Smith, Russell; Wachal, Jocelyn
The Nebraska SATS project is a state-level component of NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). During the next several years the project will examine several different factors affecting SATS implementation in Nebraska. These include economic and taxation issues, public policy issues, airport planning processes, information dissemination strategies, and systemic change factors. This background paper profiles the general aviation system in Nebraska. It is written to provide information about the "context" within which SATS will be pursued. The primary focus is thus on describing and providing background information about the current situation. A secondary focus is on drawing general conclusions about the ability of the current system to incorporate the types of changes implied by SATS. First, some brief information on the U.S. aviation system is provided. The next two sections profile the current general aviation aircraft and pilot base. Nebraska's system of general aviation airports is then described. Within this section of the paper, information is provided on the different types of general aviation airports in Nebraska, airport activity levels and current infrastructure. The fourth major section of the background paper looks at Nebraska's local airport authorities. These special purpose local governments oversee the majority of the general aviation airports in the state. Among the items examined are total expenditures, capital expenditures and planning activities. Next, the paper provides background information on the Nebraska Department of Aeronautics (NDA) and recent Federal funding for general aviation in Nebraska. The final section presents summary conclusions.
Management issues of introducing SAT Project include main objectives and expectations; SAT goal and management; major phases of SAT implementation; project quality assurance; SAT based training system and procedures; role of the project team qualifications
Kazennov, A.; Zlokazov, A.; Kossilov, A.
Discussion provided below in the text and on the presentation transparencies is based on hands-on experience of SAT projects' implementation which have been or being conducted in several countries, and intended to develop or upgrade NPP personnel training. We will 'risk' to say that no comprehensive system, training system in particular, can work without feedback. A powerful tool to establish a controllability of a training process is to measure (using certain criteria) trainees' performance., training process, employees' qualification, on-job human performance, overall plant performance, and then (using certain algorithms) to provide feedback control to training and the whole organization with clear understanding and grading whether we deal with training-related root causes or not. In this way a training effectiveness may be considered as a feature that shows to what extent training is producing a desired result (e.g. developing needed skills, knowledge and attitudes, enhancing quality, safety and productivity, establishing cost-effective training, etc.). In order to design a training system with the features of feedback control, the SAT projects are implemented. In this respect SAT is more 'systems' rather than 'systematic' approach. Obviously, the criteria to evaluate a training system should be established. SAT implementation may be considered as a corrective action to fix the problems associated with the deficiencies in personnel competence or ineffectiveness of training system. But each corrective action or initiative related to a training system development should be generated and justified through normal process of evaluation and systematic needs analysis. The effectiveness of a training development project shall be evaluated against the overall goal and specific objectives of a project. The ultimate overall goal of SAT project implementation is to develop or upgrade NPP personnel training programmes and the whole training system in order to provide
Pascual Aventí, Guillem
El marc d'aquest projecte és el servei d' atenció tècnica d'un dels distribuïdors d'una coneguda marca d'ofimàtica i electrònica domèstica. Un dels processos de negoci consisteix en la reparació d'aquesta mena d'equips. El marco del proyecto es el servicio de atención técnica de uno de los distribuidores de una conocida marca de ofimática y electrónica doméstica. Uno de los procesos de negocio consiste en la reparación de este tipo de equipos. The framework of this project is the techni...
Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.
Sorge, M.; Krisko, P. H.
DebriSat Reporting Topics: DebriSat Fragment Analysis Calendar; Near-term Fragment Extraction Strategy; Fragment Characterization and Database; HVI (High-Velocity Impact) Considerations; Requirements Document.
Yoshihara, K.; van Mierlo, M.; Ng, A.; Shankar Kumar, B.; De Ruiter, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Horiguchi, H.; Hashimoto, H.
This paper introduces the Japan Canada Joint Collaboration Satellites - Formation Flying (JC2Sat-FF) project. JC2Sat-FF is a joint project between the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) with the end goal of building, launching and operating two 20kg- class nanosatellites for technical demonstration of formation flight (FF) using differential drag technique, relative navigation using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) dual band GPS receivers and far infra-red radiance measurement. A unique aspect of this project is that the two JC2Sats are developed by a united small team consisting of engineers and researchers from both agencies. Technical exchange in this international team gives stimulation to the members and generates a synergistic effect for the project.
During the months of September and October 1979, EG and G geoMetrics collected 3156 line miles of high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic data in the state of Nebraska in two 1 by 2 degree NTMS quadrangles. This project is part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. All radiometric and magnetic data were fully corrected and interpreted by geoMetrics and are presented as three Volumes (one Volume I and two Volume II's). Both quadrangles are dominated by Tertiary nonmarine strata, though the Sand Hills in the eastern central portion of the area is covered by Quaternary dune sand. Some Late Cretaceous marine shales are exposed in the northwest quadrant of Alliance quadrangle. No uranium deposits are known in this area, but outcrops of shales thought to be uraniferous outcrop in the Alliance quadrangle
iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.
Dankanich, John W.; Selby, Michael; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Byrne, Larry
Despite the prevalence of Small Satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy (i.e. high pressure vessels). These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The project formally began in FY15 as a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is in final preparation of the Critical Design Review prior to initiating the fabrication and integration phase of the project. The iSat project is on schedule for a launch opportunity in November 2017.
Dankanich, John W.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani; Hickman, Tyler; Szabo, James; Byrne, Lawrence
Despite the prevalence of small satellites in recent years, the systems flown to date have very limited propulsion capability. SmallSats are typically secondary payloads and have significant constraints for volume, mass, and power in addition to limitations on the use of hazardous propellants or stored energy. These constraints limit the options for SmallSat maneuverability. NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate approved the iodine Satellite flight project for a rapid demonstration of iodine Hall thruster technology in a 12U (cubesat units) configuration under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The mission is a partnership between NASA MSFC, NASA GRC, and Busek Co, Inc., with the Air Force supporting the propulsion technology maturation. The team is working towards the critical design review in the final design and fabrication phase of the project. The current design shows positive technical performance margins in all areas. The iSat project is planned for launch readiness in the spring of 2017.
Dankanich, John W.
Closing Remarks: ?(1) SmallSats hold significant potential for future low cost high value missions; (2) Propulsion remains a key limiting capability for SmallSats that Iodine can address: High ISP * Density for volume constrained spacecraft; Indefinite quiescence, unpressurized and non-hazardous as a secondary payload; (3) Iodine enables MicroSat and SmallSat maneuverability: Enables transfer into high value orbits, constellation deployment and deorbit; (4) Iodine may enable a new class of planetary and exploration class missions: Enables GTO launched secondary spacecraft to transit to the moon, asteroids, and other interplanetary destinations for approximately 150 million dollars full life cycle cost including the launch; (5) ESPA based OTVs are also volume constrained and a shift from xenon to iodine can significantly increase the transfer vehicle change in volume capability including transfers from GTO to a range of Lunar Orbits; (6) The iSAT project is a fast pace high value iodine Hall technology demonstration mission: Partnership with NASA GRC and NASA MSFC with industry partner - Busek; (7) The iSAT mission is an approved project with PDR in November of 2014 and is targeting a flight opportunity in FY17.
Basilio, R. R.; Plourde, K. S.; Lam, T.
The CloudSat Project has developed a simplified approach for fault tree analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. A system-level fault tree has been constructed to identify credible fault scenarios and failure modes leading up to a potential failure to meet the nominal mission success criteria.
Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Baker, Steven; Csatho, Bea
The main objective of the ESA funded CryoVal-LI project has been to identify and quantify the error sources for the CryoSat-2 mission over land ice. This has been undertaken through the careful documentation of the possible error sources, the identification of suitable validation sites...
Leeuwen, van M.G.A.; Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Tabeau-Kowalska, E.W.
In November 2012 the Systems Analysis Tools Framework for the EU Bio-Based Economy Strategy project (SAT-BBE) was launched with the purpose to design an analysis tool useful to monitoring the evolution and impacts of the bioeconomy. In the SAT-BBE project the development of the analysis tool for the
The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).
The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to consolidate segments of two transmission lines near the Gering Substation in Gering, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska. The transmission lines are both located in Scotts Bluff County, Nebraska, within the city of Gering. Presently, there are three parallel 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission lines on separate rights-of-way (ROW) that terminate at the Gering Substation. The project would include dismantling the Archer-Gering wood-pole transmission line and rebuilding the remaining two lines on single-pole steel double circuit structures. The project would consolidate the Gering-Stegall North and Gering-Stegall South 115-kV transmission lines on to one ROW for a 1.33-mile segment between the Gering Substation and a point west of the Gering Landfill. All existing wood-pole H-frame structures would be removed, and the Gering-Stegall North and South ROWs abandoned. Western is responsible for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the line. Western prepared an environmental assessment (EA) that analyzed the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction, operation, and maintenance of the 115-kV transmission line consolidation. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE finds that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PhoneSat series of missions demonstrated the use of a commercial mobile phone as an on-board computer for CubeSats. The project also demonstrated the...
The whale shark Rhincodon typus is the largest fish in the world. The global population of R.typus is unknown however the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUNC) classified it as Vulnerable in 2005. To ensure a population of R.typus is maintained protection from direct fishing, by-catch and collision damage is required. To be able to enact successful protection the habitat and range of R.typus must be known. Many authors have conducted studies of R.typus in a variety of different locations and many more have reported sightings. In many locations R.typus consistently appear annually and many authors have hypothesised reasons for their appearance. What is not known however is whether these populations are isolated or inter-linked, and where these populations go when they are not at known sites. The aim of this thesis was to design the body of a vessel that could house the electronics and components designed to track an acoustic tag, survive in open ocean, and travel fast enough to keep up with R.typus allowing a long-term and high resolution track to be compiled. In order to design such a vessel many factors needed to be known. A large part of this thesis is a review of literature to conclude the most appropriate type of vessel, the average speed of R.typus, hence the required speed of the vessel, and the sea state of the Red Sea, hence the conditions the vessel would be required to survive in. It was concluded that the average speed of R.typus is 1.2 knots; the Red Sea reaches Sea State 5-6; and the most appropriate hull type for this project was a Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH). After following a design iteration process, a final design was completed that it is believed will achieve all the required objectives.
cotizists of a diversion channel and training levee located north of the main Columbus, Nebraska k m II II I I lll I I IIIII business district (figure 1...in- corporated by the authors. ComtemporarY 20th Century Material. The authors agree as to the usefulness of the term suggested and have adopted
Benveniste, J.; Restano, M.; Ambrózio, A.; Moore, P.; Birkinshaw, S.
CRUCIAL was an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from CryoSat-2 with a forward-look component to the Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling of CryoSat-2 in its SAR and SARin modes offers the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. A methodology was developed to process the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a waveform product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking. Inland water heights from CryoSat-2 are derived by using a set of empirical retrackers formulated for inland water applications. Results of the processing strategy include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong for 2011-2015. FBR SAR results are compared against stage data from the nearest gauge. Heights from Tonlé Sap are also compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers was designed based on the rms of heights across Tonlé Sap. Comparisons include results from the empirical retrackers and from waveforms and heights obtained via ESA's Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD/SARvatore) using the SAMOSA2 retracker. Results of FBR SARin processing for the Amazon and Brahmaputra are presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae, extraction of slope of the ground surface and validation against ground data where appropriate.
Smith, Brandon Patrick
This project is developing a mechanically deployed system through a mission application study, deployment/ejection testing, and wind tunnel testing. Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) has been under development at NASA since 2011. Nano-ADEPT is the application of this revolutionary entry technology for small spacecraft. The unique capability of ADEPT for small science payloads comes from its ability to stow within a slender volume and deploy passively to achieve a mass-efficient drag surface with a high heat rate capability. Near-term applications for this technology include return of small science payloads or CubeSat technology from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and delivery of secondary payloads to the surface of Mars.
This report describes the need for a 230-kV overhead transmission line to supply power from Sidney, Nebraska to eastern Colorado. The alternative scenario compared to construction of the line is No Action. Rejected alternatives include underground lines and different routing paths, with a possible extension to the Sterling area. Both scenarios are evaluated for environmental effects, cost, and consequences for the eastern Colorado region. The proposed route is determined to be the environmentally preferred choice. 120 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs. (MHB)
Palo, S. E.; Li, X.; Woods, T. N.; Kohnert, R.
There is a long history of cooperation between students at the University of Colorado, Boulder and professional engineers and scientists at LASP, which has led to many successful space missions with direct student involvement. The recent student-led missions include the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE, 1998 - 2002), the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons (2006 - present), the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE), being a very successful NSF CubeSat that launched in September 2012, and the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat (launch will be in early 2015). Students are involved in all aspects of the design, and they experience the full scope of the mission process from concept, to fabrication and test, and mission operations. A significant part of the student involvement in the CubeSat projects is gained by using the CubeSat development as a focal point for an existing two-semester course sequence in CU's Aerospace Engineering Sciences (AES) Department: the Space Hardware Design section of Graduate Projects I & II (ASEN 5018 & ASEN 6028). The goal of these courses is to teach graduate students how to design and build systems using a requirement-based approach and fundamental systems engineering practices. The two-semester sequence takes teams of about 15 students from requirements definition and preliminary design through manufacturing, integration, and testing. In addition to the design process, students learn key professional skills such as working effectively in groups, finding solutions to open-ended problems, and actually building a system to their own set of specifications. The partnership between AES and LASP allows us to include engineering professionals in the mix, thus more effectively training science and engineering students for future roles in the civilian or commercial space industry. The mentoring process with LASP engineers helps to mitigate risk of the inexperience of the students and ensures consistent
Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)
The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)
Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others
The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)
use and camping facilities, a boat launch and mooring area, sanitary facilities, and wells for drinking water at Conestoga Reservoir. Additional...gently sloping to very steep, well drained, loamy clay soils that formed in glacial till. The Sharpsburg series is a deep, moderately drained soil...Unfortunately, due to the number of potential sources ( sanitary wastewater, storm water, Conestoga Reservoir Rehabilitation Project U.S. Army Corps of
Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert
The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data
Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon
In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…
SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation
An introduction of the SAT based training programs at Paks nuclear power plant is described in detail, including framework of project operation; project implementation; process of SAT applied at Paks NPP and the needs of its introduction
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Andreasen, Lars Birch; Hansen, Susanne Pihl
SATS14 projektet har drejet sig om at undersøge mulighederne i at kunne tilbyde en særlig indsats til de produktionsskoleelever, der har brug for det, så vidt muligt lokalt på deres skole. Projektets formål har været at indhente erfaringer med at tilbyde elever på 14 produktionsskoler på Sjælland...... mål. SATS14 kan dermed ses i en større social sammenhæng. Der er en stigende erkendelse af behovet for initiativer til at hjælpe de elever, der oplever psykiske vanskeligheder. I forordet til en rapport fra Undervisningsministeriet om erhvervsuddannelser beskrives målet: ”95 procent af en...... ungdomsårgang i 2015 skal gennemføre en ungdomsuddannelse… For at opfylde regeringens mål… er det nødvendigt med en særlig indsats for at fastholde de unge, som begynder i en uddannelse, herunder også de bogligt svage” (Kirkegaard og Nielsen, 2008). Da SATS14 projektet startede, var der ikke megen opmærksomhed...
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…
Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker
This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS), U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from 2005-...
Dacia M. Meneguzzo
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TechEdSat is a 1U CubeSat built by San Jose State University in partnership with NASA Ames Research Center and AAC Microtec. Its mission is to evaluate Space...
Dacia M Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Greg C. Liknes; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall
The second full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests reports more than 1.5 million acres of forest land and 39 tree species. Forest land is dominated by the elm/ash/cottonwood and oak/hickory forest types, which occupy nearly half of the total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland currently totals 1.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual...
Cockrell, James J.; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew
NASA's PhoneSat project tests whether spacecraft can be built using smartphones to launch the lowest-cost satellites ever flown in space. Each PhoneSat nanosatellite is one cubesat unit - a satellite in a 10 cm (approx. 4 inches) cube or about the size of a tissue box - and weighs approximately 1 kg (2.2 pounds). Engineers believe PhoneSat technology will enable NASA to launch multiple new satellites capable of conducting science and exploration missions at a small fraction of the cost of conventional satellites.
Way, JoBea; Andres, Paul; Baker, John; Goodson, Greg; Marshall, William; McGuire, John; Rackley, Kathleen; Stork, Elizabeth Jones; Yiu, Lisa
The goal of KidSat was to provide young students with the opportunity to participate directly in the NASA space program and to enhance learning in the process. The KidSat pilot project was focused on using a color digital camera, mounted on the space shuttle, to take pictures of the Earth. These could be used to enhance middle school curricula. The project not only benefited middle school students, who were essentially the Science Team, responsible for deciding where to take pictures, but it also benefited high school students and undergraduates, who were essentially the Project Team, responsible for the development and implementation of the project. KidSat flew on three missions as part of the pilot project: STS-76, STS-81, and STS-86. This document describes the goals, project elements, results, and data for the three KidSat missions that made up the pilot program. It serves as a record for this pilot project and may be used as a reference for similar projects. It can also be a too] in using the data to its fullest extent. The KidSat Web page remains on-line at http://kidsat.jpl.nasa.gov/kidsat, and the images may be downloaded in their full resolution.
The overview of the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) was presented, with particular emphasis given to the applied model (versus the theoretical model) and to the involvement of plant management. Discussion included the benefits and advantages of applied SAT compared to the conventional approach, (which likely was not systematic in nature). For example, formal structured on-the-job training (OJT) was compared to the traditional ''Come, I show you'' form of OJT. Each of the five phases of SAT - analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation - was presented and with a focus on two aspects of SAT. First, SAT is a dynamic continuous not discrete model; and second, two phases are critical to the overall success of SAT implementation - analysis (especially needs analysis) and evaluation (especially feedback). These two phases are absolutely essential to ensure the ''self-correcting'' attribute of the SAT model. Finally, examples of problems that could occur if the SAT model fails or weakens; for instance, if OJT becomes unstructured, or if training materials are not kept current
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a new subsystem technology for CubeSats. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) is an efficient, compact, high gain, low...
Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!
Nebraskas citizens, businesses, and visitors will benefit from the application of ITS to the states transportation system. ITS will become fully integrated into Nebraskas transportation strategies for the enhancement of safety, mobility, com...
Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali
TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.
CloudSat safety operations at Vendenberg AFB is given. The topics include: 1) CloudSat Project Overview; 2) Vandenberg Ground Operations; 3) Delta II Launch Vehicle; 4) The A-Train; 5) System Safety Management; 6) CALIPSO Hazards Assessment; 7) CALIPSO Supplemental Safeguards; 8) Joint System Safety Operations; 9) Extended Stand-down; 10) Launch Delay Safety Concerns; and 11) Lessons Learned.
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate
Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Energy used by Nebraska single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.
Leff MS, Lawrence S
This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.
The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build an Adaptive Langmuir Probe (ALP) for CubeSats designed to mitigate spacecraft charging unique to small platforms. This project builds a new...
Sun, Wei; Tobehn, Carsten; Ernst, Robert; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Notholt, John
1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important manmade greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are driving global climate change. Currently, the CO2 measurements from the ground observing network are still the main sources of information but due to the limited number of measurement stations the coverage is limited. In addition, CO2 monitoring and trading is often based mainly on bottom-up calculations and an independent top down verification is limited due to the lack of global measurement data with local resolution. The first CO2 and CH4 mapping from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT shows that satellites add important missing global information. Current GHG measurement satellites (GOSAT)are limited either in spatial or temporal resolution and coverage. These systems have to collect data over a year or even longer to produce global regional fluxes products. Conse-quently global, timely, higher spatial resolution and high accuracy measurement are required for: 1. A good understanding of the CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks for reliable climate predic-tion; and 2. Independent and transparent verification of accountable sources and sinks in supporting Kyoto and upcoming protocols The CarbonSat constellation idea comes out the trade off of resolution and swath width during CarbonSat mission definition studies. In response to the urgent need to support the Kyoto and upcoming protocols, a feasibility study has been carried out. The proposed solution is a constellation of five CarbonSat satellites in 614km LTAN 13:00, which is able to provide global, daily CO2 and CH4 measurement everywhere on the Earth with high spatial resolution 2 × 2 km and low uncertainty lt;2ppm (CO2) and lt;8ppb (CH4). The unique global daily measurement capability significantly increases the number of cloud free measurements, which enables more reliable services associated with reduced uncertainty, e.g. to 0.15ppm (CO2) per month in 10km and even more timely products. The CarbonSat Constellation in
...): Nebraska: Antelope, Cedar, Cuming, Dodge, Holt, Keya Paha, Lancaster, Otoe, Pierce, Rock, Saunders..., Charles Mix, Clay, Gregory, Union, Yankton. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage...
8 7.0 ENVIROMENTAL CONSEQUENCES...13 9.0 ENVIROMENTAL COMPLIANCE...area. 7.0 ENVIROMENTAL CONSEQUENCES The environmental consequences of the proposed project on many of the resources within the affected environment
The selection of tasks for analysis is made based on the decision tree that incorporates management's expectations of task difficulty and importance. The training setting (e.g., OJT, classroom, simulator, or laboratory) and the steps necessary to prepare the final training plan (along with example training plans for RO/SRO) was presented. The On-the-Job Training Manual is composed of a special video of each system that guides the trainee through a specified route in the plant showing the keypoints about the specific system. This Manual includes scanned photos of the main components and very detailed layout drawings to quickly walk-through a system. Two data bases were established to keep track of all the systems and tasks associated with a job post and to maintain the JPMs. SAT application in Spain, Argentina, Novovoronezh (Russia), and Hungary has varied by the time and human resources necessary to develop a complete SAT or a simplified SAT (which omits the taxonomic code for obtaining knowledge and skills associated to each task). An example of simulator training program materials and its correlation with the JPMs was presented along with a simulator evaluation guide showing how to assess RO/SRO behaviour
Salas, Alberto Guillen; Attai, Watson; Oyadomari, Ken Y.; Priscal, Cedric; Schimmin, Rogan S.; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Wolfe, Jasper L.
