50 values obtained, after 48 h incubation at 37 °C for HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines were 74.23 and 42.04 μg/mL for compound 1 and 65.56 and 48.34 μg/mL for compound 2, respectively. Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that such compounds can be promising alternative antitumor agents.

  2. Oxovanadium(IV complexes of bioinorganic and medicinal relevance: Synthesis, characterization and 3D molecular modeling of some oxovanadium(IV complexes involving O, N-donor environment of salicylaldehyde-based sulfa drug Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Maurya


    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of some new sulfa drug based Schiff base oxovanadium(IV complexes of composition, [VO(sal-sdz2(H2O]·H2O, [VO(sal-sgn2(H2O]·H2O, [VO(sal-snm(H2O]·H2O, [VO(sal-smr2(H2O]·H2O and [VO(dadps(H2O]2·2H2O, where sal-sdzH = N-(salicylidenesulfadizine, sal-sgnH = N-(salicylidenesulfaguanidine, sal-snmH = N-(salicylidenesulfanilamide, sal-smrH = N-(salicylidenesulfamerizine, sal-dadpsH2 = N,N′-bis(salicylidene-4,4′-diaminodiphenylsulfone, respectively. Complexes, (1–(4 were prepared by the reaction of VOSO4·5H2O with the Schiff bases in 1:2 metal-ligand ratio while complex (5 in 2:2 metal-ligand ratio in DMF-ethanol medium. The compounds so obtained were characterized by different physico-chemical studies, such as, elemental analysis, molar conductance and magnetic measurements, infrared, ESR, thermogravimetric studies, mass and electronic spectral studies. The overall IR studies conclude that the ligand in complex (1–(4 behave as monobasic bidentate ON donor, while the ligand in the complex (5 behaves as dibasic tetradentate O2N2 donor. The 3D-molecular modeling and analysis for bond lengths and bond angles have also been carried out for two representative compounds, [VO(sal-snm2(H2O]·H2O (3 and [VO(dadps(H2O]2·2H2O (5 to substantiate the proposed structures. Based on these studies suitable octahedral structures have been proposed for these complexes.

  3. Nebulae and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven


    This "Astronomers' Observing Guides" are designed for practical amateur astronomers who not only want to observe, but want to know the details of exactly what they are looking at. Nebulae are the places where the stars are born. For amateur astronomers, the many different kinds of nebulae vary from "easy" targets that can be seen with modest equipment under mediocre skies, to "challenging" objects that require experienced observers, large telescopes and excellent seeing. The concept of the book - and of the series - is to present an up-to-date detailed description and categorisation (part one); and then (part two) to consider how best to successfully observe and record the large range of astronomical objects that fall under the general heading of "nebulae". "Nebulae, and How to Observe Them" is a mine of information for all levels of amateur observers, from the beginner to the experienced.

  4. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.


    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  5. Galaxy dynamics with the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph


    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Douglas, N. G.; Capaccioli, M.; Arnaboldi, M.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Freeman, K. C.; Gerhard, O.


    The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph is a dedicated instrument for measuring radial velocity of individual Planetary Nebulae (PNe) in galaxies. This new instrument is providing crucial data with which to probe the structure of dark halos in the outskirts of elliptical galaxies in particular, which are traditionally lacking of easy interpretable kinematical tracers at large distance from the center. Preliminary results on a sample of intermediate luminosity galaxies have shown little dark matter ...

  6. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of tetradentate ligands bearing hydrazone and/or thiosemicarbazone motifs and their diorganotin(IV) complexes. (United States)

    González-García, Cristina; Mata, Alejandro; Zani, Franca; Mendiola, M Antonia; López-Torres, Elena


    Four novel ligands derived from 2,3-butanedione have been synthesized, two dissymmetric thiosemicarbazone/3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydrazone ligands, H 2 L 1 (bearing 4-isopropyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) and H 2 L 2 (containing 4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) and the symmetric H 2 L 3 , diacetyl bis(3-hydroxy-2-naphthohydrazone), and H 2 L 4 , diacetyl bis(4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazone). Their reactivity with SnR 2 Cl 2 (R=methyl, n-butyl and phenyl) was explored and the resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, mass spectrometry, IR, 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn NMR and seven of them also by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the reactivity of the dissymmetric ligands is strongly different and while the cyclohexyl derivative is very stable, with isopropyl easily undergoes a symmetrization reaction to yield the corresponding symmetric ligands. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and the corresponding diorganotin(IV) complexes was investigated in vitro against seven species of microorganisms and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. The results showed that the ligand H 2 L 2 and several of its derivatives, together with methyl and phenyl complexes of H 2 L 1 , have the ability of inhibiting the growth of tested bacteria and fungi to different extents. Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus Gram positive strains were the most sensitive microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary sequence of models of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'koviskij, Eh.Ya.; Kondrat'eva, L.N.; Tambovtseva, L.V.


    The evolutionary sequences of model planetary nebulae of different masses have been calculated. The computed emission line intensities are compared with the observed ones by means of the parameter ''reduced size of the nebula'', Rsub(n). It is shown that the evolution tracks of Schonberner for the central stars are consistent with the observed data. Part of ionized mass Mi in any nebulae does not not exceed 0.3 b and in the average Msu(i) 3 years at actual values of radius Rsub(i) <0.025 ps. Then the luminosity growth slows down to the maximum temperature which central star reaches and decreases with sharp decrease of the star luminosity. At that, the radius of ionized zone of greater mass nebulae can even decrease, inspite of the constant expansion of the nebula. As a result nebulae of great masses having undergone the evolution can be included in the number of observed compact objects (Rsub(n) < 0.1 ps)

  8. Synthesis, characterization and thermal study of Rb−U(IV)−Mo−O and Rb−U(VI)−Mo−O systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskar, Meera, E-mail:; Sali, S.K.; Krishnan, K.; Kannan, S.


    Four novel rubidium uranium (IV) molybdate compounds, Rb{sub 4}U{sub 5}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 12}, Rb{sub 2}U(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Rb{sub 4}U(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} and Rb{sub 8}U(MoO{sub 4}){sub 6} have been prepared by solid state route, reacting Rb{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}, UMoO{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} in desired molar proportions in evacuated sealed quartz ampoules at 823 K and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques. Thermal stability of the compounds was determined in helium atmosphere and oxidation behavior was studied in air using Thermogravimetric (TG) technique. The sub-solidus phase relations in Rb−U(VI)−Mo−O system were determined at 873 K in air. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram of Rb{sub 2}O−UO{sub 3}−MoO{sub 3} system was drawn on the basis of phase analysis of various phase mixtures prepared in Rb−U−Mo−O system and phase fields were established by powder X-ray diffraction. Rb{sub 2}UMo{sub 2}O{sub 10}, Rb{sub 6}UMo{sub 4}O{sub 18} and Rb{sub 2}U{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}O{sub 16} were identified during phase diagram study. Melting and thermal stability of these compounds were determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA) technique. - Highlights: • Synthesis of novel quaternary rubidium uranium (IV) molybdates by solid state route. • XRD analysis of the compounds. • Thermal stability in helium atmosphere and oxidation in air using TG/DTG/DTA technique. • Phase diagram of Rb−U−Mo−O system at 873 K.

  9. In vitro transcription activities of Pol IV, Pol V and RDR2 reveal coupling of Pol IV and RDR2 for dsRNA synthesis in plant RNA silencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Ream, Thomas S.; Marasco, Michelle; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.


    In Arabidopsis, RNA-dependent DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing involves three nuclear RNA polymerases that are biochemically undefined: the presumptive DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V and the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2. Here, we demonstrate their RNA polymerase activities in vitro. Unlike Pol II, Pols IV and V require an RNA primer, are insensitive to alpha-amanitin and differ in their ability to displace non-template DNA during transcription. Biogenesis of 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) requires both Pol IV and RDR2, which physically associate in vivo. Pol IV does not require RDR2 for activity, but RDR2 is nonfunctional in the absence of associated Pol IV, suggesting that their coupling explains the channeling of Pol IV transcripts into double-stranded RNAs that are then diced into 24 nt siRNAs.

  10. Camel milk attenuates the biochemical and morphological features of diabetic nephropathy: inhibition of Smad1 and collagen type IV synthesis. (United States)

    Korish, Aida A; Abdel Gader, Abdel Galil; Korashy, Hesham M; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; Arafah, Maha M


    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that worsens its morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that camel milk (CM) improves the glycemic control in DM but its effect on the renal complications especially the DN remains unclear. Thus the current study aimed to characterize the effects of CM treatment on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN. Using STZ-induced diabetes, we investigated the effect of CM treatment on kidney function, proteinuria, renal Smad1, collagen type IV (Col4), blood glucose, insulin resistance (IR), lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH). In addition renal morphology was also examined. The current results showed that rats with untreated diabetes exhibited marked hyperglycemia, IR, high serum urea and creatinine levels, excessive proteinuria, increased renal Smad1 and Col4, glomerular expansion, and extracellular matrix deposition. There was also increased lipid peroxidation products, decreased antioxidant enzyme activity and GSH levels. Camel milk treatment decreased blood glucose, IR, and lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase and CAT expression, CAT activity, and GSH levels were increased. The renoprotective effects of CM were demonstrated by the decreased serum urea and creatinine, proteinuria, Smad1, Col4, and preserved normal tubulo-glomerular morphology. In conclusion, beside its hypoglycemic action, CM attenuates the early changes of DN, decreased renal Smad1 and Col4. This could be attributed to a primary action on the glomerular mesangial cells, or secondarily to the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of CM. The protective effects of CM against DN support its use as an adjuvant anti-diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC


    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  12. Mitochondrial gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. IV. Effects of yeast cytosol on mitochondrial protein synthesis, degradation, and respiration. (United States)

    McKee, E E


    It has been known for some time that the addition of a crude yeast cytosolic fraction to isolated mitochondria stimulates the rate of amino acid incorporation into protein in the isolated organelles. However, the mechanism and importance of this phenomenon relative to mitochondrial function has not been established. While it has been assumed that this effect is at the level of translation, the recognition that newly synthesized mitochondrial translation products are rapidly degraded in isolated yeast mitochondria raises the possibility that cytosol affects amino acid incorporation by inhibiting proteolysis. Using pulse-chase experiments we demonstrate that the rate constants of degradation of the nascent products are not affected by yeast cytosol. Further, not only is proteolysis not inhibited by cytosol, but the loss of label caused by proteolysis is actually increased. This increase is directly related to an increase in the size of the nascent product pool which increases simply as a consequence of increasing the rate of translation. By utilizing an approach in which the loss of label due to proteolysis is minimized, the true stimulatory activity of the cytosolic fraction on synthesis was determined (2.1-fold vs. 1.3-fold by the previous method). Pulse-chase experiments in the presence of pactamycin, an initiation inhibitor, demonstrate that yeast cytosol causes an initial increase in the rate of translational initiation without increasing the rate of elongation. However, at later intervals the yeast cytosol acts primarily to maintain the rate of elongation which falls steadily in the controls. Finally, the presence of yeast cytosol dramatically increases the length of incubation time in which the mitochondrial preparation consumes oxygen and maintains coupled respiration, parameters that fall rapidly in the controls. Thus, a yeast cytosolic fraction may function to promote the stability of the mitochondrial preparation, which in turn may account for the increase

  13. An Application-Based Performance Evaluation of NASAs Nebula Cloud Computing Platform (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Heistand, Steve; Jin, Haoqiang; Chang, Johnny; Hood, Robert T.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Biswas, Rupak


    The high performance computing (HPC) community has shown tremendous interest in exploring cloud computing as it promises high potential. In this paper, we examine the feasibility, performance, and scalability of production quality scientific and engineering applications of interest to NASA on NASA's cloud computing platform, called Nebula, hosted at Ames Research Center. This work represents the comprehensive evaluation of Nebula using NUTTCP, HPCC, NPB, I/O, and MPI function benchmarks as well as four applications representative of the NASA HPC workload. Specifically, we compare Nebula performance on some of these benchmarks and applications to that of NASA s Pleiades supercomputer, a traditional HPC system. We also investigate the impact of virtIO and jumbo frames on interconnect performance. Overall results indicate that on Nebula (i) virtIO and jumbo frames improve network bandwidth by a factor of 5x, (ii) there is a significant virtualization layer overhead of about 10% to 25%, (iii) write performance is lower by a factor of 25x, (iv) latency for short MPI messages is very high, and (v) overall performance is 15% to 48% lower than that on Pleiades for NASA HPC applications. We also comment on the usability of the cloud platform.

  14. The Crab Nebula flaring activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montani


    Full Text Available The discovery made by AGILE and Fermi of a short time scale flaring activity in the gamma-ray energy emission of the Crab Nebula is a puzzling and unexpected feature, challenging particle acceleration theory. In the present work we propose the shock-induced magnetic reconnection as a viable mechanism to explain the Crab flares. We postulate that the emitting region is located at ∼1015 cm from the central pulsar, well inside the termination shock, which is exactly the emitting region size as estimated by the overall duration of the phenomenon ∼1 day. We find that this location corresponds to the radial distance at which the shock-induced magnetic reconnection process is able to accelerate the electrons up to a Lorentz factor ∼109, as required by the spectral fit of the observed Crab flare spectrum. The main merit of the present analysis is to highlight the relation between the observational constraints to the flare emission and the radius at which the reconnection can trigger the required Lorentz factor. We also discuss different scenarios that can induce the reconnection. We conclude that the existence of a plasma instability affecting the wind itself as the Weibel instability is the privileged scenario in our framework.

  15. (IV) phosphates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M(IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts where M (IV) = Zr, Ti, Sn has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP-AES), thermal analysis (TGA, DSC), X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials ...

  16. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae


    Stasinska, Grazyna


    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  17. The simplest models of the reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.


    Some models of the reflection nebulue have been considered. The (U-B), (B-V) and (V-R) colors and the U, B, V and R polarization have been calculated for a model of a reflection nebula associated with a large dust cloud. For the cases in which the illuminating star is far from the surface of the cloud, the form of the nebula has been considered to be spherical. If the star is close to the surface of the cloud, a part of the nebura boundary has been considered to be flat. Single scattering within the homogeneous nebula has been assumed. All the calculations use the scattering by spheres as given by the Mie's theory. The effect of variations of chemical composition and size distribution function of the grains and the position of the illuminating star has been examined. Comparison of the theoretical results with the observations of the Merope nebula shows that the dirty ice grains with the refraction index m=1.30-0.02i and size parameter asub(o)=0.5μ represent satisfactorily the observation if the star is embedded 0.7 pc behind the front surface of the nebula

  18. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.


    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer

  19. Lunar occultation observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, F.P.


    Three lunar of occultations of the Crab Nebula were observed, two at 114 MHz and one at 26.3 MHz, during the 1974 series of events. The higher frequency observations were deconvolved of diffraction effects to yield four strip integrated brightness profiles of the Nebula, with an effective resolution of 30 arc-seconds. These four profiles were Fourier inverted and cleaned of sidelobe structure to synthesize a two-dimensional map of the Nebula. At 114 MHz, the Nebula is composed of a broad envelope of emission which contains several smaller sources. The attenuation of the low radio frequency radiation by the thermal hydrogen in the filaments is considered as a possible mechanism to explain these new data. The 26.3 MHz observations indicate the presence of a bright, localized source containing greater than 80% of the flux of the Nebula. The position of the source is confined by the data to a narrow strip centered at the pulsar position. Both sets of data are compared with past occultation observations

  20. Expansion patterns and parallaxes for planetary nebulae (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.


    Aims: We aim to determine individual distances to a small number of rather round, quite regularly shaped planetary nebulae by combining their angular expansion in the plane of the sky with a spectroscopically measured expansion along the line of sight. Methods: We combined up to three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data and determined the angular proper motions of rim and shell edges and of other features. These results are combined with measured expansion speeds to determine individual distances by assuming that line of sight and sky-plane expansions are equal. We employed 1D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of nebular evolution to correct for the difference between the spectroscopically measured expansion velocities of rim and shell and of their respective shock fronts. Results: Rim and shell are two independently expanding entities, driven by different physical mechanisms, although their model-based expansion timescales are quite similar. We derive good individual distances for 15 objects, and the main results are as follows: (i) distances derived from rim and shell agree well; (ii) comparison with the statistical distances in the literature gives reasonable agreement; (iii) our distances disagree with those derived by spectroscopic methods; (iv) central-star "plateau" luminosities range from about 2000 L⊙ to well below 10 000 L⊙, with a mean value at about 5000 L⊙, in excellent agreement with other samples of known distance (Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds, and K648 in the globular cluster M 15); (v) the central-star mass range is rather restricted: from about 0.53 to about 0.56 M⊙, with a mean value of 0.55 M⊙. Conclusions: The expansion measurements of nebular rim and shell edges confirm the predictions of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations and offer a reliable method for the evaluation of distances to suited objects. Results of this paper are based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Cycle 16 (GO11122

  1. Monitoring the Orion Nebula Cluster (United States)

    Reipurth, Bo

    The VYSOS (Variable Young Stars Optical Survey) project has at its disposal five small telescopes: a 5-inch and a 20-inch robotic optical imaging telescope in Hawaii funded by the NSF, and a 6-inch robotic optical imaging telescope, a 32-inch robotic infrared imaging telescope, and a 60-inch optical spectroscopic telescope in Chile, funded and operated from Germany. Through an agreement between the leaders of the two sites (B. Reipurth and R. Chini), it has been decided to devote a significant fraction of time on these facilities to a large Key Project, conducting a massive monitoring survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster. The vast data streams are being reduced through automated customized pipelines. The applicant seeks funding to employ a postdoc and an undergraduate assistant to work at the University of Hawaii and collaborate on the analysis of the data. Virtually all young stars are variable, with a wide range of amplitudes and characteristic timescales. This is mainly due to accretion shocks as material from circumstellar disks fall onto the stars along magnetic funnel flows, but also giant star spots, magnetic flares, occultations by orbiting dust condensations, and eclipses by companions can modulate the light from the nascent star. It is increasingly recognized that the rather static view of pre-main sequence evolution that has prevailed for many years is misleading, and that time-dependent phenomena may hold the key to an understanding of the way young stars grow and their circumstellar environments evolve. The VYSOS project is designed to bring sophisticated modern techniques to bear on the long neglected problem of variability in young solar type stars. To interpret the observations they will be compared to sophisticated MHD models of circumstellar disks around young stars. The Orion Nebula Cluster is the nearest rich region of star formation, and numerous, albeit heterogeneous, studies exist of the cluster members. The present study will provide the first

  2. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.


    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  3. Planetary Nebulae Beyond the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Douglas, N. G; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Garching, Germany, 19-21 May, 2004


    In the last decade extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) have gained increasing importance. Improved observational capabilities have allowed fainter and fainter PNe to be studied in galaxies well beyond the Milky Way. Planetary nebulae can be detected to at least 30Mpc. They are found in galaxies of all types and also between the galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters. They are valuable as probes, both for providing the velocity of their host stars and also the evolutionary status and relation to the stellar population from which they formed. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held at ESO headquarters in Garching in 2004, the first meeting devoted entirely to Extra-galactic Planetary Nebulae. A wide range of topics is covered, from stellar and nebular astrophysics to galactic dynamics and galaxy clusters, making this volume a unique and timely reference of broad astrophysical interest.

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula (United States)


    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  5. Models of the formation of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassen, P.; Summers, A.


    Protostellar cloud collapse and solar nebula formation models indicate that the size of the nebula produced will be larger in terms of both gas centrifugal balance R(CF) and collapse time diffusion length R(V). From this, it can be deduced that low mass nebulas are produced if (R(V)/R(CF))-squared is much greater than unity, while nebulas result for values lower than approximately unity. The total angular momentum value distinguishes most current models of the solar nebula. Analytic expressions for the surface density, nebular mass flux and photospheric temperature distributions during the formation stage are presented for simple modes illustrating and general properties of growing protostellar disks.

  6. From red giants to planetary nebulae: Asymmetries, dust, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.


    In order to investigate the development of aspherical planetary nebulae, polarimetry was obtained for a group of planetary nebulae and for objects that will evolve into planetary nebulae, i.e., red giants, late asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects, proto-planetary nebulae, and young planetary nebulae. To study the dust around the objects in our sample, we also used data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) mission. The youngest objects in our survey, red giants, had the hottest dust temperatures while planetary nebulae had the coolest. Most of the objects were intrinsically polarized, including the red giants. This indicated that the circumstellar dust shells of these objects were aspherical. Both carbon- and oxygen-rich objects could be intrinsically polarized. The intrinsic polarizations of a sample of our objects were modeled using an ellipsoidal circumstellar dust shell. The findings of this study suggest that the asphericities that lead to an aspherical planetary nebula originate when a red giant begins to undergo mass loss. The polarization and thus the asphericity as the star evolves, with both reaching a maximum during the proto-planetary nebula stage. The circumstellar dust shell will dissipate after the proto-planetary nebulae stage since no new material is being added. The polarization of planetary nebulae will thus be low. In the most evolved planetary nebulae, the dust has either been destroyed or dissipated into the interstellar medium. In these objects no polarization was observed

  7. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.


    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  8. Large proper motions in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudworth, K.M.; Stone, R.C.


    Several nebular features, as well as one faint star, with large proper motions were identified within the Orion nebula. The measured proper motions correspond to tangential velocities of up to approximately 70 km sec -1 . One new probable variable star was also found

  9. HM Sagittae as a young planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.; Purton, C.R.


    HM Sagittae is suggested to be a very young planetary nebula recently transformed from a red-giant star through continuous mass loss. The observational data for HM Sge have been analyzed in terms of the interacting stellar wind model of planetary nebula formation. The model is in accord with virtually all the spectral data available--radio, optical, and infrared--as well as with the remarkable brightening of HM Sge observed in 1975. In particular, all three gaseous components predicted by the model are observed in the optical spectrum. The density in the newly formed shell is found to be at least 5 x 10 7 cm -3 , a value considerably higher than that found by the conventional analysis, which assumes a single-component homogeneous nebula. The radio spectrum is dominated by free-free emission from the remnant red-giant wind. The infrared spectrum suggests the presence of two dust components, one consisting of silicate grains left over from the red-giant stage and the other of grains newly formed after the 1975 brightening. The low observed shell mass is consistent with the interacting stellar wind model but is not consistent with the conventional sudden-ejection model of planetary nebula formation

  10. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae (United States)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan


    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  11. Synthesis of IV-VI Transition Metal Carbide and Nitride Nanoparticles Using a Reactive Mesoporous Template for Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Alhajri, Nawal Saad


    content rather than nitride. In addition, the reactivity of the transition metals of group IV-VI with the reactive template was investigated under a flow of N2 at different temperatures in the range of 1023 to 1573 K while keeping the weight ratio constant at 1:1. The results show that Ti, V, Nb, Ta, and Cr reacted with mpg-C3N4 at 1023 K to form nitride phase with face centered cubic structure. The nitride phase destabilized at higher temperature ≥1223 K through the reaction with the remaining carbon residue originated from the decomposition of the template to form carbonitride and carbide phases. Whereas, Mo and W produce a hexagonal structure of carbide irrespective of the applying reaction temperature. The tendency to form transition metal nitrides and carbides at 1023 K was strongly driven by the free energy of formation. The observed trend indicates that the free energy of formation of nitride is relatively lower for group IV and V transition metals, whereas the carbide phase is thermodynamically more favorable for group VI, in particular for Mo and W. The thermal stability of nitride decreases at high temperature due to the evolution of nitrogen gas. The electrocatalytic activities of the produced nanoparticles were tested for hydrogen evolution reaction in acid media and the results demonstrated that molybdenum carbide nanoparticles exhibited the highest HER current with over potential of 100 mV vs. RHE, among the samples prepared in this study. This result is attributed to the sufficiently small particle size (8 nm on average) and accordingly high surface area (308 m2 g-1). Also, the graphitized carbon layer with a thickness of 1 nm on its surface formed by this synthesis provides excellent electron pathway to the catalyst which will improve the rate of electron transfer reaction.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation, and preliminary anti-cancer photodynamic therapeutic in vitro studies of mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick; Magnusen, Anthony R.; Moffett, Erick T.; Meyer, Kyle; Hong, Yiling; Ramsdale, Stuart E.; Gordon, Michelle; Stubbs, Javelyn; Seymour, Luke A.; Acharya, Dhiraj; Weber, Ralph T.; Smith, Paul F.; Dismukes, G. Charles; Ji, Ping; Menocal, Laura; Bai, Fengwei; Williams, Jennie L.; Cropek, Donald M.; Jarrett, William L.


    We report the synthesis and characterisation of mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-vanadium(IV) complexes, which were used as potential photodynamic therapeutic agents for melanoma cell growth inhibition. The novel complexes, [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)](PF6)2•1.5H2O 1 (where phen2DTT = 1,4-bis(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-ylsulfanyl)butane-2,3-diol and pbt = 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzothiazole) and [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)](PF6)2•3H2O 2 (where tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3″,2″-h:2‴,3‴-j]phenazine) were synthesised and characterised. Compound 1 was reacted with [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] (where sal-L-tryp = N-salicylidene-L-tryptophanate) to produce [Ru(pbt)2(phen2DTT)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2•5H2O 4; while [VO(sal-L-tryp)(H2O)] was reacted with compound 2 to produce [Ru(pbt)2(tpphz)VO(sal-L-tryp)](PF6)2•6H2O 3. All complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, HRMS, ESI MS, UV-visible absorption, ESR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, where appropriate. In vitro cell toxicity studies (with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) via dark and light reaction conditions were carried out with sodium diaqua-4,4',4”,4”'tetrasulfophthalocyaninecobaltate(II) (Na4[Co(tspc)(H2O)2]), [VO(sal-L-tryp)(phen)]•H2O, and the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4. Such studies involved A431, human epidermoid carcinoma cells; human amelanotic malignant melanoma cells; and HFF, non-cancerous human skin fibroblast cells. Both chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 were found to be more toxic to melanoma cells than to non-cancerous fibroblast cells, and preferentially led to apoptosis of the melanoma cells over non-cancerous skin cells. The anti-cancer property of the chloride salts of complexes 3 and 4 was further enhanced when treated cells were exposed to light, while no such effect was observed on non-cancerous skin fibroblast cells. ESR and 51V NMR spectroscopic studies were also used to assess the stability of the chloride salts of


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We have surveyed two PG 1159 class stars for the presence of ancient planetary nebulae by direct Her imaging. While we easily found an 11' diameter nebula around PG 1520+525, no nebula was detected around PG 1424+535. This nebula is the tenth member of the class of planetary nebulae surrounding PG

  14. Error-Prone Translesion DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase IV (DinB on Templates Containing 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Hori


    Full Text Available Escherichia coli DNA polymerase IV (Pol IV is involved in bypass replication of damaged bases in DNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated continuously during normal metabolism and as a result of exogenous stress such as ionizing radiation. ROS induce various kinds of base damage in DNA. It is important to examine whether Pol IV is able to bypass oxidatively damaged bases. In this study, recombinant Pol IV was incubated with oligonucleotides containing thymine glycol (dTg, 5-formyluracil (5-fodU, 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmdU, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG and 1,2-dihydro-2-oxoadenine (2-oxodA. Primer extension assays revealed that Pol IV preferred to insert dATP opposite 5-fodU and 5-hmdU, while it inefficiently inserted nucleotides opposite dTg. Pol IV inserted dCTP and dATP opposite 8-oxodG, while the ability was low. It inserted dCTP more effectively than dTTP opposite 2-oxodA. Pol IV's ability to bypass these lesions decreased in the order: 2-oxodA > 5-fodU~5-hmdU > 8-oxodG > dTg. The fact that Pol IV preferred to insert dCTP opposite 2-oxodA suggests the mutagenic potential of 2-oxodA leading to A:T→G:C transitions. Hydrogen peroxide caused an ~2-fold increase in A:T→G:C mutations in E. coli, while the increase was significantly greater in E. coli overexpressing Pol IV. These results indicate that Pol IV may be involved in ROS-enhanced A:T→G:C mutations.

  15. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.


    The weak heavy element permitted lines observed in the spectra of gaseous nebula have, with only a few exceptions, been thought to be excited only by recombination. The accuracy of this assumption for individual lines in nebula spectra is investigated in detail via model nebula calculations. First, approximations and techniques of calculation are considered for the three possible excitation mechanisms: recombination, resonance fluorescence by the starlight continuum, and resonance fluorescence by other nebular emission lines. Next, the permitted lines of O I as observed in gaseous nebulae are discussed. Thirdly, it is shown that varying combinations of recombination, resonance fluorescence by starlight, and resonance fluorescence by other nebula lines can successfully account for the observed strengths in the Orion Nebula of lines of the following ions: C II, N I, N II, N III, O II, Ne II, Si II, Si III, and S III. A similar analysis is performed for the lines in the spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC7662 and NGC7027, and, with some exceptions, satisfactory agreement between the observed and predicted line strengths is found. Finally, observations of the far red spectra of the Orion Nebula, the planetary nebulae NGC3242, NGC6210, NGC2392, IC3568, IC4997, NGC7027, and MGC7662, and the reflection nebulae IC431 and NGC2068 are reported

  16. 'Peony Nebula' Star Settles for Silver Medal (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version Movie If our galaxy, the Milky Way, were to host its own version of the Olympics, the title for the brightest known star would go to a massive star called Eta Carina. However, a new runner-up now the second-brightest star in our galaxy has been discovered in the galaxy's dusty and frenzied interior. This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the new silver medalist, circled in the inset above, in the central region of our Milky Way. Dubbed the 'Peony nebula' star, this blazing ball of gas shines with the equivalent light of 3.2 million suns. The reigning champ, Eta Carina, produces the equivalent of 4.7 million suns worth of light though astronomers say these estimates are uncertain, and it's possible that the Peony nebula star could be even brighter than Eta Carina. If the Peony star is so bright, why doesn't it stand out more in this view? The answer is dust. This star is located in a very dusty region jam packed with stars. In fact, there could be other super bright stars still hidden deep in the stellar crowd. Spitzer's infrared eyes allowed it to pierce the dust and assess the Peony nebula star's true brightness. Likewise, infrared data from the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope in Chile were integral in calculating the Peony nebula star's luminosity. The Peony nebula, which surrounds the Peony nebular star, is the reddish cloud of dust in and around the white circle. The movie begins by showing a stretch of the dusty and frenzied central region of our Milky Way galaxy. It then zooms in to reveal the 'Peony nebula' star the new second-brightest star in the Milky Way, discovered in part by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array

  17. Oxovanadium(IV), cerium(III), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes of 1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(nitroacetyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one: Synthesis, spectral, thermal, fluorescence, DFT calculations, antimicrobial and antitumor studies (United States)

    El-Shafiy, H. F.; Shebl, Magdy


    A new series of mononuclear oxovanadium(IV), cerium(III), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes of a quinolinone ligand; 1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(nitroacetyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one (H2L) have been synthesized. The metal complexes were characterized by different techniques such as elemental and thermal analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic, ESR, mass spectra and powder XRD, TEM in addition to magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The quinolinone ligand acts as a dibasic bidentate ligand forming mononuclear complexes, which can be formulated as: [(L)VO(H2O)2]·0.5H2O, [(L)M(NO3)x(H2O)y]·nH2O; M = Ce or Th, x = 1 or 2, y = 3 or 4 and n = 2 or 7 and [(L)UO2(H2O)x(MeOH)y]·nH2O; x = 2 or 3, y = 0 or 1 and n = 0.5 or 2.5. The photoluminescent properties of the prepared complexes were studied. The ligand and its thorium(IV) complex are characterized by an intense green emission. Kinetic parameters (Ea, A, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) of the thermal decomposition stages have been evaluated using Coats-Redfern equations. The geometry of the ligand and its oxovanadium(IV) complex has been optimized using density functional theory (DFT). Total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO, dipole moment and structure activity relationship were performed and confirmed practical antimicrobial and antitumor results. The antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its metal complexes was conducted against the microorganisms S. aureus, K. pnemonia, E. coli, P. vulgaris and C. albicans and the MIC values were determined. The antitumor activity of the ligand and its metal complexes was investigated against human Hepatocelluar carcinoma and human breast cancer cell lines.

  18. Emission lines of [K V] in the optical spectra of gaseous nebulae. (United States)

    Keenan, Francis P; Aller, Lawrence H; Espey, Brian R; Exter, Katrina M; Hyung, Siek; Keenan, Michael T C; Pollacco, Don L; Ryans, Robert S I


    Recent R-matrix calculations of electron impact excitation rates in K v are used to derive the nebular emission line ratio R = I(4122.6 A)/I(4163.3 A) as a function of electron density (N(e)). This ratio is found to be very sensitive to changes in N(e) over the density range 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3), but does not vary significantly with electron temperature, and hence in principle should provide an excellent optical N(e) diagnostic for the high-excitation zones of nebulae. The observed value of R for the planetary nebula NGC 7027, measured from a spectrum obtained with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, implies a density in excellent agreement with that derived from [Ne iv], formed in the same region of the nebula as [K v]. This observation provides observational support for the accuracy of the theoretical [K v] line ratios, and hence the atomic data on which they are based. However, the analysis of a high-resolution spectrum of the symbiotic star RR Telescopii, obtained with the University College London Echelle Spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, reveals that the [K v] 4122.6 A line in this object is badly blended with Fe ii 4122.6 A. Hence, the [K v] diagnostic may not be used for astrophysical sources that show a strong Fe ii emission line spectrum.

  19. An Efficient Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydro-3-substituted-2H-naphtho[2,1-e][1,3]oxazine Derivatives Catalyzed by Zirconyl(IV) Chloride and Evaluation of its Biological Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kategaonkar, Amol H.; Sonar, Swapnil S.; Pokalwar, Rajkumar U.; Shingate, Bapurao B.; Shingare, Murlidhar S. [Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Maharashtra (India); Kategaonkar, Atul H. [Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Maharashtra (India)


    An efficient and novel one-pot synthesis of new 3,4-dihydro-3-substituted-2H-naphtho[2,1-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives from 1-naphthol, various anilines and formalin at room temperature grinding is presented. The six-membered N,O-heterocyclic skeleton was constructed via zirconyl(IV) chloride promoted Mannich type reaction. In vitro antimicrobial activities of synthesized compounds have been investigated against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative Escherichia coli and two fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger in comparison with standard drugs. The results of preliminary bioassay indicate that some of title compounds possess significant antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  20. Gamma-rays and neutrinos from the pulsar wind nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, W.; Bartosik, M.


    We construct the time-dependent radiation model for the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), assuming that leptons are accelerated in resonant scattering with heavy nuclei, which are injected into the nebula by the pulsar. The equilibrium spectra of these particles inside the nebula are calculated taking into account their radiation and adiabatic energy losses. The spectra of γ-rays produced by these particles are compared with the observations of the PWNe emitting TeV γ-rays and predictions are made for the expected γ-ray fluxes from other PWNe. Expected neutrino fluxes and neutrino event rates in a 1 km 2 neutrino detector from these nebulae are also calculated. It is concluded that only the Crab Nebula can produce a detectable neutrino event rate in the 1 km 2 neutrino detector. Other PWNe can emit TeV γ-rays on the level of a few percent of that observed from the Crab Nebula

  1. Formation of iron sulphide in solar nebula (United States)

    Kerridge, J. F.


    Noting that the iron sulfide in the Orgueil carbonaceous meteorite is an Fe-deficient monosulfide (pyrrhotite), it is suggested that such mineral chemistry is inconsistent with equilibrium condensation of the solar nebula and that the course of condensation may have been modified by kinetic effects. The effect of Ni on the reaction between Fe and S to produce FeS is examined, and possible reasons are considered for the fact that the cited meteorite differs in both crystal structure and Ni content from the predictions of equilibrium condensation. It is proposed that sulfide formation in the solar nebula may have been inhibited by sluggish diffusion, so that sulfur began to react with previously condensed troilite to form pyrrhotite. On this basis, observations of the Orgueil sulfides are shown to suggest that the course of solar-system condensation was modified by kinetic effects below about 700 K and that equilibrium may not have been achieved.