Over the last decade, consumer technology has vastly improved its performances, become more affordable and reduced its size. Modern day smartphones offer capabilities that enable us to figure out where we are, which way we are pointing, observe the world around us, and store and transmit this information to wherever we want. These capabilities are remarkably similar to those required for multi-million dollar satellites. The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center is building a series of CubeSat-size spacecrafts using an off-the-shelf smartphone as its on-board computer with the goal of showing just how simple and cheap space can be. Since the PhoneSat project started, different suborbital and orbital flight activities have proven the viability of this revolutionary approach. In early 2013, the PhoneSat project launched the first triage of PhoneSats into LEO. In the five day orbital life time, the nano-satellites flew the first functioning smartphone-based satellites (using the Nexus One and Nexus S phones), the cheapest satellite (a total parts cost below $3,500) and one of the fastest on-board processors (CPU speed of 1GHz). In this paper, an overview of the PhoneSat project as well as a summary of the in-flight experimental results is presented.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.
Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew
The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.
Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy
Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.
... predicate abstraction and validated by generating and proving verification conditions. In addition, the first part of the report proposes the use of theorem provers based on Boolean propositional satisfiability (SAT...
At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.
Ramage, K.; Desbois, M.; Eymard, L.
The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project is a French initiative, which aims at identifying and analysing in details the multidisciplinary and multi-scales processes that lead to a better understanding of the physical mechanisms linked to the African Monsoon. The main components of the African Monsoon are: Atmospheric Dynamics, the Continental Water Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, Oceanic and Continental Surface Conditions. Satellites contribute to various objectives of the project both for process analysis and for large scale-long term studies: some series of satellites (METEOSAT, NOAA,.) have been flown for more than 20 years, ensuring a good quality monitoring of some of the West African atmosphere and surface characteristics. Moreover, several recent missions, and several projects will strongly improve and complement this survey. The AMMA project offers an opportunity to develop the exploitation of satellite data and to make collaboration between specialist and non-specialist users. In this purpose databases are being developed to collect all past and future satellite data related to the African Monsoon. It will then be possible to compare different types of data from different resolution, to validate satellite data with in situ measurements or numerical simulations. AMMA-SAT database main goal is to offer an easy access to satellite data to the AMMA scientific community. The database contains geophysical products estimated from operational or research algorithms and covering the different components of the AMMA project. Nevertheless, the choice has been made to group data within pertinent scales rather than within their thematic. In this purpose, five regions of interest where defined to extract the data: An area covering Tropical Atlantic and Africa for large scale studies, an area covering West Africa for mesoscale studies and three local areas surrounding sites of in situ observations. Within each of these regions satellite data are projected on
The grasslands of Nebraska are highly altered due to anthropogenic development and : degradation. The loss and degradation of grasslands has significantly impacted populations of : swift fox (Vulpes velox), a Nebraska Natural Legacy Plan Tier1 at ...
EnerNex Corporation, Knoxville, Tennessee; Ventyx, Atlanta, Georgia; Nebraska Power Association, Lincoln, Nebraska
Wind generation resources in Nebraska will play an increasingly important role in the environmental and energy security solutions for the state and the nation. In this context, the Nebraska Power Association conducted a state-wide wind integration study.
W. Brad Smith; Tom D. Wardle
Reviews opportunities for treatment of timber stands in Nebraska for the decade 1983 - 1992. Under the assumptions and management guides specified, 52 percent of Nebraska''s commercial forest land would benefit from timber harvest or some other form of treatment during the decade.
Kelley, R. L.; Jarkey, D. R.
The CubeSat form factor of nano-satellite (a satellite with a mass between one and ten kilograms) has grown in popularity due to their ease of construction and low development and launch costs. In particular, their use as student led payload design projects has increased due to the growing number of launch opportunities. CubeSats are often deployed as secondary or tertiary payloads on most US launch vehicles or they may be deployed from the ISS. The focus of this study will be on CubeSats launched from the ISS. From a space safety standpoint, the development and deployment processes for CubeSats differ significantly from that of most satellites. For large satellites, extensive design reviews and documentation are completed, including assessing requirements associated with re-entry survivability. Typical CubeSat missions selected for ISS deployment have a less rigorous review process that may not evaluate aspects beyond overall design feasibility. CubeSat design teams often do not have the resources to ensure their design is compliant with re-entry risk requirements. A study was conducted to examine methods to easily identify the maximum amount of a given material that can be used in the construction of a CubeSats without posing harm to persons on the ground. The results demonstrate that there is not a general equation or relationship that can be used for all materials; instead a limiting value must be defined for each unique material. In addition, the specific limits found for a number of generic materials that have been previously used as benchmarking materials for re-entry survivability analysis tool comparison will be discussed.
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 337-364 ISSN 0004-5411 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : CNF sat isfiability * randomized algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.197, year: 2005
Facing the development of Information Management Solutions for SAT applications implies to cope with different technological, methodological and services aspects. A chronological overview of the major projects in this area where Tecnatom, s.a has been involved up to present is presented. Firstly a brief explanation of Tecnatom's Training Management (GESFORM) and Training Area Intranet applications main features is provided, to focus next in the e-learning approach which has been followed to develop Tecnatom's Virtual Campus. Finally some R and D topics of interest in the field of SAT implementation are outlined. (author)
The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.
Zhang Jin; Yu, Cedric
Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) recently gained extensive research interests in both diagnostic and radiation therapy fields. Conventional DTS images are generated by scanning an x-ray source and flat-panel detector pair on opposite sides of an object, with the scanning trajectory on a one-dimensional curve. A novel tomosynthesis method named solid-angle tomosynthesis (SAT) is proposed, where the x-ray source scans on an arbitrary shaped two-dimensional surface. Methods: An iterative algorithm in the form of total variation regulated expectation maximization is developed for SAT image reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of SAT is corroborated by computer simulation studies using three-dimensional (3D) numerical phantoms including a 3D Shepp-Logan phantom and a volumetric CT image set of a human breast. Results: SAT is able to cover more space in Fourier domain more uniformly than conventional DTS. Greater coverage and more isotropy in the frequency domain translate to fewer artifacts and more accurately restored features in the in-plane reconstruction. Conclusions: Comparing with conventional DTS, SAT allows cone-shaped x-ray beams to project from more solid angles, thus provides more coverage in the spatial-frequency domain, resulting in better quality of reconstructed image.
The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Village of Pender, Nebraska Wastewater Treatment Facility (“Respondent”) for alleged violations of Sections 301 and/or 404 of the Clean Water Act
Full Text Available the intersection between the SHA-1 preimage problem, the encoding of that problem for SAT-solving, and SAT-solving. The results demonstrate that SAT-solving is not yet a viable approach to take to solve the preimage problem, and also indicate that some...
Steele, Eugene K.
The estimated volume of 19,187,200 acre-feet of water used in Nebraska during 1985 is an average of 17,116.15 million gallons per day. Surface water supplied 12,925,040 acre-feet or 67.4 percent of the total volume used. The
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project will be to investigate and propose solutions regarding the development of retrodirective arrays (RDA) for CubeSat applications. As an end...
Bennett, Keith; Swartwout, Michael; Tobias, Barry; McNally, Patrick
Washington University's Project Aria is currently involved in the CubeSat program. Project Aria is a student-led engineering education, research, and K-12 outreach program. The project’s CubeSat goal is the development of a spherical imaging spacecraft, the "Palantir", ready for launch in late 2002. Recently, the Palantir team was offered the opportunity to fly a small payload on a global circumnavigation balloon flight in mid-2001. The payload would collect atmospheric data such as temperatu...
Li, R.; Flyr, B.; Bradley, J.; Pun, M.; Schneider, J.; Wietjes, J.; Chinta, S.
Determination of the nature and degree of hydrologically connected groundwater and surface water resources is of paramount importance to integrated water management within the State of Nebraska to understand the impact of water uses on available supplies, such as depletion of streams and aquifers caused by groundwater pumping. The ability to quantify effects of surface water-groundwater hydrologic connection and interactions, is regarded as one of the most important steps towards effectively managing water resources in Nebraska and provides the basis for designating management areas. Designation of management areas allows the state and other management entities to focus various efforts and resources towards those projects that have the greatest impact to water users. Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR) developed a groundwater modeling tool, Cycle Well Analysis, to determine the areas defined to have a high degree of connectivity between groundwater and surface water (in accordance with the state regulations). This tool features two graphic user interfaces to allow the analysis to be fully compatible with most MODFLOW-based numerical groundwater models currently utilized by NDNR. Case studies showed that the tool, in combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), can be used to quantify the degree of stream depletion and delineate the boundary of hydrologically connected areas within different political boundaries and subbasins in Nebraska. This approach may be applied to other regions with similar background and need for integrated water management.
Spaceflight crews will be exposed to levels of radiation which exceed those experienced on the ground. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of risks it is necessary to validate the responses of biological systems in space under conditions which simulate exposure levels expected during exploration class missions. The LifeSat system provides the experimental capabilities to satisfy these goals. Specifically, LifeSat is capable of long duration flights of up to 60 days, is able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits, has the ability to provide artificial gravity and imposes fewer restrictions than the STS on the use of hazardous materials such as chemical fixatives. These features along with reference missions and experiments are discussed with respect to radiation research goals
Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R. [RLA Consulting, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States); Stooksbury, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)
This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.
CloudSat Education Network (CEN): Partnerships to improve the understanding of clouds in formal and informal settings. Since The CloudSat satellite launched in 2006 the Formal and Informal education programs for the mission have been focused on bringing an understanding about the mission science and the importance of clouds, climate & weather science. This has been done by creating and strengthening partnership and collaboration within scientific and educational communities around the country and the world. Because CloudSat was formally recognized as a Earth System Science Pathfinder campaign with the GLOBE program, the CEN developed a set of field protocols for student observations that augmented the GLOBE atmosphere protocols when there was a satellite overpass. This shared process between GLOBE & CloudSat resulted in the training & creation of CEN schools that are both GLOBE schools and CloudSat schools, and also produced three GLOBE partnerships that specialize in cloud science education and outreach. In addition, the CEN has developed productive relationships with other NASA missions and EPO teams. Specifically, in collaboration with the NASA CERES mission projects S'Cool and MyNASAData, we have co-presented at NSTA conferences and with schools participating in a NASA EPOESS-funded formal education project. This collaborative work has been a very real benefit to a wide variety of audiences needing to strengthen their understanding of clouds and their roles in the earth system, and we hope will serve as a model to future missions looking to involve the public in mission science.
The state of Nebraska has withdrawn its notice of intent to deny the US Ecology (USE) license application for the proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Boyd County, near Butte, Neb. On October 4, after review of USE's August 27 submittal of a revision to the boundaries of the proposed site, a letter from the state's Department of Health (DOH) and Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to John. H. DeOld, the USE project manager for the Central Interstate Compact's proposed LLW site, noted that open-quotes...we are hereby withdrawing the Notice of Intent to Deny License as a moot, and will conduct a substantive review of the reconfigured site for compliance with the applicable regulations.close quotes
The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Lincoln, Nebraska is developed for this and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over projected twenty year life: life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated.
Hasager, C.B.; Nielsen, N.W.; Soegaard, H.
Earth Observation (EO) data from imaging satellites are analysed with respect to albedo, land and sea surface temperatures, land cover types and vegetation parameters such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the leaf area index (LAI).The observed parameters are used in the DM...
Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten
microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data...
Gosselin, David C.
The primary goals of this project were to: 1. Promote and enhance K-12 earth science education; and enhance the access to and exchange of information through the use of digital networks in K-12 institutions. We have achieved these two goals. Through the efforts of many individuals at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Nebraska Earth Science Education Network (NESEN) has become a viable and beneficial interdisciplinary outreach program for K-12 educators in Nebraska. Over the last three years, the NASA grant has provided personnel and equipment to maintain, expand and develop NESEN into a program that is recognized by its membership as a valuable source of information and expertise in earth systems science. Because NASA funding provided a framework upon which to build, other external sources of funding have become available to support NESEN programs.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink proposes to develop and test, a new type of photovoltaic module that will be suitable for use in SmallSat and CubeSat platforms requiring maximum power in...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KickSat is a cubesat technology demonstration mission designed to demonstrate the deployment and operation of prototype sprite "ChipSats" (femtosatellites) developed...
Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.
We present CafeSat a SAT solver written in the Scala programming language. CafeSat is a modern solver based on DPLL and featuring many state of the art techniques and heuristics. It uses two watched literals for Boolean constraint propagation conict driven learning along with clause deletion a restarting strategy and the VSIDS heuristics for choosing the branching literal. CafeSat is both sound and complete. In order to achieve reasonable performance low level and hand tuned data structures a...
Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. E.; Kangaslahti, P.; Cofield, R.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.; Su, H.; Wu, L.; Tanelli, S.; Niamsuwan, N.
To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, a summary of radiometer calibration and retrieval techniques of temperature and humidity will be discussed. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a constellation which
Sims, William H.
This paper will discuss a proposed CubeSat size (3 Units / 6 Units) telemetry system concept being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in cooperation with Auburn University. The telemetry system incorporates efficient, high-bandwidth communications by developing flight-ready, low-cost, PROTOFLIGHT software defined radio (SDR) payload for use on CubeSats. The current telemetry system is slightly larger in dimension of footprint than required to fit within a 0.75 Unit CubeSat volume. Extensible and modular communications for CubeSat technologies will provide high data rates for science experiments performed by two CubeSats flying in formation in Low Earth Orbit. The project is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Auburn University to study high energy phenomena in the upper atmosphere. Higher bandwidth capacity will enable high-volume, low error-rate data transfer to and from the CubeSats, while also providing additional bandwidth and error correction margin to accommodate more complex encryption algorithms and higher user volume.
McCarty, Wendy L.
Nebraska's alternative teacher certification program, Transition to Teaching, is housed at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. After 10 years in operation, program evaluation was deemed necessary to assess responsiveness to the needs of teacher candidates and the school districts within the state and effectiveness in meeting those needs.…
Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole
The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…
Appelrouth, Jed I.; Zabrucky, Karen M.
In 2016, more than 1.6 million students took the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a standardized college admissions test (College Board 2016a). Researchers have estimated that 33 percent of students who take the SAT participate in some mode of formal test preparation, such as private tutoring or classes, to prepare for the exam (Buchmann, Condron…
This paper emphasised the importance of management support to the success of training and qualification programmes, management understanding and commitment to the need of SAT, appropriate training policies, provision of human and financial resources, training of management and supervisory personnel as relevant regulatory body personnel in the field of SAT methodology principles in order to achieve their support
This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.
Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.; Hayes, M. J.; Svoboda, M. D.; Semeradova, D.; Metelka, L.; Hlavinka, P.
Met&Roll is a WGEN-like parametric four-variate daily weather generator (WG), with an optional extension allowing the user to generate additional variables (i.e. wind and water vapor pressure). It is designed to produce synthetic weather series representing present and/or future climate conditions to be used as an input into various models (e.g. crop growth and rainfall runoff models). The present contribution will summarize recent experiments, in which we tested the performance of the interpolated WG, with the aim to examine whether the WG may be used to produce synthetic weather series even for sites having no meteorological observations. The experiments being discussed include: (1) the comparison of various interpolation methods where the performance of the candidate methods is compared in terms of the accuracy of the interpolation for selected WG parameters; (2) assessing the ability of the interpolated WG in the territories of Czechia and Nebraska to reproduce extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics; (3) indirect validation of the interpolated WG in terms of the modeled crop yields simulated by STICS crop growth model (in Czechia); and (4) indirect validation of interpolated WG in terms of soil climate regime characteristics simulated by the SoilClim model (Czechia and Nebraska). The experiments are based on observed daily weather series from two regions: Czechia (area = 78864 km2, 125 stations available) and Nebraska (area = 200520 km2, 28 stations available). Even though Nebraska exhibits a much lower density of stations, this is offset by the state's relatively flat topography, which is an advantage in using the interpolated WG. Acknowledgements: The present study is supported by the AMVIS-KONTAKT project (ME 844) and the GAAV Grant Agency (project IAA300420806).
Full Text Available In this paper we propose our genetic algorithm for solving the SAT problem. We introduce various crossover and mutation techniques and then make a comparative analysis between them in order to find out which techniques are the best suited for solving a SAT instance. Before the genetic algorithm is applied to an instance it is better to seek for unit and pure literals in the given formula and then try to eradicate them. This can considerably reduce the search space, and to demonstrate this we tested our algorithm on some random SAT instances. However, to analyse the various crossover and mutation techniques and also to evaluate the optimality of our algorithm we performed extensive experiments on benchmark instances of the SAT problem. We also estimated the ideal crossover length that would maximise the chances to solve a given SAT instance.
Liou, J.-C.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Werremeyer, M.; Huynh, T.; Voelker, M.; Opiela, J.
DebriSat is a planned laboratory ]based satellite hypervelocity impact experiment. The goal of the project is to characterize the orbital debris that would be generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 's US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of an engineering model representing a modern, 50-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite known as DebriSat; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area ]to ]mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross ]section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD fs and NASA fs satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite. Updated breakup models will improve mission planning, environmental models, and event response. The DebriSat project is sponsored by the Air Force fs Space and Missile Systems Center and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The design and fabrication of DebriSat is led by University of Florida with subject matter experts f support from The Aerospace Corporation. The major milestones of the project include the complete fabrication of DebriSat by September 2013, the hypervelocity impact of DebriSat at the Air Force fs Arnold Engineering Development Complex in early 2014, and fragment characterization and data analyses in late 2014.
Full Text Available Excessive sediment is a major pollutant to surface waters worldwide. In some watersheds, streambanks are a significant source of this sediment, leading to the expenditure of billions of dollars in stabilization projects. Although costly streambank stabilization projects have been implemented worldwide, long-term monitoring to quantify their success is lacking. There is a critical need to document the long-term success of streambank restoration projects. The objectives of this research were to (1 quantify streambank retreat before and after the stabilization of 18 streambanks on the Cedar River in North Central Nebraska, USA; (2 assess the impact of a large flood event; and (3 determine the most cost-efficient stabilization practice. The stabilized streambanks included jetties (10, rock-toe protection (1, slope reduction/gravel bank (1, a retaining wall (1, rock vanes (2, and tree revetments (3. Streambank retreat and accumulation were quantified using aerial images from 1993 to 2016. Though streambank retreat has been significant throughout the study period, a breached dam in 2010 caused major flooding and streambank erosion on the Cedar River. This large-scale flood enabled us to quantify the effect of one extreme event and evaluate the effectiveness of the stabilized streambanks. With a 70% success rate, jetties were the most cost-efficient practice and yielded the most deposition. If minimal risk is unacceptable, a more costly yet immobile practice such as a gravel bank or retaining wall is recommended.
Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna
CryoSat data over the Greenland Ice Sheet are used to continue elevation height change data over the Greenland ice sheet, following a decade of detailed monitoring of ice sheet changes with GRACE and IceSat. The combination and validation of the different data for measuring changes is quantified...... by using available airborne lidar data from IceBridge and CryoVEx. There is a special challenge of using CryoSat as fill-in between EnviSat and Sentinel-3 for the longterm measurements of surface elevation changes, a key essential climate variable in the ESA Climate Change Initiative. Another challenge...... is the joint utilization of both altimetry and gravity field change measurements for consistent estimates of regional change patterns. In the paper we analyze GRACE, IceSat and CryoSat data since 2003, and present consistent estimates of overall mass changes with average values around -220 GT/year, showing...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...
LIU Xin; XIONG You-lun
This paper presents modeling tools based on Boolean satisfiability (SAT) to solve problems of test generation for combinational circuits. It exploits an added layer to maintain circuit-related information and value justification relations to a generic SAT algorithm. It dovetails binary decision graphs (BDD) and SAT techniques to improve the efficiency of automatic test pattern generation (ATPG). More specifically, it first exploits inexpensive reconvergent fanout analysis of circuit to gather information on the local signal correlation by using BDD learning, then uses the above learned information to restrict and focus the overall search space of SAT-based ATPG. Its learning technique is effective and lightweight. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a low-power general-purpose SmallSat Common Electronics Board (SCEB). The SCEB design will be based on input received from a group of...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...
Westley, Deborah; Yost, Bruce; Petro, Andrew
PhoneSat 2.4, carried into space on November 19, 2013 aboard a Minotaur I rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia, is the first of the PhoneSat family to use a two-way S-band radio to allow engineers to command the satellite from Earth. This mission also serves as a technology demonstration for a novel attitude determination and control system (ADCS) that establishes and stabilizes the satellites attitude relative to Earth. Unlike the earlier PhoneSats that used a Nexus One, PhoneSat 2.4 uses the Nexus S smartphone, which runs Googles Android operating system, and is made by Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon, So. Korea. The smartphone provides many of the functions needed by the satellite such as a central computer, data memory, ready-made interfaces for communications, navigation and power all pre-assembled in a rugged electronics package.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Launched in April 2006, CloudSat monitors the state of the Earth’s atmosphere and weather with a sophisticated radar system. The instrument, jointly developed with...
The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...
The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Nebraska Department of Transportation, a state agency located at 1500 Highway 2, Lincoln, NE 68509, for alleged violations of its municipal separate stormwater sewer sy
Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.
Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.
public release; distribution unlimited. Targets: Scaled Multishock Shield, DebrisLV, and DebriSat 500-600 g hollow aluminum and nylon projectile... insulation . DebriSat’s internal components were structurally similar to real flight hardware but were nonfunctional. AEDC-TR-15-S-2 6...structures with an AL 5052 honeycomb core and M55J carbon fiber face sheets. The basic system characteristics of the DebriSat are given in Table 1
Carswell, William J.
Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Nebraska, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.
This report summarizes information on propane prices for the October 1991/March 1992 heating season in Nebraska. From October through March participating propane distributors were contacted twice monthly by the Nebraska Energy Office to obtain their current residential (retail) prices of propane. This information was faxed to the US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (DOE/EIA) biweekly in report format as prepared by the PEDRO system
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results. This presentation will also provide high level CubeSat 101 information for prospective CubeSat developers, describing the development process from concept through mission operations while highlighting key points that developers need to be mindful of.
Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.
The NPP engineering support functional area comprises seven common positions: reactor engineer, in-service inspection engineer, performance reliability engineer, system-maintenance engineer, station modification engineer, quality assurance engineer, and regulatory compliance engineer. The primary duties and tasks of each was presented. In Spain, a simplified SAT approach was used to analyze the training needs of these positions. The basic difference between the comprehensive SAT and the simplified method is that the simplified approach uses no taxonomy codes and the task elements are not analyzed to obtain the knowledge and skills. Resulting in an economy of time and personnel resources, this process makes use of job competencies and a top table analysis conducted by subject matter experts. An example of a JPM prepared using the simplified SAT approach was shown. Examples of the simplified approaches used in Russia, France, and USA were also discussed
Auerbach, K G; Walburn, J
The authors conducted an anonymous survey of 220 Nebraska family and general practitioners' attitudes and practice recommendations for infant feeding. Most practitioners' attitudes reflect published American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines regarding using commercial formula for bottle-feeding babies rather than evaporated milk-based formulations. Ninety-two per cent agreed with recommendations relating to the need for fluoride supplementation when fluoride was unavailable in the water supply and 93% agreed that whole cow's milk was inappropriate in the infant's first year. Another 68% felt similarly about evaporated milk formulas. However, 32% of board certified and 53% of nonboard certified physicians continue to believe that early solid foods will reduce night waking. In 80% of the cases, practice recommendations disagreed with AAP guidelines by prescribing vitamin supplements for bottle-feeding babies receiving proprietary infant formulas. Additionally, two-thirds of the practitioners recommended unnecessary water complements and 62% suggested formula supplementation for breastfeeding babies. Solid foods and whole cow's milk for both breastfeeding and bottle-feeding babies often were recommended earlier than the second half of the first year.
Chauhan, Pankaj; Kroening, Daniel; Clarke, Edmund
.... Efficient SAT solvers have been applied successfully for many verification problems. This paper presents a novel SAT-based reparameterization algorithm that is largely immune to the large number of input variables that need to be quantified...
Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data. As a ref......In this study, which is part of the FP7 project Land and Ocean take up from Sentinel-3 (LOTUS), we demonstrate the potential SAR altimetry. We consider lakes at various sizes and evaluate the CryoSat-2 derived lake levels in terms of along-track precision and agreement with in-situ data....... To derive lake level time series we apply a state-space model with a robust handling of erroneous data. Instead of attempting to identify and remove the polluted observations we use a mixture distribution to describe the observation noise, which prevents the polluted observations from biasing our final...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is to explore the communication architecture for future space-to-ground CubeSat/SmallSat communication, through simulations, analyses, and identifying...
Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn
Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…
Umphlett, N.; Bernadt, T.; Pathak, T.
The Climate Masters of Nebraska pilot program started in 2010 with the goal of assisting the community in becoming more knowledgeable and making informed decisions regarding climate change issues. First, participants engage in a 10-week training course where they learn from experts how to reduce their carbon footprint in everyday life. Participants then volunteer at least 30 hours educating the community through household consultations, outreach events, or other creative efforts they want to take to actively influence the community to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first two groups of Climate Masters volunteers completed multiple household consultations, started a drip irrigation project, hosted an informational booth at local events, participated in an Adopt a Highway program, formed a Citizens Climate Lobby group, and worked with the City of Lincoln's reEnergize outreach program. All of these projects positively impacted the environment, reduced GHG emissions, or both. The program is continuing for a third year with a new and improved course in the fall. Taking into account suggestions from previous courses, this new course hopes to focus more on the climate issues that are particularly pressing in southeastern Nebraska.
Bouffard, Jérome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre
The main CryoSat mission objectives are to measure the regional and basin-scale changes in the thickness of the sea-ice and, in the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. Beside its ice-monitoring objective, CryoSat also provides valuable observations for the oceanographic community. The CryoSat data are processed by ESA both over the ocean and ice surfaces with two independent processors. These data need to be routinely Quality-Controlled and thoroughly Validated (QCV). Based on the QCV outcomes from ESA multi-national partners and the feedback from the scientific community, the data products continuously evolve in order to accommodate a wide range of users over the Sea ice, the Land Ice and the Ocean domains. The main objectives of this paper are to give an overview of main CryoSat QCV results and product improvements; as well as to present the processing algorithm upgrades being implemented for future ice and ocean Baselines.
Elffers, J.; Konijnenberg, D.; Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.
Several approaches exist to solve Artificial Intelligence planning problems, but little attention has been given to the combination of using landmark knowledge and satisfiability (SAT). Landmark knowledge has been exploited successfully in the heuristics of classical planning. Recently it was also
I present the regulatory system for monitoring operator training and check competency of operator personnel in Hungary and the effects of SAT to the regulatory framework/practice related to recruitment, training and authorisation of operating personnel. Also I introduce an application to manage the initial and refreshing training to regulatory bodies. (author)
... of the Crab pulsar and an X-ray binary system GX 301-2 are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of the mission. ...... vided online at the web portal of the AstroSat Science. Support Cell1. ... Library, Springer, 440, 61.  Bhalerao,V.
Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.
Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.
Yu, Xiaozhou; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Peijie; Guo, Jian
Most of the CubeSats have a volume range from 1U to 3U, which limits their applications due to the difficulty of miniaturizing payloads. To facilitate the needs on a larger but low-cost satellite platform, the AOXiang (AOX) project has been developed by Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU). The primary objectives of AOX project are four-folds: 1) To demonstrate the world first 12U CubeSat Star of AOXiang and 12U orbit deployer which uses an innovative electromagnetic unlocking technology. 2) To investigate the feasibility of using polarized sunlight for spacecraft attitude determination and navigation, and perform microgravity research using a miniaturized gravimeter. 3) To test a fault tolerant on-board computer using the System On the Programmable Chip (SOPC) technology, and 4) To gain the experience from developing the CubeSat and the subsystems. The CubeSat was launched in June 2016. Now, the mission has achieved all the goals. This paper provides the detail information of the AOX project, with a focus on the introduction of the subsystems of the 12U CubeSat, the orbit deployer and the payloads. The recent in-orbit results of the first NPU are also presented. In addition to the educational objective that has been reached with more than 50 young scholars and students participated in the project.
This paper deals with planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT based training programmes based on IAEA TC Project SLR/0/003 on upgrading NPP personnel training, with the aim of upgrading NPP safety and reliability of NPP operation and maintenance. The costs needed include both Slovak and IAEA sources. Five stages of the Project are defined: planning; organizing; motivating; implementation; control, review and accountability
Poghosyan, Armen; Golkar, Alessandro
Traditionally, the space industry produced large and sophisticated spacecraft handcrafted by large teams of engineers and budgets within the reach of only a few large government-backed institutions. However, over the last decade, the space industry experienced an increased interest towards smaller missions and recent advances in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology miniaturization spurred the development of small spacecraft missions based on the CubeSat standard. CubeSats were initially envisioned primarily as educational tools or low cost technology demonstration platforms that could be developed and launched within one or two years. Recently, however, more advanced CubeSat missions have been developed and proposed, indicating that CubeSats clearly started to transition from being solely educational and technology demonstration platforms to offer opportunities for low-cost real science missions with potential high value in terms of science return and commercial revenue. Despite the significant progress made in CubeSat research and development over the last decade, some fundamental questions still habitually arise about the CubeSat capabilities, limitations, and ultimately about their scientific and commercial value. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the state of the art CubeSat capabilities with a special focus on advanced scientific missions and a goal of assessing the potential of CubeSat platforms as capable spacecraft. A total of over 1200 launched and proposed missions have been analyzed from various sources including peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings, mission webpages as well as other publicly available satellite databases and about 130 relatively high performance missions were downselected and categorized into six groups based on the primary mission objectives including "Earth Science and Spaceborne Applications", "Deep Space Exploration", "Heliophysics: Space Weather", "Astrophysics", "Spaceborne In Situ
Within the European regional TC Project a workshop on Planning and Management Support for NPP Personnel SAT Based Training programmes was held at the Paks NPP Maintenance Training Centre in June 1998. It was organized jointly by IAEA and the Paks NPP. The objective of the workshop was to present the important experience gained by successful implementation of the IAEA Model Project on Strengthening Training for Safe Operation at Paks NPP as well as international experience in developing and carrying out the projects to upgrade NPP personnel training in particular maintenance training, and competence based Systematic Approach to Training (SAT). Twenty five participants from Armenia, Bulgaria, China, Czech republic, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic and Ukraine attended the workshop presenting and exchanging experiences in implementing NPP SAT-based training programmes
Medland, William J.; Rosenberg, Morton M.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the ban against slavery in the North, served as a catalyst to activate numerous groups which were unhappy with the Indiana Democratic Party. From this period emerged the new Republican party and also a revitalized Democratic party with new leadership. (IS)
Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff
This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Nebraska. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…
Patrick D. Miles; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles J. Barnett
The first full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,335 plots were selected and 274 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods, and data quality estimates. Tables of various important resource statistics are presented. Detailed analysis of the inventory data are...
This study seeks to inform the debate over a proposal in Nebraska to give tax credits for contributions to organizations that provide scholarships to K-12 private schools. The study constructs a model to determine the fiscal impact of tax-credit scholarships on the state and on local school districts. The author estimates the impact that…
Meredith, William H.; Cramer, Sheran L.
This report summarizes the response of 80 sponsors of Indochinese refugees in Nebraska to a survey designed to explore their sponsorship experience. Problem solving areas for sponsors and refugees are named as: acculturation, emotional adjustments, communication, health, housing, transportation, employment, and legal, financial and consumer…
Keast, Shellie L; Jacobs, Elgene; Harrison, Donald; Farmer, Kevin; Thompson, David
There is growing concern over increasingly limited access to local health care, including pharmacies, for rural citizens of the United States. Although geographically distant from most competitors, rural pharmacies may still struggle to generate an acceptable profit to remain economically viable. Therefore, a method for calculating the economic viability for a community pharmacy to recruit a potential new owner to assume the entrepreneurial risk is an important issue to consider when evaluating rural pharmacy access. The primary objective of this study was to use a modified break-even analysis to predict the future financial potential of the current pharmacy business to attract a new owner. The secondary objective was to forecast a risk level for a Nebraska county to sustain the number of pharmacies in the country beyond current ownership. This research used data provided by pharmacies that responded to a Nebraska Medicaid cost of dispensing (COD) survey in addition to data from the US Census Bureau, US Office of Management and Budget, and the Nebraska State Board of Pharmacy. Break-even analysis was used to determine the point where the prescription volume of the pharmacy not only covered the variable and fixed costs but also maintained a reasonable profit to attract new ownership. Counties were classified into 3 risk levels based on the projected available prescription volume and the number of pharmacies in each county. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the risk levels to determine the impact of variance in projected available prescription volume on the projected future outlook for the pharmacies in each county. Regression analysis of responses to the COD survey indicated that the annual break-even prescription volume ranged from 44,790 to 49,246 prescriptions per pharmacy per annum. The number of rural Nebraska pharmacies was projected to decline from 126 to 78. The number of counties in Nebraska without a single pharmacy was projected to increase from 19 to
Cappelletti, Chantal; Notarangelo, Angelo; Demoss, Darrin; Carella, Massimo
Since 2009 GAUSS group is involved in a joint collaboration with Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center and IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (CSS) research labs with the aim to design a biomedical project in order to investigate if the combined effects of microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation increase or decrease the survival rate of cancer cells. The biological sample consists of Glioblastoma cancer cell line ANGM-CSS. Glioblastoma is a kind of cancer that can be treated after surgery only by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation. This treatment, anyway, results in a very low survival rate. This project uses different university space platforms: a CubeLab, named GlioLab, on board the International Space Station and the university microsatellite UniSat-5 designed by GAUSS. In addition a GlioLab/GlioSat precursor experiment has already flown two times with the Space Shuttle during the missions STS-134 and STS-135. The phase 0 or the precursor of GlioLab uses a COTS system, named Liquid Mixing Apparatus (LMA), to board the biological samples inside the Space Shuttle for thirty day . The LMA allows to board liquids inside a vial but is not equipped with environment control system. After landing the samples were investigated by researchers at CSS in Italy and at MSU in Kentucky. This paper deals with the experimental set up and the results obtained during the STS-134 and STS-135 missions and with the new evidences on the behavior of this kind of cancer. In particular the results obtained on the DNA analysis give a confirmation of the original idea of GLioLab/Gliosat project justifying the development of the two systems.
Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani
The use of iodine propellant for Hall thrusters has been studied and proposed by multiple organizations due to the potential mission benefits over xenon. In 2013, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center competitively selected a project for the maturation of an iodine flight operational feed system through the Technology Investment Program. Multiple partnerships and collaborations have allowed the team to expand the scope to include additional mission concept development and risk reduction to support a flight system demonstration, the iodine Satellite (iSAT). The iSAT project was initiated and is progressing towards a technology demonstration mission preliminary design review. The current status of the mission concept development and risk reduction efforts in support of this project is presented.
Crehan, James E., Ed.
This collection of six papers constitutes the proceedings of the First Annual Conference of the Nebraska Aviation Education Association. These papers present many issues that the discipline of aviation is confronting, including those related to the aviation industry. The papers included are as follows: (1) "Using the DAT for Selection of…
EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme
Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.
The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.
Bouzinac, Catherine; Fornari, Marco; Mannan, Rubinder; Parrinello, Tommaso
The main objective of CryoSat mission is the observation of ice thickness with SAR interferometry. CryoSat data are routinely controlled by ESA-ESRIN- SPPA office with various tools and with the support of the IDEAS industrial consortium. This presentation introduces to the different instrumental modes and processing levels, the available quality tools (Quality Checks and Monitoring Facility) and visualisation tools, and shows the main statistical results from the data acquired and processed with the new processing version (since February 2012). A major data quality improvement is obtained from this new release of the specialized processors for all instrument modes. These new processors are also used this year for a full reprocessing campaign. This presentation also details the main improvements expected from the next release of the specialized processors in 2013.
This discussion addressed the experience with the application of SAT at USA NPPs. In particular, the transition of NPP training processes, staff composition, and reporting structure from the TMI accident to present. As well, oversight and guidance activities of the INPO and more intensive inspection by the NRC began during this period. The average NPP training staff grew to 30-40 per unit, along with a change in reporting line from plant to corporate management. With the reduction of resources occurring in the late 1980s, overall training staff size decreased, the composition changed, and reporting line reverted to plant management. The overall lessons-learned for application of the SAT consisted of the need for simplification, management involvement, and exploitation of the technology
Baader, Franz; Morawska, Barbara
Unification in Description Logics has been proposed as a novel inference service that can, for example, be used to detect redundancies in ontologies. In a recent paper, we have shown that unification in EL is NP-complete, and thus of a complexity that is considerably lower than in other Description Logics of comparably restricted expressive power. In this paper, we introduce a new NP-algorithm for solving unification problems in EL, which is based on a reduction to satisfiability in propositional logic (SAT). The advantage of this new algorithm is, on the one hand, that it allows us to employ highly optimized state-of-the-art SAT solvers when implementing an EL-unification algorithm. On the other hand, this reduction provides us with a proof of the fact that EL-unification is in NP that is much simpler than the one given in our previous paper on EL-unification.
This paper presents a heuristic polarity decision-making algorithm for solving Boolean satisfiability (SAT). The algorithm inherits many features of the current state-of-the-art SAT solvers, such as fast BCP, clause recording, restarts, etc. In addition, a preconditioning step that calculates the polarities of variables according to the cover distribution of Karnaugh map is introduced into DPLL procedure, which greatly reduces the number of conflicts in the search process. The proposed approach is implemented as a SAT solver named DiffSat. Experiments show that DiffSat can solve many "real-life" instances in a reasonable time while the best existing SAT solvers, such as Zchaff and MiniSat, cannot. In particular, DiffSat can solve every instance of Bart benchmark suite in less than 0.03 s while Zchaff and MiniSat fail under a 900 s time limit. Furthermore, DiffSat even outperforms the outstanding incomplete algorithm DLM in some instances.
The SAT process objectives as applied to Spanish NPPs are: Perform JTA for selected job positions at the NPPs; develop the associated training plans; develop training support media; prepare training instructors as teachers and as task analysts; develop a SAT database. A lesson-learned from the task assessments conducted at Spanish NPPs is that the final task list should be obtained with full participation of workers so that they feel the final training plan has been developed taking into account their own opinion and experience. The breakdown of the tasks into its elements and the concordant job performance measure was presented. The process of determining knowledge and skills associated with the task elements and the structure and use of the taxonomy codes (for component, system, and academic skills and knowledge) was shown and explained. Based on the Spanish experience, the average time devoted to analyze a complete task is 5.33 person-hours per task. This data has permitted training and plant management to allocate the NPP human resources to support the analysis phase of SAT (which can be very time-consuming)
Pack, D. W.; Hardy, B. S.; Longcore, T.
Satellite monitoring of visible emissions at night has been established as a useful capability for environmental monitoring and mapping the global human footprint. Pioneering work using Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) sensors has been followed by new work using the more capable Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Beginning in 2014, we have been investigating the ability of small visible light cameras on CubeSats to contribute to nighttime Earth science studies via point-and-stare imaging. This paper summarizes our recent research using a common suite of simple visible cameras on several AeroCube satellites to carry out nighttime observations of urban areas and natural gas flares, nighttime weather (including lighting), and fishing fleet lights. Example results include: urban image examples, the utility of color imagery, urban lighting change detection, and multi-frame sequences imaging nighttime weather and large ocean areas with extensive fishing vessel lights. Our results show the potential for CubeSat sensors to improve monitoring of urban growth, light pollution, energy usage, the urban-wildland interface, the improvement of electrical power grids in developing countries, light-induced fisheries, and oil industry flare activity. In addition to orbital results, the nighttime imaging capabilities of new CubeSat sensors scheduled for launch in October 2017 are discussed.
Bangasser, Debra A; Wicks, Brittany; Waxler, David E; Eck, Samantha R
Sustained attention is the ability to monitor intermittent and unpredictable events over a prolonged period of time. This attentional process subserves other aspects of cognition and is disrupted in certain neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, it is clinically important to identify mechanisms that impair and improve sustained attention. Such mechanisms are often first discovered using rodent models. Therefore, several behavior procedures for testing aspects of sustained attention have been developed for rodents. One, first described by McGaughy and Sarter (1995), called the sustained attention task (SAT), trains rats to distinguish between signal (i.e., brief light presentation) and non-signal trials. The signals are short and thus require careful attention to be perceived. Attentional demands can be increased further by introducing a distractor (e.g., flashing houselight). We have modified this task for touchscreen operant chambers, which are configured with a touchscreen on one wall that can present stimuli and record responses. Here we detail our protocol for SAT in touchscreen chambers. Additionally, we present standard measures of performance in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparable performance on this task in both sexes highlights its use for attention studies, especially as more researchers are including female rodents in their experimental design. Moreover, the easy implementation of SAT for the increasingly popular touchscreen chambers increases its utility.
Full Text Available Games became popular, within the formal verification community, after their application to automatic synthesis of circuits from specifications, and they have been receiving more and more attention since then. This paper focuses on coding the "Sokoban" puzzle, i.e., a very complex single-player strategy game. We show how its solution can be encoded and represented as a Bounded Model Checking problem, and then solved with a SAT solver. After that, to cope with very complex instances of the game, we propose two different ad-hoc divide-and-conquer strategies. Those strategies, somehow similar to state-of-the-art abstraction-and-refinement schemes, are able to decompose deep Bounded Model Checking instances into easier subtasks, trading-off between efficiency and completeness. We analyze a vast set of difficult hard-to-solve benchmark games, trying to push forward the applicability of state-of-the-art SAT solvers in the field. Those results show that games may provide one of the next frontier for the SAT community.
Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat
A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.
Molthan, Andrew; Haynes, John M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William M.