  2. Morpho-kinematic modeling of planetary nebulae (United States)

    Chan, Tsz-Pan (Henry)


    The Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are the transition phase between asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star and white dwarfs for stars with masses between 1 and 8 M⊙. They were originally thought to be well-studied and can be explained with simple models. With the advance of imaging technology especially on Space Telescope (HST), the shapes of PNe have been found to be much more complex than we assumed to be. We aimed to investigate on the basic but mysterious intrinsic three-dimensional structures using the newly developed modeling software. Astronomers usually use the morphological classification on group and classify different properties of PNe. Over the past century many attempts have been made for this classification to seek for explaining and understanding the threedimensional structure that is responsible for the observed images. There have been two beliefs in explaining the variety of shapes of PNe and among them the most amazing one is that the morphologies can be accounted by different orientations of a single structure (Khromov & Kohoutek, 1968). Motivated by the study of Ring Nebula on its intrinsic structure, we investigated the possibility that different types of morphology in PNe can be explained by a single model. We used the newly developed modeling code SHAPE (Steffen et al., 2006), which cooperates the use of spatial information as well as its kinematics, and aimed to quantitatively investigate the basic structure inside PNe. We investigated two classical nebulae: NGC 2346 and NGC 2440. We proposed a simple but adequate model for these nebulae. Stimulated optical images and the p-v arrays were derived by the modeling code SHAPE to make comparison with the observed data to seek for the correctness of the model. Hubble velocity field and inverse square law density distribution were assumed throughout the modeling process. This model provides insights in seeking further adequate intrinsic structure of PNe.

  3. Multiband observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krassilchtchikov, A M; Bykov, A M; Castelletti, G M; Dubner, G M; Kargaltsev, O Yu; Pavlov, G G


    Results of simultaneous imaging of the Crab Nebula in the radio (JVLA), optical ( HST ), and X-ray ( Chandra ) bands are presented. The images show a variety of small-scale structures, including wisps mainly located to the north-west of the pulsar and knots forming a ring-like structure associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. The locations of the structures in different bands do not coincide with each other. (paper)

  4. Nebula observations. Catalogues and archive of photoplates (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Elizarova, N. V.


    A process of data systematization based on "Academician G.A. Shajn's Plan" for studying the Galaxy structure related to nebula observations is considered. The creation of digital versions of catalogues of observations and publications is described, as well as their presentation in HTML, VOTable and AJS formats and basic principles of work in the interactive application of International Virtual Observatory the Aladin Sky Atlas.

  5. Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasniewicz, G.


    Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star. 9 references

  6. Search for binary nuclei in planetary nebulae (United States)

    Jasniewicz, G.

    Two planetary nebulae with central stars of late spectral type were observed: LT 5 and Abell 35. The variation of the systemic velocity of the G-binary in HD 112313 gives strong support to the idea of a third body in the nucleus of LT 5. In addition, it is concluded that observed photometric variations of BD -22 deg 3467 (the central star of Abell 35) can best be explained by the binary nature of the star.

  7. Nebulae at keratoconus--the result after excimer laser removal. (United States)

    Fagerholm, P; Fitzsimmons, T; Ohman, L; Orndahl, M


    Ten patients underwent excimer laser ablation due to nebula formation at keratoconus. The nebulae interfered significantly with contact lens fit or wearing time. The mean follow-up time in these patients was 16.5 months. Following surgery all patients could be successfully fitted with a contact lens and thereby obtain good visual acuity. Furthermore, contact lens wearing time was 8 hours or more in all cases. In 2 patients the nebulae recurred but were successfully retreated.

  8. Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.


    A graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae and the emission regions in Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. The topics discussed include: photoionization equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, calculation of emitted spectrum, comparison of theory with observations, internal dynamics of gaseous nebulae, interstellar dust, regions in the galactic context, planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, diagnostics and physics of AGN, observational results on AGN

  9. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Clayton, G.C.


    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  10. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz


    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelley, Michael S.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Fuller, Gary A.


    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H 2 knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H 2 emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  12. Influence of stellar duplicity on the form of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnik, I.G.; Pilyugin, L.S.


    Formation of planetary nebulae's spatial structures is considered. Simple expression for angular distribution of density in planetary nebulae is obtained. Bipolar structures are formed effectively in binary systems in which the velocity of the expanding shell around the main star is smaller than the orbital velocity of the satellite. Masses of satellites lie in the range 0.1-0.4Msub(sun). Theoretical isophotal contour map for the model of the planetary nebula NGC 3587 is consistent with observational data. It is shown that central stars of planetary nebulae are usually binary systems

  13. The current research of planetary nebulae distance measurement (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-yuan; Zhu, Hui; Tian, Wen-wu; Wu, Dan


    Planetary Nebula is an important tracer of Galactic chemical history and evolution, star and interstellar evolution. Distance as a basic physical parameter of planetary nebula, is crucial to study its size, luminosity, ionized mass, formation rate, space density and Galactic distribution. Distance of planetary nebula has been studied for several decades, but most of their distances are not well determined, e.g. only thirty-one planetary nebulae have distance measurement with uncertainty within 20%. We summarize major distance measurement methods of planetary nebulae, i.e., trigonometric parallax, cluster member, expansion parallax, spectroscopic parallax, reddening, Na D absorption, determinations of central star gravities, Shklovsky method, kinematics method, and then discuss the limitations and applications scope of each method in detail. Actually, applying different methods to the same planetary nebulae can have a huge difference in distance, and even the same method can lead to great difference for the same planetary nebula. We focus on the kinematics method applied to planetary nebulae either seriously effected by Galactic extinction or having no observable centra star but being radio bright. The kinematics distance has been used in our on-going project of radio planetary nebulae distance measurement.

  14. Proto-planetary nebulae. I. The extreme bipolar nebulae M2-9 and M1-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, R.W.


    Results are presented on a long-slit optical spectroscopy measurements of the prototype bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 and the M1-91 bipolar nebula, performed in order to determine the nature of the morphology of the wings of these two nebulae. It is concluded that the overall bipolar morphologies of these nebulae might be due to the orbital motions of binaries, with the orbital angular momentum vector defining the axis of the nebula. Secondary symmetries in the nebulae, such as the point-symmetric knots in M1-91, could be due to other symmetries, such as the rotation axis of one of the individual stars or the polar axis of the accretion disk. 39 refs

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl, the first iron compound with selenate(IV) and tellurate(IV) groups (United States)

    Akhrorov, Akhmad Yu; Kuznetsova, Elena S.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Berdonosov, Peter S.; Kuznetsov, Alexey N.; Dolgikh, Valery A.


    During the search for selenium analogues of FeTe2O5Cl, the new iron (III) tellurate(IV) selenate(IV) chloride with the composition Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl was synthesized by chemical vapor transport (CVT) reaction and characterized by TGA-, EDX-,SCXRD-analysis, as well as IR and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with unitcell parameters a = 5.183(3) Å, b = 15.521(9) Å, c = 7.128(5) Å and β = 107.16(1)°. The crystal structure of Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl represents a new structure type and contains electroneutral heteropolyhedral layers formed by dimers of the [FeO5Cl]8- octahedra, linked via common O-O edges, and mixed [Te3SeO10]4- tetramers. Adjacent layers are stacked along the b axis and linked by weak residual bonds. The new compound is stable up to 420 °C. DFT calculations predict Fe[(Te1.5Se0.5)O5]Cl to be a wide-gap semiconductor with the band gap of ca. 2.7 eV.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of mixed-valence manganese fluorophosphate and analogues with clathrate-like structures: Mn(III)6F12(PO3(OH))8[Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)M(IV)(OH)6] (M(IV) = Mn, Ti, Ge). (United States)

    Ren, Wei-Jian; Wang, Jing-Quan; Huang, Ya-Xi; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao


    A novel, mixed- and high-valence manganese (Mn(3+)/Mn(4+)) fluorophosphate, Mn(III)6F12(PO3(OH))8[Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)Mn(IV)(OH)6] (denoted as MN), has been prepared via a water-deficient hydrothermal route with phosphoric acid as the sole solvent. This compound features a cubic three-dimensional open-framework structure built from corner-sharing [Mn(III)O4F2] octahedra and [HPO4] groups, which encapsulates a clathrate-like "guest cluster" of Na8(Kx(H3O)4-x(H2O)2)Mn(IV)(OH)6. The guest cluster is architecturally composed of a [Mn(IV)(OH)6] octahedron in a cubic cage of Na(+) cations, which in turn is surrounded by an octahedral arrangement of K(+)/H2O ions, resulting in an unprecedented octahedral @ cubic @ octahedral @ cubic arrangement (OCOC). The +4 oxidation state of Mn in the guest cluster has been confirmed by the synthesis of isotypic Ti- and Ge- analogues (denoted as TI and GE) using TiO2 and GeO2 as the replacement for MnO2 in the starting materials. The compounds MN, TI and GE are not stable in aqueous solution and are peeled off layer-by-layer after the absorption of water. This report provides a new route for the synthesis of mixed- and high-valence manganese phosphates that cannot be produced by conventional hydrothermal methods.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and antitumor screening of some diorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-[(9H-Purin-6-ylimino)]-phenol. (United States)

    Rehman, Wajid; Badshah, Amin; Khan, Salimullah; Tuyet, Le Thi Anh


    A new series of diorganotin(IV) complexes of the type R(2)SnL(2) (R=Me, Et, Bu, Ph, Bz and L=2-[(9H-Purin-6-ylimino)]-phenol) have been synthesized, characterized by elemental analyses and their solid state configuration has been determined by various spectroscopic (IR, (1)H, (13)C, (119)Sn NMR, (119m)Sn Mössbauer) techniques. The results obtained on the basis of these techniques are in full concurrence with the proposed 2:1 stoichiometry. The title complexes have been screened against various microorganisms, fungi and human cell line KB, the results obtained showed that the bis(2-[(9H-Purin-6-ylimino)]-phenolate) diphenyltin(IV) complex exhibited excellent activity against all types of bacteria and fungi used, while bis(2-[(9H-Purin-6-ylimino)]-phenolate) diethyltin(IV) complex was found to have promising antitumor activity.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) complexes with o-hydroxy N,N'-dimethylbenzylamine and o-carboxy N,N'-dimethylbenzylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Anwar, C.J.; Arshad, M.


    Complexes of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) with o-hydroxy N,N'-dimethylbenzylamine and o-carboxy N,N'-dimethylbenzylamine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1 H-NMR techniques. The coordination of metal ions with the ligand and their structures were established. The chemical and spectral properties revealed that uranium(VI) complexes have square bipyramidal structure for coordination number 6, and hexagonal bipyramidal structure for coordination number 8, whereas thorium(IV) shows bicapped square antiprism structure for coordination number 10. (orig.)

  19. Reactivity of uranium(IV) bridged chalcogenido complexes UIV–E–UIV (E = S, Se) with elemental sulfur and selenium: synthesis of polychalcogenido-bridged uranium complexes


    Franke, Sebastian M.; Heinemann, Frank W.; Meyer, Karsten


    We report the syntheses, electronic properties, and molecular structures of a series of polychalcogenido-bridged dinuclear uranium species. These complexes are supported by the sterically encumbering but highly flexible, single N-anchored tris(aryloxide) chelator (AdArO)3N3−. Reaction of an appropriate uranium precursor, either the U(III) starting material, [((AdArO)3N)U(DME)], or the dinuclear mono-chalcogenido-bridged uranium(IV/IV) compounds [{((AdArO)3N)U(DME)}2(μ-E)] (E = S, Se), with el...

  20. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.


    From an idealized model of the Orion Nebula and from an analysis of line ratios it is shown that direct starlight excitation of the permitted O I line dominates over recombination and Lyman line fluorescence. The line strengths predicted by this mechanism agree reasonably well with those observed in the Orion Nebula. The application of direct starlight excitation to other ions is also discussed

  1. The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph : The green light for galaxy kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Romanowsky, AJ; Taylor, K; Capaccioli, M; Axelrod, T; Gilmozzi, R; Hart, J; Bloxham, G; Jones, D


    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are now well established as probes of galaxy dynamics and as standard candles in distance determinations. Motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of planetary nebulae searches and the speed with which their radial velocities are determined, a dedicated instrument-the

  2. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... This paper presents an analysis of a series of spectra in the Red Rectangle nebula. Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the proximity of the star. In the ...

  3. Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 7662 and NGC 6741

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA


    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC7662 and NGC6741 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    When carrying out a survey of IRAS sources with infrared colours similar to those of planetary nebulae, IRAS 22568 + 6141 was found to be a new young planetary nebula. It shows an extension of 8" and a bipolar structure. From its optical low resolution spectrum we have derived a high extinction

  5. Optical observations of planetary nebula candidates from the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Jacoby, GH; Pottasch, [No Value

    We present H alpha+[N II] images of 17 and low resolution spectra of 14 IRAS-selected planetary nebula candidates. The H alpha+[N II] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images accurate optical positions and mean optical

  6. Abundances of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Hyung, S; Aller, LH; Beintema, DA; Bernard-Salas, J; Feibelman, WA; Klockner, HR

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the "elliptical" nebula Hu 1-2 are presented. These spectra are combined with new, high resolution spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebula is then calculated and compared to

  7. The synthesis and properties of some organometallic compounds containing group IV (Ge, Sn)-group II (Zn, Cd) metal---metal bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Des Tombe, F.J.A.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Carey, N.A.D.; Noltes, J.G.


    The reactions of triphenylgermane and triphenyltin hydride with coordinatively saturated organozinc or organocadmium compounds give organometallic complexes containing Group IV (Ge, Sn)-Group II(Zn, Cd) metal---metal bonds. The 2,2′-bipyridine complexes show solvent-dependent charge-transfer

  8. A new oxidovanadium(IV) Schiff base complex containing asymmetric tetradentate ONN′O′ Schiff base ligand: synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination, thermal study and catalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grivani, G.; Ghavami, A.; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Khalaji, A.D.


    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2015), s. 779-784 ISSN 1001-8417 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : oxidovanadium(IV) * Schiff base * crystal structure * nanoparticle * epoxidation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.947, year: 2015

  9. Titanium(IV) in the organic-structure-directing-agent-free synthesis of hydrophobic and large-pore molecular sieves as redox catalysts. (United States)

    Wang, Jingui; Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Junko N; Tatsumi, Takashi; Zhao, Yanli


    Titanium(IV) incorporated into the framework of molecular sieves can be used as a highly active and sustainable catalyst for the oxidation of industrially important organic molecules. Unfortunately, the current process for the incorporation of titanium(IV) requires a large amount of expensive organic molecules used as organic-structure-directing agents (OSDAs), and this significantly increases the production costs and causes environmental problems owing to the removal of OSDAs by pyrolysis. Herein, an OSDA-free process was developed to incorporate titanium(IV) into BEA-type molecular sieves for the first time. More importantly, the hydrophobic environment and the robust, 3 D, and large pore structure of the titanium(IV)-incorporated molecular sieves fabricated from the OSDA-free process created a catalyst that was extremely active and selective for the epoxidation of bulky cyclooctene in comparison to Ti-incorporated BEA-type molecular sieves synthesized with OSDAs and commercial titanosilicate TS-1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Young planetary nebula with OH molecules - NGC 6302

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, H.E.; Phillips, J.A.; Terzian, Y.


    The results of a sensitive survey of planetary nebulae in all four ground-state OH lines are reported. The results confirm that evolved planetary nebulas are not OH sources in general. However, one interesting object was not detected: an OH 1612 MHz maser in the young planetary nebula NGC 6302. This nebula may be in a brief evolutionary stage, similar to the young and compact planetary nebula Vy 2-2, where OH has already been detected. In addition, the results of further observations of NGC 6302 are reported, including VLA observations of the 1612 MHz line and continuum emission and detections of rotationally excited OH lines at 5-cm wavelength in absorption. 28 references

  11. Relation between radius and expansion velocity in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.; Kwitter, K.B.; Kaler, J.B.


    The expansion velocity-radius (R-V) relation for planetary nebulae is examined using the existing measurements of expansion velocities and recent calculations of radii. It is found that some of the previously alleged R-V relations for PN are not convincingly established. The scatter in the R-V plots may be due largely to stratification of ions in individual nebulae and to heterogeneity in the planetary nebula population. In addition, from new echelle/CCD observations of planetary nebulae, it is found that spatial information is essential in deriving the internal kinematic properties. Future investigations of R-V relations should be pursued separately for groups of planetaries with similar physical properties, and they should employ observations of appropriate low excitation lines in order to measure the expansion velocity at the surface of the nebula. 26 references

  12. Galactic planetary nebulae and evolution of their nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, G.S.


    The galactic system of planetary nebulae is investigated using previously constructed distance scale and kinematics data. A strong effect of observational selection is established, which has the consequence that with increasing distance, ever brighter and younger objects are observed. More accurate determinations of the spatial and surface densities of the planetary nebulae system are obtained as well as a new estimate of their total number in the Galaxy, which is approximately 200,000. New estimates are also made of the masses of the nebulae, the absolute magnitudes of the nebulae and their nuclei, and other physical parameters of these objects. The spatial and kinematic characteristics of the planetary nebulae indicate that they are objects of the old type I population. It is possible that their remote ancestors are main sequence stars of the type B8-A5-F or as yet unidentified objects of the same galactic subsystem

  13. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl


    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  14. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar medium (United States)

    Aller, L. H.


    In addition to available published data on planetary nebulae (PN), some 40 objects largely concentrated towards the galactic center and anticenter regions were included. All were observed with the Lick 3(sup m) telescope and image tube scanner. Abundances of C, N, O, Ne, Cl, and Ar were determined by a procedure in which theoretical models were used to obtain ionization correction factors (ICF). Of the 106 PN, 66 are N-rich and 40 are N-poor. There appear to be no significant differences between the average compositions in the solar neighborhood and the average taken over the entire observable portion of the galaxy.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)


    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii]  λ 7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  16. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  17. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Jackson, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Barrat, Jean-Alix, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Université Européenne de Bretagne, Université de Brest, CNRS UMR 6538 (Domaines Océaniques), I.U.E.M., Place Nicolas Copernic, F-29280 Plouzané Cedex (France)


    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  18. The Eagle Nebula Science on NIF experiment (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Heeter, Robert; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Smalyuk, Vladimir


    The Eagle Nebula NIF experiment was one of nine selected for laser time through the Science on NIF program. The goal of this scale laboratory experiment is to study the dynamic evolution of distinctive structures in star forming regions of astrophysical molecular clouds such as the Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. That evolution is driven by photoionizing radiation from nearby stars. A critical aspect of the radiation is its very directional nature at the photoionization front. The long duration of the drive and its directionality can generate new classes of instabilities and dynamic flows at the front that may be responsible for the shapes of Pillars and other structures. The experiment will leverage and modify the existing NIF Radiation Transport platform, replacing the target at the back end of the halfraum with a collimating aperture, and extending the existing 20 ns drive to longer times, using a combination of gas fill and other new design features. The apertured, quasi-collimated drive will be used to drive a target placed 2 mm away from the aperture. The astrophysical background and the status of the experimental design will be presented.

  19. Facile Droplet-based Microfluidic Synthesis of Monodisperse IV-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals with Coupled In-Line NIR Fluorescence Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lignos, Ioannis; Protesescu, Loredana; Stavrakis, Stavros; Piveteau, Laura; Speirs, Mark J.; Loi, Maria A.; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; deMello, Andrew J.


    We describe the realization of a droplet-based microfluidic platform for the controlled and reproducible synthesis of lead chalcogenide (PbS, PbSe) nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs). Monodisperse nanocrystals were synthesized over a wide range of experimental conditions, with real-time assessment and

  20. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions


    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Inamuddin,; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alhogbi, Basma G.; Naushad, Mu.


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol?gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy ...

  1. On planetary nebulae as sources of carbon dust: Infrared emission from planetary nebulae of the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinerstein, H.L.; Lester, D.F.


    Researchers examine here the characteristics of the infrared emission from the four planetary nebulae which are believed on the basis of their low overall metallicities to belong to the halo population. These nebulae are of particular interest because they are the most metal-poor ionized nebulae known in our Galaxy, and offer the opportunity to probe possible dependences of the dust properties on nebular composition. Researchers present fluxes extracted from co-addition of the IRAS data, as well as ground-based near infrared measurements. Each of the four halo objects, including the planetary nebula in the globular cluster M15, is detected in at least one infrared band. Researchers compare the estimated infrared excesses of these nebulae (IRE, the ratio of measured infrared power to the power available in the form of resonantly-trapped Lyman alpha photons) to those of disk planetary nebulae with similar densities but more normal abundances. Three of the halo planetaries have IRE values similar to those of the disk nebulae, despite the fact that their Fe- and Si-peak gas phase abundances are factors of 10 to 100 lower. However, these halo nebulae have normal or elevated C/H ratios, due to nuclear processing and mixing in their red giant progenitors. Unlike the other halo planetaries, DDDM1 is deficient in carbon as well as in the other light metals. This nebula has a substantially lower IRE than the other halo planetaries, and may be truly dust efficient. Researchers suggest that the deficiency is due to a lack of the raw material for producing carbon-based grains, and that the main bulk constituent of the dust in these planetary nebulae is carbon

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activities of A Nickel(II) Monoamido-Tetradentate Complex: Evidence For NiIII-Oxo and NiIV-Oxo Species. (United States)

    Bok, Kwon Hee; Lee, Myoung Mi; You, Ga Rim; Ahn, Hye Mi; Ryu, Ka Young; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Cheal


    A new mononuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni II (dpaq)Cl] (1), containing a tetradentate monoamido ligand, dpaq (dpaq=2-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-N-(quinolin-8-yl)acetamide), has been synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The structure of the nickel complex has been determined by X-ray crystallography. This nonheme Ni II complex 1 catalyzed the epoxidation reaction of a wide range of olefins with meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) under mild conditions. Olefin epoxidation using this catalytic system has been proposed to involve a new reactive Ni IV -oxo (4) species, based on the evidence from a PPAA (peroxyphenylacetic acid) probe, Hammett studies, H 2 18 O exchange experiments, and ESI mass spectroscopic analysis. Moreover, the nature of solvent significantly influenced partitioning between heterolytic and homolytic O-O bond cleavage of the Ni-acylperoxo intermediate (2). The O-O bond of 2 proceeded predominantly through heterolytic cleavage in a protic solvent, such as CH 3 OH. These results suggest that possibly a Ni IV -oxo species is a common reactive intermediate in protic solvents. The two active oxidants, namely Ni IV -oxo (3) and Ni III -oxo (4), which are responsible for stereospecific olefin epoxidation and radical-type oxidations, respectively, operate in aprotic solvents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of the Adducts of Morpholinedithioccarbamate Complexes of Oxovanadium (IV, Nickel(II, and Copper(II with Piperidine and Morpholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousami Sharma


    Full Text Available A series of 1:1 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complex of VO(IV, 1:1 and 1:2 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complexes of Ni(II and Cu(II with piperidine and morpholine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis, and TGA/DTA techniques. Analytical data reveals that VO(IV complex forms only 1:1 adducts with the formula [VO(morphdtc2L].H2O while Ni(II and Cu(II complexes form both 1:1 and 1:2 adducts with 1:1 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L and Cu(morphdtc2.L and 1:2 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L2 and Cu(morphdtc2.L2 (morphdtc = morpholinedithiocarbamate, L = morpholine and piperidine. Antifungal activity of some complexes has been carried out against the fungal strain Fusarium oxysporium. Thermal studies indicate a continuous weight loss. A square pyramidal geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes while an octahedral geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of VO(IV and for the 1:2 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes.

  4. Theoretical investigation into the existence of molecules in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.J.


    Calculations of chemical kinetic equilibrium molecular abundances in the neutral regions of planetary nebulae are presented. The development of these abundances during the expansion of the nebula is calculated. The physical parameters in the neutral regions following the formation of the nebula by the ejection of the envelope of a long peiod variable star have been taken from available dynamical models. Similarly, the temperature and luminosity of the central star as a function of time have been taken from available theoretical calculations. The thermal equilibrium has been solved independently. The temperatures in the shell and later in the condensations which develop are in the range from 30 to 250 K. Number densities range from 10 7 for the youngest model calculated to 2 x 10 4 for neutral condensations in a 10,000 year old nebula. It is shown that, for a typical nebula containing 0.2 Msub solar, molecules are expected to be the dominant form for only a short period early in the expansion phase. Subsequently, the condensations are not sufficiently optically thick to permit the continued existence of a preponderance of molecules. The molecular abundances in the later models are similar to those in diffuse interstellar clouds. The expectation arising from those results is that little molecular material will be injected into the interstellar medium by planetary nebulae. There is, however, a remarkable resemblance between the conditions in the model calculated at very early stages of the expansion and conditions deduced from observations for proto-planetary nebulae

  5. Divergent Strategy for the Diastereoselective Synthesis of the Tricyclic 6,7-Diaryltetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromene Core via Pt(IV)-Catalyzed Cycloaddition of o-Quinone Methides and Olefin Ring-Closing Metathesis. (United States)

    Tangdenpaisal, Kassrin; Chuayboonsong, Kanokpish; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi


    A divergent strategy for the synthesis of the tricyclic 6,7-diaryltetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromene core was successfully developed. The 2,3-trans, 2,4-cis trisubstituted chroman moiety was formed via highly efficient and stereoselective Pt(IV)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions of the corresponding quinone methides with chalcones. Subsequent steps provided the common diene alcohol, which underwent BF 3 ·Et 2 O-mediated Et 3 SiH reduction and olefin ring-closing metathesis (RCM) using Ru(II) catalysts. The sequence of the final two steps provided a handle to diversify the stereochemical outcomes at C6 as well as C10a.

  6. Estimating the Binary Fraction of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Douchin, Dimitri


    Planetary nebulae are the end-products of intermediate-mass stars evolution, following a phase of expansion of their atmospheres at the end of their lives. Observationally, it has been estimated that 80% of them have non-spherical shapes. Such a high fraction is puzzling and has occupied the planetary nebula community for more than 30 years. One scenario that would allow to justify the observed shapes is that a comparable fraction of the progenitors of central stars of planetary nebula (CSPN) are not single, but possess a companion. The shape of the nebulae would then be the result of an interaction with this companion. The high fraction of non-spherical planetary nebulae would thus imply a high fraction of binary central stars of planetary nebulae, making binarity a preferred channel for planetary nebula formation. After presenting the current state of knowledge regarding planetary nebula formation and shaping and reviewing the diverse efforts to find binaries in planetary nebulae, I present my work to detect a near-infrared excess that would be the signature of the presence of cool companions. The first part of the project consists in the analysis of data and photometry acquired and conducted by myself. The second part details an attempt to make use of archived datasets: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 optical survey and the extended database assembled by Frew (2008). I also present results from a radial velocity analysis of VLT/UVES spectra for 14 objects aiming to the detection of spectroscopic companions. Finally I give details of the analysis of optical photometry data from our observations associated to the detection of companions around central stars of planetary nebulae using the photometric variability technique. The main result of this thesis is from the near-infrared excess studies which I combine with previously published data. I conclude that if the detected red and NIR flux excess is indicative of a stellar companion then the binary

  7. OpenNebula KVM SR-IOV driver

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Macleod, D


    Full Text Available Version: 0.1 License: Apache 2.0 Web Links: Project Website: Demonstration Video: OpenNebula Page: http...:// Prerequisites and Limitations 1. This driver has been developed to support OpenNebula 4.0 and KVM. The driver should be backwards compatible the OpenNebula 3.x. 2. SR-IOV capable hardware and software is required. Before using...

  8. Nebular Spectroscopy: A Guide on Hii Regions and Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Peimbert, Manuel; Peimbert, Antonio; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria


    We present a tutorial on the determination of the physical conditions and chemical abundances in gaseous nebulae. We also include a brief review of recent results on the study of gaseous nebulae, their relevance for the study of stellar evolution, galactic chemical evolution, and the evolution of the universe. One of the most important problems in abundance determinations is the existence of a discrepancy between the abundances determined with collisionally excited lines and those determined by recombination lines: this is called abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) problem, and we review results related to it. Finally, we discuss the possible reasons for the large t 2 values observed in gaseous nebulae.

  9. X-ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula


    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I. -A.


    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula trailing the high velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the `Guitar Nebula'). This X-ray flux gives evidence of \\gamma~10^7 eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the post-shock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near equipartition values.

  10. X-Ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.


    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula trailing the high-velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the "Guitar Nebula"). This X-ray flux gives evidence of gamma approximately 10(exp 7) eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the postshock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near-equipartition values.

  11. Transition radiation and peculiar nebulas. [Emission lines, color indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.


    The transition radiation resulting from the electrodynamic interaction of fast electrons with dust particles may explain certain observations for peculiar galactic nebulas--Herbig--Haro objects, cometary nebulas, nebulas of the Barnard 10 type, T Tauri stars, FU Ori stars, etc. Equations are derived for the energetic and physical properties of peculiar objects. The probable energy of the fast electrons turns out to be on the order of 1.5 MeV. The excitation of emission lines, the color indices in the case of transition radiation, etc., are also discussed. A possible application of this theory to FUOR's is pointed out.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of N,N-di-alkyl-2-methoxyacetamides for the separation of U(VI) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaresan, R.; Prathibha, T.; Selvan, B. Robert; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.


    The homologs of N,N-di-alkyl-2-methoxyacetamides (DAMeOA) having three different alkyl chains varying from hexyl to decyl (C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10}) were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectral analyses. Extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid medium in a solution of 0.5 M of DAMeOA in n-dodecane (n-DD) was studied and the results were compared with those obtained using N,N-di-hexyloctanamide (DHOA) in n-dodecane. The effect of various parameters on the distribution ratio of U(VI) and Pu(IV) in DAMeOA was studied. The extraction of nitric acid increased with decrease in chain length of alkyl group attached to amidic nitrogen atom of DAMeOA and the conditional nitric acid extraction constant was determined. The extraction of nitric acid in DAMeOA/n-DD resulted in the formation of third phase in organic phase and the third phase occurred early with DAMeOA having smaller alkyl chain length. In contrast to this, the distribution ratio (D) of U(VI) and Pu(IV) in DAMeOA/n-DD increased with increase in the concentration of nitric acid and with increase in the chain length of alkyl group attached to amidic nitrogen atom of DAMeOA. The stoichiometry of the metal - solvate was determined from the slope of extraction data. Quantitative recovery of uranium and plutonium from the loaded organic phase was achieved using dilute nitric acid.

  13. Distorted square-antiprism geometry of new zirconium (IV) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization, crystal structure and investigation of biological properties (United States)

    Sahraei, Atefeh; Kargar, Hadi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz


    A series of zirconium (IV) Schiff-base complexes formulated as [Zr (Lx)2] and [Zr (Lx‧)2] were synthesized by reaction of tetradentate salicylaldimine Schiff-base ligands with [Zr (acac)4] in methanol. These ligands are as follows: H2Lx and H2Lx‧ (x = x‧ = 1,2,3,4). The new complexes have been characterized using FT-IR, lH NMR, 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses (CHN) and the crystal structure of Zr (L3)2, Zr (L1‧)2 and Zr (L3‧)2 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure analysis revealed that the coordination environment of the metal in all complexes is eight-coordinate occupied by N2O2 sets of the coordinated ligands in distorted square-antiprism geometry. The in vitro biological screening effects of the synthesized compounds were tested against different microbial kinds and the zirconium (IV) complexes exhibit antimicrobial activity.

  14. ISO Spectroscopy of Proto-Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.


    The goal of this program was to determine the chemical properties of the dust shells around protoplanetary nebulae (PPNs) through a study of their short-wavelength (6-45 micron) infrared spectra. PPNs are evolved stars in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula stages. Spectral features in the 10 to 20 gm region indicate the chemical nature (oxygen- or carbon-rich), and the strengths of the features relate to the physical properties of the shells. A few bright carbon-rich PPNs have been observed to show PAH features and an unidentified 21 micron emission feature. We used the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to observe a sample of IRAS sources that have the expected properties of PPNs and for which we have accurate positions. Some of these have optical counterparts (proposal SWSPPN01) and some do not (SWSPPN02). We had previously observed these from the ground with near-infrared photometry and, for those with visible counterparts, visible photometry and spectroscopy, which we have combined with these new ISO data in the interpretation of the spectra. We have completed a study of the unidentified emission feature at 21 micron in eight sources. We find the shape of the feature to be the same in all of the sources, with no evidence of any substructure. The ratio of the emission peak to continuum ranges from 0.13 to 1.30. We have completed a study of seven PPNs and two other carbon-rich objects for which we had obtained ISO 2-45 micron observations. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 micron were detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature was resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 micron (the "30 micron" feature) and a narrower feature peaking at 25.5 micron (the "26 micron" feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229+6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified

  15. Shape, structure, and morphology in planetary nebulae (United States)

    Shaw, Richard A.


    A revival over the past two decades in planetary nebula (PN) morphological studies springs from a combination of factors, including the advent of wide-area, high dynamic range detectors; the growing archives of high resolution images from the X-ray to the sub-mm; and the advent of sophisticated models of the co-evolution of PNe and their central stars. Yet the story of PN formation from their immediate precursors, the AGB stars, is not yet fully written. PN morphology continues to inspire, provide context for physical interpretation, and serve as an ultimate standard of comparison for many investigations in this area of astrophysics. After a brief review of the remarkable successes of PN morphology, I summarize how this tool has been employed over the last half-decade to advance our understanding of PNe.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun, E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    We use spatially extended measurements of Lyα as well as less optically thick emission lines from an ≈80 kpc Lyα nebula at z ≈ 1.67 to assess the role of resonant scattering and to disentangle kinematic signatures from Lyα radiative transfer effects. We find that the Lyα, C IV, He II, and C III] emission lines all tell a similar story in this system, and that the kinematics are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation. First, the observed surface brightness profiles are similar in extent in all four lines, strongly favoring a picture in which the Lyα photons are produced in situ instead of being resonantly scattered from a central source. Second, we see low kinematic offsets between Lyα and the less optically thick He II line (∼100-200 km s{sup –1}), providing further support for the argument that the Lyα and other emission lines are all being produced within the spatially extended gas. Finally, the full velocity field of the system shows coherent velocity shear in all emission lines: ≈500 km s{sup –1} over the central ≈50 kpc of the nebula. The kinematic profiles are broadly consistent with large-scale rotation in a gas disk that is at least partially stable against collapse. These observations suggest that the Lyα nebula represents accreting material that is illuminated by an offset, hidden active galactic nucleus or distributed star formation, and that is undergoing rotation in a clumpy and turbulent gas disk. With an implied mass of M(

  17. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.


    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  18. Classification of ISO SWS 01 spectra of proto-planetary nebulae: a search for precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars


    Szczerba, R.; Stasi{ń}ska, G.; Siódmiak, N.; Górny, S. K.


    We have analyzed ISO SWS 01 observations for 61 proto-planetary nebulae candidates and classified their spectra according to their dominant chemistry. On the basis of our classification and the more general classification of SWS 01 spectra by Kraemer et al. (2002) we discuss the connection between proto-planetary nebulae candidates and planetary nebulae, with emphasis on possible precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars.

  19. Statistical and physical study of one-sided planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Ali, A.; El-Nawawy, M. S.; Pfleiderer, J.

    The authors have investigated the spatial orientation of one-sided planetary nebulae. Most of them if not all are interacting with the interstellar medium. Seventy percent of the nebulae in the sample have inclination angles larger than 45° to the Galactic plane and 30% of the inclination angles are less than 45°. Most of the selected objects are old, evolved planetary nebulae with large dimensions, and not far away from the Galactic plane. Seventy-five percent of the objects are within 160 pc from the Galactic plane. The enhanced concavity arc can be explained physically as a result of the 'planetary nebulae-interstellar matter' interaction. The authors discuss the possible effect of the interstellar magnetic field in the concavity regions.

  20. Possible mass distributions in the nebulae of other solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.


    The supernova shell fragmentation model of solar system formation - previously shown to be successful in describing the mass distribution of our solar system - is used to calculate the mass distributions of other solar nebulae. (Auth.)

  1. On the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahel, R.Z.


    The evolution of nuclei of planetary nebulae has been calculated from the end of the ejection stage that produces the nebulae to the white dwarf stage. The structure of the central star is in agreement with the general picture of Finzi (1973) about the mass ejection from the progenitors of planetary nebulae. It has been found that in order to obtain evolutionary track consistent with the Harman-Seaton track (O'Dell, 1968) one has to assume that the masses of the nuclei stars are less than approximately 0.7 solar masses. The calculated evolutionary time scale of the central stars of planetary nebulae is approximately 2 x 10 4 yr. This time scale is negatively correlated with the stellar mass: the heavier the stellar mass, the shorter the evolutionary time scale. (Auth.)

  2. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonelli, D.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Reynolds, R.T.; Summers, A.L.