Steady increases in computing power have allowed for numerical weather prediction models to be initialized and run at high spatial resolution, permitting a transition from larger scale parameterizations of the effects of clouds and precipitation to the simulation of specific microphysical processes and hydrometeor size distributions. Although still relatively coarse in comparison to true cloud resolving models, these high resolution forecasts (on the order of 4 km or less) have demonstrated value in the prediction of severe storm mode and evolution and are being explored for use in winter weather events . Several single-moment bulk water microphysics schemes are available within the latest release of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model suite, including the NASA Goddard Cumulus Ensemble, which incorporate some assumptions in the size distribution of a small number of hydrometeor classes in order to predict their evolution, advection and precipitation within the forecast domain. Although many of these schemes produce similar forecasts of events on the synoptic scale, there are often significant details regarding precipitation and cloud cover, as well as the distribution of water mass among the constituent hydrometeor classes. Unfortunately, validating data for cloud resolving model simulations are sparse. Field campaigns require in-cloud measurements of hydrometeors from aircraft in coordination with extensive and coincident ground based measurements. Radar remote sensing is utilized to detect the spatial coverage and structure of precipitation. Here, two radar systems characterize the structure of winter precipitation for comparison to equivalent features within a forecast model: a 3 GHz, Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) based in Omaha, Nebraska, and the 94 GHz NASA CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar, a spaceborne instrument and member of the afternoon or "A-Train" of polar orbiting satellites tasked with cataloguing global cloud
Research Overview Even though the interest in CubeSats has increased over the past decade, there is little publicly released research about thermal...understanding of the thermal design and analysis effort of CubeSats in the past decade, a research overview was provided. 25 III. Methodology The...CubeSats, because it leaves a considerable area for circuitry on the board and has a simple scheme [ Pumpkin , 2013]. Assuming there are high power
Blanc, Régis William
We present CafeSat, a SAT solver written in the Scala programming language. CafeSat is a modern solver based on DPLL and featuring many state-of-the-art techniques and heuristics. It uses two-watched literals for Boolean constraint propagation, conflict-driven learning along with clause deletion, a restarting strategy, and the VSIDS heuristics for choosing the branching literal. CafeSat is both sound and complete. In order to achieve reasonnable performances, low level and hand-tuned data ...
Kim, K.R.; Park, S.H.; Kim, D.H.; Song, Y.M.
Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses MELCOR code as the simulation engine. SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. The control capability of SATS could make severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical hypertext guidance module HyperKAMG and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system for the severe accident management. (author)
thermoplastic PCB Printed Circuit Board PIC Programmable Intelligent Computer RAMPART RApidprototyped MEMS Propulsion and Radiation Test RF Radio Frequency S...V for printed propulsion systems of varying volumes ........... 66 Figure 23. Predicted radiation attenuation of aluminum and AM composite CubeSat...Delta V data and estimates for standard CubeSat propulsion systems ............... 42 Table 5. Delta V for RAMPART printed CubeSat propulsion
The estimated volume of 148,120 acre-ft of water used by livestock in Nebraska during 1980 is the second largest (after Texas) volume used for livestock production in the fifty Sates. Although water used by livestock is a small percentage of the total water used in Nebraska, this use has a major impact on the farm economy of the State, as livestock sales accounted for 59% of the total farm market cash receipts in 1980. About 16%, or 23 ,590 acre-ft, of this use is estimated to be from surface water sources, with the remaining 124,530 acre-ft pumped from the State 's groundwater supply. The estimated livestock water use in Nebraska 's 93 counties during 1980 ranged from 340 acre-ft in Hooker County to 6,770 acre-ft in Cherry County. Livestock water use by Hydrologic Units ranged from 20 acre-ft in the Hat Creek basin 10120106) to 10,370 acre-ft in the Elkhorn River basin, and the Natural Resources Districts ' use ranged from 1 ,880 acre-ft in the South Platte NRD to 17,830 acre-ft in the Lower Elkhorn NRD. (Author 's abstract)
Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Brown, Shannon; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Cofield, Richard; Russell, Damon; Stachnik, Robert; Steinkraus, Joel; Lim, Boon
We are currently developing a 118/183 GHz sensor that will enable observations of temperature and precipitation profiles over land and ocean. The 118/183 GHz system is well suited for a CubeSat deployment as 10cm antenna aperture provides sufficiently small footprint sizes (is approx. 25km). This project will enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U CubeSat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters that are needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We will take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass and low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. The 35 nm InP enabling technology provides significant reduction in power consumption (Low Noise Amplifier + Mixer Block consumes 24 mW). In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder instrument on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, a summary of radiometer calibration and retrieval techniques of the temperature and humidity will be discussed. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a constellation consisting of suite of these instruments. The proposed constellation of these 6U CubeSat radiometers would allow sampling of tropospheric temperature and humidity with fine temporal (on the order of minutes) and spatial resolution (is approx. 25 km).
Liou, Jer-Chyi; Clark, S.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Huynh, T.; Opiela, J.; Polk, M.; Roebuck, B.; Rushing, R.; Sorge, M.; Werremeyer, M.
The goal of the DebriSat project is to characterize fragments generated by a hypervelocity collision involving a modern satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The DebriSat project will update and expand upon the information obtained in the 1992 Satellite Orbital Debris Characterization Impact Test (SOCIT), which characterized the breakup of a 1960 s US Navy Transit satellite. There are three phases to this project: the design and fabrication of DebriSat - an engineering model representing a modern, 60-cm/50-kg class LEO satellite; conduction of a laboratory-based hypervelocity impact to catastrophically break up the satellite; and characterization of the properties of breakup fragments down to 2 mm in size. The data obtained, including fragment size, area-to-mass ratio, density, shape, material composition, optical properties, and radar cross-section distributions, will be used to supplement the DoD s and NASA s satellite breakup models to better describe the breakup outcome of a modern satellite.
Oi, Daniel K.L. [University of Strathclyde, SUPA Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Space Institute, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ling, Alex [National University of Singapore, Centre for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Dept. of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Greenland, Steve; Kerr, Emma [University of Strathclyde, Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Macdonald, Malcolm [Technology and Innovation Centre, Scottish Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Weinfurter, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Kuiper, Hans [Delft University of Technology, Space Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Charbon, Edoardo [AQUA, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Ursin, Rupert [Vienna Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Vienna (Austria)
Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision. (orig.)
Fornari, Marco; Scagliola, Michele; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso
The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. By April 2013, almost 3 years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.
Oi, Daniel K.L.; Ling, Alex; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Greenland, Steve; Kerr, Emma; Macdonald, Malcolm; Weinfurter, Harald; Kuiper, Hans; Charbon, Edoardo; Ursin, Rupert
Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision. (orig.)
Full Text Available SatExpo Europe 2010The 2010 edition of SatExpo Europe has been held in Rome since the 6th until the 8th of february. The event focused on Navigation, Earth Observation and Advanced Telecommunications, with a special reference to the european market and the international colalborations between space agencies.
Morris, K.; Wolfson, M.; Brown, J.
Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company has recently been involved in developing GEO Space Situational Awareness architectures, which allows insights into how cubesats can augment the current national systems. One hole that was identified in the current architecture is the need for timelier metric track observations to aid in the chain of custody. Obtaining observations of objects at GEO can be supported by CubeSats. These types of small satellites are increasing being built and flown by government agencies like NASA and SMDC. CubeSats are generally mass and power constrained allowing for only small payloads that cannot typically mimic traditional flight capability. CubeSats do not have a high reliability and care must be taken when choosing mission orbits to prevent creating more debris. However, due to the low costs, short development timelines, and available hardware, CubeSats can supply very valuable benefits to these complex missions, affordably. For example, utilizing CubeSats for advanced focal plane demonstrations to support technology insertion into the next generation situational awareness sensors can help to lower risks before the complex sensors are developed. CubeSats can augment the planned ground and space based assets by creating larger constellations with more access to areas of interest. To aid in maintaining custody of objects, a CubeSat constellation at 500 km above GEO would provide increased point of light tracking that can augment the ground SSA assets. Key features of the Cubesat include a small visible camera looking along the GEO belt, a small propulsion system that allows phasing between CubeSats, and an image processor to reduce the data sent to the ground. An elegant communications network will also be used to provide commands to and data from multiple CubeSats. Additional CubeSats can be deployed on GSO launches or through ride shares to GEO, replenishing or adding to the constellation with each launch. Each CubeSat would take images of
Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lal, Bhavya
We present the results of a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years.We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements.Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on nearterm investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities’ use of CubeSats.
Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Kim, Tony; Houts, Mike
Technologies under development for the proposed Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) will require an un-crewed demonstration mission before they can be flight qualified over distances and time frames representative of a crewed Mars mission. In this paper, we describe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform, possibly comprising hundreds of CubeSats, as the main payload of the NCPS demo mission. This platform would enable a mechanism for cost savings for the demo mission through shared support between NASA and other government agencies as well as leveraged commercial aerospace and academic community involvement. We believe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform should be an obvious first choice for the NCPS demo mission when one considers that cost and risk of the payload can be spread across many CubeSat customers and that the NCPS demo mission can capitalize on using CubeSats developed by others for its own instrumentation needs. Moreover, a demo mission of the NCPS offers an unprecedented opportunity to invigorate the public on a global scale through direct individual participation coordinated through a web-based collaboration engine. The platform we describe would be capable of delivering CubeSats at various locations along a trajectory toward the primary mission destination, in this case Mars, permitting a variety of potential CubeSat-specific missions. Cameras on various CubeSats can also be used to provide multiple views of the space environment and the NCPS vehicle for video monitoring as well as allow the public to "ride along" as virtual passengers on the mission. This collaborative approach could even initiate a brand new Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) program for launching student developed CubeSat payloads beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) on future deep space technology qualification missions. Keywords: Nuclear Propulsion, NCPS, SLS, Mars, CubeSat.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision TierOne Bank Lincoln, Nebraska; Notice of... the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for TierOne Bank, Lincoln, Nebraska, (OTS No. 03309), on June 4, 2010...
... Civil Rights (Commission), and the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), that a meeting of the Nebraska... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Agenda and Notice of Public Meeting of the Nebraska Advisory Committee... Avenue, Suite 908, Kansas City, Kansas 66101. Persons wishing to e-mail their comments, or to present...
In 1914 Nebraska men once again voted against the amendment that would have granted full suffrage to Nebraska women. This article focuses on the three years immediately after that defeat. It explores the remaining seventeen issues of the "Suffrage Messenger" and asks the following question: how did the suffrage newspaper portray and…
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2010-0061] Nebraska Public Power District, Cooper Nuclear Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD or the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-46 which authorizes operation of the Cooper Nuclear...
Francis, R.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.
Over the last ten years the relationship between climate change and the cryosphere has become increasingly important. Evidence of change in the polar regions is widespread, and the subject of public discussion. During this same ten years ESA has been preparing its CryoSat mission, specifically designed to provide measurements to determine the overall change in the mass balance of all of the ice caps and of change in the volume of sea-ice (rather than simply its extent). In fact the mission was ready for launch in October 2005, but a failure in the launch vehicle led to a loss of the satellite some 6 minutes after launch. The determination to rebuild the satellite and complete the mission was widespread in the relevant scientific, industrial and political entities, and the decision to redirect financial resources to the rebuild was sealed with a scientific report confirming that the mission was even more important in 2005 than at its original selection in 1999. The evolution of the cryosphere since then has emphasised that conclusion. In order to make a meaningful measurement of the secular change of the surface legation of ice caps and the thickness of sea-ice, the accuracy required has been specified as about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry. Previous altimeter missions have pioneered the method: the CryoSat instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of these earlier missions. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along-track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will will allow detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular
Herbst, Karen L; Ussery, Christopher; Eekema, Alyna
Background Lipedema is a common painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) disorder in women affecting the limbs. SAT therapy is a manual therapy to improve soft tissue quality. Objective Determine if SAT therapy improves pain and structure of lipedema SAT. Design Single arm prospective pilot study. Setting Academic medical center. Patients Seven women, 46 ± 5 years, weight 90 ± 19 kg, with lipedema. Intervention Twelve 90-min SAT therapy sessions over 4 weeks. Outcomes Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, SAT ultrasound (Vevo 2100), leg volumetrics, skin caliper assessment, tissue exam, weight, resting metabolic rate, pain assessment, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS) and body shape questionnaire (BSQ) at baseline and end of study. Results Weight, resting metabolic rate and BSQ did not change significantly. Limb fat over total body fat mass (p = 0.08) and trunk fat over total body mass trended down from baseline (p = 0.08) by DXA. Leg volume and caliper assessments in eight of nine areas (p < 0.007), LEFS (p = 0.002) and average pain (p = 0.007) significantly decreased from baseline. Fibrosis significantly decreased in the nodules, hips and groin. Ultrasound showed improved SAT structure in some subjects. Side effects included pain, bruising, itching, swelling and gastroesophageal reflux disease. All women said they would recommend SAT therapy to other women with lipedema. Limitations Small number of subjects. Conclusion SAT therapy in 4 weeks improved tissue structure, perceived leg function, and volume although shape was not affected. While side effects of SAT therapy were common, all women felt the therapy was beneficial.
Densmore, Brenda K.; Rus, David L.; Moser, Matthew T.; Hall, Brent M.; Andersen, Michael J.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, monitored suspended sediment within constructed Missouri River chutes during March through October 2012. Chutes were constructed at selected river bends by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to help mitigate aquatic habitat lost through the creation and maintenance of the navigation channel on the Missouri River. The restoration and development of chutes is one method for creating shallow-water habitat within the Missouri River to meet requirements established by the amended 2000 Biological Opinion. Understanding geomorphic channel-evolution processes and sediment transport is important for the design of chutes, monitoring and maintenance of existing chutes, and characterizing the habitat that the chutes provide. This report describes the methods used to monitor suspended sediment at two Missouri River chutes and presents the results of the data analysis to help understand the suspended-sediment characteristics of each chute and the effect the chutes have on the Missouri River. Upper Hamburg chute, near Nebraska City, Nebraska, and Kansas chute, near Peru, Nebraska, were selected for monitoring. At each study site, monthly discrete samples were collected from April through October in the Missouri River main-channel transects upstream from the chute inlet, downstream from the chute outlet, at the outlet (downstream transect) of both chutes, and at the inlet (upstream transect) of Kansas chute. In addition, grab samples from all chute sampling locations were collected using autosamplers. Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and grain-size metrics were determined for all samples (discrete and grab). Continuous water-quality monitors recorded turbidity and water temperature at 15-minute intervals at the three chute sampling locations. Two acoustic Doppler velocimeters, one within each chute, measured water depth and current velocities continuously. The depth and velocity data were used to
Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Simon, Andrew
In eastern Nebraska, stream straightening and dredging efforts since the 1890s have disturbed the natural equilibrium of stream channels and have led to streambed adjustment by degradation and subsequent channel widening. This report describes a study to evaluate the effect these disturbances have had on stream channels in eastern Nebraska. Two sets of survey data were collected approximately 2 years apart during 1996-99 at 151 primary sites. Additionally, historical streambed-elevation data (dating back to the 1890s) were compiled from several sources for the primary sites and 45 supplemental sites, and relevant disturbances were identified for each of eight basin groupings. Streambed-elevation data sets were used to estimate the amount of change to the streambed at the sites over the time period of the data. Recent channel widening was documented for 73 of the primary sites by comparing the two survey sets. The majority of observed streambed-gradation responses appear to be related to the various straightening efforts and to the effects of grade-control structures in the study area. Channel responses were complicated by the presence of multiple disturbances. However, in many cases, the streambed-elevation data sets provide a reliable representation of the past streambed gradation, with some sites showing 6 to 7 meters of degradation since they were straightened. Many sites that had been straightened showed considerable degradation following the disturbance. This indicates that eastern Nebraska stream channels can regain equilibrium mainly through the slope adjustment process of head-ward-progressing degradation. Bank failures were documented at sites in all eight of the basin groupings analyzed, and widening rates were computed at 64 of 73 sites. Observed bank widening in the Big Blue River Basin, a relatively unstraightened basin, indicates that other disturbances besides stream-channel straightening may be causing channel responses in the basin and possibly in
Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec
The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.
Hestroffer, D.; Agnan, M.; Segret, B.; Quinsac, G.; Vannitsen, J.; Rosenblatt, P.; Miau, J. J.
We are developing the Birdy concept of a scientific interplanetary CubeSat, for cruise, or proximity operations around a Small body of the Solar System (asteroid, comet, irregular satellite). The scientific aim is to characterise the body's shape, gravity field, and internal structure through imaging and radio-science techniques. Radio-science is now of common use in planetary science (flybys or orbiters) to derive the mass of the scientific target and possibly higher order terms of its gravity field. Its application to a nano-satellite brings the advantage of enabling low orbits that can get closer to the body's surface, hence increasing the SNR for precise orbit determination (POD), with a fully dedicated instrument. Additionally, it can be applied to two or more satellites, on a leading-trailing trajectory, to improve the gravity field determination. However, the application of this technique to CubeSats in deep space, and inter-satellite link has to be proven. Interplanetary CubeSats need to overcome a few challenges before reaching successfully their deep-space objectives: link to ground-segment, energy supply, protection against radiation, etc. Besides, the Birdy CubeSat — as our basis concept — is designed to be accompanying a mothercraft, and relies partly on the main mission for reaching the target, as well as on data-link with the Earth. However, constraints to the mothercraft needs to be reduced, by having the CubeSat as autonomous as possible. In this respect, propulsion and auto-navigation are key aspects, that we are studying in a Birdy-T engineering model. We envisage a 3U size CubeSat with radio link, object-tracker and imaging function, and autonomous ionic propulsion system. We are considering two case studies for autonomous guidance, navigation and control, with autonomous propulsion: in cruise and in proximity, necessitating ΔV up to 2m/s for a total budget of about 50m/s. In addition to the propulsion, in-flight orbit determination (IFOD
Liu, Kunqi; Zhang, Jingmin; Liu, Gang; Kang, Lishan
Satisfiability (SAT) problem is an NP-complete problem. Based on the analysis about it, SAT problem is translated equally into an optimization problem on the minimum of objective function. A hybrid differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve the Satisfiability problem. It makes full use of strong local search capacity of hill-climbing algorithm and strong global search capability of differential evolution algorithm, which makes up their disadvantages, improves the efficiency of algorithm and avoids the stagnation phenomenon. The experiment results show that the hybrid algorithm is efficient in solving SAT problem.
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels
The second qualification flight of Ariane 5 blasted off-the European Space Port in French Guiana on October 30, 1997, carrying on board a small technology demonstration satellite called TeamSat. Several experiments were proposed by various universities and research institutions in Europe and five...... of them were finally selected and integrated into TeamSat, namely FIPEX, VTS, YES, ODD and the Autonomous Vision System, AVS, a fully autonomous star tracker and vision system. This paper gives short overview of the TeamSat satellite; design, implementation and mission objectives. AVS is described in more...
A high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the East Salina Basin Area (Kansas and Nebraska) was conducted. The project area, the Hutchinson and Manhattan, Kansas sheets, consists of approximately 30,800 square miles. A total of 11,287 line miles of high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic data were collected. All data were collected utilizing a fixed wing aircraft, and over 3,500 cubic inches of NaI crystal detector. Magnetometer data were collected utilizing a high sensitivity 0.25 gamma, proton magnetometer. All field data were returned to GeoMetrics, Sunnyvale, California computer facilities for processing, statistical analysis and interpretation. As an integral part of this final report, other data are presented which include corrected profiles of all radiometric variables (total count, K, U, Th, U/Th, U/K, and Th/K, ratios), magnetic data, radar altimeter data, barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bi contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are presented in the form of strip charts as averaged one second samples using a 5 second moving average window, microfiche and digital magnetic tapes containing raw spectral data, single record data, averaged record data, and statistical analysis results. In addition, computer generated anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric data
The whale shark Rhincodon typus is the largest fish in the world. The global population of R.typus is unknown however the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUNC) classified it as Vulnerable in 2005. To ensure a population of R
Unat, Didem; Chan, Cy; Zhang, Weiqun; Williams, Samuel; Bachan, John
One of the emerging challenges to designing HPC systems is understanding and projecting the requirements of exascale applications. In order to determine the performance consequences of different hardware designs, analytic models are essential because they can provide fast feedback to the co-design centers and chip designers without costly simulations. However, current attempts to analytically model program performance typically rely on the user manually specifying a performance model. Here we introduce the ExaSAT framework that automates the extraction of parameterized performance models directly from source code using compiler analysis. The parameterized analytic model enables quantitative evaluation of a broad range of hardware design trade-offs and software optimizations on a variety of different performance metrics, with a primary focus on data movement as a metric. Finally, we demonstrate the ExaSAT framework’s ability to perform deep code analysis of a proxy application from the Department of Energy Combustion Co-design Center to illustrate its value to the exascale co-design process. ExaSAT analysis provides insights into the hardware and software trade-offs and lays the groundwork for exploring a more targeted set of design points using cycle-accurate architectural simulators.
LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
The village of Eustis is located in the northeast corner of Frontier County, Nebraska (Figure 1.1), near Interstate 80 and approximately 190 mi west of Lincoln. From 1950 to 1964, the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), operated a grain storage facility at the southeastern edge of Eustis. During this time, commercial grain fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride were in common use to preserve grain in storage. In July 2011, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services (NDHHS) calculated a running annual average concentration of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater from one of the Eustis public water supply wells (PWS 70-1) at 5.24 μg/L, exceeding the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L. The running average value was calculated on the basis of results (4.01-6.87 μg/L) from four groundwater sampling events in 2011 for well PWS 70-1 (NDHHS 2011). On January 16, 2012, the village placed well PWS 70-1 on backup/standby status for emergency use only (Village of Eustis 2012). This results of this groundwater sampling are presented here.
Horn, Adam Charles
The United Nations Inter-Agency Debris Coordination Committee has adopted a 25-year post-mission lifetime requirement for any satellite orbiting below 2000 km in order to mitigate the growing orbital debris threat. Low-cost CubeSats have become important satellite platforms with startling capabilities, but this guideline restricts them to altitudes below 600 km because they remain in orbit too long. In order to enable CubeSat deployments at higher release altitudes, a low-cost, ultra-reliable deorbit device is needed. This thesis reports on efforts to develop a deployable and passively inflatable drag brake that can deorbit from higher orbital altitudes, thereby complying with the 25-year orbital lifetime guideline. On the basis of concepts first implemented during the NASA Echo Satellite Project, this study investigated the design of an inflatable CubeSat drag device that utilizes sublimating benzoic acid powder as the inflation propellant. Testing has focused on demonstrating the functionality of charging a Mylar drag brake bladder with appropriate quantities of benzoic acid powder, and the exposure to a controlled-temperature vacuum chamber causing the bladder to inflate. Although results show a measureable increase in internal pressure when introduced to anticipated orbital temperatures, a significant air-derived expansion prior to sublimation was encountered due to the undetectable volume of ambient residual air in the fabricated membrane bladders. These tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, thereby demonstrating that this concept can create a potentially smaller and less expensive drag device, eliminating inflation gas tanks and valves. In that way, this system can provide a low-cost, miniaturized system that reduces a CubeSat's orbital lifetime to less than 25 years, when placed at higher orbital altitude.
Arye, Gilboa; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian
The transport and fate of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (SHAFDAN), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Soil samples were taken from seven subsections of soil profiles (150 cm) in infiltration basins of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. The transport characteristics were studied from the release dynamics of soil-resident CBZ and, subsequently, from applying a pulse input of wastewater containing CBZ. In addition, a monitoring study was performed to evaluate the fate of CBZ after the SAT. Results of this study indicate adsorption, and consequently retardation, in CBZ transport through the top soil layer (0-5 cm) and to a lesser extent in the second layer (5-25 cm), but not in deeper soil layers (25-150 cm). The soluble and adsorbed fractions of CBZ obtained from the two upper soil layers comprised 45% of the total CBZ content in the entire soil profile. This behavior correlated to the higher organic matter content observed in the upper soil layers (0-25 cm). It is therefore deduced that when accounting for the full flow path of CBZ through the vadose zone to the groundwater region, the overall transport of CBZ in the SAT system is essentially conservative. The monitoring study revealed that the average concentration of CBZ decreased from 1094 ± 166 ng L⁻¹ in the recharged wastewater to 560 ± 175 ng L⁻¹ after the SAT. This reduction is explained by dilution of the recharged wastewater with resident groundwater, which may occur as it flows to active reclamation wells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Torben Heien; Christensen, Gunvor
Antallet af lejere, der bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er steget fra 1499 i 2002 til 2589 i 2006. Lejere kan blive sat ud af deres bolig, hvis de ikke betaler deres husleje til tiden, eller hvis de ikke overholder husordenen det sted de bor. Denne rapport beskriver årsager til, at lejere bliver sat...... ud af deres boliger og baggrunden for stigningen i antallet af udsættelser. desuden beskriver rapporten konsekvenser af en udsættelse og kommer med en række anbefalinger til indsatsområder. Af afgørende betydning for, at lejere bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er lav indkomst, lavt rådighedsbeløb, stor...
Tropical deep convective clouds drive the large scale circulation of ... information concerning tropical clouds since 1998 ..... and CloudSat Data Processing Center, NASA for providing .... ical precipitating clouds ranging from shallow to deep.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems. Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat Handling of Multisystem Precision Time Transfer (CHOMPTT) mission is a precision timing satellite equipped with atomic clocks synchronized with a ground...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The growing interest in CubeSat swarm and constellation systems by NASA, the Department of Defense and commercial ventures has created a need for self-managed...
James W. Satterfield
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the social dynamics surrounding the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football program on the community at large. The following research questions helped guide the research study: 1. What are the sociological effects of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln football on the community? and 2. How is commitment displayed to University of Nebraska football by members of the community? Six focus group interviews were conducted, each with five to seven participants. Through phenomenological analysis, it became clear that the sociological nature of University of Nebraska-Lincoln football is steeped in tradition, and the ritualistic nature that surrounds this phenomenon extends well into communities. This study illuminates three themes that emerged through data collection and analysis: 1. Harvest, 2. United we stand, and 3. Farm values. The Harvest theme represents the similarities of the agricultural lifestyle to a football season and how the entire year is dedicated towards performance. United we stand emerged as a visual, social and emotional sense of pride for the state of Nebraska residents towards the University and Nebraska and its football team. The connection between the university and the state begins early in life and grows as the years pass to become a social symbol of pride and togetherness as small towns shut down to gather and watch football games. Farm values emerged as the final theme and represented the importance of the farming value structure on the many small communities and towns in the state of Nebraska. For many small towns, a great sense of pride was generated when a local athlete was able to play for the University of Nebraska. This pride served as a means of legitimacy and hope in many struggling families that create Nebraska's farming communities. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110134
Francisco Sacristán Romero
Full Text Available Parte de que los satélites de comunicación son unos artilugios recién nacidos y en fase de desarrolllo. Describe la trayectoria histórica de éstos tres, el uso del satélite y el servicio de televisión, las redes, el HISPASAT enlace entre España y América dificultades y soluciones.
Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.
Effective, integrated and interdisciplinary STEM environments depend upon strong faculty collaboration. During the past decade, the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) has put an emphasis on STEM faculty working together across departments, colleges, and the university system, as well as with local school systems. Supported by a University-wide Content and Pedagogy Committee and a new Office of STEM Education, faculty members have aggressively undertaken and evaluated various interdisciplinary STEM activities. This presentation will briefly describe three of these projects, including evaluation-related data and UNO support mechanisms. First, an interdisciplinary student research project has been developed involving our introductory geology and chemistry courses. The project includes collecting drinking water samples from around Omaha by geology students, the chemical analysis of drinking water by chemistry students, followed by water quality analysis of the chemical data by the geology students. Students learn about the scientific method, potential problems with project design, and limitations of interpretation of real data, while also applying knowledge learned in the class to this real world problem. This project reaches ~600 undergraduate students each year and requires close cooperation between faculty of the Chemistry and Geology programs. Evaluation data indicates that this project has had a positive impact on student attitude towards science in general and towards geology and chemistry in particular. The second project highlighted will be the Silicon Prairie Initiative for Robotics in Information Technology (SPIRIT). The SPIRIT project is a NSF funded collaboration between the UNO College of Education, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln College of Engineering, and local school systems. It strives to integrate the use of educational robotics and sensors in the teaching of STEM topics, particularly at the middle school and high school levels. The project
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Berk, Josh; Straub, Jeremy; Whalen, David
Government supported nano-satellite launch programs and emerging commercial small satellite launch services are reducing the cost of access to space for educational and other CubeSat projects. The cost and complexity of designing and building these satellites remains a vexing complication for many would be CubeSat aspirants. The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN), a proposed nano-satellite development platform, is described in this paper. OPEN endeavors to reduce the costs and risks associated with educational, government and commercial nano-satellite development. OPEN provides free and publicly available plans for building, testing and operating a versatile, low-cost satellite, based on the standardized CubeSat form-factor. OPEN consists of public-domain educational reference plans, complete with engineering schematics, CAD files, construction and test instructions as well as ancillary reference materials relevant to satellite building and operation. By making the plan, to produce a small but capable spacecraft freely available, OPEN seeks to lower the barriers to access on the other side (non-launch costs) of the satellite cost equation.
Foster, Richard M.
In this study, economic factors were consistently rated as important considerations in limited student participation in supervised farm practice in Nebraska high schools. It was indicated that administrative support was the least limiting factor for student participation. (CT)
LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
The targeted investigation at York will be implemented in phases, so that data collected and interpretations developed at each stage of the program can be evaluated to guide subsequent phases most effectively. Section 2 of this Work Plan presents a brief overview of the York site, its geologic and hydrologic setting, and the previous CCC/USDA investigations. Section 3, outlines the proposed technical program for the targeted investigation, and Section 4 describes the investigative methods to be employed. A community relations plan is in Section 5, and Section 6 includes health and safety information. In addition to this site-specific Work Plan, the Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) developed by Argonne for CCC/USDA investigations in Nebraska should be consulted for complete details of the methods and procedures to be used at York.
LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division. Applied Geosciences and Environmental Management Section; Yan, Eugene [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division
The village of Bladen is a town of population approximately 237 in the northwest part of Webster County, Nebraska, 30 mi southwest of Hastings and 140 mi southwest of Lincoln, Nebraska. In 2000, the fumigant-related compound carbon tetrachloride was detected in public water supply well PWS 68-1, at a trace level. Low-level contamination, below the maximum contamination level (MCL) of 5.0 μg/L, has been detected intermittently in well PWS 68-1 since 2000, including in the last sample taken in July 2013. In 2006, the village installed a new well, PWS 2006-1, that remains free of contamination. Because the carbon tetrachloride found in well PWS 68-1 might be linked to historical use of fumigants containing carbon tetrachloride at grain storage facilities, including its former facility in Bladen, the CCC/USDA is proposing an investigation to (1) delineate the source and extent of the carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with its former facility, (2) characterize pathways and controlling factors for contaminant migration in the subsurface, and (3) establish a basis for estimating potential health and environmental risks. The work will be performed in accordance with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the NDEQ and the Farm Service Agency of the USDA. The site investigation at Bladen will be implemented in phases, so that data collected and interpretations developed during each phase can be evaluated to determine if a subsequent phase of investigation is warranted and, if warranted, to provide effective guidance for the subsequent investigation activities. This Work Plan identifies the specific technical objectives and defines the scope of work proposed for the Phase I investigation by compiling and evaluating historical data. The proposed investigation activities will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research
Shkolnik, Evgenya L.
CubeSats are small satellites built in standard sizes and form factors, which have been growing in popularity but have thus far been largely ignored within the field of astronomy. When deployed as space-based telescopes, they enable science experiments not possible with existing or planned large space missions, filling several key gaps in astronomical research. Unlike expensive and highly sought after space telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope, whose time must be shared among many instruments and science programs, CubeSats can monitor sources for weeks or months at time, and at wavelengths not accessible from the ground such as the ultraviolet, far-infrared and low-frequency radio. Science cases for CubeSats being developed now include a wide variety of astrophysical experiments, including exoplanets, stars, black holes and radio transients. Achieving high-impact astronomical research with CubeSats is becoming increasingly feasible with advances in technologies such as precision pointing, compact sensitive detectors and the miniaturization of propulsion systems. CubeSats may also pair with the large space- and ground-based telescopes to provide complementary data to better explain the physical processes observed.
Christensen, Gunvor; Nielsen, Torben Heien
Antallet af lejere, der bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er steget i perioden 2002-06. I 2006 blev 2600 husstande, svarende til 0,1 pct. af samtlige husstande i Danmark, sat ud af deres bolig. Stigningen er især sket i de fem største byer: København, Århus, Odense, Ålborg og Esbjerg. I dette...... skal give viden om, hvilke årsager der er til, at nogle lejere bliver sat ud af deres bolig, og hvorfor der er sket en stigning i antallet af udsættelser. Den endelige afrapportering af undersøgelsen af udsættelser i Danmark vil ske i foråret 2008. Undersøgelsen er finansieret af Socialministeriet....
Skourup, Henriette; Hanson, Susanne; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk
After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite is planned for spring 2011. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the prelaunch performance...... of the CryoSat radar altimeter (SIRAL), an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) has been flown together with a laser scanner in 2006 and 2008. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of the radar altimeter over both land- and sea ice. This can be done by comparing the radar...... and laser measurements with in situ observations. Here, an overview of the prelaunch airborne campaigns is given, together with results of the ASIRAS performance over land- and sea ice. The observations, used in this study, are obtained from the Greenland ice sheet and from both multiyear and first year sea...
Jehle, MAJ; L., Alexander
NASA’s Iodine Satellite (iSAT) is a small satellite demonstration mission designed and built at NASA’s Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC). Previously expected to launch late 2nd quarter of fiscal year ’18, iSAT’s flight effort has temporarily stood-down as of May 2017 to allow for the propulsion system to mature. Once launched, iSAT will demonstrate and characterize the efficiency of BUSEK’s 200 Watt Hall effect thruster utilizing iodine as a propellant in low Earth orbit. This paper covers i...
Santilli, Giancarlo; Vendittozzi, Cristian; Cappelletti, Chantal; Battistini, Simone; Gessini, Paolo
In recent years, CubeSats have considerably extended their range of possible applications, from a low cost means to train students and young researchers in space related activities up to possible complementary solutions to larger missions. Increasingly popular, whereas CubeSats are still not a solution for all types of missions, they offer the possibility of performing ambitious scientific experiments. Especially worth considering is the possibility of performing Distributed Space Missions, in which CubeSat systems can be used to increase observation sampling rates and resolutions, as well as to perform tasks that a single satellite is unable to handle. The cost of access to space for traditional Earth Observation (EO) missions is still quite high. Efficient architecture design would allow reducing mission costs by employing CubeSat systems, while maintaining a level of performance that, for some applications, could be close to that provided by larger platforms, and decreasing the time needed to design and deploy a fully functional constellation. For these reasons many countries, including developing nations, agencies and organizations are looking to CubeSat platforms to access space cheaply with, potentially, tens of remote sensing satellites. During disaster management, real-time, fast and continuous information broadcast is a fundamental requirement. In this sense, a constellation of small satellites can considerably decrease the revisit time (defined as the time elapsed between two consecutive observations of the same point on Earth by a satellite) over remote areas, by increasing the number of spacecraft properly distributed in orbit. This allows collecting as much data as possible for the use by Disaster Management Centers. This paper describes the characteristics of a constellation of CubeSats built to enable access over the most remote regions of Brazil, supporting an integrated system for mitigating environmental disasters in an attempt to prevent the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS Level 1b radiances spectra, CloudSat radar reflectivities, and MODIS...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — No vendor has yet to provide a radiation tolerant, high efficiency, small Power Management and Distribution module for the SmallSat and CubeSat market yet. Let alone...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Picosatellites, such as CubeSats (less than 4 kg), have the potential to reduce the cost of conducting missions in space. Programs such as NASA Ames GeneSat and the...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAI-400SS Space Sextant is a precision attitude determination and control system for CubeSats and Nanosats. The MAI-400SS enables future CubeSat missions with...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to significant gaps in advanced thermal control systems onboard CubeSats and SmallSats, and building off of the successful development of space-based...
Cynthia Q Sun
Full Text Available A new assay for the determination of lactosylceramide-2,3-sialyltransferase (SAT I, EC 22.214.171.124 and monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase (SAT IV, EC 126.96.36.199 is described. The assay utilised the commercially available fluorophore labelled sphingolipids, boron dipyrromethene difluoride (BODIPY lactosylceramide (LacCer, and BODIPY-monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1 as the acceptor substrates, for SAT I and SAT IV, respectively. HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection was used to analyse product formation. The analysis was performed in a quick and automated fashion. The assay showed good linearity for both BODIPY sphingolipids with a quantitative detection limit of 0.05 pmol. The high sensitivity enabled the detection of SAT I and SAT IV activities as low as 0.001 μU, at least 200 fold lower than that of most radiometric assays. This new assay was applied to the screening of SAT I and SAT IV activities in ovine and bovine organs (liver, heart, kidney, and spleen. The results provided evidence that young animals, such as calves, start to produce ganglioside sialyltransferases as early as 7 days after parturition and that levels change during maturation. Among the organs tested from a bovine source, spleen had the highest specific ganglioside sialyltransferase activity. Due to the organ size, the greatest total ganglioside sialyltransferase activities (SAT I and SAT IV were detected in the liver of both bovine and ovine origin.
Kamble, B.; Irmak, A.; Hubbard, K.; Deogun, J.; Dvorak, B.
Recent advances in web-enabled geographical technologies have the potential to make a dramatic impact on development of highly interactive spatial applications on the web for visualization of large-scale geospatial data by water resources and irrigation scientists. Spatial and point scale water resources data visualization are an emerging and challenging application domain. Query based visual explorations of geospatial hydrological data can play an important role in stimulating scientific hypotheses and seeking causal relationships among hydro variables. The Nebraska Hydrological Information System (NebHydro) utilizes ESRI's ArcGIS server technology to increase technological awareness among farmers, irrigation managers and policy makers. Web-based geospatial applications are an effective way to expose scientific hydrological datasets to the research community and the public. NebHydro uses Adobe Flex technology to offer an online visualization and data analysis system for presentation of social and economic data. Internet mapping services is an integrated product of GIS and Internet technologies; it is a favored solution to achieve the interoperability of GIS. The development of Internet based GIS services in the state of Nebraska showcases the benefits of sharing geospatial hydrological data among agencies, resource managers and policy makers. Geospatial hydrological Information (Evapotranspiration from Remote Sensing, vegetation indices (NDVI), USGS Stream gauge data, Climatic data etc.) is generally generated through model simulation (METRIC, SWAP, Linux, Python based scripting etc). Information is compiled into and stored within object oriented relational spatial databases using a geodatabase information model that supports the key data types needed by applications including features, relationships, networks, imagery, terrains, maps and layers. The system provides online access, querying, visualization, and analysis of the hydrological data from several sources
Esseks, E.; Bellamy, W.; Heinemann, T.; Stocker, K.
The investigation of Kearney's bank filtration system provides further evidence of this technology's capability to assist in providing public health protection, as it relates to drinking water. The results of hydrogeologic and treatment studies demonstrate the capabilities of the Platte River aquifer materials, in this locale, to remove pathogens and their surrogates. Continual monitoring and evaluations will establish the system’s longevity and continued treatment efficacy. The City of Kearney is located in south central Nebraska. The City owns and operates a public water system that serves approximately 24,889 people. The water system includes 12 wells located on Killgore Island in the Platte River. In 1994, the Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services System (Department) determined that 3 wells in the wellfield serving the City of Kearney were ground water under the direct influence of surface water. This determination was based on results of microscopic particulate analysis (MPA). The City of Kearney undertook the natural bank filtration study to determine whether natural bank filtration was occurring at the site and if the filtration was sufficient to meet pathogen treatment requirements designed to protect public health. A preliminary study was undertaken from June through October 1995. This coincided with the City’s peak pumping time, which may be the time when the influence of the River is greatest on the wellfield wells. Hydrogeologic studies assisted in selecting wells that were at highest risk based on shortest travel times and greatest differential head. Data collected included particle counts, MPAs, turbidity, coliform, centrifugate pellet evaluation (CPE) volumes, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Following analysis of data collected during the preliminary 18-week study the Department granted conditional approval of 2-log credit for removal of Giardia lamblia and 1-log credit for removal of viruses through bank filtration, pending the
Pham, Thai; Thronson, Harley; Seery, Bernard; Ganel, Opher
The strategic astrophysics missions of the coming decades will help answer the questions "How did our universe begin and evolve?" "How did galaxies, stars, and planets come to be?" and "Are we alone?" Enabling these missions requires advances in key technologies far beyond the current state of the art. NASA's Physics of the Cosmos2 (PCOS), Cosmic Origins3 (COR), and Exoplanet Exploration Program4 (ExEP) Program Offices manage technology maturation projects funded through the Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program to accomplish such advances. The PCOS and COR Program Offices, residing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), were established in 2011, and serve as the implementation arm for the Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. We present an overview of the Programs' technology development activities and the current technology investment portfolio of 23 technology advancements. We discuss the process for addressing community-provided technology gaps and Technology Management Board (TMB)-vetted prioritization and investment recommendations that inform the SAT program. The process improves the transparency and relevance of our technology investments, provides the community a voice in the process, and promotes targeted external technology investments by defining needs and identifying customers. The Programs' priorities are driven by strategic direction from the Astrophysics Division, which is informed by the National Research Council's (NRC) "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" (NWNH) 2010 Decadal Survey report , the Astrophysics Implementation Plan (AIP)  as updated, and the Astrophysics Roadmap "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions" . These priorities include technology development for missions to study dark energy, gravitational waves, X-ray and inflation probe science, and large far-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV)/optical/IR telescopes to conduct imaging and spectroscopy studies. The SAT program is the
Athena K. Ramos
Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.
Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.
The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...
Frølunde, Lisbeth; Hansen, Susanne Pihl; Andreasen, Lars Birch
Sats 14 projektet drejede sig om at undersøge mulighederne i lokalt at tilbyde fx psykologbistand, social- eller specialpædagogisk bistand til produktionsskoleelever med særlige behov. Evalueringen fremhæver projektets resultater og vigtigste pointer: at en stor gruppe elever kan blive hjulpet til...
H. Zurbuchen, Thomas; von Steiger, Rudolf; Bartalev, Sergey
in this area of research. Our discussions focused on four themes characteristic of CubeSats and their evolution: 1) identification of appropriate science in avariety of research disciplines, 2) technology development, 3) international vs. national approaches, and 4) educational benefits. These discussions...
Evans, Allison L. (Inventor)
Thermal control louvers for CubeSats or small spacecraft may include a plurality of springs attached to a back panel of the thermal control louvers. The thermal control louvers may also include a front panel, which includes at least two end panels interlocked with one or more middle panels. The front panel may secure the springs, shafts, and flaps to the back panel.