    The compositional contrast between the giant-planet satellites and the significantly rockier Pluto/Charon system is indicative of different formation mechanisms; cosmic abundance calculations, in conjunction with an assumption of the Pluto/Charon system's direct formation from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that most of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in CO form, in keeping with both the inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, and/or the Lewis and Prinn (1980) kinetic-inhibition model of solar nebula chemistry. Laboratory studies of carbonaceous chondrites and Comet Halley flyby studies suggest that condensed organic material, rather than elemental carbon, is the most likely candidate for the small percentage of the carbon-bearing solid in the outer solar nebula. 71 refs

  3. From red giant to planetary nebula - Dust, asymmetry, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Jones, T.J.


    The polarization characteristics of stars in the stages of evolution from red giant to planetary nebula are investigated. Polarization is found to be a characteristic of the majority of these stars. The maximum observed polarization increases with age as the star evolves up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebula phase, where the polarization reaches a maximum. The polarization then decreases as the star further evolves into a planetary nebula. These results indicate that aspherical mass loss is likely to be a continual feature of the late stages of stellar evolution, maintaining a clear continuity throughout the life of a star from the moment it first develops a measurable dust shell. The aspherical morphology seen in planetary nebulae has its origin in an intrinsic property of the star that is present at least as early as its arrival at the base of the AGB. 77 refs

  4. Chemical composition of planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA; Henney, WJ; Franco, J; Martos, M; Pena, M


    The method of determining abundances using Infrared Space Observatory spectra is discussed. The results for seven planetary nebula are given. Using these data, a preliminary discussion of their evolution is given.

  5. Synthesis and spectral studies of organotin(IV) 4-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thionates: In vitro antimicrobial activity (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Sulaxna; Song, Xueqing; Eng, George; Kumar, Ashok


    Some di- and triorganotin(IV) triazolates of general formula, R (4- n) SnL n (where n = 2; R = Me, n-Bu and Ph; n = 1; R = Me, n-Pr, n-Bu and Ph and HL = 4-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 1); and 4-amino-3-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 2)) were synthesized by the reaction of R (4- n) SnCl n with sodium salt of HL- 1 and HL- 2. The bonding and coordination behavior in these derivatives have been discussed on the basis of IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies in the solid state. Their coordination behavior in solution is discussed by multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectral studies. The IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that the ligands, HL- 1 and HL- 2 act as a monoanionic bidentate ligand, coordinating through Sexo- and Nring. The distorted skew trapezoidal-bipyramidal and distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries have been proposed for R 2SnL 2 and R 3SnL, respectively, in the solid state. In vitro antimicrobial screening of some of the newly synthesized derivatives and of some di- and triorganotin(IV) derivatives of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 3) and 5-amino-3H-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (HL- 4) along with two standard drugs such as fluconazole and ciprofloxacin have been carried out against the bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and against some fungi, viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida krusei (GO 3) and Candida glabrata (HO 5) by the filter paper disc method. The studied organotin(IV) compounds show mild antifungal activity as compared to that of fluconazole, however, they show almost insignificant activity against the studied Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureas) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria as compared to that of standard drug, ciprofloxacin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Mariichak


    size of Na6H2[CeIV(W5O182]·30H2O is within the range of 200–400nm, while the grain size of Na9[СеIII(W5O182]·28H2О makes up to 2.5μm. Homogeneity of the obtained samples was confirmed by the uniform contrast of the surface mode of backscattered electrons. On the micrographs of salts powder in characteristic X-ray emission there are no regions with different surface morphology, and there is an even distribution of Ce, Na, W, and O, without segregation and eliquation. These clearly point to the formation of single phase samples.

  7. Organotin(IV) complexes derived from proteinogenic amino acid: synthesis, structure and evaluation of larvicidal efficacy on Anopheles stephensi mosquito larvae


    Basu Baul, Tushar S; Kehie, Pelesakuo; Höpfl, Herbert; Duthie, Andrew; Eng, George; Linden, Anthony


    Five new organotin(IV) complexes of composition [Bz2SnL1]n (), [Bz3SnL1H⋅H2O] (), [Me2SnL2⋅H2O] (), [Me2SnL3] () and [Bz3SnL3H]n () (where L1 = (2S)-2-{[(E)-(4-hydroxypentan-2-ylidene)]amino}-4-methylpentanoate, L2 = (rac)-2-{[(E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]amino}-4-methylpentanoate and L3 = (2S)- or (rac)-2-{[(E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylidene]amino}-4-methylpentanoate) were synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 119Sn NMR and infrared spectroscopic techniques. The crystal s...

  8. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions. (United States)

    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alhogbi, Basma G; Naushad, Mu


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol-gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were also carried out. The material possessed an IEC of 1.56 meq·dry·g -1 of the exchanger and was found to be nano-composite. The selectivity studies showed that the material is selective towards Pb(II) ions. The selectivity of this cation-exchanger was demonstrated in the binary separation of Pb(II) ions from mixture with other metal ions. The recovery was found to be both quantitative and reproducible.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of New Lead(II and Organotin(IV Complexes of Schiff Bases Derived from Histidine and Methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Lal Singh


    Full Text Available New Schiff base (HL ligand is prepared via condensation of isatins and amino acids in 1:1 molar ratio. Metal complexes are prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic, infrared, and multinuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 119Sn NMR. The analytical data showed that the ligand acts as bidentate toward metal ions via azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen by a stoichiometric reaction of metal : ligand (1 : 2 to from metal complexes (Pb(II(L2 and Bu2Sn(L2, where L is the Schiff base ligands of histidine and methionine. The conductivity values between 15 and 25 Ω−1cm2 mol−1 in DMF imply the presence of nonelectrolyte species. On the basis of the above spectral studies, distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry have been proposed for the resulting organotin(IV and lead(II complexes.

  10. Interpretation of the [ClIII] Lines in Gaseous Nebulae. (United States)

    Aller, L H; Czyzak, S J; Walker, M F; Krueger, T K


    The intensity ratio of the green lambdalambda5517 and 5537 lines of [ClIII] serves as an indicatrix of the electron density in many gaseous nebulae whose spectra can be observed with an image converter. Quantitative interpretation of the line ratio requires accurate values of the collisional strengths and transition probabilities. With improved values of these parameters we have revised electron densities for a number of nebulae; the results seem to be in good accord with those derived from other criteria.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)


    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  12. Complex molecules in the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despois D.


    Full Text Available In the framework of the delivery to the early Earth of extraterrestrial molecules, we have studied complex molecular species toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. This nebula is rich in molecules as well as in nascent stars and planetary systems. We focus here on HCOOCH3, CH3OCH3 and deuterated methanol. Upper limits on species of prebiotic interest like glycine were also obtained.

  13. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.


    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (United States)

    MPS IV; Morquio syndrome; Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA; MPS IVA; Galactosamine-6-sulfatase deficiency; Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB; MPS IVB; Beta galactosidase deficiency; Lysosomal storage disease - mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

  15. The Orion Nebula: Still Full of Surprises (United States)


    This ethereal-looking image of the Orion Nebula was captured using the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory, Chile. This nebula is much more than just a pretty face, offering astronomers a close-up view of a massive star-forming region to help advance our understanding of stellar birth and evolution. The data used for this image were selected by Igor Chekalin (Russia), who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition. Igor's composition of the Orion Nebula was the seventh highest ranked entry in the competition, although another of Igor's images was the eventual overall winner. The Orion Nebula, also known as Messier 42, is one of the most easily recognisable and best-studied celestial objects. It is a huge complex of gas and dust where massive stars are forming and is the closest such region to the Earth. The glowing gas is so bright that it can be seen with the unaided eye and is a fascinating sight through a telescope. Despite its familiarity and closeness there is still much to learn about this stellar nursery. It was only in 2007, for instance, that the nebula was shown to be closer to us than previously thought: 1350 light-years, rather than about 1500 light-years. Astronomers have used the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile to observe the stars within Messier 42. They found that the faint red dwarfs in the star cluster associated with the glowing gas radiate much more light than had previously been thought, giving us further insights into this famous object and the stars that it hosts. The data collected for this science project, with no original intention to make a colour image, have now been reused to create the richly detailed picture of Messier 42 shown here. The image is a composite of several exposures taken through a total of five different filters. Light that passed through a red filter as well as light from a filter that

  16. Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray determination, fluorescence and electrochemical studies of new dinuclear nickel(II) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes containing double Schiff base ligands. (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Ozbakzaei, Zahra; Notash, Behrouz; Rezvani, S Ahmad


    A series of new bimetallic complexes of nickel(II) and vanadium(IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of the new double bidentate Schiff base ligands with nickel acetate and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 1:1 M ratio. In nickel and also vanadyl complexes the ligands were coordinated to the metals via the imine N and enolic O atoms. The complexes have been found to possess 1:1 metals to ligands stoichiometry and the molar conductance data revealed that the metal complexes were non-electrolytes. The nickel and vanadyl complexes exhibited distorted square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. The emission spectra of the ligands and their complexes were studied in methanol. Electrochemical properties of the ligands and their metal complexes were also investigated in DMSO solvent at 150 mV s(-1) scan rate. The ligands and metal complexes showed both quasi-reversible and irreversible processes at this scan rate. The Schiff bases and their complexes have been characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and conductometry. The crystal structure of the nickel complex has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Signatures of Chemical Evolution in Protostellar Nebulae (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha


    A decade ago observers began to take serious notice of the presence of crystalline silicate grains in the dust flowing away from some comets. While crystallinity had been seen in such objects previously, starting with the recognitions by Campins and Ryan (1990) that the 10 micron feature of Comet Halley resembled that of the mineral forsterite, most such observations were either ignored or dismissed as no path to explain such crystalline grains was available in the literature. When it was first suggested that an outward flow must be present to carry annealed silicate grains from the innermost regions of the Solar Nebula out to the regions where comets could form (Nuth, 1999; 2001) this suggestion was also dismissed because no such transport mechanism was known at the time. Since then not only have new models of nebular dynamics demonstrated the reality of long distance outward transport (Ciesla, 2007; 2008; 2009) but examination of older models (Boss, 2004) showed that such transport had been present but had gone unrecognized for many years. The most unassailable evidence for outward nebular transport came with the return of the Stardust samples from Comet Wild2, a Kuiper-belt comet that contained micron-scale grains of high temperature minerals resembling the Calcium-Aluminum Inclusions found in primitive meteorites (Zolensky et aI., 2006) that formed at T > 1400K. Now that outward transport in protostellar nebulae has been firmly established, a re-examination of its consequences for nebular gas is in order that takes into account both the factors that regulate both the outward flow as well as those that likely control the chemical composition of the gas. Laboratory studies of surface catalyzed reactions suggest that a trend toward more highly reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds in the gas phase should be correlated with a general increase in the crystallinity of the dust (Nuth et aI., 2000), but is such a trend actually observable? Unlike the Fischer-Tropsch or

  18. Synthesis, sintering and dissolution of thorium and uranium (IV) mixed oxide solid solutions: influence of the method of precursor preparation; Synthese, frittage et caracterisation de solutions solides d'oxydes mixtes de thorium et d'uranium (IV): influence de la methode de preparation du precurseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingant, N


    Mixed actinide dioxides are currently considered as potential fuels for the third and fourth generations of nuclear reactors. In this context, thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions were studied as model compounds to underline the influence of the method of preparation on their physico-chemical properties. Two methods of synthesis, both based on the initial precipitation of oxalate precursors have been developed. The first consisted in the direct precipitation ('open' system) while the second involved hydrothermal conditions ('closed' system). The second method led to a significant improvement in the crystallization of the samples especially in the field of the increase of the grain size. In these conditions, the formation of a complete solid solution Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O was prepared between both end-members. Its crystal structure was also resolved. Whatever the initial method considered, these compounds led to the final dioxides after heating above 400 C. The various steps associated to this transformation, involving the dehydration of precursors then the decomposition of oxalate groups have been clarified. Moreover, the use of wet chemistry methods allowed to reduce the sintering temperature of the final thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions. Whatever the method of preparation considered, dense samples (95% to 97% of the calculated value) were obtained after only 3 hours of heating at 1500 C. Additionally, the use of hydrothermal conditions significantly increased the grain size, leading to the reduction of the occurrence of the grain boundaries and of the global residual porosity. The significant improvement in the homogeneity of cations distribution in the samples was also highlighted. Finally, the chemical durability of thorium-uranium (IV) dioxide solid solutions was evaluated through the development of leaching tests in nitric acid. The optimized homogeneity especially in terms of the

  19. 8-13 μm spectral observations of eight moderately extended planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.F.; Aitken, D.K.; Whitmore, B.


    8-13 μm spectra of eight moderately extended planetary nebulae have been obtained at a resolution of 0.24 μm using a 20-arcsec circular aperture. More compact planetaries which have been studied in this way generally show a strong continuum due to emission from dust, together with fine structure line emission. In contrast, these more extended objects have very weak continuum emission, and are dominated by fine structure line emission, especially by [S IV] which in several cases accounts for most of the broad-band 10 μm flux. There appears to be very little warm (>approx.= to 150 K) dust in some of these objects. (author)

  20. Synthesis, structural characterization and evaluation of catalytic and antimicrobial properties of new mononuclear Ag(I), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Pt(IV) complexes (United States)

    Ali, Omyma A. M.; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.; Ismail, Basmh A.


    New mononuclear complexes of composition [AgL(H2O)2]NO3·H2O, [MnL2Cl(H2O)]Cl.3½H2O, [CuL2Cl2].½H2O and [PtLCl3(H2O)]Cl·2H2O {where L was 1-(2-furylmethylene)-N-(3-phenylallylidene) methanamine} were synthesized and characterized by different techniques. From the analytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes were 1:1 for Ag(I) and Pt(IV) complexes and 1:2 (M:L) for Mn(II) and Cu(II) complexes. Conductance data indicated that all complexes are electrolytic in nature while, Cu(II) complex was non-electrolyte. Spectroscopic data suggested that the ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand towards the central metal ion with azomethine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms as coordination sites. Tetrahedral structure has been proposed for Ag(I) complex, whereas the other complexes possess six coordinated octahedral geometry. TG-DTG study was done to track the thermal behavior of the complexes and the thermodynamic parameters were computed from the thermal data using Coats - Redfern method. The catalytic activity of the metal complexes was evaluated in the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide at 313-333 K temperature range. The data reveal that metal complexes are effective in catalyzing the hydrogen peroxide decomposition and the decomposition percentage increased with temperature. The agar well diffusion technique was used to test the growth inhibition of the ligand and its complexes against different species of bacteria and fungi. The metal complexes are more potent in inhibiting the growth of microorganisms than the ligand and in some cases, the complexes were closed to and more active than the standard species.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of hybrid; Acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate a cation exchanger, effect of dielectric constant on distribution coefficient of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Syed A. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail:; Shalla, Aabid H. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)


    A new hybrid inorganic-organic cation exchanger acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate has been synthesized, characterized and its analytical application explored. The effect of experimental parameters such as mixing ratio of reagents, temperature, and pH on the properties of material has been studied. FTIR, TGA, X-ray, UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM and elemental analysis were used to determine the physiochemical properties of this hybrid ion exchanger. The material behaves as a monofunctional acid with ion-exchange capacity of 1.65 meq/g for Na{sup +} ions. The chemical stability data reveals that the exchanger is quite stable in mineral acids, bases and fairly stable in organic solvents, while as thermal analysis shows that the material retain 84% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600 deg. C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in solvents with increasing dielectric constant has also been explored. The sorption studies reveal that the material is selective for Pb{sup 2+} ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column. Pb{sup 2+} has been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures containing Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}. In order to demonstrate practical utility of the material quantitative separation of the Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in brass sample has been achieved on its columns.

  2. Synthesis and structural studies of amido, hydrazido and imido zirconium(IV) complexes incorporating a diamido/diamine cyclam-based ligand. (United States)

    Munhá, Rui F; Veiros, Luis F; Duarte, M Teresa; Fryzuk, Michael D; Martins, Ana M


    The preparation, characterisation and structural analysis of a series of zirconium(IV) complexes that incorporate the diamido/diamine macrocyclic ligand Bn2Cyclam (Bn2Cyclam = 1,8-dibenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) are described. The reaction of one or two equivalents of the appropriate LiNHR reagents with [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl2] give the corresponding amido-chloride [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl(NHR)] (R = tBu, (2,6-iPr)Ph) or bis(amido) [(Bn2Cyclam)Zr(NHR)2] (R = iPr, tBu, (2,6-Me)Ph) complexes, respectively. Treatment of [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl(NH(2,6-iPr)Ph)] with one equiv. of MgClMe gives the base-free, monomeric imido complex [(Bn2Cyclam)Zr(N(2,6-iPr)Ph)]. The reaction of the tBu analog with MgClMe generates a dimeric bridging imido species [{(Bn2Cyclam)Zr}2(mu-NR)2], which can also be obtained by thermal decomposition of [(Bn2Cyclam)Zr(NHtBu)2] in toluene. The bis(hydrazido) complex [(Bn2Cyclam)Zr(NHNPh2)2] was obtained by reaction of [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl2] and two equiv. of LiNHNPh2. A hydrazido-chloride compound [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl(N(Ph)NBu(Ph))] was generated in a one-pot reaction between [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrCl2], LiBu and azobenzene. DFT calculations on [(Bn2Cyclam)ZrXY] complexes indicate that the coordination geometry adopted by these species is dictated by the steric bulk of the ligands X and Y, varying between six-coordinate prismatic and four-coordinate tetrahedral.

  3. Looking for new hybrid polymer fillers: synthesis of nanosized α-type Zr(IV) organophosphonates through an unconventional topotactic anion exchange reaction. (United States)

    Pica, Monica; Donnadio, Anna; Troni, Elisabetta; Capitani, Donatella; Casciola, Mario


    Gels of α-type zirconium(IV) phosphate alkylphosphonates, ZP(Cn)x, were prepared by reacting, at room temperature, propanol intercalated nanosized α-zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) with propanol solutions of alkylphosphonic acids (H2Cn, n = number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain = 4, 5, 6), with (H2Cn/Zr) molar ratios in the range 0.4-4.0. (31)P MAS NMR showed the presence of resonances due to the phosphate and phosphonate groups bonded to the Zr atoms mainly by three oxygen atoms, as in the α-type layer. The composition of the ZP(Cn)x materials, obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ranges from x ≈ 0.2 to x ≈ 1.1. On the basis of the NMR data and of the analysis of the X-ray patterns of gels and powders, it is inferred that the ZP(Cn)x compounds have an α-type layered structure and that the reaction between α-ZrP and H2Cn is a topotactic anion exchange process. The evolution of the X-ray patterns during propanol deintercalation is consistent with a random distribution of the alkylphosphonate groups on the α-type layers which gives rise to porous pathways in the interlayer region. To test the possibility of using ZP(Cn)x as mechanical reinforcement of a polymer matrix, a starch membrane filled with 5 wt % ZP(C6)0.54 was prepared and characterized by stress-strain mechanical tests. Besides an excellent flexibility, this membrane exhibited a proportional increase of the Young's modulus by 230% in comparison with neat starch.

  4. PAHs in the Ices of Saturn's Satellites: Connections to the Solar Nebula and the Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.


    Aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs have been observed in the interstellar medium (e.g., Allamandola et al. 1985, Pendleton et al. 1994, Pendleton & Allamandola 2002, Tielens 2013, Kwok 2008, Chiar & Pendleton 2008) The inventory of organic material in the ISM was likely incorporated into the molecular cloud in which the solar nebula condensed, contributing to the feedstock for the formation of the Sun, major planets, and the smaller icy bodies in the region outside Neptune's orbit (transneptunian objects, or TNOs). Additional organic synthesis occurred in the solar nebula (Ciesla & Sandford 2012). Saturn's satellites Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion open a window to the composition of one class of TNO as revealed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. Phoebe (mean diameter 213 km) is a former TNO now orbiting Saturn (Johnson & Lunine 2005). VIMS spectral maps of Phoebe's surface reveal a complex organic spectral signature consisting of prominent aromatic (CH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon (=CH2, -CH3) absorption bands (3.2-3.6 micrometers). Phoebe is the source of a huge debris ring encircling Saturn, and from which particles ((is) approximately 5-20 micrometers size) spiral inward toward Saturn (Verbiscer et al. 2009). They encounter Iapetus and Hyperion where they mix with and blanket the native H2O ice of those two bodies. Quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon bands on Iapetus demonstrates that aromatic CH is approximately 10 times as abundant as aliphatic CH2+CH3, significantly exceeding the strength of the aromatic signature in interplanetary dust particles, comet particles, and in carbonaceous meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 2014). A similar excess of aromatics over aliphatics is seen in the qualitative analysis of Hyperion and Phoebe itself (Dalle Ore et al. 2012). The Iapetus aliphatic hydrocarbons show CH2/CH3 (is) approximately 4, which is larger than the value found in the diffuse ISM ((is) approximately 2

  5. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  6. Accounting for planet-shaped planetary nebulae (United States)

    Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam


    By following the evolution of several observed exoplanetary systems, we show that by lowering the mass-loss rate of single solar-like stars during their two giant branches, these stars will swallow their planets at the tip of their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. This will most likely lead the stars to form elliptical planetary nebulae (PNe). Under the traditional mass-loss rate these stars will hardly form observable PNe. Stars with a lower mass-loss rate as we propose, about 15 per cent of the traditional mass-loss rate of single stars, leave the AGB with much higher luminosities than what traditional evolution produces. Hence, the assumed lower mass-loss rate might also account for the presence of bright PNe in old stellar populations. We present the evolution of four exoplanetary systems that represent stellar masses in the range of 0.9-1.3 M⊙. The justification for this low mass-loss rate is our assumption that the stellar samples that were used to derive the traditional average single-star mass-loss rate were contaminated by stars that suffer binary interaction.

  7. Abundances in Eight M31 Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry G.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Corradi, Romano; Galera-Rosillo, R.; Balick, Bruce; Henry, Richard B. C.


    As part of a continuing project using planetary nebulae (PNe) to study the chemical evolution and formation history of M31 (see accompanying poster by Balick et al.), we obtained spectra of eight PNe in the fall of 2013 with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the GTC. All of these PNe are located outside M31’s inner disk and bulge. Spectral coverage extended from 3700-7800Å with a resolution of ~6 Å. Especially important in abundance determinations is the detection of the weak, temperature-sensitive auroral line of [O III], at 4363Å, which is often contaminated by Hg I 4358Å from streetlights; the remoteness of the GTC eliminated this difficulty. We reduced and measured the spectra using IRAF, and derived nebular diagnostics and abundances with ELSA, our in-house five-level-atom program. Here we report the chemical abundances determined from these spectra. The bottom line is that the oxygen abundances in these PNe are all within a factor of 2-3 of the solar value, (as are all the other M31 PNe our team has previously measured) despite the significant range of galactocentric distance. Future work will use these abundances to constrain models of the central star to estimate progenitor masses and ages. In particular we will use the results to investigate the hypothesis that these PNe might represent a population related to the encounter between M31 and M33 ~3 Gy ago. We gratefully acknowledge support from Williams College.

  8. Dynamical evolution of the Orion nebula cluster (United States)

    Scally, Aylwyn; Clarke, Cathie; McCaughrean, Mark J.


    Observations of star formation in the Galaxy support the conclusion that most stars - including our own - form in an environment like the Orion nebula cluster (ONC). We construct a range of dynamical models of the ONC, using Aarseth's NBODY6 code, and explore their consequences for the origins of the cluster and its subsequent evolution. We find that the most acceptable fits to the cluster density profile are obtained in models where the cluster is set up in virial equilibrium and where the cluster extends well outside the limits of existing photometric surveys. However, current estimates of the virial ratio suggest the cluster is already unbound. We show that the size and age of the ONC in this case imply either that it became unbound only very recently, or else that it has expanded quasi-statically. In the latter case, its initial central density may have exceeded its current value by 1-2 orders of magnitude. We stress the importance of future proper motion experiments to distinguish between these possibilities.

  9. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) (United States)

    Ueta, T.; Ladjal, D.; HerPlaNS Team


    The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS, PI: T. Ueta) is one of the largest Herschel Open Time 1 program in which we explore the far-infrared aspects of 11 planetary nebulae (PNs) with the Herschel Space Observatory, exploiting its unprecedented capabilities in broadband photometry mapping, spectral mapping, and integral-field spectroscopy. We perform (1) deep PACS/SPIRE broadband mapping to account for the coldest dust component of the nebulae and determine the spatial distribution of the dusty haloes in the target PNs, (2) exhaustive PACS/SPIRE line mapping in far-IR atomic and molecular lines in two representative PNs to diagnose the energetics of the nebulae as a function of location in the nebulae, and (3) PACS/SPIRE spectral-energy-distribution spectroscopy at several positions in the target PNs to understand variations in the physical conditions as a function of location in the nebulae, to build a more complete picture of the interplay between the dust and gas components as a function of location in the nebulae. The HerPlaNS survey is distinguished from the existing guaranteed-time Key Program (KPGT), "Mass Loss of Evolved StarS" (MESS, PI: M. Groenewegen, including 10 PNs) by the extra dimension added by spectral mapping and integral-field spatio-spectroscopy that permit simultaneous probing of the gas and dust component in the target PNs. Through these investigations, we will consider the energetics of the entire gas-dust system as a function of location in the nebulae, which is a novel approach that has rarely been taken previously. HerPlaNS is conducted in collaboration with the Chandra Planetary Survey (ChanPlaNS, PI: J.H. Kastner) to furnish substantial PN data resources that would allow us—a community of PN astronomers—to tackle a multitude of unanswered issues in PN physics, from the shaping mechanisms of the nebulae to the energetics of the multi-phased gas-dust system surrounding the central white dwarf. These PN surveys, combined with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Savin


    Full Text Available Influence of complexes of germanium(IV and 3d-metals is traced with citric acid and 1,10-phenanthroline on the process of polycondensation maleic and phtalic anhydrydes with an ethyleneglycol. It is set that there is a noticeable decline of acidvalue of the got olygomer at the use of modifiers that testifies to the greater depth of polycondensation. Kinetic of copolymeryzation of the modified olygomers is studied with dithreeethylenglyc oldimethacrylatphtalates, threeethyenglycoldimethylmetacrylates and monoethyleneglycolmethylacrylates, descriptions of the got interdimerss are certain. Is it rotined that substantial advantage of the studied modifiers is that they can be used for a temperature 30ºC, when copolymeryzation does not pass with unmodified polyglycolmaleinatphalates. Complex [Co(phen3][Ge(HCit2]·2H2O substantially accelerates copolymerisation with three ethyenglycoldimethylmetacrylates; phenanthroline – with a monoethyleneglycolmethylacrylates. At 60 ºC all studied complexes accelerate the reaction of copolymeryzation well enough. Determination of density, hardness and impact strength showed that the modification PGMP virtually no effect on the physico-mechanical characteristics of the obtained copolymers (for modified systems rates were only 5-10% higher. Thus, the density for modified systems made up of 1.16-1.18 g/cm3 (unmodified system 1,13 g/cm3 hardness 17-18 N∙m (unmodified to 16 N∙m, and impact strength of 13 kJ/m2 (unmodified – 12 kJ/m2. Thus, the copolymerization m-PGMF with EBA was studied, takes place not only with greater speed but also at a temperature of 30°C without the use of special additive activated components. This may be particularly important in the case of manufacture of large dimensions products and the construction of roads, dams, bridges. Industrial application of the studied modifiers does not require significant changes to existing technologies and can be implemented by the addition of dry or

  11. A turbulent two-phase flow model for nebula flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, J.M.; Cuzzi, J.N.


    A new and very efficient turbulent two-phase flow numericaly model is described to analyze the environment of a protoplanetary nebula at a stage prior to the formation of planets. Focus is on settling processes of dust particles in flattened gaseous nebulae. The model employs a perturbation technique to improve the accuracy of the numerical simulations of such flows where small variations of physical quantities occur over large distance ranges. The particles are allowed to be diffused by gas turbulence in addition to settling under gravity. Their diffusion coefficients is related to the gas turbulent viscosity by the non-dimensional Schmidt number. The gas turbulent viscosity is determined by the means of the eddy viscosity hypothesis that assumes the Reynolds stress tensor proportional to the mean strain rate tensor. Zero- and two-equation turbulence models are employed. Modeling assumptions are detailed and discussed. The numerical model is shown to reproduce an existing analytical solution for the settling process of particles in an inviscid nebula. Results of nebula flows are presented taking into account turbulence effects of nebula flows. Diffusion processes are found to control the settling of particles. 24 refs

  12. Spectral and interferometric observation of four emission nebulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozinskaya, T.A.; Klement'eva, A.Yu.; Zhukov, G.V.; Shenavrin, V.I.


    Results of spectrophotometric and interferometric observations of four emission nebulae are presented; electron temperature Te and electron density Ne are estimated; mean beam velocities and parameters of the internal motion in the nebylae are determined. The following objects have been investigated: 1) a bright compact nebulae of unknown nature 2.5 in size which is identified with the non-thermal radiosource G6.4-0.5 in the region W28; 2) nebulae RCW171 5' in size which is identified with the radiosource G23.1+0.6; 3) the nebulae Simeiz 34/Sharpless 261/d 1950 =6sup(h)05sup(m), sigma 1950 =+15 deg 49'; its diameter is approximately 30 an extensive complex of bright emission fibres in the nebulae Swan, which are partially projected into a possible remainder of the outburst of a supernova W63; L 1950 =20sup(h)17sup(m); S 1950 =45 deg 30' its diameter is approximately 1 deg 5

  13. Continuous emission from the gaseous nebula beyond the Lyman limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgova, G.T.; Khromov, G.S.


    Models of spherically-symmetric isothermic hydrogen nebula with an exciting star in the centre are considered. Spectra and energies of diffuse radiation of nebula and of direct radiation of its kernel are calculated in the Lyman continuum for the external boundary of the object. The spectrum of the diffuse radiation is shown to be to a great extent invariant in relation to all parameters of models except for Tsub(e). The total loss in energy of Lsub(c)-radiation of kernel through the external border of the ionized nebula, amounts to 20-30% in the average even at a considerable optical thickness of the object tausub(0). The greater part of this energy is transferred via direct ionizing radiation, though the relative contribution of the diffuse Lsub(c)-radiation of nebula reaches 30% at low temperatures of the exciting star and at large tausub(0). The results of this work may be applied to calculating the energy balance of the star-nebula system, the heating of dust particles and ionization of the neighbouring interstellar medium, and also for determining the conditions of observation of the far ultra-violet radiation of similar objects

  14. The discovery of a highly polarized bipolar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Scarrott, S.M.; Menzies, J.


    During a search for the optical counterparts of IRAS sources whose flux peaks at 25 microns, a small faint bipolar nebula was discovered in Monoceros at the position of IRAS 07131-0147. The CCD images display the object's considerable structure. The central star seems relatively free of closeby nebulosity: the two lobes have a bow-tie structure with those parts nearest to the star consisting of series of small knots. The outer parts of the lobes seem to be made up of filaments streaming away from knots. On the basis of its optical spectrum, the central star was classified as a M5-6 giant. In the IRAS color classification scheme of Van der Veen and Habing (1988), the central star is VIb which indicates that there are distinct hot and cold components of circumstellar dust and that the mass loss process may have temporarily abated. Therefore, it is proposed that the object is in the post main sequence stage of evolution and is a protoplanetary nebulae. Young protoplanetary nebulae have totally obscured central stars illuminating reflective lobes whereas older ones such as M2-9 have lobes seen in emission from gas ionized by the central hot star which is clearly visible. Since the central object of IRAS07131-0147 is a relatively unobscured late type star and the lobes are seen only by reflection, it is suggested that this nebula is a protoplanetary nebula in an evolutionary stage intermediate between that of CRL2688 and M2-9

  15. On the injection of relativistic particles into the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskij, I.S.


    It is shown that a flux of relativistic electrons from the NP 0532 pulsar magnetosphere, responsible for its synchrotron emission, cannot provide the necessary energy pumping to the Crab Nebula. A conclusion is reached that such a pumping can be effectuated by a flow of relativistic electrons leaving the NP 0532 magnetosphere at small pitch angles and giving therefore no appreciable contribution to the synchrotron emission of the pulsar. An interpretation of the Crab Nebula synchrotron spectrum is given on the assumption of secular ''softening'' of the energy spectrum of the relativistic electrons injected into the Nebula. A possibility of explanation of the observed rapid variability of some features in the central part of the Nebula by ejection of free - neutron - rich dense gas clouds from the pulsar surface during ''starquakes'' is discussed. The clouds of rather dense (nsub(e) approximately 10 7 cm -3 ) plasma, thus formed at about 10 13 cm from pulsar, will be accelerated up to relativistic velocities by the pressure of the magneto-dipole radiation of NP 0532 and will deform the magnetic field in the inner part (R 17 cm) of the Crab Nebula, that is the cause of the variability observed. In this case, favourable conditions for the acceleration of the particles in the cloud up to relativistic energies are realized; that may be an additional source of injection

  16. Abundance in the planetary nebulae NGC 6537 and He2-111

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA


    The ISO and IUE spectra of the bipolar planetary nebulae NGC 6537 and He2-111 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectrum in the visual wavelength region from the nebulae to obtain a complete spectrum that is corrected for extinction. The chemical abundance of the nebulae is then

  17. Layers in the Central Orion Nebula (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.


    The existence of multiple layers in the inner Orion Nebula has been revealed using data from an Atlas of spectra at 2″ and 12 km s-1 resolution. These data were sometimes grouped over Samples of 10″×10″ to produce high Signal to Noise spectra and sometimes grouped into sequences of pseudo-slit Spectra of 12{^''.}8 - 39″width for high spatial resolution studies. Multiple velocity systems were found: V_{MIF} traces the Main Ionization Front (MIF), V_{scat} arises from back-scattering of V_{MIF} emission by particles in the background Photon Dissociation Region (PDR), V_{low} is an ionized layer in front of the MIF and if it is the source of the stellar absorption lines seen in the Trapezium stars, it must lie between the foreground Veil and those stars, V_{new,[O III]} may represent ionized gas evaporating from the Veil away from the observer. There are features such as the Bright Bar where variations of velocities are due to changing tilts of the MIF, but velocity changes above about 25″ arise from variations in velocity of the background PDR. In a region 25″ ENE of the Orion-S Cloud one finds dramatic changes in the [O III] components, including the signals from the V_{low,[O III]} and V_{MIF,[O III]} becoming equal, indicating shadowing of gas from stellar photons of >24.6 eV. This feature is also seen in areas to the west and south of the Orion-S Cloud.

  18. Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VI: the conference summary (United States)

    De Marco, O.


    The Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae conference series, now in its sixth edition, aims to resolve the shaping mechanism of PN. Eighty percent of PN have non spherical shapes and during this conference the last nails in the coffin of single stars models for non spherical PN have been put. Binary theories abound but observational tests are lagging. The highlight of APN6 has been the arrival of ALMA which allowed us to measure magnetic fields on AGB stars systematically. AGB star halos, with their spiral patterns are now connected to PPN and PN halos. New models give us hope that binary parameters may be decoded from these images. In the post-AGB and pre-PN evolutionary phase the naked post-AGB stars present us with an increasingly curious puzzle as complexity is added to the phenomenologies of objects in transition between the AGB and the central star regimes. Binary central stars continue to be detected, including the first detection of longer period binaries, however a binary fraction is still at large. Hydro models of binary interactions still fail to give us results, if we make an exception for the wider types of binary interactions. More promise is shown by analytical considerations and models driven by simpler, 1D simulations such as those carried out with the code MESA. Large community efforts have given us more homogeneous datasets which will yield results for years to come. Examples are the ChanPlaN and HerPlaNe collaborations that have been working with the Chandra and Herschel space telescopes, respectively. Finally, the new kid in town is the intermediate-luminosity optical transient, a new class of events that may have contributed to forming several peculiar PN and pre-PN.

  19. Ultraviolet imaging of planetary nebulae with GALEX (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Thilker, David


    Over four hundred Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) have been imaged by GALEX in two ultraviolet (UV) bands, far-UV (FUV, 1344-1786 Å, λ _{eff}= 1528 Å) and near-NUV (NUV, 1771-2831 Å, λ _{eff} = 2271 Å). We present examples of extended PNe, for which UV spectroscopy is also available, to illustrate the variety in UV morphology and color, which reflects ionization conditions. The depth of the GALEX imaging varies from flux ≈ 0.4/5× 10 ^{-18} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} Å^{-1} \\square ^'' -1} (FUV/NUV) for exposures of the order of ˜ 100 seconds, typical of the survey with the largest area coverage, to ˜ 0.3/8.3× 10^{-19} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} Å^{-1} \\square ^'' -1} (FUV/NUV) for ˜ 1500 sec exposures, typical of the second largest survey (see Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 320:11, 2009; Bianchi et al. in Adv. Space Res. 53:900, 2014). GALEX broad-band FUV and NUV fluxes include nebular emission lines and in some cases nebular continuum emission. The sensitivity of the GALEX instrument and the low sky background, especially in FUV, enable detection and mapping of very faint ionization regions and fronts, including outermost wisps and bow shocks. The FUV-NUV color of the central star provides a good indication of its T_{eff}, because the GALEX FUV-NUV color is almost reddening-free for Milky Way type dust (Bianchi et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 230:24, 2017; Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 335:51, 2011, Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 354:103, 2014) and it is more sensitive to hot temperatures than optical colors.