Calafat, Francisco M.; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Bouffard, Jérôme; Féménias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso
CryoSat-2 is a huge asset to the oceanographic community, and the exploitation of its data over the ocean represents a welcome additional return for ESA's investment in a mission whose primary objective is to monitor the cryosphere. The CryoSat Project has approved, in the frame of the CryoSat routine phase, the generation of additional ocean products which are available since April 2014. These are the Interim Ocean Products (IOP), normally available within 2-3 day from acquisition, and the Geophysical Ocean Products (GOP), with consolidated orbits and available 30 days after acquisition. To enable their full exploitation by the scientific and operational oceanographic communities, these new ocean products need to be thoroughly quality-controlled and validated. Here we present the results of the scientific quality control performed at the UK National Oceanography Centre (NOC) within the framework of the CryOcean-QCV project. The assessment and quality control of the data is conducted both daily and monthly on a global scale for the L2 IOP and GOP products and includes coverage/completeness, data flow and latency analysis, along-track and crossover analysis, and estimation of error levels and measurement precision. Diagnostics are computed for the sea surface height (SSH), significant wave height (SWH), radar backscatter coefficient (sigma0), wind speed and mispointing parameters. In addition we present an absolute validation of the altimetric SSH for the GOP product against sea level observations from high-quality tide gauges equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Finally, the validation is extended by comparing the SSH from CryoSat-2 with that from other altimetric missions (Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2).
Matrosov, Sergey [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Boer, Gijs [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Shupe, Matthew [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Maahn, Maximillian [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Williams, Christopher [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.
Synergy between ground-based and satellite radar observations of clouds and precipitation is important for refining the algorithms to retrieve hydrometeor microphysical parameters, improvements in the retrieval accuracy, and better understanding the advantages and limitations of different retrieval approaches. The new dual-frequency (Ka- and W-band, 35 GHz and 94 GHz) fully polarimetric scanning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility cloud radars (SACRs-2) are advanced sensors aimed to significantly enhance remote sensing capabilities (Kollias et al. 2016). One of these radars was deployed as part of the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point, Alaska (70.495o N, 149.886oW). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CloudSat satellite, which is part of the polar-orbiting A-train satellite constellation, passes over the vicinity of the AMF3 location (typically within 0-7 km depending on a particular overpass) on a descending orbit every 16 days at approximately 13:21 UTC. The nadir pointing W-band CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) provides vertical profiles of reflectivity that are then used for retrievals of hydrometeor parameters (Tanelli et al. 2008). The main objective of the AMF3 CloudSat overpasses intensive operating period (IOP) campaign was to collect approximately collocated in space and time radar data from the SACR-2 and the CloudSat CPR measurements for subsequent joint analysis of radar variables and microphysical retrievals of cloud and precipitation parameters. Providing the reference for the SACR-2 absolute calibration from the well-calibrated CloudSat CPR was another objective of this IOP. The IOP objectives were achieved by conducting seven special SACR-2 scans during the 10.5-min period centered at the exact time of the CloudSat overpass over the AMF3 (~1321 UTC) on six dates of the CloudSat overpasses during the three-month period allocated to this IOP. These six days
Altunc, Serhat; Kegege, Obadiah; Bundick, Steve; Shaw, Harry; Schaire, Scott; Bussey, George; Crum, Gary; Burke, Jacob C.; Palo, Scott; O'Conor, Darren
Today's CubeSats mostly operate their communications at UHF- and S-band frequencies. UHF band is presently crowded, thus downlink communications are at lower data rates due to bandwidth limitations and are unreliable due to interference. This research presents an end-to-end robust, innovative, compact, efficient and low cost S-band uplink and X-band downlink CubeSat communication system demonstration between a balloon and a Near Earth Network (NEN) ground system. Since communication systems serve as umbilical cords for space missions, demonstration of this X-band communication system is critical for successfully supporting current and future CubeSat communication needs. This research has three main objectives. The first objective is to design, simulate, and test a CubeSat S- and X-band communication system. Satellite Tool Kit (STK) dynamic link budget calculations and HFSS Simulations and modeling results have been used to trade the merit of various designs for small satellite applications. S- and X-band antennas have been tested in the compact antenna test range at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to gather radiation pattern data. The second objective is simulate and test a CubeSat compatible X-band communication system at 12.5Mbps including S-band antennas, X-band antennas, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) /GSFC transmitter and an S-band receiver from TRL-5 to TRL-8 by the end of this effort. Different X-band communication system components (antennas, diplexers, etc.) from GSFC, other NASA centers, universities, and private companies have been investigated and traded, and a complete component list for the communication system baseline has been developed by performing analytical and numerical analysis. This objective also includes running simulations and performing trades between different X-band antenna systems to optimize communication system performance. The final objective is to perform an end-to-end X-band CubeSat communication system
Trends in monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates across Nebraska, the most intensely irrigated state within the US, were calculated by the calibration-free version of the nonlinear complementary relationship of evaporation over the 1979-2015 period utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) net radiation, 10-m wind velocity, as well as Parameter Regression Independent Slope Model (PRISM) air- and dew-point temperature data. State-averaged modeled ET rates rose by 5.5 mm decade-1 due to the presence of wide-spread large-scale irrigation projects in accordance with a 2.4 mm decade-1 increase in PRISM precipitation (P) and a simultaneous -2.8 mm decade-1 drop in United States Geological Survey's state-averaged annual streamflow rates, raising the state-wide ET to P ratio from 0.89 to 0.91 over the modeled time-period. ET rates over irrigated crops increased by 7 mm decade-1 despite a -4.4 mm decade-1 drop in precipitation rates. A similar increase in ET rates (6 mm decade-1) required 8.1 mm decade-1 increase in precipitation rates across the non-irrigated Sand Hills of Nebraska. Published NARR ET rates are unable to pick up this unusual regional trend. Since an increase in precipitation rates should normally decrease the ET ratio, as predicted by the Budyko curve, this study yields evidence on how dramatically sustained large-scale irrigation can alter the regional hydrologic cycle not only through a) trivially depleting streamflow rates and/or lowering groundwater table levels; b) suppressing precipitation locally (while enhancing it a long distance downwind), but also; c) reversing the trajectory of the regional ET ratio under generally increasing trends of precipitation.
Jeffrey J. Steinert
Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.
Vincent P. Coletta
Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.
De La Torre, Pedro R.
In this dissertation an innovative technology to study whale sharks, Rhincodon typus is presented. The Integrated Satellite and Acoustic Telemetry project (iSAT) combines underwater acoustic telemetry, autonomous navigation and radio frequency communications into a standalone system. The whale shark, a resident of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, is the target of the study. The technology presented is designed to help close current gaps in the knowledge of whale shark biology; these are gaps that prohibit the design of optimal conservation strategies. Unfortunately, the various existing tracking technologies each have limitations and are unable to solve all the unanswered questions. Whale shark populations are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities such as targeted and indirect fishing pressure, creating an urgent need for better management practices. This dissertation addresses the current state-of-the-art of relevant technologies, including autonomous surface vehicles (ASVs), sensors for research in the ocean and remote monitoring of wild fauna (biotelemetry). iSAT contains components of all of these technologies, but the primary achievement of this dissertation is the development of iSAT’s Acoustic Tracking System (ATS). Underwater, the most efficient way of transmitting energy through long distances is sound. An electronic tag is attached to an animal and works as its acoustic identifier. iSAT’s hydrophone array detects the presence and direction of the acoustic signal generated by the tag. The expected performance, range, and capacity to tell the direction to the tag are explained and compared to the actual measured values. The first operational iSAT ATS is demonstrated. This work represents significant advancement towards a fully autonomous iSAT system. Developments on the power electronics, navigation, renewable energy harvesting, and other modules are included in this research. With the recent integration of digital acquisition systems, i
Dinardo, Salvatore; Bruno, Lucas; Benveniste, Jerome
The scope of this work is to feature the new tool for the exploitation of the CryoSat data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The tool framework is composed of two separate components: the first one handles the data collection and management, the second one is the processing toolkit. The CryoSat FBR (Full Bit Rate) data is downlinked uncompressed from the satellite, containing un-averaged individual echoes. This data is made available in the Kiruna CalVal server in a 10 day rolling archive. Daily at ESRIN all the CryoSat FBR data, in SAR and SARin Mode, are downloaded (around 30 Gigabytes) catalogued and archived in local ESRIN EOP-SER workstations. As of March 2013, the total amount of FBR data is over 9 Terabytes, with CryoSat acquisition dates spanning January 2011 to February 2013 (with some gaps). This archive was built by merging partial datasets available at ESTEC and NOAA, that have been kindly made available for EOP-SER team. The on-demand access to this low level data is restricted to expert users with validated ESA P.I. credentials. Currently the main users of the archiving functionality are the team members of the Project CP4O (STSE- CryoSat Plus for Ocean), CNES and NOAA. The second component of the service is the processing toolkit. On the EOP-SER workstations there is internally and independently developed software that is able to process the FBR data in SAR/SARin mode to generate multi-looked echoes (Level 1B) and subsequently able to re-track them in SAR and SARin mode (Level 2) over open ocean, exploiting the SAMOSA model and other internally developed models. The processing segment is used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross- comparison against third part products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation
Naeije, Marc; Gommenginger, Christine; Moreau, Thomas; Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jerome; Dinardo Dinardo, Salvatore
The CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project is an ESA initiative carried out by a European wide consortium of altimetry experts. It aims to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of data coming from CryoSat-2 over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for seafloor mapping. It also generates and evaluates new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the CryoSat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. It therefore also acts as a preparation for the upcoming Sentinel and Jason SAR enabled altimetry missions. In this paper we address the review of the CryoSat state-of-the-art, relevant current initiatives, algorithms, models and Earth Observation based products and datasets that are relevant in the Cryosat+ ocean theme. Compared to conventional (pulse-limited) altimeter missions, Cryosat-2 is not a dedicated platform for ocean research: typically the microwave radiometer (MWR) for wet tropospheric corrections is lacking, as is the direct measurement of the first order ionospheric effect by means of a dual-frequency altimeter. Also the orbit of Cryosat-2 has a rather long repetition period, unsuited for collinear tracks analyses. These three particular features have been studied already in the HERACLES project on the eve of the first CryoSat launch. We revisit the outcome of this study, update to current understanding and perception, and ultimately develop what was, is and will be proposed in these problem areas. Clearly, we question the standard ionosphere corrections, the wet troposphere corrections and the accuracy of the mean sea surface (MSS) underlying the accuracy of derived sea level anomalies. In addition, Cryosat-2 provides the first innovative altimeter with SAR and SARIn modes. This raises the direct problem of "how to process these data", simply because this has not been done before. Compared to pulse-limited altimetry it
No data base of actual measurements exists for self-supplied, domestic water use in Nebraska, because Nebraska laws do not require drilling permits, well registration, or reporting of volumes withdrawn from domestic wells. Self-supplied, domestic water use of 31,280 acre-ft in Nebraska during 1980 was computed from estimates of gal/day/capita use for each county. This represents an average of 95 gal/day/capita. During 1980, county use volumes ranged from 30 acre-ft in Hooker and Pawnee Counties to 1,380 acre-ft in Douglas County, and Hydrologic Unit use volumes ranged from < 5 acre-ft to 2,270 acre-ft. Natural Resources Districts ' (NRD) use volumes ranged from 360 acre-ft in Middle Niobrara NRD to 3,530 acre-feet in the Lower Elkhorn NRD for the same period. (Author 's abstract)
Cooper, S. R.; Richter-Ryerson, S.; Shulski, M.; Roebke, G.
The 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse promises to be the best observable solar eclipse for the Great Plains of the United States in recent history. The Nebraska State Climate Office has embarked upon a campaign of combining real-time Nebraska Mesonet observations, specifically shortwave downward radiation, with GOES-16 multispectral imagery, and social media solicited citizen images of the event to provide a multiple faceted record of the event. Providing a real-time view of the eclipse via satellite imagery and pyranometer output for web users will act as a hook to solicit images and testimonial from observers in the Great Plains to help enhance the record. The desired result is to provide excitement in the science of what is happening, along with promotion of the Nebraska State Climate Office and the services it provides.
Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N.
The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been a state leader in helping Nebraska teachers embrace earth systems science education, with a special emphasis in online coursework. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with a total of 167 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. UNO is currently involved in expanding its earth system science courses, modules, and educational research. We are also integrating these courses into several degree programs, including a Masters of Science in Education, a new Middle School Endorsement, a Certificate in Urban Education, and the Graduate Program for the Department of Geography/Geology. UNO is beginning to examine teacher content learning and science reasoning within its coursework. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings already indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will describe the UNO earth system science efforts (emphasizing ESSEA coursework), and describe past efforts and teacher perceptions, as well as new strategies being undertaken to more closely examine content learning and science reasoning impact with course participants. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one on the global amphibian crisis, and also the impact of urbanization on a local native prairie environment.
Shuster, R. D.; Grandgenett, N. F.; Schnase, W. L.; Hamersky, S.; Moshman, R.
The University of Nebraska at Omaha has been offering on-line Earth System Science coursework to teachers in Nebraska since 2002. UNO was one of the initial members in the Earth Systems Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) and has offered three different ESSEA courses, with nearly 200 students having taken ESSEA courses at UNO for graduate credit. Our experiences in delivering this coursework have involved both teachers who have received a stipend to take the course and those who have paid their own tuition and fees and received graduate credit for the course. We will report on the online behavior of teachers from both populations and also discuss pros and cons of each approach. UNO has also experimented with different approaches in the support and management of the course, including using undergraduate majors as content experts. This improves access of teachers to content-related feedback and is a positive experience for the undergraduate major. Feedback surveys from earlier ESSEA offerings indicate a strongly positive perception of the courses by the teachers enrolled in the coursework. Project impact has been documented in teacher projects, quotes, and lessons associated with the coursework activities. We will also describe online course modules being developed within the UNO online course efforts, including one focusing on the global amphibian crisis.
Carlson, M. P.; Treves, S. B.
A framework geophysical program in southeastern Nebraska during 1970 identified a near-circular feature having gravity relief of about 8 mgal and a magnetic anomaly of about 800 gammas. Analysis of the geophysical data provided a model of a cylindrical mass of indefinite length with a radius of 5500 ft (1676 m) and beveled at the basement surface at about 600 ft (183 m). At the approximate depth at which Precambrian rocks were expected, the initial test hole (2-B-71) encountered an iron-rich weathered zone overlying carbonate-rich rock. The carbonate rocks consist essentially of dolomite, calcite, and ankerite and lesser amounts of hematite, chlorite, phlogopite, barite, serpentine, pyrochlore, and quartz and contain barium, strontium, and rare earths. Total REE, P2O5, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios confirm the carbonatite identification. Texturally, the rocks range from fragmental to contorted to massive. Associated with the carbonatite are lesser amounts of basalt, lamprophyre, and syenite. Additional exploratory drilling has provided about 80,000 ft (24,384 m) of rock record and has penetrated about 3400 ft (1038 m) of carbonatite. The carbonatite is overlain by marine sediments of Pennsylvanian (Missourian) age. The surrounding Precambrian basement rocks are low-to medium-grade metamorphic gneiss and schist of island arc origin and granitic plutons. The Elk Creek carbonatite is located near the boundary between the Penokean orogen created at about 1.84 Ga (billion years) and the Dawes terrane (1.78 Ga) of the Central Plains orogen. This boundary strongly influenced the geometry of both the Midcontinent Rift System (1.1 Ga) and the Nemaha uplift (0.3 Ga). It is assumed that the emplacement of the Elk Creek carbonatite (0.5 Ga) was influenced similarly by the pre-existing tectonic sutures
Bertmann, Farryl M W; Fricke, Hollyanne E; Carpenter, Leah R; Schober, Daniel J; Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L
To explore the feasibility of a workplace farmstand programme through the utilization of an online ordering system to build awareness for local food systems, encourage community participation, and increase local fruit and vegetable availability. A 4-week pilot to explore feasibility of workplace farmstand programmes through a variety of outcome measures, including survey, mode of sale, weekly sales totals and intercept interviews. A large private company in Sarpy County, Omaha, Nebraska, USA. Employees of the company hosting the farmstand programme. Pre-programme, a majority of employees indicated that quality (95·4 %), variety (94·6 %) and cost of fruits and vegetables (86·4 %) were driving factors in their fruit and vegetable selection when shopping. The availability of locally or regionally produced fruits and vegetables was highly important (78·1 %). Participants varied in their definition of local food, with nearly half (49·2 %) reporting within 80·5 km (50 miles), followed by 160·9 km (100 miles; 29·5 %) and 321·9 km (200 miles; 12·1 %). Weekly farmstand purchases (both walk-ups and online orders) ranged from twenty-eight to thirty-nine employees, with weekly sales ranging from $US 257·95 to 436·90 for the producer. The mode of purchase changed throughout the pilot, with higher use of online ordering in the beginning and higher use of walk-up purchasing at the end. The workplace farmstand pilot study revealed initial interest by both employees and a producer in this type of programme, helped to establish a sustained producer-employer relationship and led to additional opportunities for both the producer and employer.
James R. Weber
The purpose of this study of the hearing records is to identify factors that are likely to impact the performance of a waterflood in the Nebraska panhandle. The records consisted of 140 cases. Most of the hearings were held prior to 1980. Many of the records were incomplete, and data believed to be key to estimating waterflood performance such as Dykstra-Parson permeability distribution or relative permeability were absent. New techniques were applied to analyze the sparse, incomplete dataset. When information is available, but not clearly understood, new computational intelligence tools can decipher correlations in the dataset. Fuzzy ranking and neural networks were the tools used to estimate secondary recovery from the Cliff Farms Unit. The hearing records include 30 descriptive entries that could influence the success or failure of a waterflood. Success or failure is defined by the ratio of secondary to primary oil recovery (S/P). Primary recovery is defined as cumulative oil produced at the time of the hearing and secondary recovery is defined as the oil produced since the hearing date. Fuzzy ranking was used to prioritize the relevance of 6 parameters on the outcome of the proposed waterflood. The 6 parameters were universally available in 44 of the case hearings. These 44 cases serve as the database used to correlate the following 6 inputs with the respective S/P. (1) Cumulative Water oil ratio, bbl/bbl; (2) Cumulative Gas oil ratio, mcf/bbl; (3) Unit area, acres; (4) Average Porosity, %; (5) Average Permeability, md; (6) Initial bottom hole pressure, psi. A 6-3-1 architecture describes the neural network used to develop a correlation between the 6 input parameters and their respective S/P. The network trained to a 85% correlation coefficient. The predicted Cliff Farms Unit S/P is 0.315 or secondary recovery is expected to be 102,700 bbl.
Kato, S.; Sun-Mack, S.; Miller, W. F.; Rose, F. G.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.; Winker, D. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Charlock, T. P.; Collins, W. D.; Loeb, N. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Xu, K.
CALIPSO and CloudSat from the a-train provide detailed information of vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols. The vertical distribution of cloud occurrence is derived from one month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data as a part of the effort of merging CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS with CERES data. This newly derived cloud profile is compared with the distribution of cloud top height derived from MODIS on Aqua from cloud algorithms used in the CERES project. The cloud base from MODIS is also estimated using an empirical formula based on the cloud top height and optical thickness, which is used in CERES processes. While MODIS detects mid and low level clouds over the Arctic in April fairly well when they are the topmost cloud layer, it underestimates high- level clouds. In addition, because the CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm is not able to detect multi-layer clouds and the empirical formula significantly underestimates the depth of high clouds, the occurrence of mid and low-level clouds is underestimated. This comparison does not consider sensitivity difference to thin clouds but we will impose an optical thickness threshold to CALIPSO derived clouds for a further comparison. The effect of such differences in the cloud profile to flux computations will also be discussed. In addition, the effect of cloud cover to the top-of-atmosphere flux over the Arctic using CERES SSF and FLASHFLUX products will be discussed.
Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph
The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.
Several nuclear and fossil fuel plant site studies in Nebraska have been prepared by industry recently to evaluate seismic risk factors. These studies were prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) using available data to fill a lack of continuity across state lines. Therefore, it was proposed to the NRC that a detailed multi-state study of the Nemaha Ridge Area would be helpful in the site evaluation for present and future power plants. It was proposed to: (1) compile and coordinate the available seismo-tectonic data, (2) perform specific studies of potentially key locations for tectonic data, and (3) participate in an area wide microearthquake recording network. It was proposed to conduct a one year study during the period June 1, 1976 to June 1, 1977. After this initial study, continuation studies would be proposed over a several year period. Proposed products, during the initial year, would utilize existing data for the preparation of the following maps at a scale of 1 to 500,000; (1) Earthquake epicenter and intensity, (2) Precambrian configuration, (3) Precambrian rock type, (4) Bouguer gravity, (5) Aeromagnetic, (6) Bedrock geology, (7) Structural contour base Kansas City, (Pennsylvania), and (8) Surface lineations. All of these maps and possibly other maps in other areas could be recompiled and coordinated with adjoining areas on completion of the total study. During the initial year specific sites for detailed investigation would be identified. Portions of these studies may be carried out in cooperation with adjoining states. These site studies will include detailed geophysical surveys, laboratory analysis, dating of recent tectonic activity, core drilling programs, and field mapping projects
Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.