  20. Abundance of carbon and magnesium in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.


    The Orion nebula has been observed in two positions with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) in the low-resolution mode (approx.7 A) and in the spectral range 1150--3200 A. Emission lines of C II], C III], [O II], and He I have been measured and used to determine what is probably the first reliable abundance of carbon in H II regions. The logarithmic total abundance of carbon is found to be 8.4 close to the solar value. In contrast with the situation in the planetary nebula of similar excitation, IC 418, where the resonance Mg II lambda2800 line is observed to be relatively strong, in the Orion nebula the lambda2800 line is not detectable. an upper limit for the magnesium abundance of the order of 10 times smaller than in the Sun is suggested

  1. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing (United States)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.


    Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly

  2. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review. (United States)

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R


    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  3. Ring-shaped nebulae around FU Orionis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, R.W.


    Observational data on the morphology and spectra of the nebulae surrounding V1057 Cyg, V1515 Cyg, and V1735 Cyg stars are presented and studied. The data reveal that V1735 Cyg is more highly reddened than the nebula and the spectra of all three nebulae are from reflection. A simple model for the dust shell is proposed and it is argued that the shells may indicate a relatively advanced evolutionary state for the FU Orionis star. The relation between the shells and the evolution of the stars is examined. The models of Herbig (1977), Mould et al. (1978), Larson (1980), and Hartmann and Kenyon (1985), which are utilized to analyze the FU Orionis outburst phenomenon, are tested. 23 references

  4. IV treatment at home (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  5. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy for proud nebulae in keratoconus. (United States)

    Moodaley, L; Liu, C; Woodward, E G; O'Brart, D; Muir, M K; Buckley, R


    Contact lens intolerance in keratoconus may be due to the formation of a proud nebula at or near the apex of the cone. Excimer laser superficial keratectomy was performed as an outpatients with proud nebulae as treatment patients with proud nebulae as treatment for their contact lens intolerance. The mean period of contact lens wear before the development of intolerance was 13.4 years (range 2 to 27 years). Following the development of intolerance, three patients abandoned contact lens wear in the affected eye while the remainder experienced a reduction in comfortable wearing time (mean = 3.75 hours; range: 0-14 hours). All patients had good potential Snellen visual acuity with a contact lens of 6/9 (nine eyes) and 6/12 (one eye). The proud nebulae were directly ablated with a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using a 1 mm diameter beam. Between 100-150 pulses were sufficient to ablate the raised area. Patients experienced no pain during the procedure and reported minimal discomfort postoperatively. In all cases flattening of the proud nebulae was achieved. Seven patients were able to resume regular contact lens wear (mean wearing time = 10.17 hours; range 8 to 16 hours). In three patients, resumption of contact lens wear was unsuccessful because of cone steepness. All patients achieved postoperative Snellen visual acuity of 6/12 or better with a contact lens. Four patients experienced a loss of one line in Snellen acuity. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 17 months). Excimer laser superficial keratectomy is a useful technique for the treatment of contact lens intolerance caused by proud nebulae in patients with keratoconus. Penetrating keratoplasty is thus avoided.

  6. Proper-Motion Measurements of the Cygnus Egg Nebula (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Murakawa, Koji; Meixner, Margaret


    We present the results of proper-motion measurements of the dust shell structure in the Egg Nebula (AFGL 2688, CRL 2688, V1610 Cyg), based on the archived two-epoch data at 2 μm taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the amount of motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shifts over an interval of 5.5 yr. The dynamical age of the nebula is found to be roughly 350 yr based on the overall Hubble-law-esque motion of the nebula. By adopting the deprojected velocity of 45 km s-1 at the tips of the bipolar lobes, our proper-motion measurements indicate that the distance to the Egg Nebula is about 420 pc and that the lobes are inclined at 7.7d with respect to the plane of the sky. The refined distance estimate yields a luminosity of the central star of 3.3×103 Lsolar, a total shell mass of 1.2 Msolar, and a mass-loss rate (the upper limit) of 3.6×10-3 Msolar yr-1. Assuming a 0.6 Msolar central post-AGB stellar mass, the initial mass of the Egg is 1.8 Msolar. Upon analysis, we also discovered that (1) the central star of the Egg Nebula has a proper motion of its own at a rate of 17 mas yr-1, (2) the tips of the lobes increased their velocity due to shock acceleration, and (3) the apparent bipolar lobes consist of multiple outflows at distinct inclination angles projected onto each other.

  7. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing (United States)

    Pham, Long; Chen, Aijun; Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Theobald, Michael; Asghar, Esfandiari; Campino, Jane; Vollmer, Bruce


    Cloud Computing has been implemented in several commercial arenas. The NASA Nebula Cloud Computing platform is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) built in 2008 at NASA Ames Research Center and 2010 at GSFC. Nebula is an open source Cloud platform intended to: a) Make NASA realize significant cost savings through efficient resource utilization, reduced energy consumption, and reduced labor costs. b) Provide an easier way for NASA scientists and researchers to efficiently explore and share large and complex data sets. c) Allow customers to provision, manage, and decommission computing capabilities on an as-needed bases

  8. Observing by hand sketching the nebulae in the nineteenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Nasim, Omar W


    Today we are all familiar with the iconic pictures of the nebulae produced by the Hubble Space Telescope's digital cameras. But there was a time, before the successful application of photography to the heavens, in which scientists had to rely on handmade drawings of these mysterious phenomena.           Observing by Hand sheds entirely new light on the ways in which the production and reception of handdrawn images of the nebulae in the nineteenth century contributed to astronomical observation. Omar W. Nasim investigates hundreds of unpublished observing books and paper records from six ninete

  9. A radio search for planetary nebulae near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacman, R.B.


    Because of galactic center is a hostile environment, and because planetaries are weak radio emitters, it is not clear a priori that one expects to detect any planetary nebulae at all in the nuclear region of the Galaxy. Therefore the expected lifetime and flux density distribution of galactic center nebulae is considered. The principal observational results from the Westerbork data, and the results of some pilot observations with the Very Large Array, which were intended to distinguish planetaries from other radio sources on an individual basis are given. (Auth.)


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Viti, S.; Wesson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Zijlstra, A. A.


    We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4' x 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 μm H 2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0.''4) at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2.'2-6.'4 from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4.'5 from the CS), the knot often show a 'tadpole' shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multipeaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4.'5-6.'4 from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H 2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H 2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which contribute to the shaping of the knots are discussed, including photoionization and streaming motions. A plausible interpretation of our images is that inner knots are being overrun by a faster wind, but that this has not (yet) reached the outer knots. Based on H 2 formation and destruction rates, H 2 gas can survive in knots from formation during the late asymptotic giant branch phase throughout the PN phase. These observations provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of knots, and on the physics of molecular gas embedded within ionized gas.

  11. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D


    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  12. The first frost in the Pipe Nebula (United States)

    Goto, Miwa; Bailey, Jeffrey D.; Hocuk, Seyit; Caselli, Paola; Esplugues, Gisela B.; Cazaux, Stephanie; Spaans, Marco


    Context. Spectroscopic studies of ices in nearby star-forming regions indicate that ice mantles form on dust grains in two distinct steps, starting with polar ice formation (H2O rich) and switching to apolar ice (CO rich). Aims: We test how well the picture applies to more diffuse and quiescent clouds where the formation of the first layers of ice mantles can be witnessed. Methods: Medium-resolution near-infrared spectra are obtained toward background field stars behind the Pipe Nebula. Results: The water ice absorption is positively detected at 3.0 μm in seven lines of sight out of 21 sources for which observed spectra are successfully reduced. The peak optical depth of the water ice is significantly lower than those in Taurus with the same AV. The source with the highest water-ice optical depth shows CO ice absorption at 4.7 μm as well. The fractional abundance of CO ice with respect to water ice is 16-6+7%, and about half as much as the values typically seen in low-mass star-forming regions. Conclusions: A small fractional abundance of CO ice is consistent with some of the existing simulations. Observations of CO2 ice in the early diffuse phase of a cloud play a decisive role in understanding the switching mechanism between polar and apolar ice formation. Based on data collected by SpeX at the Infrared Telescope Facility, which is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract NNH14CK55B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Based also on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.The final reduced spectra (FITS format) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.


    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  14. Protostar Evolution in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) (United States)

    Sanchez, Michael Allan


    We present our preliminary analysis of the protostars within the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We developed a pipeline to identify protostars in the ONC using the IRAC instrument aboard Spitzer. We verified our photometric measurements with the catalog provided by Megeath et al. (2012). We then classified the protostar evolution stages (0/I, Flatt, II, and III) based on their spectral slope.

  15. Warm molecular gas in the M17 SW nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Spaans, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Güsten, R.; Corbett, IF


    High resolution maps of the (12)CO J = 6 -> 5 line and the [C I] (3) P(2) (3)P(1) (370 mu m) fine-structure transition in the Galactic nebula M17 SW are presented. The maps were obtained using the dual color multiple pixel receiver CHAMP(+) on the APEX dagger telescope.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Turner, Neal J.; Masiero, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wakita, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Yuji; Oshino, Shoichi, E-mail: [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    Chondritic meteorites provide valuable opportunities to investigate the origins of the solar system. We explore impact jetting as a mechanism of chondrule formation and subsequent pebble accretion as a mechanism of accreting chondrules onto parent bodies of chondrites, and investigate how these two processes can account for the currently available meteoritic data. We find that when the solar nebula is ≤5 times more massive than the minimum-mass solar nebula at a ≃ 2–3 au and parent bodies of chondrites are ≤10{sup 24} g (≤500 km in radius) in the solar nebula, impact jetting and subsequent pebble accretion can reproduce a number of properties of the meteoritic data. The properties include the present asteroid belt mass, the formation timescale of chondrules, and the magnetic field strength of the nebula derived from chondrules in Semarkona. Since this scenario requires a first generation of planetesimals that trigger impact jetting and serve as parent bodies to accrete chondrules, the upper limit of parent bodies’ masses leads to the following implications: primordial asteroids that were originally ≥10{sup 24} g in mass were unlikely to contain chondrules, while less massive primordial asteroids likely had a chondrule-rich surface layer. The scenario developed from impact jetting and pebble accretion can therefore provide new insights into the origins of the solar system.

  17. Multibaseline Observations of the Occultation of Crab Nebula by the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Observations of the radio source Crab Nebula were made at the time of transit during. June 1986 and 1987. The fringe amplitude V(S) for a baseline S was calibrated using the corresponding baseline fringe amplitude of radio source 3C123 or 3C134 and normalised to the preoccultation value V(O). Normalised fringe ...

  18. Modern techniques in galaxy kinematics : Results from planetary nebula spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Arnaboldi, M; Gerssen, J; Merrifield, MR; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R


    We have observed planetary nebulae (PNe) in several early-type galaxies using new techniques on 4- to 8-meter-class telescopes. We obtain the first large data sets (greater than or similar to 100 velocities each) of PN kinematics in galaxies at greater than or similar to 15 Mpc, and present some

  19. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the proximity of the star. In the blue, light from HD 44179, refracted or scattered in the atmosphere, dominates the ...

  20. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; hide


    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/ PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab Nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  1. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.


    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  2. Preferrential Concentration of Particles in Protoplanetary Nebula Turbulence (United States)

    Hartlep, Thomas; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.


    Preferential concentration in turbulence is a process that causes inertial particles to cluster in regions of high strain (in-between high vorticity regions), with specifics depending on their stopping time or Stokes number. This process is thought to be of importance in various problems including cloud droplet formation and aerosol transport in the atmosphere, sprays, and also in the formation of asteroids and comets in protoplanetary nebulae. In protoplanetary nebulae, the initial accretion of primitive bodies from freely-floating particles remains a problematic subject. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] in turbulent nebulae. One scenario that can lead directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects, avoiding the problematic m-km size range, involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in protoplanetary turbulence. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles generally known as "chondrules" [2]. Thus, while it is arcane, turbulent preferential concentration acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. Here, we present the statistical determination of particle multiplier distributions from numerical simulations of particle-laden isotopic turbulence, and a cascade model for modeling turbulent concentration at lengthscales and Reynolds numbers not accessible by numerical simulations. We find that the multiplier distributions are scale dependent at the very largest scales but have scale-invariant properties under a particular variable normalization at smaller scales.

  3. Millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, D.; Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S.


    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, 13 CO, and HCO + with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V LSR = –14 km s –1 and +5 km s –1 . These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado 'head' in the –14 km s –1 cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s –1 cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the –14 km s –1 cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s –1 cloud collided into the –14 km s –1 cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  4. A 100 kpc nebula associated with the `Teacup' fading quasar (United States)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Humphrey, A.; Silva, M.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Piqueras-López, J.; Emonts, B.


    We report the discovery of an ˜100 kpc ionized nebula associated with the radio-quiet type 2 quasar (QSO2) nicknamed the `Teacup' (z = 0.085). The giant nebula is among the largest known around active galaxies at any z. We propose that it is part of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the QSO2 host, which has been populated with tidal debris by galactic interactions. This rich gaseous medium has been rendered visible due to the illumination by the powerful active nucleus (AGN). Subsolar abundances (˜0.5 Z⊙) are tentatively favoured by AGN photoionization models. We also report the detection of coronal emission (Fe+6) from the NE bubble, at ˜9 kpc from the AGN. The detection of coronal lines at such large distances from the AGN and the [N II] λ6583/Hα, [S II] λλ6716,6731/Hα, [O I] λ6300/Hα optical emission-line ratios of the giant nebula are consistent with the fading quasar scenario proposed by Gagne et al. The fading rate appears to have been faster in the last ˜46 000 yr. Deep wide field integral field spectroscopy of giant nebulae around powerful AGN such as the `Teacup's' with instruments such as MUSE on VLT opens up a way to detect and study the elusive material from the CGM around massive active galaxies thanks to the illumination by the luminous AGN.

  5. Physical conditions in Photo-Dissociation Regions around Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    We present observations of the infrared fine-structure lines of [Si II] (34.8 mum), [O I] (63.2 and 145.5 mum) and [C II] (157.7 mum) obtained with the ISO SWS and LWS spectrographs of nine Planetary Nebulae (PNe). These lines originate in the Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) associated with the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    We propose to use the correlation between the distance-independent radio continuum brightness temperature and the distance-dependent radius to determine statistical distances to planetary nebulae. This correlation satisfies two objective criteria which define a statistical distance scale: (1) We

  7. The ISO-SWS spectrum of planetary nebula NGC 7027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, JB; Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Wesselius, PR

    We present the infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC7027 observed with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). These data allow us to derive the electron density and, together with the IUE and optical spectra, the electron temperature for

  8. The central star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6537

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value


    The fact that Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the planetary nebula NGC 6537 fail to show the central star is used to derive a limit to its magnitude: it is fainter than a magnitude of 22.4 in the visible. This is used to derive a lower limit to the temperature of the star. The Zanstra temperature is

  9. The shape of the LoTr 5 planetary nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosch, N; Hoffman, Y


    We observed the large and faint planetary nebula around IN Com in H alpha and N II light with a coronagraphic charge-coupled device on the Wise Observatory reflector, blocking the light from the central star. Our goal was to provide a second image of the object with which to confirm the features

  10. Identification of Near-infrared [Se iii] and [Kr vi] Emission Lines in Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C.; Mashburn, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Luridiana, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Butler, K. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Morisset, C. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20164, 04510 (Mexico); Roederer, I. U., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)


    We identify [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m in the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315 and [Kr vi] 1.2330 μ m in three PNe from spectra obtained with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope. Se and Kr are the two most widely detected neutron-capture elements in astrophysical nebulae, and can be enriched by s -process nucleosynthesis in PN progenitor stars. The detection of [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m is particularly valuable when paired with observations of [Se iv] 2.2864 μ m, as it can be used to improve the accuracy of nebular Se abundance determinations, and allows Se ionization correction factor (ICF) schemes to be empirically tested for the first time. We present new effective collision strength calculations for Se{sup 2+} and Kr{sup 5+}, which we use to compute ionic abundances. In NGC 5315, we find that the Se abundance computed from Se{sup 3+}/H{sup +} is lower than that determined with ICFs that incorporate Se{sup 2+}/H{sup +}. We compute new Kr ICFs that take Kr{sup 5+}/H{sup +} into account, by fitting correlations found in grids of Cloudy models between Kr ionic fractions and those of more abundant elements, and use these to derive Kr abundances in four PNe. Observations of [Se iii] and [Kr vi] in a larger sample of PNe, with a range of excitation levels, are needed to rigorously test the ICF prescriptions for Se and our new Kr ICFs.

  11. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae. (United States)

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W


    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have proposed a statistical method to determine distances to planetary nebulae. The method is based on an empirical correlation between the radio-continuum brightness temperature and radius. Here we present a catalog of distance determinations calculated using this method.

  13. Stark Broadening of Se IV, Sn IV, Sb IV and Te IV Spectral Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević


    Full Text Available Stark broadening parameters, line width and shift, are needed for investigations, analysis and modelling of astrophysical, laboratory, laser produced and technological plasmas. Especially in astrophysics, due to constantly increasing resolution of satellite borne spectrographs, and large terrestrial telescopes, data on trace elements, which were previously insignificant, now have increasing importance. Using the modified semiempirical method of Dimitrijević and Konjević, here, Stark widths have been calculated for 2 Se IV, 6 Sn IV, 2 Sb IV and 1 Te IV transitions. Results have been compared with existing theoretical data for Sn IV. Obtained results will be implemented in the STARK-B database, which is also a part of Virtual atomic and molecular data center (VAMDC.

  14. The Making of a Pre-Planetary Nebula (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The gas expelled by dying stars gets twisted into intricate shapes and patterns as nebulae form. Now a team of researchers might have some answers about how this happens.Whats a Pre-Planetary Nebula?This H-R diagram for the globular cluster M5 shows where AGB stars lie: they are represented by blue markers here. The AGB is one of the final stages in a low- to intermediate-mass stars lifetime. [Lithopsian]When a low- to intermediate-mass star approaches the end of its lifetime, it moves onto the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. As the star exhausts its fuel here, it shrugs off its outer layers. These layers of gas then encase the stars core, which is not yet hot enough to ionize the gas and cause it to glow.Instead, during this time the gas is relatively cool and dark, faintly reflecting light from the star and emitting only very dim infrared emission of its own. At this stage, the gas represents a pre-planetary nebula. Only later when the stellar core contracts enough to heat up and emit ionizing radiation does the nebula begin to properly glow, at which point it qualifies as a full planetary nebula.Images of OH231 in optical light (top) and 12CO (bottom) taken from the literature. [See Balick et al. 2017 for full credit]Unexpected ShapesPre-planetary nebulae are a very short-lived evolutionary stage, so weve observed only a few hundred of them which has left many unanswered questions about these objects.One particular mystery is that of their shapes: if these nebulae are formed by stars expelling their outer layers, we would naively expect them to be simple spherical shells and yet we observe pre-planetary nebulae to have intricate shapes and patterns. How does the star create these asymmetric shapes? A team of scientists led by Bruce Balick (University of Washington, Seattle) has now used simulations to address this question.Injecting MassBalick and collaborators use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to model one particular pre

  15. Synthesis and structure of ruthenium(IV) complexes featuring N-heterocyclic ligands with an N-H group as the hydrogen-bond donor: hydrogen interactions in solution and in the solid state. (United States)

    Díez, Josefina; Gimeno, José; Merino, Isabel; Rubio, Eduardo; Suárez, Francisco J


    The synthesis and characterization of novel ruthenium(IV) complexes [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(2)L] [L = 3-methylpyrazole (2b), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (2c), 3-methyl-5-phenylpyrazole (2d), 2-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)phenol (2e), 6-azauracile (3), and 1H-indazol-3-ol (4)] are reported. Complex 2e is converted to the chelated complex [Ru(η(3):η(3)-C(10)H(16))Cl(κ(2)-N,O-2-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)phenoxy)] (5) by treatment with an excess of NaOH. All of the ligands feature N-H, O-H, or C═O as the potential hydrogen-bonding group. The structures of complexes 2a-2c, 2e, 3, and 5 in the solid state have been determined by X-ray diffraction. Complexes 2a-2c and 3, which contain the pyrazole N-H group, exhibit intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds with chloride ligands [N-H···Cl distances (Å): intramolecular, 2.30-2.78; intermolecular, 2.59-2.77]. Complexes 2e and 3 bearing respectively O-H and C═O groups also feature N-H···O interactions [intramolecular (2e), 2.27 Å; intermolecular (3), 2.00 Å]. Chelated complex 5, lacking the O-H group, only shows an intramolecular N-H···Cl hydrogen bonding of 2.42 Å. The structure of complex 3, which turns out to be a dimer in the solid state through a double intermolecular N-H···O hydrogen bonding, has also been investigated in solution (CD(2)Cl(2)) by NMR diffusion studies. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments reveal an equilibrium between monomer and dimer species in solution whose extension depends on the temperature, concentration, and coordinating properties of the solvent. Preliminary catalytic studies show that complex 3 is highly active in the redox isomerization of the allylic alcohols in an aqueous medium under very mild reaction conditions (35 °C) and in the absence of a base. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. A new planetary nebula in the outer reaches of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viironen, K.; Mampaso, A.; L. M. Corradi, R.


    A proper determination of the abundance gradient in the Milky Way requires the observation of objects at large galactiocentric distances. With this aim, we are exploring the planetary nebula population towards the Galactic Anticentre. In this article, the discovery and physico-chemical study...... of a new planetary nebula towards the Anticentre direction, IPHASX J052531.19+281945.1 (PNG 178.1-04.0), is presented. The planetary nebula was discovered from the IPHAS survey. Long-slit follow-up spectroscopy was carried out to confirm its planetary nebula nature and to calculate its physical...... and chemical characteristics. The newly discovered planetary nebula turned out to be located at a very large galactocentric distance (D_GC=20.8+-3.8 kpc), larger than any previously known planetary nebula with measured abundances. Its relatively high oxygen abundance (12+log(O/H) = 8.36+-0.03) supports...

  17. The jovian nebula: a post-voyager perspective. (United States)

    Trauger, J T


    Voyager 1 carried a diverse collection of magnetospheric probes through the inner Jovian magnetosphere in March 1979. The ensuing data analysis and theoretical investigation provided a comprehensive description of the Jovian nebula, a luminous torus populated with newly released heavy ions drawn from Io's surface. Recent refinements in Earth-based imaging instrumentation are used to extend the Voyager in situ picture in temporal and spatial coverage. An analysis of [SIII] and [SII] optical emissions observed during the Jovian apparitions of 1981 through 1983 reveals three distinct torus components. Regularities have been identified in the ion partitioning and ion densities in the hot outer and inner tori, sharply defined radial structure is found in the plasma near Io, and the relative permanence of the cool inner torus is inferred. An extended cloud of neutral material is required as a source of fresh ions in the nebula.

  18. Catalysis by Dust Grains in the Solar Nebula (United States)

    Kress, Monika E.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.


    In order to determine whether grain-catalyzed reactions played an important role in the chemistry of the solar nebula, we have applied our time-dependent model of methane formation via Fischer-Tropsch catalysis to pressures from 10(exp -5) to 1 bar and temperatures from 450 to 650 K. Under these physical conditions, the reaction 3H2 + CO yields CH4 + H2O is readily catalyzed by an iron or nickel surface, whereas the same reaction is kinetically inhibited in the gas phase. Our model results indicate that under certain nebular conditions, conversion of CO to methane could be extremely efficient in the presence of iron-nickel dust grains over timescales very short compared to the lifetime of the solar nebula.

  19. Probing Shocks of the Young Planetary Nebula NGC 7027 (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo


    The rapid evolution of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 provides a rare glimpse at the evolution of the shocks. We propose a detailed spatial and spectroscopic study of the shock conditions in NGC 7027 that will enhance and bridge our understanding of the shocks seen in other planetary nebula. Comparison between the Cycle 1 observation and a new Cycle 15 observation will (i) confirm the presence of the two components in the extended X-ray emission, (ii) measure the changes (spatial and spectral) in the components, and, (iii) provide a valuable trove of tests and inputs for shock conditions and hydrodynamical simulations. We rely on the unprecedented spatial resolution and soft-sensitivity of Chandra.

  20. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Tibaldo, L.


    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10 15 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 * 10 -2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. (authors)

  1. Al-Sufi's Investigation of Stars, Star Clusters and Nebulae (United States)

    Hafez, Ihsan; Stephenson, F. R.; Orchiston, W.


    The distinguished Arabic astronomer, Al-Sufi (AD 903-986) is justly famous for his Book of the Fixed Stars, an outstanding Medieval treatise on astronomy that was assembled in 964. Developed from Ptolemy's Algamest, but based upon al-Sufi's own stellar observations, the Book of the Fixed Stars has been copied down through the ages, and currently 35 copies are known to exist in various archival repositories around the world. Among other things, this major work contains 55 astronomical tables, plus star charts for 48 constellations. For the first time a long-overdue English translation of this important early work is in active preparation. In this paper we provide biographical material about Al-Sufi and the contents of his Book of the Fixed Stars, before examining his novel stellar magnitude system, and his listing of star clusters and nebulae (including the first-ever mention of the Great Nebula in Andromeda).

  2. The FU Orionis Phenomenon and Solar Nebula Material (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Cassen, P. M.; Wasson, J. T.; Woolum, D. S.


    We summarize astronomical, meteoritic, and theoretical evidence relating to the FU Orionis phenomenon. This evidence suggests that at early times (the first few 10(exp 5) yr), the solar nebula experienced a hot phase characterized by high accretion rates (the "FU Ori epoch"), punctuated by episodic outbursts of enhanced mass flow through the inner part of the disk (less than or equal to 0.3 AU). Throughout this epoch, disk midplane temperatures exceeded 1000 K at 1 AU. Diminishing infall from the cloud core led to decreasing mass flux throughout the disk. When mass flow de creased below the value critical for outburst (5 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr, as suggested by thermal ionization instability models), outbursts ceased and the T Tauri epoch began. Outburst timescales are too long to explain calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and chondrule formation. Volatility-dependent fractionation patterns seen in meteoritic materials suggest that solids formed beginning during a hot epoch when temperatures exceeded 1400 K, and the presence of volatiles in chondrites argues that this process continued until the nebula had cooled to below 400 K. The thermal ionization instability model for FU Ori outbursts is in quantitative agreement with astronomical observations. Its results imply that the terrestrial region of the nebula reached the hot end of this range only during a time when mass flow through the disk was high enough to trigger outbursts (i.e., the FU Ori epoch) and reached the cool end of this range only during the later T Tauri epoch. According to the models, heating of material in the terrestrial planet region during individual FU Ori outbursts would be limited to surface layers of the nebula, leaving midplane materials (which are at greater than or equal to 1000 K) largely unaffected. Alternative FU Ori models should be developed, particularly if compositional differences among chondrite clans are attributable to episodic heating.

  3. Hydrodynamics of photoionized columns in the Eagle Nebula, M 16


    Williams, R. J. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A. P.


    We present hydrodynamical simulations of the formation, structure and evolution of photoionized columns, with parameters based on those observed in the Eagle Nebula. On the basis of these simulations we argue that there is no unequivocal evidence that the dense neutral clumps at heads of the columns were cores in the pre-existing molecular cloud. In our simulations, a variety of initial conditions leads to the formation and maintenance of near-equilibrium columns. Therefore, it is likely that...

  4. Two phases of the interstellar medium in nebulas around quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentsova, A.S.


    It is shown that for the interstellar gas in nebulas surrounding quasars the condition of thermal instability is satisfied, and the gas must separate into two phases: cold (T /approx equal/ 10/sup 4//degree/K) dense clouds and a hot (T /approx equal/ 10/sup 8//degree/K) rarefied medium. The density, size, and mass of the clouds formed by the development of the thermal instability are estimated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shuta J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan)


    Angular momentum loss by the plasma wind is considered as a universal feature of isolated neutron stars including magnetars. The wind nebulae that are powered by magnetars allow us to compare the wind properties and the spin evolution of magnetars with those of rotation-powered pulsars (RPPs). In this paper, we construct a broadband emission model of magnetar wind nebulae (MWNe). This model is similar to past studies of young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) around RPPs, but is modified for the application to MWNe that have far less observational information than the young PWNe. We apply the model to the MWN around the youngest (∼1 kyr) magnetar, 1E 1547.0-5408, which has the largest spin-down power L {sub spin} among all the magnetars. However, the MWN is faint because of the low L {sub spin} of 1E 1547.0-5408 when compared to the young RPPs. Since most parameters are not well constrained by only an X-ray flux upper limit of the MWN, we adopt the model’s parameters from the young PWN Kes 75 around PSR J1846-0258, which is a peculiar RPP showing magnetar-like behaviors. The model predicts that γ -ray flux will be detected in a future TeV γ -ray observation by CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array). The MWN spectrum does not allow us to test the hypothesis that 1E 1547.0-5408 had a period of milliseconds at its birth because the particles injected during the early phase of evolution suffered from severe adiabatic and synchrotron losses. Furthermore, both observational and theoretical studies of the wind nebulae around magnetars are required to constrain the wind and the spin-down properties of magnetars.

  6. Helix Nebula: Enabling federation of existing data infrastructures and data services to an overarching cross-domain e-infrastructure (United States)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Farres, Jordi; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Lassalle-Balier, Gerard


    so called "Supersite Exploitation Platform" (SSEP) provides scientists an overarching federated e-infrastructure with a very fast access to (i) large volume of data (EO/non-space data), (ii) computing resources (e.g. hybrid cloud/grid), (iii) processing software (e.g. toolboxes, RTMs, retrieval baselines, visualization routines), and (iv) general platform capabilities (e.g. user management and access control, accounting, information portal, collaborative tools, social networks etc.). In this federation each data provider remains in full control of the implementation of its data policy. This presentation outlines the Architecture (technical and services) supporting very heterogeneous science domains as well as the procedures for new-comers to join the Helix Nebula Market Place. Ref.1

  7. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.


    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  8. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, G.P.


    The thesis reports a large-scale survey of carbon monoxide ( 12 CO) emission (at λ = 2.6 mm) from dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus. CO spectra at 4395 points were obtained within an area of about 800 square degrees generally west of the galactic anti-center. The spatial resolution of the instrument was eight arcminutes and velocity resolution was 2.6 km s -1 /. CO emission is strongest wherever extinction by dust is greatest, spilling over the apparent outer boundaries of the dust clouds observed optically. Combining CO velocity for the nebulae with optically determined distances shows that the clouds in the survey area form several layers. The molecular cloud mass closest to the sun is the Taurus and Auriga complex about 150 +/- 50 pc). Nearer to the Per )B2 OB association (at 350 +/- 100 pc) than the Taurus clouds are the Per OB2 molecular cloud (350 +/- 100 pc) and the California Nebula = NGC15979 molecular clouds (at 400 +/- 150 pc). Cloud masses were determined from integrated CO emission intensity alone by assuming that γ-ray emission intensities can be used to relate H 2 column densities to CO emission intensities

  9. Modeling radio circular polarization in the Crab nebula (United States)

    Bucciantini, N.; Olmi, B.


    In this paper, we present, for the first time, simulated maps of the circularly polarized synchrotron emission from the Crab nebula, using multidimensional state of the art models for the magnetic field geometry. Synchrotron emission is the signature of non-thermal emitting particles, typical of many high-energy astrophysical sources, both Galactic and extragalactic ones. Its spectral and polarization properties allow us to infer key information on the particles distribution function and magnetic field geometry. In recent years, our understanding of pulsar wind nebulae has improved substantially thanks to a combination of observations and numerical models. A robust detection or non-detection of circular polarization will enable us to discriminate between an electron-proton plasma and a pair plasma, clarifying once for all the origin of the radio emitting particles, setting strong constraints on the pair production in pulsar magnetosphere, and the role of turbulence in the nebula. Previous attempts at measuring the circular polarization have only provided upper limits, but the lack of accurate estimates, based on reliable models, makes their interpretation ambiguous. We show here that those results are above the expected values, and that current polarimetric techniques are not robust enough for conclusive result, suggesting that improvements in construction and calibration of next generation radio facilities are necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity.

  10. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking of (R)-2-((8-(3-aminopiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,6-dioxo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purin-1-yl)methyl)benzonitrile as Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors. (United States)

    Ran, Yan; Pei, Heying; Shao, Mingfeng; Chen, Lijuan


    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is classified as a major metabolic disorder, which has affected approximately 194 million people worldwide. DPP-IV inhibitors as a new therapy have shown several advantages over traditional antidiabetic drugs. Based on the similar binding modes of Alogliptin and Linagliptin, molecular operation was conducted via combining pharmacophore hybridization with structural optimization between the two market drugs and racemic compounds 40 and 43 were reported as DPP-IV inhibitors in our previous studies. But the majority of DPP-IV inhibitors have developed into a small molecule with certain conformation; in this study, we described the synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular docking of corresponding enantiomers of compounds 40 and 43. The most potent inhibitor is (R)-40 (IC50  = 23.5 nm, F = 74.67%, T1/2  = 4 h), which exhibited moderate antihyperglycemic activity as compared to the standard antidiabetic drug Linagliptin in OGTT. In addition, compound (R)-40 effectively improved the pathological state of DIO mice. Molecular docking studies clarified the favorable binding affinity between compound (R)-40 and DPP-IV active site. Thus, compound (R)-40 would be entitled to further development as a drug candidate on the basis of the suitable pharmacokinetic (PK) and desirable pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. The internal kinematics of the planetary nebula NGC 650/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.


    Hα and [N II], lambda 6584 line profiles from the bright lobes of planetary nebula NGC 650/1 have been obtained. These emission lines show a very strong symmetrical triple-peak velocity structure, not observed previously to the author's knowledge in planetary nebulae. Models are tentatively proposed to explain both the velocity data and the nebula's optical appearance. The velocity splitting amounts to approximately 62 km/s and the rest frame of the nebula is found to have a heliocentric radial velocity of -19 +- 2 km/s. (author)

  12. Collisional effects in He I lines and helium abundances in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.E.S.


    Attention is drawn to new, 19-state quantal calculations for collisional excitation by electron impact in neutral helium. Recommended empirical formulae are given for the collisional contribution to HeI recombination lines such as λλ4471, 5876 A in gaseous nebulae. Collisional ionization of metastable (2 3 S) He I is significant for high-temperature nebulae. Collisional transfers provide significant cooling in nebulae with low heavy-element abundances. Revised mean He/H ratios for three large samples of planetary nebulae are given. (author)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Pa(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.H.; Edelstein, N.M.


    The actinide borohydrides of Pa, Np, and Pu have been prepared and some of their physical and optical properties measured. X-ray powder diffraction photographs of Pa(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ have shown that it is isostructural to Th(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and U(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/. Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Pu(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ are much more volatile than the borohydrides of Th, Pa, and U and are liquids at room temperature. Results from low-temperature single-crystal x-ray diffraction investigation of Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ show that its structure is very similar to Zr(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/. With the data from low-temperature infrared and Raman spectra, a normal coordinate analysis on Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Np(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ has been completed. EPR experiments on Np(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4//Zr(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ and Np(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4//Zr(BD/sub 4/)/sub 4/ have characterized the ground electronic state. 5 figures.

  14. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  15. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  16. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  17. SAGE IV Pathfinder (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  18. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, 22860 (Mexico); Edwards, M. L. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Winge, C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)


    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Lim, Tae-Ho; Jo, Young-Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seon, Kwang-Il [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 61-1 Hwaam-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Woo, E-mail: [Korea Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189 Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report the analysis results of far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations, made for a broad region around {alpha} Vir (Spica) including the interaction zone of Loop I and the Local Bubble. The whole region was optically thin and a general correlation was seen between the FUV continuum intensity and the dust extinction, except in the neighborhood of the bright central star, indicating the dust scattering nature of the FUV continuum. We performed Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations to obtain the optical parameters related to the dust scattering as well as to the geometrical structure of the region. The albedo and asymmetry factor were found to be 0.38 {+-} 0.06 and 0.46 {+-} 0.06, respectively, in good agreement with the Milky Way dust grain models. The distance to and the thickness of the interaction zone were estimated to be 70{sup +4}{sub -8} pc and 40{sup +8}{sub -10} pc, respectively. The diffuse FUV continuum in the northern region above Spica was mostly the result of scattering of the starlight from Spica, while that in the southern region was mainly due to the background stars. The C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548, 1551 emission was found throughout the whole region, in contrast to the Si II* {lambda}1532 emission which was bright only within the H II region. This indicates that the C IV line arises mostly at the shell boundaries of the bubbles, with a larger portion likely from the Loop I than from the Local Bubble side, whereas the Si II* line is from the photoionized Spica Nebula.

  20. Tracing the star stream through M31 using planetary nebula kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrett, HR; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Napolitano, NR; Arnaboldi, M; Capaccioli, M; Freeman, KC; Gerhard, O; Evans, NW; Wilkinson, MI; Halliday, C; Bridges, TJ; Carter, D


    We present a possible orbit for the Southern Stream of stars in M31, which connects it to the Northern Spur. Support for this model comes from the dynamics of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the disc of M31: analysis of a new sample of 2611 PNe obtained using the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph reveals

  1. Evolution of extra-galactic nebulae and the origin of metagalactic radio noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, C.E.R.


    It is pointed out that the discovery of the 'jet' in the radio source NGC 4486 fulfils a prediction made many years ago that such 'jets' would exist in some globular or elliptical nebulae. They are the channels of electrical discharges on a nebular scale then postulated, which will last for about 10 million years. It is emphasized that the discharge hypothesis would account for - 1. the existence of irregular nebulae; 2. the 'cataclysmic action' which Hubble regarded as required to account for the transition from nebulae of Type E to Type Sa; 3. the fact that the arms of spiral nebulae are never seen in process of formation; 4. the gathering of the matter towards the discharge channels by magnetic pinch effect; 5. the frequent occurrence of two diametrically opposed major arms; 6. the origin of radio waves throughout an extensive volume of space surrounding the 'jet' or discharge channel in NGC 4486; 7. the effect of one extra galactic nebula, NGC 3187, on another, NGC 3190; 8. the existence of diffuse patches of luminosity, 'emission nebulae', in the spiral arms of our own galaxy and in those of the 'Andromeda Nebula'. On the discharge theory about one per cent of all nebulae will be passing through the discharge phase at any one time, i.e., the number required to account for the observed intensity of metagalactic radio noise. (author)

  2. A 'variable' stellar object in a variable blue nebula V-V 1-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.K.; Gilra, D.P.


    V-V 1-7 is supposed to be one of the few planetary nebulae with Ao central stars and was included in the planetary-nebula catalogue as PK 235 + 1 0 1. The nebula was seen on the blue Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) print but not on the red print; as a result it was thought that it might be a reflection nebula. However, the symmetry of the nebula around the central star (HD 62001), and also the ultraviolet photometric variability of this central star led others to suggest that the nebula might be a nova shell. Subsequently it was found that the nebula V-V 1-7 has disappeared. It is not seen on any direct plate known to us except the POSS blue plate. In this paper the disappearance is reported (along with the nebula) of a stellar object, which appears within the 'nebular shell' of V-V 1-7 on the POSS blue plate, but not on the red plate. (author)

  3. Three-Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Point-Symmetric Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhorst, E.-J.; Icke, V.; Mellema, G.; Meixner, M.; Kastner, J.H.; Balick, B.; Soker, N.


    Previous analytical and numerical work shows that the generalized interacting stellar winds model can explain the observed bipolar shapes of planetary nebulae very well. However, many circumstellar nebulae have a multipolar or point-symmetric shape. With two-dimensional calculations, Icke showed

  4. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  5. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula Frédéric Zagury

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents an analysis of a series of spectra in the. Red Rectangle nebula. Only the reddest part of the spectra can safely be attributed to light from the nebula, and indicates Rayleigh scattering by the gas, in conformity with the large angles of scattering involved and the prox- imity of the star. In the blue ...

  6. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.


    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  7. The Spitzer IRS infrared spectrum and abundances of the planetary nebula IC 2448

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiles, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Roellig, T. L.


    We present the mid-infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 2448. In order to determine the chemical composition of the nebula, we use the infrared line fluxes from the Spitzer spectrum along with optical line fluxes from the literature and ultraviolet line fluxes from archival IUE spectra. We

  8. PPAK integral field spectroscopy survey of the Orion nebula. Data release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, S. F.; Cardiel, N.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Martín-Gordón, D.; Vilchez, J. M.; Alves, J.


    Aims:We present a low-resolution spectroscopic survey of the Orion nebula. The data are released for public use. We show the possible applications of this dataset analyzing some of the main properties of the nebula. Methods: We perform an integral field spectroscopy mosaic of an area of ~5 arcmin× 6

  9. Disks, Microjets, Windblown Bubbles, and Outflows in the Orion Nebula (United States)

    Bally, John; O'Dell, C. R.; McCaughrean, Mark J.


    New deep narrowband images of the Orion Nebula obtained with WFPC2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and spectra taken with the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck Observatory are presented. We report eight new circumstellar disks seen in silhouette against the background nebular light and about 30 dark disks embedded within the bright proplyds rimmed by ionization fronts. Deep narrowband λ6300 Å images reveal skins of glowing [O I] emission associated with several disks embedded within bright proplyds. [O I] emission also surrounds one dark disk not surrounded by an ionization front; this object may be embedded within the photon-dominated, mostly neutral region behind the ionization front of the Orion Nebula. The intensity and morphology of the [O I] emission provides support for the photon-dominated-region models of externally irradiated circumstellar disks in which soft UV powers photoablation of the disk surface. Dozens of outflows powered by young stars have been discovered on the new images. More than 20 stellar jets emerge from the externally irradiated circumstellar disks or their associated young stars embedded within the Nebula. Most are one-sided (monopolar) subarcsecond-scale microjets, too small to be seen on ground-based images against the bright background nebular light. Additionally, wide-angle winds from 10 young stars in the outskirts of the Nebula power large-scale bow shocks facing the Trapezium OB stars. These shocks may be produced by wind-wind interactions where the T-Tauri winds interact with the outflow of plasma from the core of M42. The largest such structure, associated with the star LL Ori, contains a number of compact high-proper-motion clumps moving almost tangentially to the bow shock. The new data are combined with older HST images to determine proper motions for many nebular features. Neither the LL Ori type bow shocks in the outskirts of the nebula nor the Hα + [O III] arcs that surround many proplyds near the Trapezium show

  10. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants (United States)

    Chita, S. M.


    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages depending on their initial mass, composition and rotation rate. The models considered in the second Chapter have long-lasting RSG stages starting after the MS. In this phase, they develop shells of RSG wind material at the location where the free streaming RSG wind is stalled by the thermal pressure of the hot MS bubble, close to the central star. The RSG shells develop violent Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once these start to grow non-linear, the RSG shell becomes highly structured as clumps form, and shell material mixes with material in the hot bubble. Later, the stars evolve to the BSG stage, during which the RSG shells are completely destroyed. These models return to the RSG stage, and build new RSG shells, which are more massive than those formed earlier. RSG shells are essential for our understanding of bipolar emission nebulae around BSGs. In the third Chapter are shown the results of the wind-wind interaction model of single star with 12 solar masses. On a time scale of a few 10000 yr, a BSG hour-glas shaped nebula expands into the sphere defined by the RSG shell. The faster polar parts of the hour glass hit the inner edge of the RSG shell first. The collision creates a pair of hot and dense polar caps. As time passes, the collision zone moves to lower latitudes of the RSG shell and becomes more confined in latitude. At the same time, the interaction of the BSG wind with the equatorial disk defines a second, ring shaped collision zone in the equatorial plane. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25. In the Chapter 3 we present calculations that predict the properties of the circumstellar medium for rapidly rotating


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Salas, J.; Sloan, G. C.; Gutenkunst, S.; Houck, J. R.; Peeters, E.; Matsuura, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Zijlstra, A. A.


    We present a Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopic study of a sample of 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). The low-resolution modules are used to analyze the dust features present in the infrared spectra. This study complements a previous work by the same authors where the same sample was analyzed in terms of neon and sulfur abundances. Over half of the objects (14) show emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, typical of carbon-rich dust environments. We compare the hydrocarbon emission in our objects to those of Galactic H II regions and PNe, and Large Magellanic Cloud/Small Magellanic Cloud H II regions. Amorphous silicates are seen in just two objects, enforcing the now well known fact that oxygen-rich dust is less common at low metallicities. Besides these common features, some PNe show very unusual dust. Nine objects show a strong silicon carbide feature at 11 μm and 12 of them show magnesium sulfide emission starting at 25 μm. The high percentage of spectra with silicon carbide in the MCs is not common. Two objects show a broadband which may be attributed to hydrogenated amorphous carbon and weak low-excitation atomic lines. It is likely that these nebulae are very young. The spectra of the remaining eight nebulae are dominated by the emission of fine-structure lines with a weak continuum due to thermal emission of dust, although in a few cases the signal-to-noise ratio in the spectra is low, and weak dust features may not have been detected.

  12. Helium shell flashes and ionization of planetary nebulae. Pt. 2. FG Sge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylenda, R.


    Theoretical models have been constructed to study time-dependent effects in the nebulae (He 1-5) associated with FG Sge. Two cases have been considered: recombination of an initially stationary nebula of moderate excitation (Case A), and nonequilibrium ionization (and subsequent recombination) of an initially neutral nebula by a thermal pulse in the central star (Case B). Comparison with the observed spectrum does not allow to distinguish definitely between both cases. There are slight indications that the present state of He 1-5 is better reproduced in Case B which is also preferable from the point of view of the present theoretical knowledge of observational appearances of helium shell flashes in planetary nebula nuclei. The nebula has a normal chemical composition. (author)

  13. Emission lines of Mg2 and Ca2 in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.


    Conditions of exciting resonance lines in the emission of ionized magnesium (lambda lambda 2796+2803 Mg2) and calcium (lambda lambda 3934+3968 Ca2) in planetary nebulae have been analyzed. It is shown that the allowed lines are excited with the same mechanism, as the forbidden lines, i.e. inelastic electron collisions, but not with common fluorescence. The emission line lambda 2800 Mg2 of enough force can be observed only in the spectra of planetary nebulae with mean excitation (IC 2149) as well as in the spectra of diffuse nebulae. The line must not be observed in high-excited planetary nebulae (NGC 7026, 7662). The absence of emission lines H and K Ca2 in planetary nebulae spectra results from the fact, that their expected intensity is by 3-4 orders less than the intensity of the line lambda 2800 Mg2 or Hsub(β) hydrogen

  14. The origin of magnetic fields in protoplanetary nebulae (United States)

    Pascoli, Gianni; Leclercq, Josette


    The hypothesis that the magnetic fields of protoplanetary nebulae are generated deep in the core of the progenitor, an evolved M-type red giant, is explored. An examination of the transport of magnetic field lines through the convective envelope and of diffusion in the stellar wind/photosphere transition zone reveals values of about 10 G for the subphotospheric magnetic field and of about 2-3 G at the base of the stellar wind. The results are in agreement with the findings of Pascoli (1987) and Pascoli and Macron (1987).

  15. The Radio Spectral Index of the Crab Nebula (United States)


    provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid...Nebula either, so the spectrum near the edge maintains its power law form at least down to 74 MHz. The uniformity of the spectral index throughout the... Walra -(Oort ven This feature is moving outward,1956 ; Scargle 1969). and in the radio, it seems to have a sharp outward edge (BK92). Since our 327

  16. N III line emission in planetary nebulae - Not Bowen fluorescence (United States)

    Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.


    A direct comparison of photometrically observed line ratios in the N III 4640 and 4100 A multiplets emitted by planetary nebulae with theoretically predicted ratios expected from the postulated Bowen process of selective photoexcitation by an O III resonance line shows that the N III lines are not produced by the Bowen process as has been commonly accepted. This will have consequences for the interpretation of these lines in other astrophysical sources. A further, unexpected result is that the N III level populations involved are found to be essentially in statistical equilibrium. Possible populating mechanisms are briefly discussed.

  17. Early-type objects in NGC6611 and Eagle Nebula


    Martayan, Christophe; Floquet, Michele; Hubert, Anne-Marie; Neiner, Coralie; Fremat, Yves; Baade, Dietrich; Fabregat, Juan


    An important question about Be stars is whether Be stars are born as Be stars or not. It is necessary to observe young clusters to answer this question. Observations of stars in NGC6611 and the star-formation region of Eagle Nebula have been carried out with the ESO-WFI in slitless spectroscopic mode and at the VLT-GIRAFFE. The targets for the GIRAFFE observations were pre-selected from the literature and our catalogue of emission-line stars (ELS) based on the WFI study. GIRAFFE observations ...

  18. Interstellar Organics, the Solar Nebula, and Saturn's Satellite Phoebe (United States)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Cruikshank, D. P.


    The diffuse interstellar medium inventory of organic material (Pendleton et al. 1994, Pendleton & Allamandola 2002) was likely incorporated into the molecular cloud in which the solar nebula condensed. This provided the feedstock for the formation of the Sun, major planets, and the smaller icy bodies in the region outside Neptune's orbit (transneptunian objects, or TNOs). Saturn's satellites Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion open a window to the composition of one class of TNO as revealed by the near-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn. Phoebe (mean diameter 213 km) is a former TNO now orbiting Saurn. VIMS spaectral maps of PHoebe's surface reveal a complex organic spectral signature consisting of prominent aromatic (CH) and alophatic hydrocarbon (CH2, CH3) absorption bands (3.2-3.6 micrometers). Phoebe is the source of a huge debris ring encircling Saturn, and from which particles (approximately 5-20 micrometer size) spiral inward toward Saturn. They encounter Iapetus and Hperion where they mix with and blanket the native H2O ice of those two bodies. Quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon bands on Iapetus demonstrates that aromatic CH is approximately 10 times as abundant as aliphatic CH2+CH3, significantly exceeding the strength of the aromatic signature in interplanetary dust particles, comet particles, ad in carbonaceous meteorites (Cruikshank et al. 2013). A similar excess of aromatics over aliphatics is seen in the qualitative analysis of Hyperion and Phoebe itself (Dalle Ore et al. 2012). The Iapetus aliphatic hydrocarbons show CH2/CH3 approximately 4, which is larger than the value found in the diffuse ISM (approximately 2-2.5). In so far as Phoebe is a primitive body that formed in the outer regions of the solar nebula and has preserved some of the original nebula inventory, it can be key to understanding the content and degree of procesing of the nebular material. There are other Phoebe-like TNOs that are presently

  19. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J


    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  20. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8 (United States)

    Danehkar, A.


    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  1. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly


    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure determination of a new vanadium(IV) Schiff base complex (VOL.sub.2./sub.) and investigation of its catalytic activity in the epoxidation of cyclooctene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grivani, G.; Tahmasebi, V.; Khalaji, A.D.; Fejfarová, Karla; Dušek, Michal


    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2013), s. 54-60 ISSN 0277-5387 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0809 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vanadium (IV) * Schiff base * single crystal * structure determination * catalysis * epoxidation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.047, year: 2013

  3. Acyl and silyl group effects in reactivity-based one-pot glycosylation: synthesis of embryonic stem cell surface carbohydrates Lc4 and IV(2)Fuc-Lc4. (United States)

    Hsu, Yun; Lu, Xin-An; Zulueta, Medel Manuel L; Tsai, Chih-Ming; Lin, Kuo-I; Hung, Shang-Cheng; Wong, Chi-Huey


    Relative reactivity evaluations showed the graded arming of toluenyl thioglucosides by variously positioned silyl groups but not by their acyl counterparts. These findings were applied in reactivity-based one-pot assembly of linker-attached Lc(4) and IV(2)Fuc-Lc(4), which are components of human embryonic stem cell surface. The sugar-galectin-1 binding was also examined.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzenesulphonamide-bearing 1,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles possessing human carbonic anhydrase I, II, IV, and IX inhibitory activity. (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Vikas; Bua, Silvia; Supuran, Claudiu T; Sharma, Pawan K


    A library of benzenesulphonamides incorporating 1,2,3-triazole rings functionalised with ester, carboxylic acid, carboxamide, carboxyhydrazide, and hydroxymethyl moieties were synthesised. The carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC inhibitory activity of the new compounds was assessed against four human (h) isoforms, hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV, and hCA IX. Among them, hCA II and IV are anti-glaucoma drug targets, being involved in aqueous humour secretion within the eye. hCA I was inhibited with Ki's ranging between 8.3 nM and 0.8737 µM. hCA II, the physiologically dominant cytosolic isoform, was excellently inhibited by these compounds, with Ki's in the range of 1.6-9.4 nM, whereas hCA IV was effectively inhibited by most of them, with Ki's in the range of 1.4-55.3 nM. Thirteen of the twenty sulphonamides were found to be excellent inhibitors of tumour associated hCA IX with Ki's ≤ 9.5 nM. Many of the new compounds reported here showed low nM inhibitory action against hCA II, IV, and IX, isoforms involved in glaucoma and some tumours, making them interesting candidates for further medicinal chemistry/pharmacologic studies.

  5. The Integral Field View of the Orion Nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adal Mesa-Delgado


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major advances achieved in the Orion Nebula through the use of integral field spectroscopy (IFS. Since the early work of Vasconcelos and collaborators in 2005, this technique has facilitated the investigation of global properties of the nebula and its morphology, providing new clues to better constrain its 3D structure. IFS has led to the discovery of shock-heated zones at the leading working surfaces of prominent Herbig-Haro objects as well as the first attempt to determine the chemical composition of Orion protoplanetary disks, also known as proplyds. The analysis of these morphologies using IFS has given us new insights into the abundance discrepancy problem, a long-standing and unresolved issue that casts doubt on the reliability of current methods used for the determination of metallicities in the universe from the analysis of H II regions. Results imply that high-density clumps and high-velocity flows may play an active role in the production of such discrepancies. Future investigations based on the large-scale IFS mosaic of Orion will be very valuable for exploring how the integrated effect of small-scale structures may have impact at larger scales in the framework of star-forming regions.

  6. The Crab nebula's ''wisps'' as shocked pulsar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallant, Y.A.; Arons, J.; Langdon, A.B.


    The Crab synchrotron nebula has been successfully modelled as the post-shock region of a relativistic, magnetized wind carrying most of the spindown luminosity from the central pulsar. While the Crab is the best-studied example, most of the highest spindown luminosity pulsars are also surrounded by extended synchrotron nebulae, and several additional supernova remnants with ''plerionic'' morphologies similar to the Crab are known where the central object is not seen. All these objects have nonthermal, power-law spectra attributable to accelerated high-energy particles thought to originate in a Crab-like relativistic pulsar wind. However, proposed models have so far treated the wind shock as an infinitesimally thin discontinuity, with an arbitrarily ascribed particle acceleration efficiency. To make further progress, investigations resolving the shock structure seemed in order. Motivated by these considerations, we have performed ''particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of perpendicularly magnetized shocks in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. The shocks in pure electron-positron plasmas were found to produce only thermal distributions downstream, and are thus poor candidates as particle acceleration sites. When the upstream plasma flow also contained a smaller population of positive ions, however, efficient acceleration of positrons, and to a lesser extent of electrons, was observed in the simulations

  7. Gigahertz-peaked spectra pulsars in Pulsar Wind Nebulae (United States)

    Basu, R.; RoŻko, K.; Kijak, J.; Lewandowski, W.


    We have carried out a detailed study of the spectral nature of six pulsars surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The pulsar flux density was estimated using the interferometric imaging technique of the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at three frequencies 325, 610, and 1280 MHz. The spectra showed a turnover around gigahertz frequency in four out of six pulsars. It has been suggested that the gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) in pulsars arises due to thermal absorption of the pulsar emission in surrounding medium like PWNe, H II regions, supernova remnants, etc. The relatively high incidence of GPS behaviour in pulsars surrounded by PWNe imparts further credence to this view. The pulsar J1747-2958 associated with the well-known Mouse nebula was also observed in our sample and exhibited GPS behaviour. The pulsar was detected as a point source in the high-resolution images. However, the pulsed emission was not seen in the phased-array mode. It is possible that the pulsed emission was affected by extreme scattering causing considerable smearing of the emission at low radio frequencies. The GPS spectra were modelled using the thermal free-free absorption and the estimated absorber properties were largely consistent with PWNe. The spatial resolution of the images made it unlikely that the point source associated with J1747-2958 was the compact head of the PWNe, but the synchrotron self-absorption seen in such sources was a better fit to the estimated spectral shape.

  8. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula. (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp


    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  9. Observation and Spectral Measurements of the Crab Nebula with Milagro (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Allen, B. T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Chen, C.; Christopher, G. E.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Falcone, A.; hide


    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between 1 and 100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton up-scattering scattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a Te V steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fit.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of mononuclear/binuclear organotin(IV complexes with 1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol: Comparative studies of their antibacterial/antifungal potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Bushra


    Full Text Available A series of di and triorganotin(IV complexes of the general formula, R2(ClSnL (R= Me: 1; Bu: 2 and R3SnL (R = Bu: 3; Ph: 4 have been synthesized by refluxing equivalent molar ratios of orgnotin(IV chlorides (R2SnCl2/R3SnCl with the 1H-1,2,4-Triazole-3-thiol (LH in dry methanol. The synthesized complexes (1-4 were further treated with CS2 and R2SnCl2/R3SnCl in 1:1:1 molar ratio to yield the homobimetallic complexes of the types R2(ClSnLCS2Sn(ClR2 (R = Me: 5; Bu: 6 and R3SnLCS2SnR3 (R = Bu: 7; Ph: 8. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized by elemental microanalysis (CHNS, FT-IR and multinuclear NMR (1H&13C, and electron ionization mass spectrometry. IR data demonstrates that the dithiocarbamate donor site of the ligand acts in a bidentate manner and there isa trigonal bipyramidal geometry around Sn(IV in solid state. 1H and 13C NMR data supports the tetrahedralgeometry with thiol donor sites of the ligand while tetra and penta coordinated environments around dithiocarboxylate bound tin(IV in solution state. Mass spectrometric data supported well the structures of the synthesized complexes. The homobimetallic derivatives were found more active than mononuclear organotin(IV compounds and free ligand against various strains of bacteria and fungus.

  11. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.


    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  12. The Orion Nebula: The Jewel in the Sword (United States)


    Orion the Hunter is perhaps the best known constellation in the sky, well placed in the evening at this time of the year for observers in both the northern and southern hemispheres, and instantly recognisable. And for astronomers, Orion is surely one of the most important constellations, as it contains one of the nearest and most active stellar nurseries in the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. Here tens of thousands of new stars have formed within the past ten million years or so - a very short span of time in astronomical terms. For comparison: our own Sun is now 4,600 million years old and has not yet reached half-age. Reduced to a human time-scale, star formation in Orion would have been going on for just one month as compared to the Sun's 40 years. Just below Orion's belt, the hilt of his sword holds a great jewel in the sky, the beautiful Orion Nebula . Bright enough to be seen with the naked eye, a small telescope or even binoculars show the nebula to be a few tens of light-years' wide complex of gas and dust, illuminated by several massive and hot stars at its core, the famous Trapezium stars . However, the heart of this nebula also conceals a secret from the casual observer. There are in fact about one thousand very young stars about one million years old within the so-called Trapezium Cluster , crowded into a space less than the distance between the Sun and its nearest neighbour stars. The cluster is very hard to observe in visible light, but is clearly seen in the above spectacular image of this area ( ESO PR 03a/01 ), obtained in December 1999 by Mark McCaughrean (Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, Germany) and his collaborators [1] with the infrared multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile). Many details are seen in the new ISAAC image ESO PR Photo 03b/01 ESO PR Photo 03b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 589 pix - 62k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1178 pix - 648k] [Hires - JPEG: 1957 x 2881 pix - 2.7M] ESO PR Photo 03c

  13. A Search for Mid-Infrared Emission Lines of F and Na in Planetary Nebulae with EXES on SOFIA: Testing AGB Nucleosynthesis (United States)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Sterling, N. C.; Richter, Matthew J.; DeWitt, Curtis; Montiel, Edward J.; Karakas, Amanda I.


    We report results from a search for mid-infrared emission lines of F (Z = 9) and Na (Z =11) in planetary nebulae using the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrometer, EXES (DeWitt, C., et al. 2012, SPIE, 8446, id. 84461A) on the Stratospheric Facility for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA Young et al. 2012, ApJL, 749, L17). As the envelopes of former AGB stars, planetary nebulae carry the imprint of all nuclear reactions that occurred over the star’s lifetime. Complex sequences of reactions during the late evolutionary stages may produce – or in some cases destroy – F and Na. Due to sensitivity to uncertainties in the interior physical conditions and key processes (e.g. convection, mass loss), their predicted final abundances vary widely for different sets of theoretical models (Karakas & Lugaro 2016, ApJ, 825, 26). During a flight series with EXES in May 2017, we looked for [Na III] 7.39 μm and the as-yet undetected fine structure transitions [F IV] 25.8 μm and [F V] 13.4 μm. The F lines were observed at resolving power R = 50,000, while Na was observed with R ≈ 2000. We observed a spectral region containing the [F IV] line and [O IV] 25.9 μm in 3 planetary nebulae descended from stars of ≈ 2.5 – 4 M⊙ (NGC 6886, NGC 7027, and Hb 5), and [F V] in NGC 7027 only. We observed NGC 6886 and IC 5117 in the [Na III] setting, which included the H I 6-5 Pfund α line at 7.46 μm. Simultaneous measurement of O+3 and H+ enables us to derive reliable ionic abundance ratios from the [F IV] and [Na III] lines. We obtained high S/N on the [Na III] line in IC 5117 but were unsuccessful in detecting either F line in any of our targets. We present our upper limits, compare them to values in the literature from optical spectra, and discuss our findings in the context of evolutionary models.This research is supported by NASA/USRA subcontract SOF 05-0121. Support for EXES is provided via collaborative agreement NNXAI85A between NASA Ames Research Center and the University of

  14. The chemical composition of three planetary nebulae in the Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.J.; Killen, R.M.


    Emission-line intensities in the planetary nebulae Henize 67 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Henize 97 and 153 in the LMC along with the small SMC H II regions Henize 9, 61, and 81 were measured from photographic image-tube spectra taken with the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo. The relative abundances of H, He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in the nebulae were estimated and compared with the compositions of galactic planetary nebulae and previously studied H II regions in the Clouds. The results show that (1) the N/O ratios in the planetary nebulae are substantially higher than found in the H II regions of each Cloud; (2) He/H approx. = 0.18 in the SMC planetary nebula, but seems normal (approx.0.10) in the two LMC planetaries; and (3) the compositions of the three small SMC H II regions are similar to that of larger SMC H II regions studied previously. It is concluded that the N/H values in the shells of planetary nebulae may not depend on the metal content of the progenitor star as much as recent theoretical models suggest and that the N content of the gas in the Magellanic Clouds arises primarily from sources other than planetary nebulae

  15. Model planetary nebulae: the effect of shadowed filaments on low ionization potential ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, A.


    Previous homogeneous model planetary nebulae calculations No. 4 have yielded emission strengths for low ionization potential No. 4 ions which are considerably lower than those observed. Several attempts were to correct this problem by the inclusion of optically thin condensations, the use of energy flux distributions from stellar model calculations instead of blackbody spectrum stars, and the inclusion of dust in the nebulae. The effect that shadowed filaments have on the ionization and thermal structure of model nebulae and the resultant line strengths are considered. These radial filaments are shielded from the direct stellar ionizing radiation by optically thick condensations in the nebula. Theoretical observational evidence exists for the presence of condensations and filaments. Since the only source of ionizing photons in the shadowed filaments is due to diffuse photons produced by recombination, ions of lower ionization potential are expected to exist there in greater numbers than those found in the rest of the nebula. This leads to increased line strengths from these ions and increases their values to match the observational values. It is shown that these line strengths in the filaments increase by over one to two orders of magnitude relative to values found in homogeneous models. This results in an increase of approximately one order of magnitude for these lines when contributions from both components of the nebula are considered. The parameters that determine the exact value of the increase are the radial location of the filaments in the nebula and the fraction of the nebular volume occupied by the filaments

  16. A Self-Perpetuating Catalyst for the Production of Complex Organic Molecules in Protostellar Nebulae (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A.; Johnson, N. M.


    The formation of abundant carbonaceous material in meteorites is a long standing problem and an important factor in the debate on the potential for the origin of life in other stellar systems. Many mechanisms may contribute to the total organic content in protostellar nebulae, ranging from organics formed via ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the cold dark clouds from which such nebulae collapse, to similar ion-molecule and atom-molecule reactions in the dark regions of the nebula far from the proto star, to gas phase reactions in sub-nebulae around growing giant planets and in the nebulae themselves. The Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) catalytic reduction of CO by hydrogen was once the preferred model for production of organic materials in the primitive solar nebula. The Haber-Bosch catalytic reduction of N2 by hydrogen was thought to produce the reduced nitrogen found in meteorites. However, the clean iron metal surfaces that catalyze these reactions are easily poisoned via reaction with any number of molecules, including the very same complex organics that they produce and both reactions work more efficiently in the hot regions of the nebula. We have demonstrated that many grain surfaces can catalyze both FTT and HB-type reactions, including amorphous iron and magnesium silicates, pure silica smokes as well as several minerals. Although none work as well as pure iron grains, and all produce a wide range of organic products rather than just pure methane, these materials are not truly catalysts.

  17. Registration of H2O and SiO masers in the Calabash Nebula to confirm the planetary nebula paradigm (United States)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Kim, J.; Cho, S. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Youngjoo, Y.


    We report on the astrometric registration of very long baseline interferometry images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic proto-planetary nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the Korean VLBI Network and source frequency phase referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the asymptotic giant branch star, driving the bilobe structure with the water masers in the outflow. We are able to trace the bulk motions for the H2O masers over the last few decades to be 19 km s-1 and deduce that the age of this expansion stage is 38 ± 2 yr. The combination of this result with the distance allows a full 3D reconstruction and confirms that the H2O masers lie on and expand along the known large-scale symmetry axis and that the outflow is only a few decades old, so mass loss is almost certainly ongoing. Therefore, we conclude that the SiO emission marks the stellar core of the nebular, the H2O emission traces the expansion, and there must be multiple epochs of ejection to drive the macro-scale structure.

  18. Registration of H2O and SiO masers in the Calabash Nebula, to confirm the Planetary Nebula paradigm (United States)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Kim, J.; Cho, SH; Choi, YK; Youngjoo, Y.


    We report on the astrometric registration of VLBI images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic Proto-Planetary Nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the KVN and Source/Frequency Phase Referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the AGB star, driving the bi-lobe structure with the water masers in the out-flow. We are able to trace the bulk motions for the H2O masers over the last few decades to be 19 km s-1 and deduce that the age of this expansion stage is 38±2 years. The combination of this result with the distance allows a full 3D reconstruction, and confirms that the H2O masers lie on and expand along the known large-scale symmetry axis and that the outflow is only a few decades old, so mass loss is almost certainly on-going. Therefore we conclude that the SiO emission marks the stellar core of the nebular, the H2O emission traces the expansion, and that there must be multiple epochs of ejection to drive the macro-scale structure.

  19. Structure of the solar nebula, growth and decay of magnetic fields and effects of magnetic and turbulent viscosities on the nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro


    First, distributions of surface densities of dust materials and gases in a preplanetary solar nebula, which give a good fit to the distribution of the planetary mass, are presented and the over-all structure of this nebula, which is in thermal and gravitational equilibrium, is studied. Second, in order to see magnetic effect on the structure, electric conductivity of a gas ionized by cosmic rays and radioactivities contained in dust grains is estimated for each region of the nebula and, then, the growth and decay of seed magnetic fields, which are due to differential rotation of the nebula and to the Joule dissipation, respectively, are calculated. The results indicate that, in regions of the terrestrial planets, magnetic fields decay much faster than they grow and magnetic effects can be ignored, except for the outermost layers of very low density. This is not the case for regions of Uranus and Neptune where magnetic fields can be amplified to considerable extents. Third, the transport of angular momentum due to magnetic and mechanical turbulent viscosities and the resultant redistribution of surface density in the nebula are investigated. The results show that the density redistribution occurs, in general, in a direction to attain a distribution of surface density which has nearly the same ν-dependence as that obtained from the present distribution of the planetary mass. This redistribution seems to be possible if it occurs at a formation stage of the nebula where the presence of large viscosities is expected. Finally, a comment is given on the initial condition of a collapsing interstellar cloud from which the solar nebula is formed at the end of the collapse. (author)

  20. Synthesis of Cross-Linked Chitosan and Application to Adsorption and Speciation of Se (VI and Se (IV in Environmental Water Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai


    Full Text Available A new type of cross-linked chitosan was synthesized with Diethylene Triamine (DCCTS. The adsorption of Se (VI on DCCTS was studied. The effect factors on adsorption and the adsorption mechanism were considered. The results indicated that the DCCTS could concentrate and separate Se (IV at pH = 3.6; the maximum adsorption efficiency was 94%, the adsorption equilibrium time was 30 min; the maximum adsorption capacity was 42.7 mg/g; the adsorption fitted Langmuir equation. A novel method for speciation of Se (VI and Se (IV in environmental water samples has been developed using DCCTS as adsorbent and ICP–OES as determination means. The detection limit of this method was 12 ng/L, the relatively standard deviation was 4.5% and the recovery was 99%~104%.

  1. Planetary nebulae: understanding the physical and chemical evolution of dying stars. (United States)

    Weinberger, R; Kerber, F


    Planetary nebulae are one of the few classes of celestial objects that are active in every part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These fluorescing and often dusty expanding gaseous envelopes were recently found to be quite complex in their dynamics and morphology, but refined theoretical models can account for these discoveries. Great progress was also made in understanding the mechanisms that shape the nebulae and the spectra of their central stars. In addition, applications for planetary nebulae have been worked out; for example, they have been used as standard candles for long-range distances and as tracers of the enigmatic dark matter.

  2. Synthesis, coordination and biological aspects of organotin(IV derivatives of 4-[(2,4-dinitrophenylamino]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid and 2-{[(2,4-dinitrophenylamino]carbonyl}benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available New series of organotin(IV complexes of aniline derivatives, R2SnL2 and R3SnL [where R = Me, n-Bu, Ph, n-Oct] have been synthesized by the reaction of HL1 and HL2 with respective organotin halides or oxides. Experimental details for the preparation and characterization (including elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR (1H-, 13C- and 119Sn- spectra in CDCl3 and EI mass spectra of both series are provided. The binding sites of the ligands were identified by means of FTIR spectroscopic measurements. It was found that in all cases the organotin(IV moiety reacts with the oxygen of COO– group to form new complexes. In the diorganotin complexes, the COO– group is coordinated to the organotin(IV centres in a bidentate manner in the solid state. The 119Sn NMR data and the nJ(13C‑119/117Sn coupling constant support the tetrahedral coordination geometry of the organotin complexes in non-coordinating solvents. Biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity, antileishmanial and insecticidal of these compounds are also reported.

  3. Microwave-assisted synthesis of mixed ligands organotin(IV) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline and l-proline: Physicochemical characterization, DFT calculations, chemotherapeutic potential validation by in vitro DNA binding and nuclease activity. (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Mridula; Kumari, Ranjana


    Diorganotin(IV) and triphenyltin(IV) derivatives of L-proline (HPro) having general formula R 2 Sn(Pro) 2 (R=n-Bu (1), Ph (2)) and Ph 3 Sn(Pro) (3), respectively, and the mixed ligands di-/triorganotin(IV) derivatives of L-proline and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) with general formula [R 2 Sn(Pro)(Phen)Cl] and [R 3 Sn(Pro)(Phen)] (where R=Me (4 and 7), n-Bu (5 and 8), Ph (6 and 9)), respectively, have been synthesized by microwave-assisted method and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) and DART-mass spectral studies. The results suggest bicapped tetrahedron or a skew trapezoidal-bipyramid geometry for R 2 Sn(Pro) 2 , a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Ph 3 Sn(Pro) and a distorted octahedral geometry for [R 2 Sn(Pro)(Phen)Cl] and [Ph 3 Sn(Pro)(Phen)] around the Sn atom, and the same has been validated by density functional theory calculations (DFT). In vitro DNA binding studies of 1-9 have been investigated by UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism titrations, viscosity and DNA melting experiments. The observed hypochromic shift in UV-Vis and fluorescence studies evidenced a partial intercalative mode of binding of complexes to CT-DNA. The binding affinity and quenching ability have been quantified in terms of intrinsic binding constant (K b ) and Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv). The determined values suggest that di- and triorganotin(IV) derivatives of L-proline possess lesser affinity to bind with CT-DNA in comparison to the mixed ligands di-/triorganotin(IV) derivatives of L-proline and 1,10-phenanthroline. The partial intercalative mode of binding of these complexes with CT DNA has also been supported by a change in the viscosity and melting point of DNA as well as a change in the intensity of positive and negative bands in circular dichroism spectra. The cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis indicate effective cleavage of supercoiled plasmid DNA into its nicked form by all the complexes and even to its linear

  4. Spectroscopic Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264 (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Spencer, Meghin


    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 au based on these observations is 5.3 ± 1.2% for NGC 2264 and 5.8 ± 1.1% for the ONC; these values are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to perform an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them, we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities toward these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  5. The ultraviolet extinction properties of the 30 Dor Nebula (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino


    Recent investigation of the extinction law in 30 Dor and the Tarantula Nebula, at optical and near infrared wavelengths, has revealed a ratio of total to selective extinction RV=AV/E(B-V) of about 4.5. This indicates a larger proportion of large grains than in the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium. Possible origins include coalescence of small grains, grain growth, selective destruction of small grains, and fresh injection of large grains. From a study of the ultraviolet extinction properties of three Wolf-Rayet stars in 30 Dor (R 139, R 140, R 145), observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer, we show that the excess of large grains does not come at the expense of small grains, which are still present. Fresh injection of large grains by supernova explosions appears to be the dominant mechanism.