The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will
frequency-hopping spread -spectrum radio. The MHX2420 operates in the 2.4–2.4835 GHz range, and outputs 1 W of RF power with a required supplied...Doc/S71327_04.pdf 45. http://www.cubesat.org/images/LaunchProviders/ mkIII/p-pod%20mk%20iii%20icd.pdf 46. Pumpkin CubeSat Kit website, http
After sketching how system development and the UML (Unified Modeling Language) and the OCL (Object Constraint Language) are related, validation and verification with the tool USE (UML-based Specification Environment) is demonstrated. As a more efficient alternative for verification tasks, two approaches using SAT-based techniques are put forward: First, a direct encoding of UML and OCL with Boolean variables and propositional formulas, and second, an encoding employing an...
Kohout, Tomáš; Näsilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Kestilä, A.; Kallio, E.
Roč. 88, Special volume (2016), s. 283-283 ISSN 0367-5211. [ Nordic Geological Winter Meeting /32./. 13.01.2016-15.01.2016, Helsinki] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : CubeSat * asteroid * AIDA * reflectance spectra ASPECT Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geologinenseura.fi/bulletin/Special_Volume_1_2016/BGSF-NGWM2016_Abstract_Volume.pdf
Kumar, Manjeet; Kapil, Aditi; Shanker, Asheesh
Microsatellites also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) consist of 1-6 nucleotide long repeating units. The importance of mitochondrial SSRs (mtSSRs) in fields like population genetics, plant phylogenetics and genome mapping motivated us to develop MitoSatPlant, a repository of plant mtSSRs. It contains information for perfect, imperfect and compound SSRs mined from 92 mitochondrial genomes of green plants, available at NCBI (as of 1 Feb 2014). A total of 72,798 SSRs were found, of which PCR primers were designed for 72,495 SSRs. Among all sequences, tetranucleotide repeats (26,802) were found to be most abundant whereas hexanucleotide repeats (2751) were detected with least frequency. MitoSatPlant was developed using SQL server 2008 and can be accessed through a front end designed in ASP.Net. It is an easy to use, user-friendly database and will prove to be a useful resource for plant scientists. To the best of our knowledge MitoSatPlant is the only database available for plant mtSSRs and can be freely accessed at http://compubio.in/mitosatplant/. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.
Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix
ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France Raphael.GARCIA@isae.fr +33 5 61 33 81 14
Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.
CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...
Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.; Arthurs, Leilani
To ascertain novice conceptions of tornado wind speed and the influence of surface characteristics on tornado occurrence, 613 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses at a large state university in Nebraska were surveyed. Our findings show that students lack understanding of the fundamental concepts that (1) tornadoes are…
Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie
Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…
... aggregate of the group of six gases (carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O... ``chemical processing plant'' as excluding ethanol production facilities. EPA is not acting on those... ethanol production facilities (the ``Ethanol Rule'').\\9\\ \\9\\ See note 9. The GHG revisions to Nebraska's...
Kammer, Sean M.
After months of intense debate, Congress finally passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act on May 30, 1854, largely along sectional lines. Over the next several years Kansas Territory became "Bleeding Kansas" as violence erupted between pro-slavery and free-state factions. While scholars continue to debate the true causes of the fighting in Kansas,…
In September 1882, Nebraska was the setting for a significant moment in the history of the United States women's rights movement: the two rival suffrage organizations, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) and the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), both held their annual conventions in Omaha. The alliance of the AWSA and the NWSA…
David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Allison R. Bodine
This report details the evaluation of the urban tree resources of the north-central Great Plains region of the United States. Specifically this report provides a more comprehensive understanding of the species composition and structural and functional benefits of the urban forests in the states of Kansas (33.1 million urban trees), Nebraska (13.3 million urban trees),...
..., Raspberries, Rye, Seed crops, Sheep & Lambs, Silage, Sorghum Grain, Soybeans, Squash, Strawberries, Sugar....usda.gov ). Farm products covered by a State's central filing system are also identified through the GIPSA Web site. The Nebraska central filing system covers specified farm products. We originally...
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-46 for an... Power District (NPPD), the operator of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). Renewed facility operating...
... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District: Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Availability of the Final Supplement 41 to the Generic Environmental... of operating licenses DPR-46 for an additional 20 years of operation for the Cooper Nuclear Station...
Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein
Armillaria isolates were collected from a unique forest ecosystem in the Niobrara Valley Preserve in Nebraska, USA, which comprises a glacial and early postglacial refugium in the central plains of North America. The isolates were collected from diverse forest trees representing a unique mixture of forest types. Combined methods of rDNA sequencing and flow cytometric...
Khoory, Mohammed; Al Shamsi, Zakareyya; Al Midfa, Ibrahim
This paper details the process taken by EIAST to study RTEMS as a potential real-time operating system for future space missions. The direction was to attempt to run the DubaiSat-2 flight software under RTEMS 4.10.2 with as little modification to the original source as possible. The implementation used a “translation layer” to translate system calls used by the DS-2 flight software into RTEMS system calls. The RTEMS RTL project was integrated to satisfy the run-time loading requirement, and some differences in the filesystem were encountered and worked around. The implementation was tested for performance and stability, and comparisons were made. The conclusion is that RTEMS provides an adequate base for future space missions with certain advantages over other RTOS’s including cost, a smaller executable size, and control over the source. Drawbacks include the slow speed of loading tasks during runtime and some filesystem integrity issues during unexpected reboots.
Shepherd, A.; Armitage, T.; Briggs, K.; Flament, T.; Hogg, A. E.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A.; Ridout, A.; Sundal, A.; Tilling, R.; Wingham, D.
CryoSat-2 is ESA's first satellite mission dedicated to measuring changes in the polar land ice and sea ice cover. Following its launch in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the instrument over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer demonstrating that it measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, greatly exceeding the pre-launch specifications (100 micro-radians). Over the polar ice sheets, we have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR imagery from ENVISAT, and we have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets. This presenetation sumamrises the key outcomes of the mission performance, and presents a series of example case studies where CryoSat-2 data have been applied to study changes in Earth's land and sea ice cover. We show that in 4 years CryoSat has been able to detect changes in the mass of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets with an accuracy comparable to that of the past 20 years of conventional satellite altimetry and that important changes have occured in these regions, we show that CryoSat has been able
Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre
CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been
Gregory J. Marchant
Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., race, family education and income, GPA and class rank, regression analyses revealed that states requiring graduation exams had lower graduation rates and lower SAT scores. Individually, students from states requiring a graduation exam performed more poorly on the SAT than did students from states not requiring an exam. The impact of high stakes tests' on students' motivation to stay in school and on the teaching of critical thinking skills (tested by the SAT are discussed.
Gregory J. Marchant; Sharon E. Paulson
The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of 2002; and the College Board provided its 2001 SAT database for all test-takers. After controlling for students' demographic characteristics (e.g., r...
markets the system as a CubeSat Kit. Microhard Systems Inc. manufactures products that are complementary to the Pumpkin structure and the FM430 Flight...NPS CubeSats and leverage COTS technology during that process. With that philosophy in mind, the program chose the Pumpkin Inc. 1U CubeSat...Skeletonized Structure and the FM430 Flight Module that is already integrated within the Pumpkin structure ( Pumpkin Incorporated, 2005, p. 2). Pumpkin
Tubío-Pardavila, R.; Vigil, S. A.; Puig-Suari, J.; Aguado Agelet, F.
deployed sensors in Spain and Brazil. Sensors will be also deployed by Cal Poly in the near future. In the following months, the SERPENS CubeSAT Mission, a joint project of the University of Brasilia and the University of Vigo will launch the second CubeSat of the constellation.
Under this project, the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska (PTN) will conduct An Energy Options Analysis (EOA) to empower Tribal Leadership with critical information to allow them to effectively screen energy options that will further develop the Tribe's long-term strategic plan and energy vision. The PTN will also provide community workshops to enhance Tribal Members' capabilities, skills and awareness of energy efficiency and conservation technology and practices. A 90- minute workshop will be conducted at each of the 5 sites and one-hundred tribal members will receive an erergy efficiency kit.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CubeSats currently lack adequate inertial attitude knowledge and control required for future sophisticated science missions. Boeing's Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG)...
Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.
Recently KAERI has developed severe accident management guidance to establish Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses MELCOR computing code as the simulation engine. SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accident progression with interactive user inputs. The control capability of SATS makes a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper the development and functions of HyperKAMG module are explained. Furthermore easiness and effectiveness of the HyperKAMG-SATS system in severe accident management are described
Bowen, Brent; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Moussavi, Massoum; Nickerson, Jocelyn; Rundquist, Donald; Russell, Valerie; Tarry, Scott
The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL), which began as a comprehensive, multi-faceted NASA EPSCoR 2000 initiative, has contributed substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA, while intensifying Nebraska's rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL has enabled Nebraska researchers to: (a) continue strengthening their collaborative relationships with NASA Field Centers, Codes, and Enterprises; (b) increase the capacity of higher education throughout Nebraska to invigorate and expand aeronautics research; and (c) expedite the development of aeronautics-related research infrastructure and industry in the state. Nebraska has placed emphasis on successfully securing additional funds from non-EPSCoR and non-NASA sources. AERIAL researchers have aggressively pursued additional funding opportunities offered by NASA, industry, and other agencies. This report contains a summary of AERIAL's activities and accomplishments during its first three years of implementation.
Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal
Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for
Padmanabhan, S.; Brown, S. T.; Lim, B.; Kangaslahti, P.; Russell, D.; Stachnik, R. A.
To accurately predict how the distribution of extreme events may change in the future we need to understand the mechanisms that influence such events in our current climate. Our current observing system is not well-suited for observing extreme events globally due to the sparse sampling and in-homogeneity of ground-based in-situ observations and the infrequent revisit time of satellite observations. Observations of weather extremes, such as extreme precipitation events, temperature extremes, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones among others, with temporal resolution on the order of minutes and spatial resolution on the order of few kms (cost passive microwave sounding and imaging sensors on CubeSats that would work in concert with traditional flagship observational systems, such as those manifested on large environmental satellites (i.e. JPSS,WSF,GCOM-W), to monitor weather extremes. A 118/183 GHz sensor would enable observations of temperature and precipitation extremes over land and ocean as well as tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. This proposed project would enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U Cubesat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass, low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, we will discuss the maiden airborne deployment of the instrument during the Plain Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) experiment. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a
Chang, Sung Mok; Kim, Byung Sun; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Wang Kyun; Myung, Chang Yeon; Min, Kung Han
The information of the basis for the training program development is needed to ensure whether the training regulation and the training program is appropriate. These objective information should be developed through the systematic approach to training (SAT). But, KINS does not have the training program development system and the basic information system yet. Through this project, we have established the education and training program development system that is applied by the Developing A Curriculum (DACUM) method
Bouffard, Jerome; Femenias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso; Fornari, Marco; Brockley, David; Scagliola, Michele; Calafat, Francisco; Roca, Monica
The main payload of the ESA Earth Explorer CryoSat satellite is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, operating in 3 different modes function of a mask of geographical zones. Over the ocean and ice sheet interiors, CryoSat mainly operates like a conventional pulse-limited radar altimeter whereas over sea ice, coherently transmitted echoes are combined in order to carry out measurements at a higher resolution. Around ice sheet margins, a 2nd antenna is used as an interferometer in order to determine the across-track angle to the earliest radar returns. Two kinds of data are distributed to the scientific user community and are quality controlled and validated by ESA/ESRIN SPPA office with the support of an industrial consortium: the Level 1b products essentially contain average echoes collected along the ground track while the Level 2 products contain elevations and associated geophysical parameters retrieved from these echoes. In this poster we first briefly present the characteristics of Level 1b and Level 2 CryoSat products over ocean, land ice and sea ice in addition to the results of recent quality control activities. Due to anomalies detected in previous data release and the need of continuously improving the data quality, ESA and its industrial partners has implemented a new version of the processors by the early of 2015, followed by a full reprocessing campaign. The main evolutions of this so called "Baseline C", the validation of the associated Test Data Set and the main improvements expected from this new release are also presented.
Andrade, L. B. P.; Janot Pacheco, E.
Este trabalho centra-se em atividades na fase de pré-lançamento do satélite COROT, da agência espacial francesa (CNES), a ser lançado em 2005. O satélite será dedicado à sismologia estelar e à procura de exoplanetas. Nosso programa de trabalho centra-se em dois pontos principais: (1) efetuar uma procura detalhada nos campos COROT de alvos astrofísicos de especial interesse; (2) participar das análises espectroscópicas prévias de alvos selecionados para determinação de parâmetros físicos das estrelas com a maior precisão possível. Na presente etapa, priorizou-se o primeiro ponto do projeto. Foi feito um levantamento geral dos objetos astrofísicos encontrados nos dois campos de observação, centrados em 06H50M e 18H50M, com raios de 10 minutos. Concluiu-se que as estrelas B-Be deverão ser observadas no campo sismológico, enquanto que as anãs brancas deverão sê-lo no campo exoplanetário. Objetos a serem observados foram escolhidos de forma a estarem próximos de alvos principais dos programas centrais do satélite. Paralelamente, estudos e pesquisas bibliográficas foram feitos para compreender os assuntos de interesse principal, ou seja, as pulsações não-radiais de estrelas Ob-Be
This paper presents the progress of the thermal analysis and design of the Iodine Satellite (iSAT). The purpose of the iSAT spacecraft (SC) is to demonstrate the ability of the iodine Hall Thruster propulsion system throughout a one year mission in an effort to mature the system for use on future satellites. The benefit of this propulsion system is that it uses a propellant, iodine, that is easy to store and provides a high thrust-to-mass ratio. The spacecraft will also act as a bus for an earth observation payload, the Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Camera. Four phases of the mission, determined to either be critical to achieving requirements or phases of thermal concern, are modeled. The phases are the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) Change, Altitude Reduction, De-Orbit, and Science Phases. Each phase was modeled in a worst case hot environment and the coldest phase, the Science Phase, was also modeled in a worst case cold environment. The thermal environments of the spacecraft are especially important to model because iSAT has a very high power density. The satellite is the size of a 12 unit cubesat, and dissipates slightly more than 75 Watts of power as heat at times. The maximum temperatures for several components are above their maximum operational limit for one or more cases. The analysis done for the first Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC1) showed that many components were above or within 5 degrees Centigrade of their maximum operation limit. The battery is a component of concern because although it is not over its operational temperature limit, efficiency greatly decreases if it operates at the currently predicted temperatures. In the second Design and Analysis Cycle (DAC2), many steps were taken to mitigate the overheating of components, including isolating several high temperature components, removal of components, and rearrangement of systems. These changes have greatly increased the thermal margin available.
Arjona, O.; Venegas, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Lopez, M.
This paper present some coefficients of error obtained to evaluate the quality of the design development and implementation of SAT-based personnel training programs. With the attainment of these coefficients, with the use of the GESAT system, is facilitated the continuos evaluation of training programs and the main deficiencies in the design, development and implementation of training programs are obtained, through the comparison between the program features and their standards or wanted features and doing an statistics analysis of the data kept in the GESAT system
The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.
Regina Elaine Santos Cabette
Usando uma formulação canônica, neste trabalho é analisada a estabilidade do movimento de rotacional de um satélite artificial que considera perturbações devido ao torque de gradiente de gravidade. Aqui as variáveis de Andoyer são usadas para descrever o movimento de rotacional. Uma das aproximações que permitem a análise da estabilidade de sistemas hamiltonianos necessita da redução da hamiltoniana na forma normal. Primeiramente são encontrados pontos de equilíbrio e usando coordenadas gener...
Maune, Holger; Jost, Matthias; Wiens, Alex; Weickhmann, Christian; Reese, Roland; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Schuster, Christian; Franke, Tobias; Hu, Wenjuan; Nickel, Matthias; Kienemund, Daniel; Prasetiadi, Ananto Eka; Jakoby, Rolf
Modern communication platforms require a huge amount of switched RF component banks especially made of different filters and antennas to cover all operating frequencies and bandwidth for the targeted services and application scenarios. In contrast, reconfigurable devices made of tunable components lead to a considerable reduction in complexity, size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper gives an overview of suitable technologies for tunable microwave components especially for SatCom applications. Special attention is given to tunable components based on functional materials such as barium strontium titanate (BST) and liquid crystal (LC).
Jiang, Liguang; Schneider, Raphael; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
challenges conventional ways of dealing with satellite inland water altimetry data because virtual station time series cannot be directly derived for rivers. We review the CryoSat-2 mission characteristics, data products, and its use and perspectives for inland water applications. We discuss all......Monitoring the variation of rivers and lakes is of great importance. Satellite radar altimetry is a promising technology to do this on a regional to global scale. Satellite radar altimetry data has been used successfully to observe water levels in lakes and (large) rivers, and has also been...
Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Connor, L. N.; Newman, T.
to spatial and temporal variability. The measurements of sea ice freeboard may be used to estimate sea ice thickness, when combined with examination of leads between ice floes to determine the local sea surface height. With CryoSat-2 (CS), we have the opportunity to measure much more of the Arctic Ocean due...... Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter data gathered on April 2, 2012, where the NASA P-3 completed an underflight of CS orbit number 10520, north of Alert, Nunavut, Canada. We present a new lead detecting algorithm which was developed using the CS Level1b (L1b) waveforms, and we analyze its capabilities...
Abulaitijiang, A.; Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.
The 7 years of CryoSat-2 satellite altimetry data can be potentially used to extract the high frequency components of the Earth gravity field beyond the Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) which corresponds to a resolution of 9.2 Km at the degree 2160. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode of the CryoSat-2 produced high precision along track observations and pushed the limits (qualified observations) to even closer to the coast by several kilometers. The conventional FFT method in deriving the marine gravity anomalies requires the input height anomalies to be gridded, and gridding in the irregular coastal zones (land-ocean transition zone) could introduce high frequency noise to the inversion. Therefore, Least Square Collocation (LSC) is preferred for the inversion. As part of a phd project, in this work, we will make use of the covariance function of the height anomalies in the coastal zones to derive the marine gravity anomalies. Using the conventional remove-compute-restore (only considering the GGMs) technique, the theoretical assumption of homogeneity and isotropy in the LSC algorithm is not always satisfied in the coastal regions and mountainous regions. Hence, the Topographic Correction (TC) using high resolution topographic grids is a critical step in the reduction of the gravity functionals (e.g., height anomaly and gravity anomaly), to comply with the theoretical assumption of LSC. In this work, the TC computation (both w.r.t. the height anomalies and gravity) will be conducted to test the performance of the signal reduction in several regions (patches) around Mediterranean, Chile, islands of Indonesia and Australian coast where the true gravity data is available. The derived marine gravity will be cross-validated against the ship-borne gravity observations. Earlier studies show that due to the presence of additional altimetry observations, 4 mGal accuracy can be achieved in the Greenland fjords, and equally good accuracy is expected from this work.
Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Tagliani, N.; Parrinello, T.
The main payload of CryoSat-2 is a Ku band pulse-width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is a significant improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed, including both an internal and external calibration. The internal calibration monitors the instrument impulse response and the transfer function, like traditional altimeters. In addition to that, the interferometer requires a special calibration developed ad hoc for SIRAL. The external calibration is performed with the use of a ground transponder, located in Svalbard, which receives SIRAL signal and sends the echo back to the satellite. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat-2 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. In December 2012, two and a half years of calibration data will be available, which will be shown in this poster. The external calibration (transponder) data are processed and analyzed independently from the operational chain. The use of an external transponder has been very useful to determine instrument performance and for the tuning of the on-ground processor. This poster presents the transponder results in terms of range noise and datation error.
Francis, R.; Wingham, D.; Cullen, R.; Parrinello, T.
After 10 years of development and one failed launch attempt the CryoSat mission was successfully launched on 8 April 2010. The main payload instrument, the advanced SIRAL radar altimeter, was switched on just 3 days after launch and made its first measurements during a pass over Antarctica. Although data flow to the expert team at UCL was operational from the start, two more months were needed to iron out some system issues and bugs before data could be released to the calibration and validation teams. The process of further optimising the system performance as well as comparing measurements to known surface data has continued through the commissioning phase, ending in October 2010. The end of the commissioning phase marks the transition to routine operations and the release of data to registered Principal Investigators. The results from SIRAL are unlike those from previous altimeters. Representative results will be described, highlighting improvements and demonstrating the level of detail which can be observed and measured. In addition to its ‘design’ targets CryoSat has made measurements over various ocean and land areas. The ocean results, in particular, are indicative of the measurements which will be delivered by Sentinel-3’s SRAL instrument. These will also be described. The satellite in flight has proved to be using less propellant than foreseen and, based on the commissioning results, the prognosis for its future performance will be outlined.
Full Text Available We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA. For an automaton A another automaton A_min with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SAT-solver. This is done by successively computing automata A' that approximate A in the sense that they accept a given finite set of positive examples and reject a given finite set of negative examples. In the course of the procedure these example sets are successively increased. Thus, our method can be seen as an instance of a generic learning algorithm based on a "minimally adequate teacher'' in the sense of Angluin. We use a SAT solver to find an NBA for given sets of positive and negative examples. We use complementation via construction of deterministic parity automata to check candidates computed in this manner for equivalence with A. Failure of equivalence yields new positive or negative examples. Our method proved successful on complete samplings of small automata and of quite some examples of bigger automata. We successfully ran the minimization on over ten thousand automata with mostly up to ten states, including the complements of all possible automata with two states and alphabet size three and discuss results and runtimes; single examples had over 100 states.