  6. Protoplanetary Nebula Evolution using the Beta Viscosity Model (United States)

    Davis, Sanford S.


    The evolutionary dynamics of a protoplanetary disk is an important component of the planet formation process. In particular, the dynamic and thermodynamic field plays a critical role in chemical evolution, the migration of dust particles in the nebula, and the radial transport of meteoritic components. The dynamic evolution is investigated using analytical solutions of the surface density transport equations using a turbulence model based on hydrodynamic generation of turbulence. It captures the major properties of the disk including region of separation between radial inflow and-outflow and the evolution of the central plane temperature. The analytical formulas are compared with available numerical solutions based on the alpha viscosity model. The beta viscosity model, heretofore used for steady-state disks, is shown to be a useful approximation for unsteady problems.

  7. An earlier explosion date for the Crab Nebula supernova (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.; Fountain, John W.


    The Chinese first reported the Crab Nebula supernova on 1054 July 5. Ecclesiastical documents from the near east reported it in April and May of 1054. More than 33 petroglyphs made by Native Americans in the US and Mexico are consistent with sightings both before and after conjunction with the Sun on 1054 May 27. We found a petroglyph showing the new star close to Venus and the Moon, which occurred on 1054 April 12 and April 13, respectively. Collins et al., using the four historical dates, derived a light curve that is like that of a Type Ia supernova. The only remaining problem with this identification is that this supernova was near maximum light for 85 d, which is unlike the behavior of any known supernova.

  8. The Σ − D relation for planetary nebulae: Preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević D.


    Full Text Available An analysis of the relation between radio surface brightness and diameter, so-called Σ − D relation, for planetary nebulae (PNe is presented: i the theoretical Σ − D relation for the evolution of bremsstrahlung surface brightness is derived; ii contrary to the results obtained earlier for the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR samples, our results show that the updated sample of Galactic PNe does not severely suffer from volume selection effect - Malmquist bias (same as for the extragalactic SNR samples and; iii we conclude that the empirical S − D relation for PNe derived in this paper is not useful for valid determination of distances for all observed PNe with unknown distances. .

  9. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)


    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  10. The radial velocities of planetary nebulae in NGC 3379 (United States)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Dejonghe, Herwig B.


    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae (PNs) in the normal elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 performed with the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph. In two half-nights, we measured 29 PNs with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii with an observational uncertainty of about 7 km/s. These data extend three times farther into the halo than any previous absorption-line velocity study. The velocity dispersion and photometric profile of the galaxy agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light ratio, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with M/L(B) about 7; the best-fitting anisotropic models from a quadratic programming algorithm also give M/L(B) about 7. The data are consistent with models that contain no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of the galaxy's nucleus.

  11. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula (United States)


    New observations of the spectrum of the rapidly spinning neutron star (the `pulsar') in the Crab Nebula have been carried out with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. Because of greatly improved spectral resolution which allows to register even very fine details in the pulsar's spectrum, they are able to determine for the first time with high accuracy the overall dependance of the emission on wavelength, i.e. the `shape' of the spectrum. Quite unexpectedly, they also detect a hitherto unknown 100 A (10 nm) broad `absorption dip', which can be securely attributed to the pulsar. These results open an exciting new window for the study of the extreme physical processes close to a pulsar. The Nature of Pulsars It is estimated that there may be as many as 100 million neutron stars in our Galaxy. A neutron star is the superdense remnant of the extremely violent supernova explosion that occurs at the end of the life of a comparatively massive star. In fact, all stars that are more than about 6 times heavier than the Sun are believed to end their lives as supernovae. During the explosion, the central core of the dying star collapses in a few milliseconds and the matter at the centre is compressed to a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Due to the enormous inward pressure, the atomic particles are squeezed together into a kind of neutron jam. The outcome is the formation of a neutron star with a diameter of 10-15 kilometres, weighing as much as the Sun. In accordance with the physical law that implies that the rotation momentum of the exploding star must be conserved, newborn neutron stars will rotate very rapidly around their axis, in some cases as fast as 100 times per second. In the same way, the new neutron star is expected to possess a strong magnetic field. Of these myriads of neutron stars, about 700 have been observed to emit radio pulses (hence the name `pulsar'). A few of these can also be detected

  12. Resolving the Disk-Halo Degeneracy using Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Aniyan, S.; Freeman, K. C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Fabricius, M.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M.


    The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σ z ) of stars in the disk and its scale height (h z ), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: star-forming spirals have an old (kinematically hot) disk population and a young cold disk population. Both of these populations contribute to the integrated light spectra from which σ z is measured. The measured scale height h z is for the old disk population. In the Jeans equation, σ z and h z must pertain to the same population. We have developed techniques to extract the velocity dispersion of the old disk from integrated light spectra and from samples of planetary nebulae. We present the analysis of the disk kinematics of the galaxy NGC 628 using IFU data in the inner regions and planetary nebulae as tracers in the outer regions of the disk. We demonstrate that using the scale height of the old thin disk with the vertical velocity dispersion of the same population, traced by PNe, results in a maximal disk for NGC 628. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disk.

  13. New View of Gas and Dust in the Solar Nebula (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    The recognizable components in meteorites differ in their relative abundances of the three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O). In particular, the amount of 16O varies from being like that of the Earth to substantially enriched compared to the other two isotopes. The current explanation for this interesting range in isotopic composition is that dust and gas in the solar nebula (the cloud of gas and dust surrounding the primitive Sun) began with the same 16O-rich composition, but the solids evolved towards the terrestrial value. A new analysis of the problem by Alexander Krot (University of Hawaii) and colleagues at the University of Hawaii, the University of Chicago, Clemson University, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory leads to the bold assertion that primordial dust and gas differed in isotopic composition. The gas was rich in 16O as previously thought (possibly slightly richer in 16O than the measurements of the solar wind returned by the Genesis Mission), but that the dust had a composition close to the 16O-depleted terrestrial average. In this new view, the dust had a different history than did the gas before being incorporated into the Solar System. Solids with compositions near the terrestrial line may have formed in regions of the solar nebula where dust had concentrated compared to the mean solar dust/gas ratio (1 : ~100). The idea has great implications for understanding the oxygen-isotope composition of the inner Solar System and the origin of materials in the molecular cloud from which the Solar System formed.

  14. Hot Gas in the Wolf–Rayet Nebula NGC 3199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A.; Chu, Y.-H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Marston, A. P. [European Space Agency/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    The Wolf–Rayet (WR) nebula NGC 3199 has been suggested to be a bow shock around its central star, WR 18, which is presumably a runaway star, because optical images of the nebula show a dominating arc of emission southwest of the star. We present the XMM-Newton detection of extended X-ray emission from NGC 3199, unveiling the powerful effect of the fast wind from WR 18. The X-ray emission is brighter in the region southeast of the star and an analysis of the spectral properties of the X-ray emission reveals abundance variations: (i) regions close to the optical arc present nitrogen-rich gas enhanced by the stellar wind from WR 18 and (ii) gas at the eastern region exhibits abundances close to those reported for the nebular abundances derived from optical studies, which is a signature of an efficient mixing of the nebular material with the stellar wind. The dominant plasma temperature and electron density are estimated to be T ≈ 1.2 × 10{sup 6} K and n {sub e} = 0.3 cm{sup −3} with an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3–3.0 keV energy range of L {sub X} = 2.6 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup −1}. Combined with information derived from Herschel and the recent Gaia first data release, we conclude that WR 18 is not a runaway star and that the formation, chemical variations, and the shape of NGC 3199 depend on the initial configuration of the interstellar medium.

  15. Cloud structure and feedback effects in the Carina Nebula Complex (United States)

    Roccatagliata, Veronica; Preibisch, Thomas; Gaczkowski, Benjamin; Ratzka, Thorsten


    The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire CNC and LABOCA/APEX telescope on the central part of the CNC.Our Herschel maps resolve, for the first time, the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of eta Car, are analyzed in detail. Our maps also reveal a peculiar 'wave'-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. The total mass of the clouds seen by Herschel in the central region is about 656 000 Msun. We derive the global spectral energy distribution in the mid-infrared to mm wavelength range and derive a total mass of stars, rather than random turbulence. Comparing the cloud mass and the star formation rate derived for the CNC to other Galactic star forming regions suggests that the CNC is forming stars very efficiently. We suggest this to be a consequence of triggered star formation by radiative cloud compression.In our LABOCA sub-mm map, we identify about 600 individual clumps. We analyze and interpret the clump initial mass function (CIMF) as signature of turbulent pre-stellar clouds or star-forming clouds.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Abundances in Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae (Monk+ 1988) (United States)

    Monk, D. J.; Barlow, M. J.; Clegg, R. E. S.


    Optical spectroscopic data for 71 Planetary Nebulae (PN) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have been analysed. The line fluxes have been used to determine nebular temperatures, densities, and the abundances of He, N, O, Ne and Ar, relative to H. In our sample there are 12 nebulae with N/O>=0.5, resembling Peimbert's Type I PN; six low-excitation objects [1VLE) nebulae [I(Hβ)>I(5007)], similar to the Galactic VLE class. Mean abundances have been calculated for the nebulae not in these special groups. After correction for collisional excitation contributions to the nebular He I lines, PN in the SMC and LMC yield mass fractions of Y=0.249+/-0.025 and Y=0.258+/-0.012, respectively. (4 data files).

  17. Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization of ions by Lyman alpha radiation in gaseous nebulae. (United States)

    Johansson, S; Letokhov, V


    One of the mysteries of nebulae in the vicinity of bright stars is the appearance of bright emission spectral lines of ions, which imply fairly high excitation temperatures. We suggest that an ion formation mechanism, based on resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (RETPI) by intense H Lyman alpha radiation (wavelength of 1215 angstroms) trapped inside optically thick nebulae, can produce these spectral lines. The rate of such an ionization process is high enough for rarefied gaseous media where the recombination rate of the ions formed can be 10(-6) to 10(-8) per second for an electron density of 10(3) to 10(5) per cubic centimeter in the nebula. Under such conditions, the photo-ions formed may subsequently undergo further RETPI, catalyzed by intense He i and He ii radiation, which also gets enhanced in optically thick nebulae that contain enough helium.

  18. Colorimetry of the diffuse nebulas S 156, S 157A, S 158, and NGC 7635

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsamian, E.S.; Petrosian, V.M.


    The results of a colorimetric investigation of the diffuse nebulas S 156, S 157A, S 158, and NGC 7635, which are excited by O stars, are presented. The nebulas S 156, S 157A, and NGC 7635 are very bright in U due to the presence in them of strong ultraviolet doublet forbidden O II 3727 A. These values correspond effectively to the monochromatic image of the nebulas at this wavelength. The measurements show that the B-V color index does not change significantly with distance from the star except for S 158, where a weak dependence is observed. The results indicate that the physical properties of these nebulas differ little. It is concluded that the gas masses in this association are remnants of star formation that have a common origin with the stars. The age of the association is estimated at 100,000-1,000,000 yr. 13 references.

  19. The ISO spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 - I. Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, DA; Pottasch, [No Value

    The spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 is presented, as it was observed by the ISO short-wavelength spectrometer. The IUE spectrum observed at the same position with the same aperture is also presented.

  20. Gas capture and rare gas retention by accreting planets in the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Hayashi, C.


    In this paper, the physico-chemical effects of the nebula gas on the planets are reviewed from a standpoint of planetary formation in the solar nebula. The proto-Earth growing in the nebula was surrounded by a primordial atmosphere with a solar chemical composition and solar isotopic composition. When the mass of the proto-Earth was greater than 0.3 times the present Earth mass, the surface was molten because of the blanketing effect of the atmosphere. Therefore, the primordial rare gases contained in the primordial atmosphere dissolved into the molten Earth material without fractionation and in particular the dissolved neon is expected to be conserved in the present Earth material. Hence, if dissolved neon with a solar isotopic ratio is discovered in the Earth material, it will indicate that the Earth was formed in the nebula and that the dissolved rare gases were one of the sources which degassed to form the present atmosphere. (author)

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new homoleptic tetraarylruthenium(IV) complex Ru(2,4,5-Me{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 2}){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chang-Jiu; Wu, Xiu-Li; Ma, Xiu-Fang; Jia, Ai-Quan; Zhang, Qian-Feng [Anhui Univ. of Technology, Anhui (China). Inst. of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry and Anhui Province Key Lab. of Metallurgy Engineering and Resources Recycling


    Treatment of [Ru(acac){sub 3}] (acac-=acetylacetonate) with (2,4,5-Me{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 2})MgBr, followed by column chromatography in air, afforded the homoleptic tetraaryl-ruthenium(IV) complex [Ru(2,4,5-Me{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 2}){sub 4}] (1) in moderate yield. The product was characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy and microanalyses. Its crystal structure has also been established by X-ray crystallography.

  2. The distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.


    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula. (Auth.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Klyuchinskaya


    Full Text Available New exact solution of the spherically-axissymmetric Eiler's equations, called as plan­etary vortex, is applied to the problem of formation in planetary nebula germs of planets due to the condensation of gases in the areas of vortex instability which calls the rings of planetary vortex. It is shown that the vortex perturbations causes changes in preassure and temperature at which the gases of nebula condense themselves, forming the germs of the planets.

  4. IRAS surface brightness maps of visible reflection nebulae: evidence for non-equilibrium infrared emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.; Werner, M.W.; Sellgren, K.


    Surface brightness maps at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns of 16 visible reflection nebulae were extracted from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) database. The maps were produced by coadding IRAS survey scans over areas centered on the illuminating stars, and have spatial resolutions of 0.9' x 4' at 12 and 25 microns, 1.8' x 4.5' at 60 microns, and 3.6' x 5' at 100 microns. Extended emission in the four IRAS bandpasses was detected in fourteen of the reflection nebulae. The IRAS data were used to measure the flux of the infrared emission associated with each source. The energy distributions show that the 12 micron flux is greater than the 25 micron flux in 11 of the nebulae, and the peak flux occurs in the 60 or 100 micron bandpass in all 16 nebular. The 60 and 100 micron flux can be approximated by blackbodies with temperatures between 30 and 50 K, consistent with temperatures expected from extrapolation of greybody fits to the 60 and 100 micron data. The excess 12 and 25 micron emission is attributed to a nonequilibrium process such as emission from thermal fluctuations of very small grains excited by single ultraviolet photons, or emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) excited by ultraviolet radiation. The common features of the energy distributions of the 16 reflection nebulae, also seen in the reflection nebulae associated with the Pleiades, suggest that PAHs or very small grains may be found in most reflection nebulae


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Diego F. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)


    A wind nebula generating extended X-ray emission was recently detected surrounding Swift J1834.9–0846. This is the first magnetar for which such a wind nebula was found. Here, we investigate whether there is a plausible scenario where the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) can be sustained without the need of advocating for additional sources of energy other than rotational. We do this by using a detailed radiative and dynamical code that studies the evolution of the nebula and its particle population in time. We find that such a scenario indeed exists: Swift J1834.9–0846's nebula can be explained as being rotationally powered, as all other known PWNe are, if it is currently being compressed by the environment. The latter introduces several effects, the most important of which is the appearance of adiabatic heating, being increasingly dominant over the escape of particles as reverberation goes by. The need of reverberation naturally explains why this is the only magnetar nebula detected and provides estimates for Swift 1834.9–0846's age.

  6. Neutral dioxovanadium(V) complexes of biomimetic hydrazones ONO donor ligands of bioinorganic and medicinal relevance: Synthesis via air oxidation of bis(acetylaceto-nato)oxovanadium(IV), characterization, biological activity and 3D molecular modeling (United States)

    Maurya, R. C.; Rajput, S.


    The interaction of bis(acetylacetonato)oxovanadium(IV), [VO(acac) 2] with biomimetic hydrazone ONO donor ligands HL in 1:1 mole ratio [where, HL = N-(4'-benzoylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (bmphp-inH, I), N-(4'-butyrylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (bumphp-inH, II), N-(4'-acetylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (amphp-inH, III), N-(3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-4'-propionylidene-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide (mphpp-inH, IV) and N-(4'- iso-butyrylidene-3'-methyl-1'-phenyl-2'-pyrazolin-5'-one)-isonicotinic acid hydrazide ( iso-bumphp-inH, V)] in a mixed solvent (ethanol-methanol, 1:10) via aerial oxidation for 2-3 days yield dioxovanadium(V) complexes of composition [VO 2(L)(H 2O)] · H 2O. The compounds so obtained were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, thermogravimetry, vanadium determination, IR, Electronic, 51V NMR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The 3D molecular modeling and analysis for bond lengths and bond angles have also been carried out for one of the representative compounds, [VO 2(ampph-in)(H 2O)] ( 3).

  7. The (oxo)[(2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octachloro-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-tolylporphyrinato)]vanadium(IV): Synthesis, UV-visible, Cyclic voltammetry and X-ray crystal structure (United States)

    Mchiri, Chadlia; Amiri, Nesrine; Jabli, Souhir; Roisnel, Thierry; Nasri, Habib


    The present work is concerned with the oxo vanadium(IV) complex of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octachloro-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-tolylporphyrin) with formula [V(Cl8TTP)O] (I), which was prepared by reacting the (oxo)[5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-tolylporphyrinato)]vanadium(IV) complex ([V(TTP)O]), under aerobic atmosphere, with a large excess of thionyl chloride (SOCl2). The title compound was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray crystal structure. The electron-withdrawing chlorine substituents at the pyrrole carbons in the vanadyl-Cl8TTP derivative produce remarkable redshifts of the Soret and Q absorption bands and an important anodic shift of the porphyrin ring oxidation and reduction potentials. This is an indication that the porphyrin core of complex (I) is severely nonplanar in solution. The molecular structure of our vanadyl derivative shows a very high saddle distortion and an important ruffled deformation of the porphyrin macrocycle. The crystal structure of (I) is made by one-dimensional chains parallel to the c axis where channels are located between these chains.

  8. o-Iminobenzosemiquinonato complexes of Mn(III) and Mn(IV). Synthesis and characterization of [Mn(III)(L(ISQ))(2)(L(AP))] (S(t) = 1) and [Mn(IV)(L(ISQ))(2)(L(AP)-H)] (S(t) = 1/2). (United States)

    Chun, Hyungphil; Chaudhuri, Phalguni; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wieghardt, Karl


    From the reaction of [Mn(III)(3)(micro-O)(micro-CH(3)CO(2))(6)]CH(3)CO(2) (manganese(III) acetate) and 2-anilino-4,6-di-tert-butylphenol (1:3) in methanol under anaerobic conditions, dark brown-black crystals of [Mn(III)(L(ISQ))(2)(L(AP))] (1) were obtained in approximately 30% yield. (L(AP))(-) represents the closed-shell o-aminophenolate(-) form of the above ligand, and (L(ISQ))(-) is the monoanionic pi radical form o-iminobenzosemiquinonate(-) (S(rad) = 1/2). Complex 1 can be deprotonated at the (L(AP))(-) ligand and one-electron-oxidized by air, yielding crystals of [Mn(IV)(L(ISQ))(2)(L(AP)-H)] (2), where (L(AP)-H)(2-) represents the closed-shell, dianionic o-amidophenolate(2-) form of the above ligand. The structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by X-ray crystallography at 100 K. The protonation and oxidation levels of the ligands and of the metal ions have been unequivocally established: both complexes contain two pi radical ligands, 1 contains a Mn(III) ion, and 2 contains a Mn(IV) ion. The spins of the radicals (S(rad) = 1/2) couple strongly antiferromagnetically with the d(4) and d(3) configuration of the Mn ions in 1 and 2, respectively, yielding the observed ground states of S = 1 for 1 and S = (1)/(2) for 2. This has been established by temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements (2-300 K) and S- and X-band EPR spectroscopy.

  9. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula (United States)


    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  10. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye


    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  11. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers. (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E


    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  12. Cerium(IV) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC−Ce ) as an efficient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 129, No. 4, April 2017, pp. 421–430. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-017-1247-9. REGULAR ARTICLE. Cerium(IV) ... and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of 2,4,6-triarylpyridine derivatives in excellent yields ... considerable interest in modern organic synthesis.

  13. Turbulent Concentration of mm-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scale-Dependent Cascades (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Hartlep, T.


    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (here, asteroids in particular) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Traditional growth-by-sticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" (or even a mm-to-cm-size barrier) in turbulent nebulae, making the preconditions for so-called "streaming instabilities" difficult to achieve even for so-called "lucky" particles. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, turbulent nebulae present further obstacles through the 1-10km size range. On the other hand, nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids. Theoretical understanding of nebula turbulence is itself in flux; recent models of MRI (magnetically-driven) turbulence favor low-or- no-turbulence environments, but purely hydrodynamic turbulence is making a comeback, with two recently discovered mechanisms generating robust turbulence which do not rely on magnetic fields at all. An important clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to large objects of this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. There is evidence that at least the ordinary chondrite parent bodies were initially composed entirely of a homogeneous mix of such particles. Thus, while they are arcane, turbulent concentration models acting directly on chondrule size particles are worthy of deeper study. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation can be

  14. Design and synthesis of enantiomeric (R)- and (S)-copper(II) and diorganotin(IV)-based antitumor agents: their in vitro DNA binding profile, cleavage efficiency and cytotoxicity studies. (United States)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Muddassir, Mohd; Yousuf, Imtiyaz


    New chiral reduced Schiff base ligands (R)/(S)-2-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethylaminomethyl)phenol (L), (R)/(S)-2-(benzylamino)-2-phenylethanol (L') and their Cu(II)/organotin(IV) complexes (1-4) were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. Preliminary in vitro DNA binding studies of (R)- and (S)-enantiomeric pairs of ligands L, L' and complexes 1-4 were carried out employing UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroic techniques to evaluate their enantioselective DNA binding potential, thereby to act as antitumor chemotherapeutic drug entities. The observations demonstrated that S-enantiomer of Cu(II) complex, 1 binds more avidly to DNA in comparison to its R-enantiomeric form and organotin(IV) complex 2. This was further established by Kb and Ksv values of ligands L and L' and (S)-/(R)-1-4 complexes, which demonstrated multifold increase in case of S-enantiomer of copper complex 1 in comparison to its R-enantiomeric form. This clearly demonstrates the chiral preference of S-enantiomer over R-enantiomer and its potency to act as a chemotherapeutic agent. Cleavage studies of 1-4 with pBR322 plasmid DNA were carried out, noticeably, S-enantiomer of complex 1 exhibited effective DNA cleavage efficiency in absence of external agents. The cytotoxicity of ligands L and L' and (S)-/(R)-1-4 complexes was examined on a panel of 19 human tumor cell lines of different histological origins by SRB assay. In the both the cases, the S-enantiomer of complex 1 and 3 revealed remarkably good cytotoxic activity (GI50 values complexes demonstrated moderate cytotoxic activity (GI50 values <40). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two distinct compound heterozygous constellations (R277X/IVS34-1G>C and R277X/R1511X) in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene in affected individuals of a Brazilian kindred with congenital goiter and defective TG synthesis. (United States)

    Gutnisky, Viviana J; Moya, Christian M; Rivolta, Carina M; Domené, Sabina; Varela, Viviana; Toniolo, Jussara V; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Targovnik, Héctor M


    In this study, we have extended our initial molecular studies of a nonconsanguineous family with two affected siblings and one of their nephews with congenital goiter, hypothyroidism, and marked impairment of thyroglobulin synthesis. Genomic DNA sequencing revealed that the index patient (affected nephew) was heterozygous for a single base change of a cytosine to a thymine at nucleotide 886 in exon 7 (886C>T, mother's mutation) in one allele and for a novel guanine to cytosine transversion at position -1 of the splice acceptor site in intron 34 (IVS34-1G>C, father's mutation) in the other allele. The two affected siblings inherited the 886C>T mutation from their mother and a previously reported cytosine to thymine transition at nucleotide 4588 in exon 22 from their father (4588C>T). The 886C>T and 4588C>T substitutions resulted in premature stop codons at amino acids 277 (R277X) and 1511 (R1511X), respectively. In vitro transcription analysis showed that the exon 35 is skipped entirely when the IVS34-1G>C mutation is present, whereas the wild-type allele is correctly spliced. SSCP (exon 7 and 35) and restriction analysis (exon 22) using Taq I indicated that the two affected siblings, the affected nephew, his mother, and his unaffected brother were all heterozygous for the R277X mutation. The two affected siblings, their father, and three unaffected siblings were all heterozygous for the R1511X mutation, whereas the affected nephew and his father were heterozygous for the IVS34-1G>C mutation. Moreover, in this kindred, we have characterized polymorphisms (insertion/deletion, microsatellite, and single nucleotide polymorphism) located within introns 18 and 29 and exon 44 that are associated with the described mutations. Haplotype analysis with these polymorphic markers in two unrelated Brazilian families (present family studied and previously reported family) harboring the R277X mutation suggests a founder effect for the R277X mutation. In conclusion, the affected


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Allen, B. T.; Chen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Atkins, R. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Coyne, D. G.; Dorfan, D. E. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonamente, E.; Galbraith-Frew, J. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Christopher, G. E.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, R. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Dingus, B. L. [Group P-23, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ellsworth, R. W. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); and others


    The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV-100 TeV gamma-ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between {approx}1 and {approx}100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton upscattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fitted. The differential photon energy spectrum, including the statistical errors from the fit, obtained using a simple power-law hypothesis for data between 2005 September and 2008 March is (6.5 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14}(E/10 TeV){sup -3.1{+-}0.1}(cm{sup 2} s TeV ){sup -1} between {approx}1 TeV and {approx}100 TeV. Allowing for a possible exponential cutoff, the photon energy spectrum is fitted as (2.5{sup +0.7}{sub -0.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}(E/3 TeV){sup -2.5{+-}0.4}exp (- E/32{sup +39}{sub -18} TeV) (cm{sup 2} s TeV){sup -1}. The results are subject to an {approx}30% systematic uncertainty in the overall flux and an {approx}0.1 systematic uncertainty in the power-law indices quoted. Uncertainty in the overall energy scale has been absorbed into these errors. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1 TeV by IACT experiments (2.4-2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S.; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Napoli " Federico II," Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; D' Amone, A.; De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento Matematica e Fisica " Ennio De Giorgi," Università del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Roma " Tor Vergata," via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R.; Di Sciascio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z., E-mail: [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others


    The ARGO-YBJ air shower detector monitored the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission from 2007 November to 2013 February. The integrated signal, consisting of ∼3.3 × 10{sup 5} events, reached the statistical significance of 21.1 standard deviations. The obtained energy spectrum in the energy range 0.3-20 TeV can be described by a power law function dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α}, with a flux normalization I {sub 0} = (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup –12} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} TeV{sup –1} and α = 2.63 ± 0.05, corresponding to an integrated flux above 1 TeV of 1.97 × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. The systematic error is estimated to be less than 30% for the flux normalization and 0.06 for the spectral index. Assuming a power law spectrum with an exponential cutoff dN/dE = I {sub 0} (E/2 TeV){sup –α} exp (–E/E {sub cut}), the lower limit of the cutoff energy E {sub cut} is 12 TeV, at 90% confidence level. Our extended data set allows the study of the TeV emission over long timescales. Over five years, the light curve of the Crab Nebula in 200-day bins is compatible with a steady emission with a probability of 7.3 × 10{sup –2}. A correlated analysis with Fermi-LAT data over ∼4.5 yr using the light curves of the two experiments gives a Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.56 ± 0.22. Concerning flux variations on timescales of days, a ''blind'' search for flares with a duration of 1-15 days gives no excess with a significance higher than four standard deviations. The average rate measured by ARGO-YBJ during the three most powerful flares detected by Fermi-LAT is 205 ± 91 photons day{sup –1}, consistent with the average value of 137 ± 10 day{sup –1}.

  18. G25.5 + 0.2: a very young supernova remnant or a galactic planetary nebula?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Becker, R.H.


    G25.5 + 0.2, a radio source suggested by previous authors to be a very young galactic supernova remnant, is more likely to be a planetary nebula. Its IRAS colours and fluxes and its radio spectrum and morphology are all consistent with the properties of planetary nebulae; its radio flux and distance imply a large mass of ionized gas, which is expected from a Type I planetary nebula lying in the galactic plane. We suggest some definitive observations which should be able to determine whether this interesting object is a planetary nebula or a supernova remnant. (author)

  19. Compact continuum radio sources in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, G.; Moran, J.M.; Reid, M.J.; European Southern Observatory, Garching, West Germany)


    The Orion Nebula was observed with the VLA in order to search for radio emission from compact H II regions indicative of embedded OB stars or from winds associated with pre-main sequence, low-mass stars. Fourteen of the 21 detected radio sources are within 30 arcsec of Omega 1 Orionis C; 13 of these objects are probably neutral condensations surrounded by ionized envelopes that are excited by the star. If the temperature of the ionized envelopes is 10,000 K and their electron densities decrease as the square of the distance from the core center, then a typical neutral condensation has a radius of 10 to the 15th cm and a peak electron density of 400,000/cu cm. Seven sources are in or near the Orion molecular cloud. Four of the sources have optical counterparts. Two are highly variable radio sources associated with X-ray sources, and two have radio spectra indicative of thermal emission. Two of the three optically invisible sources have radio emission likely to arise in a dense ionized envelope surrounding and excited by an early B-type star. 46 references

  20. The spatial distribution of shocked gas in the Orion nebula (United States)

    Beck, S. C.; Beckwith, S.


    Observations of the spatial distribution of extinction and excitation temperature toward the molecular hydrogen emission in the Orion molecular cloud OMC-1 are presented. Most, although not all, of the observed structure in the near-infrared line intensities results from variations in the column density of vibrationally excited H2 and is not due to variable extinction or temperature. The extinction toward the center of the emission region is between 1 and 2 mag at 4712/cm, the frequency of the v = 1-0 S(1) line, but increases toward the edges. The lack of emission from the eastern part of the nebula may result from increased extinction in that direction. Variations in the extinction temperature are less than the observational uncertainties of + or - 200 K at all but one position observed. Therefore, the excitation temperature of the hydrogen molecules is probably not a strong function of either the shock velocity or the density of the gas. Observations of the v = 3-2 S(3) line in the direction of strongest emission indicate the presence of gas temperatures about 2700 K and place constraints on the column density of gas which is at higher temperature.

  1. Central stars of planetary nebulae: New spectral classifications and catalogue (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.


    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probable known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We undertook a spectroscopic survey of central stars of PNe at low resolution and compiled a large list of central stars for which information was dispersed in the literature. Methods: We observed 45 PNs using the 2.15 m telescope at Casleo, Argentina. Results: We present a catalogue of 492 confirmed and probable CSPN and provide a preliminary spectral classification for 45 central star of PNe. This revises previous values of the proportion of CSPN with atmospheres poor in hydrogen in at least 30% of cases and provide statistical information that allows us to infer the origin of H-poor stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.

  2. Determination of helium and oxygen abundances in gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronik, V.I.


    A new method of determining the abudance of helium and oxygen is proposed. It is based on the statement that functions of atomic distribution with states of ionization may be determined to the sufficient precision by the amount of atoms in two states of ionization. The abudance of helium atoms in nebulae is determined with most probability, since of three possible states of ionization two states with the overwhelming majority atoms may be directly observed. The amount of He++ ions is determined from He 2 recombination lines, and the amount of He+ ions is from He1 lines. The total abudance of He atoms can be found from the observed ratios of I(4686)/I(Hsub(β)) and I(4471)/I(Hsub(β)) at any degree of ionization. These ratios slightly depend on the electron temperature. For oxygen, unlike helium, the observed ratios depend on the electron temperature of gas, and at high densities they also depend on the density of electrons (it is necessary to take account of deactivation of the excited level by electron impacts). Constructed are curves of equal abundance He/H=const for determining He/H according to the ratios observed I(4686)/I(Hsub(β)) and I(4471)/I(Hsub(β)) and curves of equal abudance O/H=const for determining O/H according to the ratios observed I(3727)/I(Hsub(/b)) and I(Nsub(1)+Nsub(2))/I(Hsub(β)), corrected preliminarily for density and temperature

  3. A FairShare Scheduling Service for OpenNebula (United States)

    Bagnasco, S.; Vallero, S.; Zaccolo, V.


    In the ideal limit of infinite resources, multi-tenant applications are able to scale in/out on a Cloud driven only by their functional requirements. While a large Public Cloud may be a reasonable approximation of this condition, small scientific computing centres usually work in a saturated regime. In this case, an advanced resource allocation policy is needed in order to optimize the use of the data centre. The general topic of advanced resource scheduling is addressed by several components of the EU-funded INDIGO-DataCloud project. In this contribution, we describe the FairShare Scheduler Service (FaSS) for OpenNebula (ONE). The service must satisfy resource requests according to an algorithm which prioritizes tasks according to an initial weight and to the historical resource usage of the project. The software was designed to be less intrusive as possible in the ONE code. We keep the original ONE scheduler implementation to match requests to available resources, but the queue of pending jobs to be processed is the one ordered according to priorities as delivered by the FaSS. The FaSS implementation is still being finalized and in this contribution we describe the functional and design requirements the module should satisfy, as well as its high-level architecture.

  4. Giant Ly α Nebulae in the Illustris Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronke, Max [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Bird, Simeon, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    Several “giant” Ly α nebulae with an extent ≳300 kpc and observed Ly α luminosity of ≳10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} have recently been detected, and it has been speculated that their presence hints at a substantial cold gas reservoir in small cool clumps not resolved in modern hydrodynamical simulations. We use the Illustris simulation to predict the Ly α emission emerging from large halos ( M > 10{sup 11.5} M {sub ⊙}) at z ∼ 2 and thus test this model. We consider both active galactic nucleus (AGN) and star driven ionization, and compare the simulated surface brightness maps, profiles, and Ly α spectra to a model where most gas is clumped below the simulation resolution scale. We find that with Illustris, no additional clumping is necessary to explain the extents, luminosities, and surface brightness profiles of the “giant Ly α nebulae” observed. Furthermore, the maximal extents of the objects show a wide spread for a given luminosity and do not correlate significantly with any halo properties. We also show how the detected size depends strongly on the employed surface brightness cutoff, and predict that further examples of such objects will be found in the near future.

  5. UV Timing and Spectroscopy of the Crab Nebula Pulsar (United States)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Lunqvist, Peter; Sollerman, Jesper; Lindler, Don; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    We have used the Hubble Space Telescope and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to obtain Near Ultraviolet (NUV) (1600-3200 Angstroms) and Far Ultraviolet (FUV) (1140-1720 Angstroms) spectra and pulse profiles of the Crab Nebula's pulsar. The pulse period agrees well with the radio predictions. The NUV and FUV pulse profiles are little changed from the visible wavelength profile. Spectra obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope were combined with the UV spectra for full coverage from 1140-9250Angstoms. Dereddening the spectrum with a standard extinction curve achieves a flat spectrum for E(B-V)=0.52, R=3.1. Lyman alpha absorption indicates a column density of 3.0=/-0.5 x 10(exp 21) cm -2, consistent with the E(B-V) of 0.52. The dereddened spectrum can be fitted by a power law with spectral index alpha=0.11+/-0.04. A broad, blueshifted absorption is seen in CIV (1550Angstroms), reaching a velocity of about 2500 kilometer per second.

  6. Life after stellar death: Planetary Nebulae and Supernova Remnants (United States)

    Boumis, P.


    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are powerful tracers of our Galaxy's star formation history. Their study can provide insight to the late stages of stellar evolution, the nucleosynthesis in low and intermediate mass stars (1-8Mo) and the chemical evolution of galaxies. Supernova explosions belong to the most spectacular events in the Universe. Supernova remnants (SNRs), which are the consequent results of these events and come from the late stages of massive stars (>8Mo), are among the strongest radio sources observed. They have a major influence on both the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the evolution of galaxies as a whole. They enrich the ISM with heavy elements, release about 1051 ergs of energy, heat the ISM, compress the magnetic field, and efficiently accelerate, by their shock waves, energetic cosmic rays observed throughout the Galaxy. I will present results of our work on PNe and SNRs, which aims to (a) discover optical SNRs in the Galaxy, (b) study their morphology and kinematics, (c) characterize their properties (such as density, shock velocity etc.) and (d) provide information on their interaction with the ISM, using the "Aristarchos" among other telescopes.

  7. Helix Nebula: sunshine and clouds on the CERN computing horizon

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler


    23 petabytes is how much data CERN recorded during 2011, and this number will rise in 2012. In order to respond to the challenge, the IT department is upping its game, amongst other things by participating in the Helix Nebula project, a public-private partnership to create a European cloud-computing platform, as announced in a recent CERN press release.   “We’re not replacing the Grid,” clarifies Bob Jones, responsible for CERN openlab who is also responsible for EC-funded projects in IT, “but looking at three complementary ways of increasing CERN’s computing capacity, so that as demand goes up we can continue to satisfy our users.” “First we are upgrading the electrical and cooling infrastructure of the computer centre in order to increase the availability of critical IT services needed for the Laboratory. This will also provide more floor space in the area called The Barn, allowing for more servers to fit in.”...

  8. Multiwavelength Studies of the Mouse Pulsar Wind Nebula (United States)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Ng, C.-Y.; Beniamini, Paz; O'Sullivan, Samantha


    PSR J1747-2958 is a young and energetic pulsar at an estimated distance of ~5 kpc. It is moving supersonically through the ISM and powers the famous Mouse pulsar wind nebula (PWN; G359.23-0.82): a tail spanning 45" in X-rays and 12' in radio. We discuss the results of our analysis of deep Chandra observations (as well as archival radio and IR data) of the Mouse PWN. We present a spatially-resolved spectral map of the PWN, which displays a photon index which varies strongly with distance from the pulsar over the 45" extent of the X-ray tail as the result of synchrotron cooling. We discuss the shape of the multiwavelength spectrum, the PWN physical properties (e.g., we infer a high magnetic field B~200 μG), and the connection between PWN morphology and radio/gamma-ray light curves which we use to constrain the viewing angle and identify structures in the PWN. We compare the Mouse pulsar with the population of other pulsars with measured (or inferred) velocities.

  9. Turbulent Concentration of MM-Size Particles in the Protoplanetary Nebula: Scaled-Dependent Multiplier Functions (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Weston, B.; Estremera, Shariff Kareem


    The initial accretion of primitive bodies (asteroids and TNOs) from freely-floating nebula particles remains problematic. Here we focus on the asteroids where constituent particle (read "chondrule") sizes are observationally known; similar arguments will hold for TNOs, but the constituent particles in those regions will be smaller, or will be fluffy aggregates, and are unobserved. Traditional growth-bysticking models encounter a formidable "meter-size barrier" [1] (or even a mm-cm-size barrier [2]) in turbulent nebulae, while nonturbulent nebulae form large asteroids too quickly to explain long spreads in formation times, or the dearth of melted asteroids [3]. Even if growth by sticking could somehow breach the meter size barrier, other obstacles are encountered through the 1-10km size range [4]. Another clue regarding planetesimal formation is an apparent 100km diameter peak in the pre-depletion, pre-erosion mass distribution of asteroids [5]; scenarios leading directly from independent nebula particulates to this size, which avoid the problematic m-km size range, could be called "leapfrog" scenarios [6-8]. The leapfrog scenario we have studied in detail involves formation of dense clumps of aerodynamically selected, typically mm-size particles in turbulence, which can under certain conditions shrink inexorably on 100-1000 orbit timescales and form 10-100km diameter sandpile planetesimals. The typical sizes of planetesimals and the rate of their formation [7,8] are determined by a statistical model with properties inferred from large numerical simulations of turbulence [9]. Nebula turbulence can be described by its Reynolds number Re = L/eta sup(4/3), where L = ETA alpha sup (1/2) the largest eddy scale, H is the nebula gas vertical scale height, and a the nebula turbulent viscosity parameter, and ? is the Kolmogorov or smallest scale in turbulence (typically about 1km), with eddy turnover time t?. In the nebula, Re is far larger than any numerical simulation can


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.


    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 ∼ 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈10 8 h –3 70 Mpc 3 , this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  13. Evolution of those nuclei of planetary nebulae that experience a final helium shell flash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.; Kaler, J.B.; Truran, J.W.; Renzini, A.


    We suggest that some of the central stars of planetary nebulae experience a final thermal pulse having achieved a white dwarf configuration and begun their descent along a cooling white dwarf sequence of nearly constant radius. A concrete theoretical calculation demonstrates that, during such a pulse, most of the hydrogen remaining in the star at pulse onset is incorporated into the helium-burning convective shell and completely burned, and that, following the pulse, the star swells briefly to red giant dimensions. The model then proceeds to burn helium on a long time scale, retracing in the H-R diagram approximately the same path that it followed while burning hydrogen during the initial excitation of the nebula, which has by now expanded considerably in extent. We identify as being in the postpulse, quiescent helium burning phase the central stars of the planetary nebulae d Abell 78, and the central stars of a group of related high-excitation objects. These nebulae all have the large radii often found in conjunction with central stars of low luminosity that are thought to be cooling along the white dwarf sequence; however, they have the high luminosities that are characteristic of much smaller nebulae whose nuclei are thought to be proceeding for the first time through the planetary nucleus regime in the (log L, log T/sub e/)-plane

  14. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (United States)

    Davis, Jessica


    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, R. G.; George, J. V.; Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Maher, S. F.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Korngut, P. M.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, T. M.; Kovacs, A.; Mason, B. S.; Navarro, S.; Sievers, A.; Sievers, J. L.


    We present results of 2 mm observations of the Crab Nebula, obtained using the Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) bolometer camera on the IRAM 30 m telescope. Additional 3.3 mm observations with the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope are also presented. The integrated 2 mm flux density of the Crab Nebula provides no evidence for the emergence of a second synchrotron component that has been proposed. It is consistent with the radio power-law spectrum, extrapolated up to a break frequency of log (ν b [GHz]) = 2.84 ± 0.29 or ν b = 695 +651 -336 GHz. The Crab Nebula is well resolved by the ∼16.''7 beam (FWHM) of GISMO. Comparison to radio data at comparable spatial resolution enables us to confirm significant spatial variation of the spectral index between 21 cm and 2 mm. The main effect is a spectral flattening in the inner region of the Crab Nebula, correlated with the toroidal structure at the center of the nebula that is prominent in the near-IR through X-ray regime.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richer, Michael G.; Lopez, Jose Alberto; Garcia-Diaz, Maria Teresa; Clark, David M.; Pereyra, Margarita; Diaz-Mendez, Enrique


    We study the line widths in the [O III]λ5007 and Hα lines for two groups of planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The first sample includes objects early in their evolution, having high Hβ luminosities, but [O III]λ5007/Hβ 0.5. These planetary nebulae represent evolutionary phases preceding and following those of the objects studied by Richer et al. in 2008. Our sample of planetary nebulae with weak [O III]λ5007 has a line width distribution similar to that of the expansion velocities of the envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars and shifted to systematically lower values as compared to the less evolved objects studied by Richer et al. The sample with strong He II λ4686 has a line width distribution indistinguishable from that of the more evolved objects from Richer et al., but a distribution in angular size that is systematically larger and so they are clearly more evolved. These data and those of Richer et al. form a homogeneous sample from a single Galactic population of planetary nebulae, from the earliest evolutionary stages until the cessation of nuclear burning in the central star. They confirm the long-standing predictions of hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae, where the kinematics of the nebular shell are driven by the evolution of the central star.

  17. Photometric investigation of possible binary occurrence in the central stars of seventeen planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.D. III.


    A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all possible bihary central stars in planetary nebulae. The results, which include all known and suspected visual, spectroscopic, and spectrum binaries, as well as all reported variable central stars, are presented in a series of tables. A photoelectric study was conducted in order to determine the status of short period (on the order of hours) variability of the central regions of seventeen planetary nebulae. Only the stellar appearing planetary nebula M1-2 (PK 133-8 0 1) was found to be variable. Its short (4.0002 hours) period suggests that it may be only the second eclipsing binary found among central stars to date. A method of concentric apertures was developed to determine the amount of light contributed by the central star vis-a-vis the nebula through a given aperture and filter. The procedure enabled UBV magnitudes and colors (and the errors) of central stars to be measured, including some in the sample of seventeen for which no previous values have been published. Mean nebular UBV magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and color indices were also found with the technique, and represent the first such published measurements. Various UBV two-parameter were constructed, revealing possible nebular/stellar sequences; a star-plus-nebula two-color diagram identifies three spectral classes of central stars, and two suspected binaries in the seventeen studied

  18. A study of the compact nebulae VV 8 and M3-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.F.


    New photometric observations of the lines and continuum in the compact nebulae VV 8 and M3-27 are presented. The data for VV 8 are very similar to those obtained by O'Dell nearly 10 years ago. Both nebulae have high electron densities and are self-absorbed in Hα. Parameters describing the physical conditions are estimated using the observed Balmer and O iii line strengths. By comparing the observations with suitable models for young planetary nebulae, the abundances of helium, oxygen, and neon are shown to be normal. The N ii lines are stronger than predicted. The continuum in M3-27 is shown to be in good agreement with theory, while the continuum in VV 8 in the visible and infrared is much brighter than predicted. The similarity between the line spectra and inferred properties of the nebulae suggests that the optical continuum in VV 8 is unrelated to the nebula, and may come from a late-type companion in a binary. Serious difficulties remain, however, concerning the absolute magnitude and color of the companion in the binary model. Some implications of Zipoy's shell star model are also examined


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing


    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    IRAS 17423-1755 has been recognized as a new bipolar nebula during a multi-wavelength observational program of unidentified IRAS sources with far infrared colours similar to those of known planetary nebulae. B, V, R and H alpha CCD images show a clearly marked bipolar structure with a total

  1. A second list of new planetary nebulae found on United Kingdom 1.2-m Schmidt telescope plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, A.J.; Tritton, S.B.


    Positions, photographs and descriptions are given for 11 new planetary nebulae discovered on United Kingdom Schmidt plates. One of the planetary nebulae has the highest galactic latitude of any known planetary, and may be associated with a magnitude 9 G5 star. Near-infrared (J,H,K) magnitudes are given for the star. (author)

  2. Interstellar and Solar Nebula Materials in Cometary Dust (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay; Nguyen, Ann; Clemett, Simon


    Laboratory studies of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft have revealed ancient interstellar grains and molecular cloud organic matter that record a range of astrophysical processes and the first steps of planetary formation. Presolar materials are rarer meteorites owing to high temperature processing in the solar nebula and hydrothermal alteration on their asteroidal parent bodies. The greater preservation of presolar materials in comets is attributed to their low accretion temperatures and limited planetary processing. Yet, comets also contain a large complement of high temperature materials from the inner Solar System. Owing to the limited and biased sampling of comets to date, the proportions of interstellar and Solar System materials within them remains highly uncertain. Interstellar materials are identified by coordinated isotopic, mineralogical, and chemical measurements at the scale of individual grains. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that likely derive from comets are made up of 0.1 - 10 micron-sized silicates, Fe-Ni-sulfides, oxides, and other phases bound by organic material. As much as 1% of the silicates are interstellar grains that have exotic isotopic compositions imparted by nucleosynthetic processes in their parent stars. Crystalline silicates in CP IDPs dominantly have normal isotopic compositions and probably formed in the Solar System. 81P samples include isotopically normal refractory minerals that resemble Ca-Al rich inclusions and chondrules common in meteorites. The origins of sub-micron amorphous silicates in IDPs are not certain, but at least a few % of them are interstellar grains. The remainder have isotopic compositions consistent with Solar System origins and elemental compositions that are inconsistent with interstellar grain properties, thus favoring formation in the solar nebula [4]. The organic component in comets and primitive

  3. Rosette nebula globules: Seahorse giving birth to a star (United States)

    Mäkelä, M. M.; Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.


    Context. The Rosette nebula is an H II region ionized mainly by the stellar cluster NGC 2244. Elephant trunks, globules, and globulettes are seen at the interface where the H II region and the surrounding molecular shell meet. Aims: We have observed a field in the northwestern part of the Rosette nebula where we study the small globules protruding from the shell. Our aim is to measure their properties and study their star-formation history in continuation of our earlier study of the features of the region. Methods: We imaged the region in broadband near-infrared (NIR) JsHKs filters and narrowband H2 1-0 S(1), Pβ, and continuum filters using the SOFI camera at the ESO/NTT. The imaging was used to study the stellar population and surface brightness, create visual extinction maps, and locate star formation. Mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer IRAC and WISE and optical NOT images were used to further study the star formation and the structure of the globules. The NIR and MIR observations indicate an outflow, which is confirmed with CO observations made with APEX. Results: The globules have mean number densities of 4.6 × 104 cm-3. Pβ is seen in absorption in the cores of the globules where we measure visual extinctions of 11-16 mag. The shell and the globules have bright rims in the observed bands. In the Ks band 20 to 40% of the emission is due to fluorescent emission in the 2.12 μmH2 line similar to the tiny dense globulettes we studied earlier in a nearby region. We identify several stellar NIR excess candidates and four of them are also detected in the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm image and studied further. We find an outflow with a cavity wall bright in the 2.124 μmH2 line and at 8.0 μm in one of the globules. The outflow originates from a Class I young stellar object (YSO) embedded deep inside the globule. An Hα image suggests the YSO drives a possible parsec-scale outflow. Despite the morphology of the globule, the outflow does not seem to run inside the dusty fingers

  4. Dusty disks around central stars of planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Nordhaus, Jason [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, and National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Green, Joel [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Chu, You-Hua, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    Only a few percent of cool, old white dwarfs (WDs) have infrared excesses interpreted as originating in small hot disks due to the infall and destruction of single asteroids that come within the star's Roche limit. Infrared excesses at 24 μm were also found to derive from the immediate vicinity of younger, hot WDs, most of which are still central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe). The incidence of CSPNe with this excess is 18%. The Helix CSPN, with a 24 μm excess, has been suggested to have a disk formed from collisions of Kuiper belt-like objects (KBOs). In this paper, we have analyzed an additional sample of CSPNe to look for similar infrared excesses. These CSPNe are all members of the PG 1159 class and were chosen because their immediate progenitors are known to often have dusty environments consistent with large dusty disks. We find that, overall, PG 1159 stars do not present such disks more often than other CSPNe, although the statistics (five objects) are poor. We then consider the entire sample of CSPNe with infrared excesses and compare it to the infrared properties of old WDs, as well as cooler post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We conclude with the suggestion that the infrared properties of CSPNe more plausibly derive from AGB-formed disks rather than disks formed via the collision of KBOs, although the latter scenario cannot be ruled out. Finally, there seems to be an association between CSPNe with a 24 μm excess and confirmed or possible binarity of the central star.

  5. The PAH Emission Characteristics of the Reflection Nebula NGC 2023

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Els [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Wolfire, Mark G., E-mail: [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)


    We present 5–20 μ m spectral maps of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph SL and SH modes on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, which reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), C{sub 60}, and H{sub 2} superposed on a dust continuum. We show that several PAH emission bands correlate with each other and exhibit distinct spatial distributions that reveal a spatial sequence with distance from the illuminating star. We explore the distinct morphology of the 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 μ m PAH bands and find that at least two spatially distinct components contribute to the 7–9 μ m PAH emission in NGC 2023. We report that the PAH features behave independently of the underlying plateaus. We present spectra of compact, oval PAHs ranging in size from C{sub 66} to C{sub 210}, determined computationally using density functional theory, and we investigate trends in the band positions and relative intensities as a function of PAH size, charge, and geometry. Based on the NASA Ames PAH database, we discuss the 7–9 μ m components in terms of band assignments and relative intensities. We assign the plateau emission to very small grains with possible contributions from PAH clusters and identify components in the 7–9 μ m emission that likely originate in these structures. Based on the assignments and the observed spatial sequence, we discuss the photochemical evolution of the interstellar PAH family as the PAHs are more and more exposed to the radiation field of the central star in the evaporative flows associated with the Photo-Dissociation Regions in NGC 2023.

  6. Multiband nonthermal radiative properties of pulsar wind nebulae (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Tao; Zhang, Li; Fang, Jun


    Aims: The nonthermal radiative properties of 18 pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are studied in the 1D leptonic model. Methods: The dynamical and radiative evolution of a PWN in a nonradiative supernova remnant are self-consistently investigated in this model. The leptons (electrons/positrons) are injected with a broken power-law form, and nonthermal emission from a PWN is mainly produced by time-dependent relativistic leptons through synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton process. Results: Observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of all 18 PWNe are reproduced well, where the indexes of low-energy electron components lie in the range of 1.0-1.8 and those of high-energy electron components in the range of 2.1-3.1. Our results show that FX/Fγ > 10 for young PWNe; 1 particle-dominated. Statistical analysis for the sample of 14 PWNe further indicate that (1) not all pulsar parameters have correlations with electron injection parameters, but electron maximum energy and PWN magnetic field correlate with the magnetic field at the light cylinder, the potential difference at the polar cap, and the spin-down power; (2) the spin-down power positively correlates with radio, X-ray, bolometric, and synchrotron luminosities, but does not correlate with gamma-ray luminosity; (3) the spin-down power positively correlates with radio, X-ray, and γ-band surface brightness; and (4) the PWN radius and the PWN age negatively correlate with X-ray luminosity, the ratio of X-ray to gamma-ray luminosities, and the synchrotron luminosity.

  7. Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Observations of the Carina Nebula (United States)

    Oberst, Thomas E.; Parshley, S. C.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Loehr, A.; Lane, A. P.; Stark, A. A.; Kamenetzky, J.


    We present the results of a 250 arcmin2 mapping of the 205 μm [NII] fine-structure emission over the northern Carina Nebula, including the Car I and Car II HII regions. Spectra were obtained using the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) at the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) at South Pole. We supplement the 205 μm data with new reductions of far-IR fine-structure spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 63 μm [OI], 122 μm [NII], 146 μm [OI], and 158 μm [CII]. Morphological comparisons are made with optical, radio continuum and CO maps. The 122 [NII] / 205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the density of the low-ionization gas, and the 158 [C II] / 205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the fraction of C+ arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs). From the [OI] and [CII] data, we construct a PDR model of Carina following Kaufman et al. (1999). When the PDR properties are compared with other sources, Carina is found to be more akin to 30 Doradus than Galactic star-forming regions such as the Orion Bar, M17, or W49; this is consistent with the view of Carina as a more evolved region, where much of the parent molecular cloud has been ionized or swept away. These data constitute the first ever ground-based detection of the 205 μm [NII] line, and only the third detection overall since those of the COBE FIRAS and the KAO in the early 1990s.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Departamento Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dinerstein, Harriet L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)


    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n -capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s -process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M {sub ⊙} progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s -process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n -capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s -process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances.

  9. Coordination Chemistry of Homoleptic Actinide(IV)-Thiocyanate Complexes. (United States)

    Carter, Tyler J; Wilson, Richard E


    The synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, vibrational and optical spectroscopy for the eight-coordinate thiocyanate compounds, [Et4 N]4 [Pu(IV) (NCS)8 ], [Et4 N]4 [Th(IV) (NCS)8 ], and [Et4 N]4 [Ce(III) (NCS)7 (H2 O)] are reported. Thiocyanate was found to rapidly reduce plutonium to Pu(III) in acidic solutions (pHcoordination in acetonitrile based on the observation of intense ligand-to-metal charge-transfer bands. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data do not support the interaction of the metal orbitals with the ligand π system, but support an enhanced An(IV) -NCS interaction, as the Lewis acidity of the metal ion increases from Th to Pu. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Thaddeus, P.


    A new SIS receiver with extremely low noise temperature, used on the Columbia 1.2-m telescope has permitted mapping CO rapidly with full sampling. Results are presented of a survey for which the angular resolution of the telescope was reduced to 0.5 deg, allowing the observations for the complete region of 750 square degrees to be finished within four months, while retaining sufficient resolution to see significant substructure. Most positions with emission are in the Taurus-Auriga dark nebulae, a cloud associated with IC 348 and NGC 1333, and a cloud associated with the California nebula (NGC 1499) and NGC 1579, which overlaps the northern Taurus-Auriga nebulae but is separated from them in velocity. Also seen were several small clouds at Galactic latitude -25 deg to -35 deg southwest of the Taurus clouds, and the L1558 and L1551 clouds in the south. 89 references

  11. The distribution of shocked gas in the bipolar nebulae CRL 2688 and CRL 618 (United States)

    Gatley, I.; Beckwith, S.; Beck, S. C.


    Maps of the H2 emission from the bipolar nebulae CRL 2688 and CRL 618 are presented, along with a map of the 2.1-micron continuum emission from CRL 2688. The H2 emission is seen in the direction of the lobes of each nebula and not in between the lobes. From the distribution of the H2 and continuum emission, it is argued that the H2 is excited in shock waves produced in the lobes of the visible nebulae by fast winds from the central stars which overtake slower moving material lost in a slow wind during the red-giant phase of each object. These shocks may be similar to those seen in Herbig-Haro objects. The mass-loss rates for the fast winds in each object are estimated from the H2 data, and a brief discussion is given of the origin of these winds.

  12. The Wolf-Rayet nebula NGC 6888 as a pressure driven bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, A.P.; Meaburn, J.


    Profiles of the Hα and [NII] emission lines have been obtained across the major axis of the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula NGC6888 with the Manchester echelle spectrometer combined with the Isaac Newton Telescope. Although triple profiles are found, this nebula is shown to approximate to a shell of radius 3pc expanding at 85 km s -1 . The ionized mass in the shell is 3.5 ± 1.2 M solar masses . IRAS survey maps also reveal a shell of neutral material containing 40 M solar masses , assuming the far infrared continuum emission from warm dust dominates the line emission. If it is assumed that this mass is also expanding at 85 km s -1 it is shown that the nebula is a pressure driven bubble, which conserves the kinetic energy of the driving stellar wind. (author)

  13. Spectroscopy of the ringlike nebula toward the open cluster NGC 3572 (United States)

    Noumaru, Junichi; Ogura, Katsuo


    Low-dispersion spectroscopy has been obtained for the ringlike nebula which Phelps and Janes (1991) found in the direction of the young open cluster NGC 3572 and suspected as a planetary nebula. Some nearby nebulosities have also been observed. Analyses of these data indicate that all of them, including the NGC 3572 ring, are H II regions. Morphological considerations of the region show that the nearby nebulosities are bright rims which are associated with the H II region BBW 342 and are partly hidden by the obscuring matter lying on this side. The NGC 3572 ring could be of the same nature. However, as the alternative interpretation, it could be a ring nebula (probably a wind-blown bubble) around a massive star (WR/Of star or LBV).

  14. Periodic Light Variability in Twelve Carbon-rich Proto-Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Maupin, Richard E.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.


    We present the results of a long-term (14 year) photometric monitoring program of 12 carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). PPNs are objects in the evolutionary transition between the AGB and planetary nebula phases. These 12 have bright central stars (V = 8-14 mag) with F-G spectral types and faint nebulae (as seen with the HST). All of the objects show a periodicity in their light variations, although there is also evidence for multiple periods or small period changes. The pulsation periods range from 35 to 153 days, with the longer periods correlated with later spectral types. In fact, a tight correlation is seen between the period and effective temperature. The light variations range from 0.15 to 0.7 mag and are larger for the cooler objects.

  15. Spectral analysis of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loparco, F.


    The Crab Pulsar is a relatively young neutron star. The Pulsar is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was observed on Earth in the year 1054. The Crab Pulsar has been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument onboard the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope, during its first months of data taking. The LAT data have been used to reconstruct the fluxes and the energy spectra of the pulsed gamma-ray component and of the gamma-rays from the Nebula. The results on the pulsed component are in good agreement with the previous measurement from EGRET, while the results on the Nebula are consistent with the observations from Earth based telescopes.

  16. Absolute spectrophotometry of the IC 2149, 4593, and NGC 6210 planetary nebulae in near infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, R.I.


    The absolute monochromatic energy flux (in -2 sec -1 ) was determined for the emission lines of the planetary nebulae IC2149, 4593 and NGC 6210 in the spectral interval lambda 6300-11000 A. The interstellar extinction Asub(β)=1.sup(m)3; O.sup(m)4; O.sup(m)6, accordingly, was estimated by using spectral lines HI of the Paschen and Balmer series. The energy distribution (in ergsxcm -2 xsec -1 1A -1 ) was found in summary continuous spectrum in the interval lambda 4000-10000 A. The attempt was made to separate the continuum of the nucleus and the nebula. The theoretical nebula continuous spectrum was calculated from lambda 3000 A to the radio range. The continuum, calibrated by menas of the flat part of the radiospectrum, linked well enough with the optical spectrum calculated here

  17. Detection of gamma-ray emission from the Vela pulsar wind nebula with AGILE. (United States)

    Pellizzoni, A; Trois, A; Tavani, M; Pilia, M; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Esposito, P; Sabatini, S; Piano, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Bulgarelli, A; Burgay, M; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; Costa, E; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Hotan, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Palfreyman, J; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pittori, C; Possenti, A; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Santolamazza, P; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L; D'Amico, N; Bignami, G F


    Pulsars are known to power winds of relativistic particles that can produce bright nebulae by interacting with the surrounding medium. These pulsar wind nebulae are observed by their radio, optical, and x-ray emissions, and in some cases also at TeV (teraelectron volt) energies, but the lack of information in the gamma-ray band precludes drawing a comprehensive multiwavelength picture of their phenomenology and emission mechanisms. Using data from the AGILE satellite, we detected the Vela pulsar wind nebula in the energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. This result constrains the particle population responsible for the GeV emission and establishes a class of gamma-ray emitters that could account for a fraction of the unidentified galactic gamma-ray sources.

  18. Planck intermediate results XXXIV. The magnetic field structure in the Rosette Nebula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.


    , the Rosette Nebula in the Monoceros molecular cloud, to study its magnetic field structure and the impact of an expanding H II region on the morphology of the field. We derive an analytical solution for the magnetic field, assumed to evolve from an initially uniform configuration following the expansion...... of ionized gas and the formation of a shell of swept-up ISM. From the RM data we estimate a mean value of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field of about 3 mu G (towards the observer) in the Rosette Nebula, for a uniform electron density of about 12 cm(-3). The dust shell that surrounds...... molecular cloud is in the range 6.5-9 mu G. The present analytical model is able to reproduce the RM distribution across the ionized nebula, as well as the mean dust polarization properties of the swept-up shell, and can be directly applied to other similar objects....

  19. Two-zone model for the broadband Crab nebula spectrum: microscopic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraschetti F.


    Full Text Available We develop a simple two-zone interpretation of the broadband baseline Crab nebula spectrum between 10−5 eV and ~ 100 TeV by using two distinct log-parabola energetic electrons distributions. We determine analytically the very-high energy photon spectrum as originated by inverse-Compton scattering of the far-infrared soft ambient photons within the nebula off a first population of electrons energized at the nebula termination shock. The broad and flat 200 GeV peak jointly observed by Fermi/LAT and MAGIC is naturally reproduced. The synchrotron radiation from a second energetic electron population explains the spectrum from the radio range up to ~ 10 keV. We infer from observations the energy dependence of the microscopic probability of remaining in proximity of the shock of the accelerating electrons.

  20. Mass and motion of globulettes in the Rosette Nebula (United States)

    Gahm, G. F.; Persson, C. M.; Mäkelä, M. M.; Haikala, L. K.


    Context. Tiny molecular clumps are abundant in many H ii regions surrounding newborn stellar clusters. In optical images these so-called globulettes appear as dark patches against the background of bright nebulosity. The majority of the globulettes were found to be of planetary mass in a previous optical investigation, while the largest objects may contain more than half a solar mass. Aims: We aim to clarify the physical nature of globulettes by deriving densities and masses, and to determine their velocities as a function of position over the nebula. This information will provide clues to the question of origins, evolution, and fate of globulettes. The Rosette Nebula is relatively rich in globulettes, and we selected a sample of well-confined objects of different sizes for the present investigation. Methods: Radio observations were made of molecular line emission from 16 globulettes combined with near-infrared (NIR) broad-band JHKs and narrow-band Paschen β and H2 imaging. Ten objects, for which we collected information from several transitions in 12CO and 13CO, were modelled using a spherically symmetric model. Results: Practically all globulettes were detected in our CO survey. The observed 12CO (3-2) and (2-1) line temperatures range from 0.6 K to 6 K, the 13CO being a third of this. As a rule, the lines are narrow, ~1.0 km s-1. The best fit to observed line ratios and intensities was obtained by assuming a model composed of a cool and dense centre and warm and dense surface layer. This model provides estimates of maximum and minimum mass; the average masses range from about 50 to 500 Jupiter masses, which is similar to earlier estimates based on extinction measures. The selected globulettes are dense, nH ~ 104 cm-3, with very thin layers of fluorescent H2 emission, showing that the gas is in molecular form just below the surface. The NIR data show that several globulettes are very opaque and contain dense cores. No infrared-excess stars in the fields are

  1. Galactic ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars. VI - NGC 3199, anon /MR 26/, RCW 58, and RCW 104 (United States)

    Chu, Y.-H.


    Narrow-band interference filter photographs and high resolution Fabry-Perot spectra have been obtained for four galactic ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars - NGC 3199, anon (MR 26), RCW 58, and RCW 104. All of these four nebulae show interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium. NGC 3199, anon (MR 26), and RCW 104 are classified as W-type nebulae. RCW 58, having a prominent ring of stellar ejecta, is classified as an E-type nebula. For most W-type nebulae, the kinetic energy in the shell is only about 1 percent of the total mechanical energy input from the stellar wind, while the ratio of the shell momentum to the total momentum injected by the stellar wind is about 0.5 and apparently increases with the nebular age.

  2. The Modern RPG IV Language

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Robert


    This updated, classic work on the RPG language covers all the new functions and features that have been added since 2003, including new op codes and built-in functions, new chapters on free-format RPG IV and Web programming interfaces, information on implementing XML within RPG IV, and expanded information on procedures. This reference guide takes both novice and experienced RPG IV programmers through the language, from its foundation to its most advanced techniques. More than 100 charts and tables, as well as 350 real-life code samples of functions and operations are included, showing readers

  3. Multi-wavelength imaging of the peculiar Vela Molecular Ridge nebula BBW 192E (United States)

    Burkert, A.; Stecklum, B.; Henning, Th.; Fischer, O.


    We present the first images of the nebula BBW 192E at near- and mid-infrared wavelengths as well as a 1.3 mm continuum map. The nebula BBW 192E is associated with the IRAS point source 08513-4201 which has a luminosity of about 1400 L_sun and a strongly rising spectral energy distribution towards mid-infrared wavelengths. The infrared images show a pronounced bipolar nebula, which is offset by about 10arcsec from the known optical emission, as well as several point sources. We interpret this morphology as evidence for an inclined disk-like structure and scattered light emerging from the lobes. This is supported by our near-infrared imaging polarimetry at sub-arcsecond resolution which furthermore indicates that the central energy source is seen directly at near-infrared wavelengths. At 1.3 millimetre, we detected a cometary shaped source in the dust continuum radiation, 151arcsec x 55arcsec in size, with a total mass of 180 M_sun as well as average hydrogen column and number densities of 4.5x1022 cm-2 and 2.6x105 cm-3, respectively. This dust cloud is also responsible for the strong spatial variation of the extinction across the nebula. We discuss the physical properties of the infrared point sources and conclude that some might be young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars. The main energy source of the nebula is an embedded intermediate-mass young stellar object. These observations are among the first infrared detections of a disk-like system associated with a bipolar nebula surrounding an intermediate-mass young stellar object. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (Proposal-IDs: 57.B-0392, 52.7-0086, 57.D-0260, 58.D-0213, and 63.I-0173)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Toshiya; Tomasino, Rachael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 6900, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Ferguson, Brian A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the results of differential proper-motion analyses of the Egg Nebula (RAFGL 2688, V1610 Cyg) based on the archived two-epoch optical data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. First, we determined that the polarization characteristics of the Egg Nebula are influenced by the higher optical depth of the central regions of the nebula (i.e., the 'dustsphere' of {approx}10{sup 3} AU radius), causing the nebula to illuminate in two steps-the direct starlight is first channeled into bipolar cavities and then scattered off to the rest of the nebula. We then measured the amount of motion of local structures and the signature concentric arcs by determining their relative shifts over the 7.25 yr interval. Based on our analysis, which does not rely on the single-scattering assumption, we concluded that the lobes have been excavated by a linear expansion along the bipolar axis for the past {approx}400 yr, while the concentric arcs have been generated continuously and moving out radially at about 10 km s{sup -1} for the past {approx}5500 yr, and there appears to be a colatitudinally increasing trend in the radial expansion velocity field of the concentric arcs. Numerical investigations into the mass-loss modulation by the central binary system exist, which predict such a colatitudinally increasing expansion velocity field in the spiral-shock trails of the mass-loss ejecta. Therefore, the Egg Nebula may represent a rare edge-on case of the binary-modulated circumstellar environs, corroborating the previous theoretical predictions.

  5. Search of a cyclotron line at 70 keV from Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.


    An observation of Crab Nebula was made during a transmediterranean balloon flight launched on August 26, 1979 from Milo Base. The hard x-ray experiment carried a payload consisting of two multiwire proportional counters having a geometric area of 900 cm 2 each. A single transit scan of the source was performed on the Crab Nebula region at a float altitude of 2.9 mbs. The preliminary results indicate the existence of an excess flux between 64 - 76 keV above the expected value of Esup(-2.0) power law

  6. The spectrophotometry and chemical composition of the oxygen-poor bipolar nebula NGC 6164-5 (United States)

    Dufour, Reginald J.; Parker, Robert A. R.; Henize, Karl G.


    The paper presents new ground-based and IUE spectrophotometry of several positions in NGC 6164-5 surrounding the Population I Of star HD 148937. Electron temperatures, densities, and abundances are derived for the various positions in the nebula using spectral line information. For all of the regions observed, Ne/H is depleted by an amount comparable to O/H, while S/H and Ar/H have normal values. The results suggest that the nebula consists partly of material ejected from inner shell-burning regions of the Of star. In effect, HD 148937 is older and more advanced than what was previously thought.

  7. Spectrophotometry and chemical composition of the oxygen-poor bipolar nebula NGC 6164-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.J.; Parker, R.A.R.; Henize, K.G.


    The paper presents new ground-based and IUE spectrophotometry of several positions in NGC 6164-5 surrounding the Population I Of star HD 148937. Electron temperatures, densities, and abundances are derived for the various positions in the nebula using spectral line information. For all of the regions observed, Ne/H is depleted by an amount comparable to O/H, while S/H and Ar/H have normal values. The results suggest that the nebula consists partly of material ejected from inner shell-burning regions of the Of star. In effect, HD 148937 is older and more advanced than what was previously thought. 34 references

  8. Model nebulae and determination of the chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds. (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D; Czyzak, S J


    An analysis of previously presented photoelectric spectrophotometry of HII regions (emission-line diffuse nebulae) in the two Magellanic Clouds is carried out with the aid of theoretical nebular models, which are used primarily as interpolation devices. Some advantages and limitations of such theoretical models are discussed. A comparison of the finally obtained chemical compositions with those found by other observers shows generally a good agreement, suggesting that it is possible to obtain reliable chemical compositions from low excitation gaseous nebulae in our own galaxy as well as in distant stellar systems.

  9. Detection of C60 and C70 in a young planetary nebula. (United States)

    Cami, Jan; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Peeters, Els; Malek, Sarah Elizabeth


    In recent decades, a number of molecules and diverse dust features have been identified by astronomical observations in various environments. Most of the dust that determines the physical and chemical characteristics of the interstellar medium is formed in the outflows of asymptotic giant branch stars and is further processed when these objects become planetary nebulae. We studied the environment of Tc 1, a peculiar planetary nebula whose infrared spectrum shows emission from cold and neutral C60 and C70. The two molecules amount to a few percent of the available cosmic carbon in this region. This finding indicates that if the conditions are right, fullerenes can and do form efficiently in space.

  10. Planck intermediate results XVIII. The millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from planetary nebulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.


    Late stages of stellar evolution are characterized by copious mass-loss events whose signature is the formation of circumstellar envelopes (CSE). Planck multi-frequency measurements have provided relevant information on a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in the important and relatively...... observed in its radio and millimetre emission has previously prevented constructing its SED. A morphological study of the Helix Nebula was also performed. Planck maps reveal, for the first time, the spatial distribution of the dust inside the envelope, allowing us to identify different components, the most...

  11. Magnetic fields and star formation: evidence from imaging polarimetry of the Serpens Reflection Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren-Smith, R.F.; Draper, P.W.; Scarrott, S.M.


    CCD imaging of the Serpens bipolar reflection nebula shows it to be surrounded by dark material having spiral density structure. Multi-colour polarization mapping also reveals details of the surrounding magnetic field, indicating that this also has spiral structure. These observations are discussed along with current ideas about the role of magnetic fields during star formation. An interpretation involving the non-axisymmetric magnetically braked collapse of a protostellar cloud is proposed and a resulting magnetic field configuration is described which can account for the observations. Evidence is also discussed for the formation of a binary star system within the nebula, resulting from the fragmentation of a magnetized protostellar disc.

  12. Medium-resolution échelle spectroscopy of the Red Square Nebula, MWC 922 (United States)

    Wehres, N.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cox, N. L. J.; Kaper, L.; Bally, J.; Snow, T. P.


    Context. Medium-resolution échelle spectra of the Red Square Nebula surrounding the star MWC 922 are presented. The spectra have been obtained in 2010 and 2012 using the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Paranal, Chile. The spectrum covers a wavelength range between 300 nm-2.5 μm and shows that the nebula is rich in emission lines. Aims: We aim to identify the emission lines and use them as a tool to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the nebula. The emission lines are also used to put constraints on the structure of the nebula and on the nature of the central stars. Methods: We analyzed and identified emission lines that indicated that the Red Square Nebula consists of a low density bipolar outflow, eminent in the broad emission component seen in [Fe II], as well as in P Cygni line profiles indicative of fast outflowing material. The narrow component in the [Fe II] lines is most likely formed in the photosphere of a surrounding disk. Some of the emission lines show a pronounced double peaked profile, such as Ca II, indicating an accretion disk in Keplerian rotation around the central star. [O I] emission lines are formed in the neutral atomic zone separating the ionized disk photosphere from the molecular gas in the interior of the disk, which is prominent in molecular CO emission in the near-IR. [N II] and [S II] emission clearly originates in a low density but fairly hot (7 000-10 000 K) nebular environment. H I recombination lines trace the extended nebula as well as the photosphere of the disk. Results: These findings put constraints on the evolution of the central objects in MWC 922. The Red Square shows strong similarities to the Red Rectangle Nebula, both in morphology and in its mid-IR spectroscopic characteristics. As for the Red Rectangle, the observed morphology of the nebula reflects mass-loss in a binary system. Specifically, we attribute the biconical morphology and the associated rung

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamal, A.; Maurya, M.R.


    Synthesis of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide, and its coordination compounds with nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) are described. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, molecular weight, i.r., electronic and n.m.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The stoichiometries of the complexes are represented as NiL . 3H 2 O, CoL . 2H 2 O, CuL, MnL . 2H 2 O, ZnL . H 2 O, Zr(OH) 2 (LH) 2 , Zr(OH) 2 L . 2MeOH, UO 2 L . MeOH and MoO 2 L . MeOH (where LH 2 =Schiff base). The copper(II) complex shows a subnormal magnetic moment due to antiferromagnetic exchange interaction while the nickel(II), cobalt(II) and manganese(II) complexes show normal magnetic moments at room temperature. The i.r. and n.m.r. spectral studies show that the Schiff base behaves as a dibasic and tridentate ligand coordinating through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. (orig.)

  14. Synthesis and Structural and Optical Properties of Ga(As1-xPx)Ge3 and (GaP)yGe5-2y Semiconductors Using Interface-Engineered Group IV Platforms. (United States)

    Wallace, Patrick M; Sims, Patrick E; Xu, Chi; Poweleit, Christian D; Kouvetakis, John; Menéndez, José


    Epitaxial synthesis of Ga(As 1-x P x )Ge 3 alloys on Si(100) substrates is demonstrated using chemical vapor deposition reactions of [D 2 GaN(CH 3 ) 2 ] 2 with P(GeH 3 ) 3 and As(GeH 3 ) 3 precursors. These compounds are chosen to promote the formation of GaAsGe 3 and GaPGe 3 building blocks which interlink to produce the desired crystalline product. Ge-rich (GaP) y Ge 5-2y analogues have also been grown with tunable Ge contents up to 90% by reactions of P(GeH 3 ) 3 with [D 2 GaN(CH 3 ) 2 ] 2 under similar deposition protocols. In both cases, the crystal growth utilized Ge 1-x Si x buffer layers whose lattice constants were specifically tuned as a function of composition to allow perfect lattice matching with the target epilayers. This approach yielded single-phase materials with excellent crystallinity devoid of mismatch-induced dislocations. The lattice parameters of Ga(As 1-x P x )Ge 3 interpolated among the Ge, GaAs, and GaP end members, corroborating the Rutherford backscattering measurements of the P/As ratio. A small deviation from the Vegard's law that depends on the As/P ratio was observed and corroborated by ab initio calculations. Raman scattering shows evidence for the existence of Ga-As and Ga-P bonds in the Ge matrix. The As-rich samples exhibited photoluminescence with wavelengths similar to those observed for pure GaAsGe 3 , indicating that the emission profile does not change in any measurable manner by replacing As by P over a broad range up to x = 0.2. Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) data suggested a large negative bowing of the band gap as expected on account of a strong valence band localization on the As atoms. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of the dielectric function revealed a distinct direct gap transition that closely matches the PL emission energy. These measurements also showed that the absorption coefficients can be systematically tuned as a function of composition, indicating possible applications of the new materials

  15. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the SMC (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana


    In FUSE cycle 3's program C056 we studied four Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPN) in the Small Magellanic Could. All FUSE observations have been successfully completed and have been reduced and analyzed. The observation of one object (SMP SMC 5) appeared to be off-target and no useful stellar flux was gathered. For another observation (SMP SMC 1) the voltage problems resulted in the loss of data from one of the SiC detectors, but we were still able to analyze the remaining data. The analysis and the results are summarized below. The FUSE data were reduced using the latest available version of the FUSE calibration pipeline (CALFUSE v2.4). The flux of these SMC post-AGB objects is at the threshold of FUSE S sensitivity, and the targets required many orbit-long exposures, each of which typically had low (target) count-rates. The background subtraction required special care during the reduction, and was done in a similar manner to our FUSE cycle 2 BOO1 objects. The resulting calibrated data from the different channels were compared in the overlapping regions for consistency. The final combined, extracted spectra of each target was then modeled to determine the stellar and nebular parameters. The FUSE spectra, combined with archival HST spectra, have been analyzed using stellar atmospheres codes such as TLUSTY and CMFGEN to derive photospheric and wind parameters of the central stars, and with ISM models to determine the amount and temperature of the surrounding atomic and molecular hydrogen. We have combined these results with those of our cycle 4 (D034) program (CSPN of the LMC) in Herald & Bianchi 2004a (paper in preparation, will be submitted to ApJ in June 2004). Two of the three SMC objects analyzed were found to have significantly lower stellar temperatures than had been predicted using nebular photoionization models, indicating either a hotter ionizing companion or the existence of strong shocks in the nebular environment. The analysis also revealed that

  16. Plutonium(IV) and thorium(IV) hydrous polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.; Toth, L.M.


    The recent attention given to Pu(IV) polymers has warranted a review of plutonium and thorium hydrolysis chemistry with respect to the various experimental approaches and insights gained therein. Differing terminologies used in the experimental procedures have often confused the understanding of the chemical processes which occur between the first hydrolysis reaction of the tetravalent actinide and its final dehydration to form the crystalline oxide. This report focuses on the polymer aging reaction which is defined here in terms of A. W. Thomas' ol to oxo conversion reaction and involves simply the conversion of hydroxyl-bridged polymer links to oxygen-bridged linkages. Thorium(IV) hydrolytic reactions are included because they are analogous in many respects to those of Pu(IV) and offer a simpler chemical system for experimental study. Future work using spectroscopic techniques should significantly improve the description of this aging phenomenon

  17. The Eighty Six Hα Spectra from the Orion Nebula (M42, Sh2-281)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∼40′×40′) of the Orion Nebula (NGC1976, M42, Sh2-281) have been obtained using DEFPOS spectrometer with a circular field of view of 4′ at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya, Turkey). Measurements provide information ...

  18. Properties of dust grains in planetary nebulae. I. The ionized region of NGC 6445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC; Beintema, DA; Martin, PG; Pottasch, [No Value


    One of the factors influencing the spectral evolution of a planetary nebula is the fate of the dust grains that are emitting the infrared continuum. Several processes have been proposed that either destroy the grains or remove them from the ionized region. To test whether these processes are

  19. Measurement of the He II radiation field in planetary nebulae through Bowen fluorescence (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.


    Excitation of O III by He II is treated for sources over a useful range of densities to give accurate predictions of Bowen/non-Bowen line ratios. These are applied to recent observations of planetary nebulae to show that Bowen excitation increases monotonically with excitation class, and to deduce other important consequences.

  20. An Analysis of Spectra in the Red Rectangle Nebula Frédéric Zagury

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a review of the problem on a more simple and pragmatic basis. It will also explain the similarity outlined by Zagury & Fujii (2003) between the spectrum of a red horizon at sunrise and the spectra of red nebulae. Both spectra result from a combination of. Rayleigh scattering by a gas (nitrogen for the red horizon, hydrogen for ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Peimbert, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo, Postal 70-264, 04510 México D. F., México (Mexico); García-Díaz, Ma. T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Rubin, Robert H., E-mail: [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)


    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database.

  2. Co-accretion of chondrules and dust in the solar nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C. W.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.


    We present a mechanism for chondrules to stick together by means of compaction of a porous dust rim they sweep up as they move through the dusty nebula gas. It is shown that dust aggregates formed out of micron-size grains stick to chondrules, forming a porous dust rim. When chondrules collide, this


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.; Buehler, R.; Hays, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Dutka, M. S.; Kerr, M.; Ojha, R.


    We report on a bright flare in the Crab Nebula detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The period of significantly increased luminosity occurred in 2013 March and lasted for approximately two weeks. During this period, we observed flux variability on timescales of approximately 5 hr. The combined photon flux above 100 MeV from the pulsar and its nebula reached a peak value of (12.5 ± 0.8) · 10 –6 cm –2 s –1 on 2013 March 6. This value exceeds the average flux by almost a factor of six and implies a ∼20 times higher flux for the synchrotron component of the nebula alone. This is the second brightest flare observed from this source. Spectral and temporal analysis of the LAT data collected during the outburst reveal a rapidly varying synchrotron component of the Crab Nebula while the pulsar emission remains constant in time

  4. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M


    Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.

  5. High-speed knots in the hourglass shaped planetary nebula Hubble 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaytet, N. M. H.; Rushton, A. P.; Lloyd, M.


    We present a detailed kinematical analysis of the young compact hourglass-shaped planetary nebula Hb 12. We performed optical imaging and longslit spectroscopy of Hb 12 using the Manchester echelle spectrometer with the 2.1m San Pedro Martir telescope. We reveal, for the first time, the presence...... of end caps (or knots) aligned with the bipolar lobes of the planetary nebula shell in a deep [NII]6584 image of Hb 12. We measured from our spectroscopy radial velocities of 120 km/s for these knots. We have derived the inclination angle of the hourglass shaped nebular shell to be 65 degrees to the line...... of sight. It has been suggested that Hb 12's central star system is an eclipsing binary (Hsia et al. 2006) which would imply a binary inclination of at least 80 degrees. However, if the central binary has been the major shaping influence on the nebula then both nebula and binary would be expected to share...

  6. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.


    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O.; Girart, J. M.


    We use R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for about 12,000 background field stars in 46 fields of view toward the Pipe nebula to investigate the properties of the polarization across this dark cloud. Based on archival Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we estimate that the surveyed areas present total visual extinctions in the range 0.6 mag ≤ A V ≤ 4.6 mag. While the observed polarizations show a well-ordered large-scale pattern, with polarization vectors almost perpendicularly aligned to the cloud's long axis, at core scales one sees details that are characteristics of each core. Although many observed stars present degrees of polarization that are unusual for the common interstellar medium (ISM), our analysis suggests that the dust grains constituting the diffuse parts of the Pipe nebula seem to have the same properties as the normal Galactic ISM. Estimates of the second-order structure function of the polarization angles suggest that most of the Pipe nebula is magnetically dominated and that turbulence is sub-Alvenic. The Pipe nebula is certainly an interesting region to investigate the processes that prevailed during the initial phases of low-mass stellar formation.

  8. Spatially-Dependent Modelling of Pulsar Wind Nebula G0.9+0.1 (United States)

    van Rensburg, C.; Krüger, P. P.; Venter, C.


    We present results from a leptonic emission code that models the spectral energy distribution of a pulsar wind nebula by solving a Fokker-Planck-type transport equation and calculating inverse Compton and synchrotron emissivities. We have created this time-dependent, multi-zone model to investigate changes in the particle spectrum as they traverse the pulsar wind nebula, by considering a time and spatially-dependent B-field, spatially-dependent bulk particle speed implying convection and adiabatic losses, diffusion, as well as radiative losses. Our code predicts the radiation spectrum at different positions in the nebula, yielding the surface brightness versus radius and the nebular size as function of energy. We compare our new model against more basic models using the observed spectrum of pulsar wind nebula G0.9+0.1, incorporating data from H.E.S.S. as well as radio and X-ray experiments. We show that simultaneously fitting the spectral energy distribution and the energy-dependent source size leads to more stringent constraints on several model parameters.

  9. A Large Bubble External to the Wolf-Rayet Ring Nebula NGC 6888 (United States)

    Marston, A. P.


    We present high spatial resolution IRAS images (HIRES) of a 2° field surrounding the Wolf-Rayet ring nebula NGC 6888. This shows the presence of an elliptical shell 1.7° × 1.4° in size and with a position angle at 45° relative to that of NGC 6888 which is also observed in our images. IRAS fluxes indicate the outer large bubble has a cooler dust temperature than NGC 6888 and has an implied gas mass of approximately 8000 Msun. It is proposed that the outer shell represents the extent of a bubble 19 pc across created in the O star phase of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 136 (HD 192163), presently at the center of NGC 6888. This bubble is estimated as being 1.9 × 106 yr old with an associated O star phase of 1.6-1.9 × 106 yr. The high spatial resolution in our IRAS images has also allowed better fluxes to be determined for the ring nebula NGC 6888 which are consistent with the previous results of Marston & Meaburn (1988). We illustrate how the nebulae around the star WR 136 are consistent with a three phase evolution for Wolf-Rayet stars. With the large mass lost in the ring nebula we suggest that a massive (>40 Msun) O star has evolved through a luminous blue variable phase before becoming the Wolf-Rayet star WR 136.

  10. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.


    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We will miss RXTE, but will continue our monitoring program using Fermi/GBM, MAXI, and Swift/BAT.

  11. Testing models of low-excitation photodissociation regions with far-infrared observations of reflection nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owl, RCY; Meixner, MM; Fong, D; Haas, MR; Rudolph, AL; Tielens, AGGM


    This paper presents Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the photodissociation regions ( PDRs) in nine reflection nebulae. These observations include the far-infrared atomic fine-structure lines of [O I] 63 and 145 mum, [C II] 158 mum, and [Si II] 35 mum and the adjacent far-infrared

  12. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.


    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and

  13. Planetary nebula velocities in the disc and bulge of M31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, C.; Carter, D.; Bridges, T. J.; Jackson, Z. C.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Quinn, D. P.; Evans, N. W.; Douglas, N. G.; Merrett, H. R.; Merrifield, M. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Kuijken, K.; Irwin, M. J.


    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae in the disc and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] lambda 5007 emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present a high resolution spectroscopic study of the ionised gas in Puppis-Vela, which includes the Gum Nebula and the IRAS Vela Shell, in the emission lines of Halpha lambda6563 angstrom, [NII] lambdalambda6548, 6584 angstrom and the [OIII] lambda5007 angstrom. Line profiles were obtained at 18

  15. The role of Fischer-Tropsch catalysis in solar nebula chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kress, ME; Tielens, AGGM

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysis, the iron/nickel catalyzed conversion of CO and H(2) to hydrocarbons, would have been the only thermally-driven pathway available in the solar nebula to convert CO into other forms of carbon. A major issue in meteoritics is to determine the origin of meteoritic organics:

  16. IUE observations of DQ Herculis and its nebula, and the nature of the cold nova shells (United States)

    Ferland, G. J.; Williams, R. E.; Lambert, D. L.; Slovak, M.; Gondhalekar, P. M.; Truran, J. W.; Shields, G. A.


    The nebula ejected in the 1934 outburst of the classical nova DQ Her is remarkable for its unprecedentedly low temperature of Te 500 K as measured by Williams et al. (1978). In this paper, IUE observations are combined with Steward optical spectra. It is confirmed that the gas is quite cold. It is further shown that the gas is ionized by the radiation field of the central object. X-ray, ultraviolet, optical and infrared observations of the underlying binary are combined with the extreme-ultraviolet continuum deduced from the level of ionization of the nebula to obtain a composite energy distribution for the central object. This energy distribution bears no resemblance to that predicted by theoretical models of accretion disks. Photoionization models of the nebula using the deduced continuum, as well as theoretical accretion disk continua, are presented to show that the low electron temperature is the result of the very high metal abundances which characterize nova shells. Infrared fine-structure lines are efficient coolants, and low temperatures are achieved for a wide variety of radiation fields. The implications of these results for nebulae surrounding other old novae are discussed.

  17. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Proteins. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Ran; Chen, Xiling; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu


    The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)-inhibitory bioactivity of silver carp protein (SCP) hydrolysates were investigated, and their containing efficacious DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides were explored by in silico hydrolysis analysis, peptide separation combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification, and chemical synthesis. SCP hydrolysates generated by six proteases all showed efficient DPP-IV-inhibitory activities, and Neutrase-generated hydrolysates had the greatest DPP-IV inhibition (IC50 of 1.12 mg/mL). In silico Neutrase hydrolysis revealed hundreds of fragments released from myosin, actin, and collagen of SCPs, which include different Pro-motif peptides but only three reported peptidic DPP-IV inhibitors with moderate or weak bioactivity. In addition, three new DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides were identified using LC-MS/MS; in particular, LPIIDI and APGPAGP showed high DPP-IV-inhibitory activity with IC50 of 105.44 and 229.14 μM, respectively, and behaved in competitive/non-competitive mixed-type DPP-IV inhibition mode. The results indicate that the SCP-derived DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides could be potential functional ingredients in the diabetic diet.

  18. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.V.


    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  19. Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements (United States)

    Cassen, P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)


    The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) under equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by tile composition of CI meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce tile observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed. The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics Such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the formation of the chondrite parent bodies and the planets.

  20. Meteoritic Constraints on Models of the Solar Nebula: The Abundances of Moderately Volatile Elements (United States)

    Cassen, Patrick; Cuzzi, Jeff (Technical Monitor)


    The "moderately volatile" elements are those which condense (or evaporate) in the temperature range 650 - 1350 K, as a mix of material with solar abundances is cooled (or heated) tinder equilibrium conditions. Their relative abundances in chondritic meteorites are solar (or "cosmic", as defined by the composition of Cl meteorites) to within a factor of several, but vary within that range in a way that correlates remarkably well with condensation temperature, independent of chemical affinity. It has been argued that this correlation reflects a systematically selective process which favored the accretion of refractory material over volatile material from a cooling nebula. Wasson and Chou (Meteoritics 9, 69-94, 1974, and Wasson and co-authors in subsequent papers) suggested that condensation and settling of solids contemporaneously with the cooling and removal of nebular gas could produce the observed abundance patterns, but a quantitative model has been lacking. We show that the abundance patterns of the moderately volatile elements in chondritic meteorites can be produced, in some degree of quantitative detail, by models of the solar nebula that are designed to conform to observations of T Tauri stars and the global conservation laws. For example, even if the local surface density of the nebula is not decreasing, condensation and accretion of solids from radially inflowing gas in a cooling nebula can result in depletions of volatiles, relative to refractories, like those observed, The details of the calculated abundance patterns depend on (but are not especially sensitive to) model parameters, and can exhibit the variations that distinguish the meteorite classes. Thus it appears that nebula characteristics such as cooling rates, radial flow velocities, and particle accumulation rates can be quantitatively constrained by demanding that they conform to meteoritic data; and the models, in turn, can produce testable hypotheses regarding the time and location of the


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.


    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  3. Automatic Generation of Algorithms for the Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae Images (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd


    Analyzing data sets collected in experiments or by observations is a Core scientific activity. Typically, experimentd and observational data are &aught with uncertainty, and the analysis is based on a statistical model of the conjectured underlying processes, The large data volumes collected by modern instruments make computer support indispensible for this. Consequently, scientists spend significant amounts of their time with the development and refinement of the data analysis programs. AutoBayes [GF+02, FS03] is a fully automatic synthesis system for generating statistical data analysis programs. Externally, it looks like a compiler: it takes an abstract problem specification and translates it into executable code. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model as shown in Figure 1; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. Internally, however, it is quite different: AutoBayes derives a customized algorithm implementing the given model using a schema-based process, and then further refines and optimizes the algorithm into code. A schema is a parameterized code template with associated semantic constraints which define and restrict the template s applicability. The schema parameters are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis as AutoBayes checks the constraints against the original model or, recursively, against emerging sub-problems. AutoBayes schema library contains problem decomposition operators (which are justified by theorems in a formal logic in the domain of Bayesian networks) as well as machine learning algorithms (e.g., EM, k-Means) and nu- meric optimization methods (e.g., Nelder-Mead simplex, conjugate gradient). AutoBayes augments this schema-based approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. This is a major advantage over other statistical data analysis systems

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV. (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A


    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  5. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim


    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  6. Measurements of Magnetic Fields in the Solar Nebula (United States)

    Fu, R. R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.


    magnetization blocked up to 200 mT in addition to the MC component. The HC component is not present in surrounding bulk samples, suggesting that it pre-dates the accretion of the meteorite and likely records nebular magnetic fields. Using the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) normalization method, the HC component corresponds to a paleointensity of 6 μT. Analysis of additional dusty olivine-bearing chondrules, including thermal demagnetization, is ongoing. The existence of pre-accretional remanence in chondrules implies that magnetic fields during chondrule formation were stable on the timescale of chondrule cooling. The relatively low paleointensity of 6 μT, if confirmed by further experiments, is consistent with magnetic fields in the hypothesized "dead zone" at the mid-plane of the solar nebula where the MRI is expected to be weak. Chondrule records of dead zone magnetic fields imply that chondrule formation occurred near the disk mid-plane at between approximately 0.5 and 10 AU. Furthermore, this paleointensity may not be consistent with chondrule formation mechanisms that generate strong local magnetic fields, such as the nebular lightning and the X-winds models.

  7. VeVeRa-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Klarita Sadiraj


    Original title: VeVeRa-IV The Dutch population is set to age rapidly in the coming years. More and more people will also attain a very great age. This means that the need for home care and care provided in nursing or residential care homes will also increase. As part of the Long-term Care

  8. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  9. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna


    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  10. A chiral Mn(IV)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Singlecrystal X-ray analysis revealed that compound 1 crystallises in the monoclinic 21 space group with six mononuclear [MnIVL2] units in the asymmetric unit along with three solvent DMF molecules. In the crystal structure, each Mn(IV) complex, acting as the building unit, undergoes supramolecular linking through C-H ...

  11. Sorption of Pu(IV) from nitric acid by bifunctional anion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhang, Z.Y.; Elshani, S.; Zhao, W.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.; Chamberlin, R.M.


    Anion exchange is attractive for separating plutonium because the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is very strongly sorbed and few other metal ions form competing anionic nitrate complexes. The major disadvantage of this process has been the unusually slow rate at which the Pu(IV) nitrate complex is sorbed by the resin. The paper summarizes the concept of bifunctional anion-exchange resins, proposed mechanism for Pu(IV) sorption, synthesis of the alkylating agent, calculation of K d values from Pu(IV) sorption results, and conclusions from the study of Pu(IV) sorption from 7M nitric acid by macroporous anion-exchange resins including level of crosslinking, level of alkylation, length of spacer, and bifunctional vs. monofunctional anion-exchange resins

  12. Broadband x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the crab nebula and pulsar with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen; Harrison, Fiona


    We present broadband (3-78 keV) NuSTAR X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the Crab nebula and pulsar. We show that while the phase-averaged and spatially integrated nebula + pulsar spectrum is a power law in this energy band, spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula finds a break at ~9 ke...... and measure the size of the nebula as a function of energy in seven bands. These results find that the rate of shrinkage with energy of the torus size can be fitted by a power law with an index of γ = 0.094 ± 0.018, consistent with the predictions of Kennel and Coroniti. The change in size is more rapid...

  13. Evolutionary status of the Of?p star HD 148937 and of its surrounding nebula NGC 6164/5 (United States)

    Mahy, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Nazé, Y.; Royer, P.; Lebouteiller, V.; Waelkens, C.


    Aims: The magnetic star HD 148937 is the only Galactic Of?p star surrounded by a nebula. The structure of this nebula is particularly complex and is composed, from the center out outwards, of a close bipolar ejecta nebula (NGC 6164/5), an ellipsoidal wind-blown shell, and a spherically symmetric Strömgren sphere. The exact formation process of this nebula and its precise relation to the star's evolution remain unknown. Methods: We analyzed infrared Spitzer IRS and far-infrared Herschel/PACS observations of the NGC 6164/5 nebula. The Herschel imaging allowed us to constrain the global morphology of the nebula. We also combined the infrared spectra with optical spectra of the central star to constrain its evolutionary status. We used these data to derive the abundances in the ejected material. To relate this information to the evolutionary status of the star, we also determined the fundamental parameters of HD 148937 using the CMFGEN atmosphere code. Results: The Hα image displays a bipolar or "8"-shaped ionized nebula, whilst the infrared images show dust to be more concentrated around the central object. We determine nebular abundance ratios of N/O = 1.06 close to the star, and N/O = 1.54 in the bright lobe constituting NGC 6164. Interestingly, the parts of the nebula located further from HD 148937 appear more enriched in stellar material than the part located closer to the star. Evolutionary tracks suggest that these ejecta have occured 1.2-1.3 and 0.6 Myr ago, respectively. In addition, we derive abundances of argon for the nebula compatible with the solar values and we find a depletion of neon and sulfur. The combined analyses of the known kinematics and of the new abundances of the nebula suggest either a helical morphology for the nebula, possibly linked to the magnetic geometry, or the occurrence of a binary merger. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important

  14. Transformation of Graphitic and Amorphous Carbon Dust to Complex Organic Molecules in a Massive Carbon Cycle in Protostellar Nebulae (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.


    More than 95% of silicate minerals and other oxides found in meteorites were melted, or vaporized and recondensed in the Solar Nebula prior to their incorporation into meteorite parent bodies. Gravitational accretion energy and heating via radioactive decay further transformed oxide minerals accreted into planetesimals. In such an oxygen-rich environment the carbonaceous dust that fell into the nebula as an intimate mixture with oxide grains should have been almost completely converted to CO. While some pre-collapse, molecular-cloud carbonaceous dust does survive, much in the same manner as do pre-solar oxide grains, such materials constitute only a few percent of meteoritic carbon and are clearly distinguished by elevated D/H, N-15/N-16, C-13/C-12 ratios or noble gas patterns. Carbonaceous Dust in Meteorites: We argue that nearly all of the carbon in meteorites was synthesized in the Solar Nebula from CO and that this CO was generated by the reaction of carbonaceous dust with solid oxides, water or OH. It is probable that some fraction of carbonaceous dust that is newly synthesized in the Solar Nebula is also converted back into CO by additional thermal processing. CO processing might occur on grains in the outer nebula through irradiation of CO-containing ice coatings or in the inner nebula via Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions on grain surfaces. Large-scale transport of both gaseous reaction products and dust from the inner nebula out to regions where comets formed would spread newly formed carbonaceous materials throughout the solar nebula. Formation of Organic Carbon: Carbon dust in the ISM might easily be described as inorganic graphite or amorphous carbon, with relatively low structural abundances of H, N, O and S . Products of FTT reactions or organics produced via irradiation of icy grains contain abundant aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. aldehydes, keytones, acids, amines and amides.. The net result of the massive nebular carbon cycle is to convert

  15. X-ray observations of two lunar occultations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, W.H.M.


    The x-ray source in the Crab nebula was observed during two lunar occultations. The combined results of the two scans of the nebula indicate that the spatial distribution of the X-ray flux from the nebula is centered on a region 10'' to 15'' NW of the pulsar. The half-intensity size, as measured by the FWHM of the best Gaussian representation of each strip flux distribution, is 46.7'' +- 1.5'' along p.a. = 300 0 , and is 42'' +- 2'' along p.a. = 255 0 . A closer examination of the size of the nebular emission region measured along p.a. = 300 0 reveals that the size decreases significantly with increasing photon energy. A power-law function with an exponent of γ = -0.148 +- 0.012 characterizes the optical (approximately 2 eV) to X-ray (approximately 50 keV) size measurements well, but it fails to predict the observed sizes of the radio nebula. Power-law spectral indices derived for different regions of the nebula support this finding. These results are interpreted in terms of existing theoretical models for the motion of electrons in the nebula. The data obtained on 28 December 1974 also provide strong evidence for the existence of a low-luminosity soft X-ray component more than 60'' W of the pulsar. Such emission was not detected in data from the first scan, but the upper limit derived from those data is consistent with the existence of a soft extended source. Several plausible explanations for the origin of this radiation are considered including the interesting possibility of thermal emission from a supernova remnant shell. Data obtained near the time of emergence of the pulsar for both observations are examined for possible flux contribution from a discrete steady radiation source. The null result allows an upper limit of 4.7 x 10 6 0 K (99 percent confidence) to be established on the surface temperature of the neutron star associated with NP 0532. This result is used to set limits on some physical parameters of a neutron star


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, Dávid; Corbel, Stéphane; Kaaret, Philip; Lang, Cornelia; Grisé, Fabien; Paragi, Zsolt; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Tudose, Valeriu; Feng Hua


    We present new radio, optical, and X-ray observations of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that are associated with large-scale nebulae. We report the discovery of a radio nebula associated with the ULX IC 342 X-1 using the Very Large Array (VLA). Complementary VLA observations of the nebula around Holmberg II X-1, and high-frequency Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Telescope spectroscopic observations of NGC 5408 X-1 are also presented. We study the morphology, ionization processes, and the energetics of the optical/radio nebulae of IC 342 X-1, Holmberg II X-1, and NGC 5408 X-1. The energetics of the optical nebula of IC 342 X-1 is discussed in the framework of standard bubble theory. The total energy content of the optical nebula is 6 × 10 52 erg. The minimum energy needed to supply the associated radio nebula is 9.2 × 10 50 erg. In addition, we detected an unresolved radio source at the location of IC 342 X-1 at the VLA scales. However, our Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using the European VLBI Network likely rule out the presence of any compact radio source at milliarcsecond (mas) scales. Using a simultaneous Swift X-ray Telescope measurement, we estimate an upper limit on the mass of the black hole in IC 342 X-1 using the 'fundamental plane' of accreting black holes and obtain M BH ≤ (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10 3 M ☉ . Arguing that the nebula of IC 342 X-1 is possibly inflated by a jet, we estimate accretion rates and efficiencies for the jet of IC 342 X-1 and compare with sources like S26, SS433, and IC 10 X-1.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) phenyl phosphonate in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Huang H H, Wilkes G L and Carlson J G 1989 Polymer 30. 2001. Ribeiro F H, von Wittenau A E S, Bartholomew C H and. Somorjai G A 1997 Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 39 49. Sakurai H and Haruta M 1996 Catal. Today 29 361. Schuster M F H and Meyer W H 2003 Rev. Mater. Res. 33 233. Turkevich J and Kim G 1970 Science ...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of the Bis- Cyclometalating Ligand 3,3',5,5'-tetrakis[(dimethylamino)methyl]biphenyl and its use in the preparation of bimetallic M(II), M(IV) (M = Pt, Pd) and mixed-valence Pt(II)-Pt(IV) complexes via a dilithio-derivative. Crystal structure of the Pd dimer [ClPd{2,6-(Me2NCH2)2C6H2}]2,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Lagunas, M.C.; Gossage, R.A.; Spek, A.L.


    The potentially bis-cyclometalating ligand 3,3',5,5'-tetrakis[(dimethylamino)methyl]biphenyl, was prepared from 3,5-(Me2NCH2)2C6H3Br in a one-pot synthesis involving lithium-halogen exchange, transmetalation, and reductive-elimination reactions. This ligand undergoes selective dilithiation in the 4

  19. Nature versus nurture: Luminous blue variable nebulae in and near massive stellar clusters at the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Morris, M. R.


    Three luminous blue variables (LBVs) are located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster at the Galactic center: the Pistol Star, G0.120-0.048, and qF362. We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the region containing these three LBVs, obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. We argue that Pistol and G0.120-0.048 are identical 'twins' that exhibit contrasting nebulae due to the external influence of their different environments. Our images reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. However, no detection of hot dust associated with qF362 is made. Dust and gas composing the Pistol nebula are primarily heated and ionized by the nearby Quintuplet Cluster stars. The northern region of the Pistol nebula is decelerated due to the interaction with the high-velocity (2000 km s –1 ) winds from adjacent Wolf-Rayet Carbon (WC) stars. From fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Pistol nebula with the DustEM code we determine that the Pistol nebula is composed of a distribution of very small, transiently heated grains (10 to ∼ 35 Å) having a total dust mass of 0.03 M ☉ , and that it exhibits a gradient of decreasing grain size from south to north due to differential sputtering by the winds from the WC stars. The total IR luminosity of the Pistol nebula is 5.2 × 10 5 L ☉ . Dust in the G0.120-0.048 nebula is primarily heated by the central star; however, the nebular gas is ionized externally by the Arches Cluster. Unlike the Pistol nebula, the G0.120-0.048 nebula is freely expanding into the surrounding medium. A grain size distribution identical to that of the non-sputtered region of the Pistol nebula satisfies the constraints placed on the G0.120-0.048 nebula from DustEM model fits to its SED and implies a total dust mass of 0.021 M ☉ . The total IR luminosity of the G0.120-0.048 nebula is

  20. Nature versus nurture: Luminous blue variable nebulae in and near massive stellar clusters at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)


    Three luminous blue variables (LBVs) are located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster at the Galactic center: the Pistol Star, G0.120-0.048, and qF362. We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the region containing these three LBVs, obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. We argue that Pistol and G0.120-0.048 are identical 'twins' that exhibit contrasting nebulae due to the external influence of their different environments. Our images reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. However, no detection of hot dust associated with qF362 is made. Dust and gas composing the Pistol nebula are primarily heated and ionized by the nearby Quintuplet Cluster stars. The northern region of the Pistol nebula is decelerated due to the interaction with the high-velocity (2000 km s{sup –1}) winds from adjacent Wolf-Rayet Carbon (WC) stars. From fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Pistol nebula with the DustEM code we determine that the Pistol nebula is composed of a distribution of very small, transiently heated grains (10 to ∼ 35 Å) having a total dust mass of 0.03 M {sub ☉}, and that it exhibits a gradient of decreasing grain size from south to north due to differential sputtering by the winds from the WC stars. The total IR luminosity of the Pistol nebula is 5.2 × 10{sup 5} L {sub ☉}. Dust in the G0.120-0.048 nebula is primarily heated by the central star; however, the nebular gas is ionized externally by the Arches Cluster. Unlike the Pistol nebula, the G0.120-0.048 nebula is freely expanding into the surrounding medium. A grain size distribution identical to that of the non-sputtered region of the Pistol nebula satisfies the constraints placed on the G0.120-0.048 nebula from DustEM model fits to its SED and implies a total dust mass of 0.021 M {sub ☉}. The total IR luminosity of the G