Drapeau, C.L. [Global Energy Concepts, Inc., Bothell, WA (United States)
Global Energy Concepts (GEC) has been retained by utilities in Colorado, Nebraska, and Arizona to site, install, and operate 21 wind monitoring stations as part of the Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP). Preliminary results indicate wind speed averages at 40 meters (132 ft) of 6.5 - 7.4 m/s (14.5-16.5 mph) in Nebraska and 7.6 - 8.9 m/s (17.0-19.9 mph) in Colorado. The Arizona stations are not yet operational. This paper presents the history and current status of the 21 monitoring stations as well as preliminary data results. Information on wind speeds, wind direction, turbulence intensity, wind shear, frequency distribution, and data recovery rates are provided.
Carson, Scott Alan
Little is known about late 19th and early 20th century BMIs on the US Central Plains. Using data from the Nebraska state prison, this study demonstrates that the BMIs of dark complexioned blacks were greater than for fairer complexioned mulattos and whites. Although modern BMIs have increased, late 19th and early 20th century BMIs in Nebraska were in normal ranges; neither underweight nor obese individuals were common. Farmer BMIs were consistently greater than those of non-farmers, and farm labourer BMIs were greater than those of common labourers. The BMIs of individuals born in Plains states were greater than for other nativities, indicating that rural lifestyles were associated with better net current biological living conditions.
Idžanović, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
New-generation synthetic aperture radar altimetry, as implemented on CryoSat-2, observes sea surface heights in coastal areas that were previously not monitored by conventional altimetry. Therefore,CryoSat-2 is expected to improve the coastal mean dynamic topography (MDT). However, the MDT remains...
Coyle, Thomas R.; Purcell, Jason M.; Snyder, Anissa C.; Kochunov, Peter
This research examined whether non-"g" residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-"g" residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services…
Billard, P.; Gonzalez, M.; Kazennov, A.; Lecuyer, F.; Spinney, R.; Youjakov, A.
The overview of the Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) was presented, with particular emphasis given to the applied model (versus the theoretical model) and to the involvement of plant management. Discussion included the benefits and advantages of applied SAT compared to the conventional approach, (which likely was not systematic in nature). For example, formal structured on-the-job training (OJT) was compared to the traditional ''Come, I show you'' form of OJT. Each of the five phases of SAT - analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation - was presented and with a focus on two aspects of SAT. First, SAT is a dynamic continuous not discrete model; and second, two phases are critical to the overall success of SAT implementation - analysis (especially needs analysis) and evaluation (especially feedback). These two phases are absolutely essential to ensure the ''self-correcting'' attribute of the SAT model. Finally, examples of problems that could occur if the SAT model fails or weakens; for instance, if OJT becomes unstructured, or if training materials are not kept current
The CloudSat spacecraft sits encapsulated within its Boeing Delta launch vehicle dual payload attach fitting at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. CloudSat will share its ride to orbit late next month with NASA's CALIPSO spacecraft. The two spacecraft are designed to reveal the secrets of clouds and aerosols.
The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of gum chewing on students’ performance in a preparatory course for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). A total of 182 adolescents enrolled in an SAT preparatory class were randomized into one of two treatments: 1) gum chewing condition (G...
In this thesis we study several problems arising in Boolean satisfiability ranging from lower bounds for SAT algorithms and proof systems to extremal properties of formulas. The first problem is about construction of hard instances for k-SAT algorithms. For PPSZ algorithm  we give the first...
The prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotypes SAT 1 and SAT 2 antibodies among Nigerian cattle was determined using complement fixation (CF) and neutralization tests (NT) in 2000 cattle sera obtained from nine northern states. The two serological tests were very specific and sensitive enough to ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PowerCube is a 1U CubeSat module that provides integrated propulsion, power, and precision pointing to enable the low-cost CubeSat platform to be used to conduct...
Marini, Jessica P.; Beard, Jonathan; Shaw, Emily J.
Admission offices at colleges and universities often use SAT® scores to make decisions about applicants for their incoming class. Many institutions use prediction models to quantify a student's potential for success using various measures, including SAT scores (NACAC, 2016). In March 2016, the College Board introduced a redesigned SAT that better…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS/AMSU retrievals at AMSU footprints, CloudSat radar reflectivities,...
Fleming, Brian T.; France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kohnert, Richard; Pool, Kelsey; Egan, Arika; Fossati, Luca; Koskinen, Tommi; Vidotto, Aline A.; Hoadley, Keri; Desert, Jean-Michel; Beasley, Matthew; Petit, Pascal M.
The Colorado Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (CUTE) is a near-UV (2550 to 3300 Å) 6U CubeSat mission designed to monitor transiting hot Jupiters to quantify their atmospheric mass loss and magnetic fields. CUTE will probe both atomic (Mg and Fe) and molecular (OH) lines for evidence of enhanced transit absorption, and to search for evidence of early ingress due to bow shocks ahead of the planet's orbital motion. As a dedicated mission, CUTE will observe ≳100 spectroscopic transits of hot Jupiters over a nominal 7-month mission. This represents the equivalent of >700 orbits of the only other instrument capable of these measurements, the Hubble Space Telescope. CUTE efficiently utilizes the available CubeSat volume by means of an innovative optical design to achieve a projected effective area of ˜28 cm2, low instrumental background, and a spectral resolving power of R˜3000 over the primary science bandpass. These performance characteristics enable CUTE to discern transit depths between 0.1% and 1% in individual spectral absorption lines. We present the CUTE optical and mechanical design, a summary of the science motivation and expected results, and an overview of the projected fabrication, calibration, and launch timeline.
Smith, Harrison Brodsky; Hu, Steven Hung Kee; Cockrell, James J.
Operators of a constellation of CubeSats have to confront a number of daunting challenges that can be cost prohibitive, or operationally prohibitive, to missions that could otherwise be enabled by a satellite constellation. Challenges including operations complexity, intersatellite communication, intersatellite navigation, and time sharing tasks between satellites are all complicated by operating with the usual CubeSat size, power, and budget constraints. EDSN pioneers innovative solutions to these problems as they are presented on the nano-scale satellite platform.
Luckett, Matthew S
This dissertation explores the social, cultural, and economic history of horse stealing among both American Indians and Euro Americans in Lincoln County, Nebraska from 1860 to 1890. It shows how American Indians and Euro-Americans stole from one another during the Plains Indian Wars and explains how a culture of theft prevailed throughout the region until the late-1870s. But as homesteaders flooded into Lincoln County during the 1870s and 1880s, they demanded that the state help protect their...
M.C. McCullough; J.L. Harper; D.E. Eisenhauer; M.G. Dosskey
We assessed the effect of beaver dams on channel gradation of an incised stream in an agricultural area of eastern Nebraska. A topographic survey was conducted of a reach of Little Muddy Creek where beaver are known to have been building dams for twelve years. Results indicating that over this time period the thalweg elevation has aggraded an average of 0.65 m by...
Alan R. Graefe
I started working on this talk on December 19th last year. That was the day I began my trip home from Colorado at the end of my fall semester sabbatical. While traveling through Nebraska I started seeing things that I just couldn't believe. Not just a single thing, but one thing after another. This had to be an omen. I knew immediately that I had found the topic...
Tapia, Cristóbal; San Segundo, Pablo; Galán, Ramón
Planning as satisfiability is one of the most efficient ways to solve classic automated planning problems. In SAT planning, the encoding used to convert the problem to a SAT formula is critical for the performance of the SAT solver. This paper presents a novel bit-encoding that reduces the number of bits required to represent actions in a SAT-based automated planning problem. To obtain such encoding we first build a conflict graph, which represents incompatibilities of pairs of actions, and bitwise encode the subsets of actions determined by a clique partition. This reduces the number of Boolean variables and clauses of the SAT encoding, while preserving the possibility of parallel execution of compatible (non-neighbor) actions. The article also describes an appropriate algorithm for selecting the clique partition for this application and compares the new encodings obtained over some standard planning problems.
This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.
Ramos, Athena K; Trinidad, Natalia; Correa, Antonia; Rivera, Roy
The Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of Nebraska Medical Center partnered with El Centro de Las Americas, a community-based organization, and various community members to develop a 1-day Spanish-language health conference entitled El Encuentro de La Mujer Sana (Healthy Woman Summit) for immigrant Latinas in Nebraska during May 2013 as part of National Women's Health Week. Design thinking was used to create a meaningful learning experience specifically designed for monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinas in Nebraska and build a foundation for collaboration between an academic institution, community-based organizational partners, and community members. We used the design thinking methodology to generate ideas for topics and prototyped agendas with community stakeholders that would be relevant and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate health education. By developing community-based health education programs for Latinas with Latinas through a community-engaged co-creation process, organizations and communities build trust, enhance community capacity, and meet identified needs for education and service. Design thinking is a valuable tool that can be used to develop community health education initiatives and enhance civic participation. This method holds promise for health education and public health in becoming more relevant for traditionally marginalized or disenfranchised populations.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...
Ong, John T.; White, Eric A.; Lane, John W.; Halihan, Todd; Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Butler, Dwain K.
We investigate the use of frequency‐domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and electrical resistivity (ER) surveys for rapid and detailed characterization of the direction of lake‐aquifer fluxes and the configuration of salt plumes generated from saline lakes. This methodology was developed and applied at several lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, Nebraska, in an area with both freshwater and saline lakes hydraulically connected to the freshwater surficial aquifer. The FDEM survey was conducted by mounting the instrument on a fiberglass cart towed by an all‐terrain vehicle. The towed FDEM surveys covered about 25 km per day and served as a reconnaissance method for choosing locations for the more quantitative and detailed ER surveys. Around the saline lakes, areas with high electrical conductivity are consistent with the regional direction of ground‐water flow. Lower electrical conductivity was measured around the freshwater lakes with anomalies correlating to a paleovalley axis inferred from previous studies. The efficacy of this geophysical approach is attributed to: (1) significant contrast in electrical conductivity between freshwater and saltwater, (2) near‐surface location of the freshwater/saltwater interface, (3) minimal cultural interference, and (4) relative homogeneity of the aquifer materials.
Bock, Daniel; Tajmar, Martin
A highly miniaturized Field Emission Electric Propulsion (FEEP) system is currently under development at TU Dresden, called NanoFEEP . The highly miniaturized thruster heads are very compact and have a volume of less than 3 cm3 and a weight of less than 6 g each. One thruster is able to generate continuous thrust of up to 8 μN with short term peaks of up to 22 μN. The very compact design and low power consumption (heating power demand between 50 and 150 mW) are achieved by using Gallium as metal propellant with its low melting point of approximately 30 °C. This makes it possible to implement an electric propulsion system consisting of four thruster heads, two neutralizers and the necessary electronics on a 1U CubeSat with its strong limitation in space, weight and available power. Even formation flying of 1U CubeSats using an electric propulsion system is possible with this system, which is shown by the example of a currently planned cooperation project between Wuerzburg University, Zentrum fuer Telematik and TU Dresden. It is planned to use the NanoFEEP electric propulsion system on the UWE (University Wuerzburg Experimental) 1U CubeSat platform  to demonstrate orbit and two axis attitude control with our electric propulsion system NanoFEEP. We present the latest performance characteristics of the NanoFEEP thrusters and the highly miniaturized electronics. Additionally, the concept and the current status of a novel cold neutralizer chip using Carbon Nano Tubes (CNTs) is presented.
Wingham, D.; Galin, N.; Ridout, A.; Cullen, R.; Giles, K. A.; Laxon, S. W.
Following the launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the CryoSat-2 SAR Interferometer over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. Our aim has been to provide confirmation of the engineering performance of the radar interferometer, and to provide an initial geophysical validation of the resulting elevation measurements. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer through performing a sequence of satellite rolls over the oceans, which provide a surface of known behavior and surface gradient. The activity has identified some errors in the SARIN L1b data products presently issued by ESA. Once corrected, the ocean calibration has demonstrated that the interferometer measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, which may be compared with a pre-launch estimation of 100 micro-radians; in short, the engineering performance greatly its the specification. The elevation measurement over the ice sheets combines the interferometer measurement of across track slope with the range measurement deduced from the SAR echoes. We have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. While the quantity of data available to us that contains the corrections identified by the interferometer is limited, we have been able to confirm the range precision values from a limited cross-over analysis. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR
Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso
The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for SAR processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution that is significantly improved with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In fact, not only corrections for transfer function, gain and instrument path delay have to be computed (as in previous altimeters), but also corrections for phase (SAR/SARIn) and phase difference between the two receiving chains (SARIN only). Recalling that the CryoSat's orbit has a high inclination of 92° and it is non-sun-synchronous, the temperature of the SIRAL changes continuously along the orbit with a period of about 480 days and it is also function of the ascending/descending passes. By analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections, it has been verified that the internal path delay and the instrument gain variation measured on the SIRAL are affected by the thermal status of the instrument and as a consequence they are expected to vary along the orbit. In order to gain knowledge on the calibration corrections (i.e. the instrument behavior) as function of latitude and temperature, it has been planned to command a few number of orbits where only CAL1 calibration acquisitions are continuously performed. The analysis of the CAL1 calibration corrections produced along the Calibration orbits can be also useful to verify whether the current calibration plan is able to provide sufficiently accurate corrections for the instrument acquisitions at any latitude. In 2016, the CryoSat/SIRAL Cal1 Calibration Orbits have been commanded two times, a first time the 20th of July 2016 and a second time the 24th of November 2016, and they
CubeSats have grown in sophistication to the point that relatively low-cost mission solutions could be undertaken for planetary exploration. There are unique considerations for lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat communication and navigation compared with low earth orbit CubeSats. This paper explores those considerations as they relate to the Lunar IceCube Mission. The Lunar IceCube is a CubeSat mission led by Morehead State University with participation from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Busek Company and Vermont Tech. It will search for surface water ice and other resources from a high inclination lunar orbit. Lunar IceCube is one of a select group of CubeSats designed to explore beyond low-earth orbit that will fly on NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) as secondary payloads for Exploration Mission (EM) 1. Lunar IceCube and the EM-1 CubeSats will lay the groundwork for future lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat missions. This paper discusses communication and navigation needs for the Lunar IceCube mission and navigation and radiation tolerance requirements related to lunar and L1/L2 orbits. Potential CubeSat radios and antennas for such missions are investigated and compared. Ground station coverage, link analysis, and ground station solutions are also discussed. This paper will describe modifications in process for the Morehead ground station, as well as further enhancements of the Morehead ground station and NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) that are being considered. The potential NEN enhancements include upgrading current NEN Cortex receiver with Forward Error Correction (FEC) Turbo Code, providing X-band uplink capability, and adding ranging options. The benefits of ground station enhancements for CubeSats flown on NASA Exploration Missions (EM) are presented. This paper also describes how the NEN may support lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats without any enhancements. In addition, NEN is studying other initiatives to better support the CubeSat community
Parrinello, Tommaso; Mardle, Nicola; Hoyos Ortega, Berta; Bouzinac, Catherine; Badessi, Stefano; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Cullen, Robert
CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Experimental evidence have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. In April 2012, the first winter [2010 -2011] sea-ice variation map of the Arctic was released to the scientific community. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.
Kingsbury, R. W.; Caplan, D. O.; Cahoy, K. L.
The paper presents implementation and validation results for a CubeSat-scale laser transmitter. The master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design produces a 1550 nm, 200mW average power optical signal through the use of a directly modulated laser diode and a commercial fiber amplifier. The prototype design produces high-fidelity M-ary pulse position modulated (PPM) waveforms (M=8 to 128), targeting data rates > 10 Mbit/s while meeting a constraining 8W power allocation. We also present the implementation of an avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver with measured transmitter-to-receiver performance within 3 dB of theory. Via loopback, the compact receiver design can provide built-in self-test and calibration capabilities, and supports incremental on-orbit testing of the design.
Full Text Available There are many large-size and difficult computational problems in mathematics and computer science. For many of these problems, traditional computers cannot handle the mass of data in acceptable timeframes, which we call an NP problem. DNA computing is a means of solving a class of intractable computational problems in which the computing time grows exponentially with problem size. This paper proposes a parallel algorithm model for the universal 3-SAT problem based on the Adleman-Lipton model and applies biological operations to handling the mass of data in solution space. In this manner, we can control the run time of the algorithm to be finite and approximately constant.
Chen, Shiteng; Scheder, Dominik Alban; Talebanfard, Navid
In 1998, Paturi, Pudl´ak, Saks, and Zane presented PPSZ, an elegant randomized algorithm for k-SAT. Fourteen years on, this algorithm is still the fastest known worst-case algorithm. They proved that its expected running time on k-CNF formulas with n variables is at most 2(1−k)n, where k 2 (1/k).......). So far, no exponential lower bounds at all have been known. In this paper, we construct hard instances for PPSZ. That is, we construct satisfiable k-CNF formulas over n variables on which the expected running time is at least 2(1−k)n, for k 2 O(log2 k/k)....
Basini, G; Massimo Brancaccio, F; Ricci, M; Bocciolini, M; Spillantini, P; Wang, Y F; Bongiorno, F; de Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; de Marzo, C; Erriquez, O; Barbiellini, G; Vacchi, A; Galeotti, P; Ballocchi, G; Simon, M; Carlson, P; Goret, P; Golden, R L
The MASS-SAT Experiment (Matter-Antimatter Space Spectrometer on SATellite) presented here is conceived to search for an experimental answer to many open problems related to both Astrophysics and Physics, through the detection of positrons, antiprotons, nuclei and, overall, antinuclei if they exist. Among these problems there are the hypothesized presence of antigalaxies in the Universe (the matter-antimatter symmetry problem), the existence of black holes as possible antiproton sources (the Hawking effect), the existence of photinos as antiproton sources (related to the dark-matter problem), the understanding of the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration in the interstellar medium, the determination of the relative abundancies of isotopes in cosmic rays and many others. The choice of an orbit expecially appropriate for that (geostationary or polar orbit) as well as the choice of an apparatus composed only of solid-state detectors and permanent magnets (no gas and no liquid helium on board, avoiding complexity ...
R. A., II Pierce; D. T. Farrand; W. B. Kurtz
Evolving agricultural policies have influenced management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for many species of wildlife. Enhancing wildlife habitat has become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus, there is renewed focus on field borders and the use of shelterbelt agroforestry systems to achieve conservation goals in...
Stamer, J.K.; Jordan, P.R.; Engberg, R.A.; Dugan, J.T.
In 1986 the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment Program to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation 's surface water resources; (2) where possible, define trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relation between water quality and natural and land use factors. This report describes the pilot study of the lower Kansas River basin, which is one of four surface water pilot studies that will be used to test, and modify as necessary, assessment concepts and approaches in preparation for future full implementation of the national program. Water quality issues in the lower Kansas River basin are dominated by possible nonpoint sources of contamination from agricultural land, with issues including: (1) large sediment discharge in the streams and sediment deposition in the reservoirs caused by intensive cultivation of row crops and subsequent erosion; (2) occurrence of pesticides in streams and reservoirs that could impair the suitability of water for aquatic life and has the potential for impairing the water 's suitability for public supply; (3) bacterial contamination caused by runoff from pastureland and feedlot operations and municipal wastewater discharges; and (4) nutrient enrichment of reservoirs. Data from fixed stations will be used to determine frequency distributions of constituent concentrations and mass balances of constituents between stations. Subbasin or river reach studies will provide a better understanding of the origin, movement, and fate of potential contaminants. (Lantz-PTT)
respiration in fish, mammals, birds, insects, reptiles , amphibians , and plants. However, at concentrations used in fisheries management, rotenone is...prey upon fish, rodents, and small game. Lake Yankton supports many species of fish, reptiles , and amphibians . The Preferred Alternative is not...3‐4 188.8.131.52. Amphibians
Parrinello, T.; Fornari, M.; Bouzinac, C.; Scagliola, M.; Tagliani, N.
The main payload of CryoSat-2 is a Ku band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach an along track resolution of about 250 meters which is an important improvement over traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. Due to the fact that SIRAL is a phase coherent pulse-width limited radar altimeter, a proper calibration approach has been developed. In fact, not only the corrections for transfer function amplitude with respect to frequency, gain and instrument path delay have to be computed but it is also needed to provide corrections for transfer function phase with respect to frequency and AGC setting as well as the phase variation across bursts of pulses. As a consequence, SIRAL performs regularly four types of calibrations: (1) CAL1 in order to calibrate the internal path delay and peak power variation, (2) CAL2 in order to compensate the instrument transfer function, (3) CAL4 to calibrate the interferometer and (4) AutoCal, a specific sequence in order to calibrate the gain and phase difference for each AGC setting. Commissioning phase results (April-December 2010) revealed high stability of the instrument, which made possible to reduce the calibration frequency during Operations. Internal calibration data are processed on ground by the CryoSat-2 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) and then applied to the science data. In this poster we will describe as first the calibration strategy and then how the four different types of calibration are applied to science data. Moreover the calibration results over almost 2 years of mission will be presented, analyzing their temporal evolution in order to highlight the stability of the instrument over its life.
In this paper we discuss our efforts to perform precision orbit determination (POD) of CryoSat-2 which depends on Doppler and satellite laser ranging tracking data. A dynamic orbit model is set-up and the residuals between the model and the tracking data is evaluated. The average r.m.s. of the 10 s averaged Doppler tracking pass residuals is approximately 0.39 mm/s; and the average of the laser tracking pass residuals becomes 1.42 cm. There are a number of other tests to verify the quality of the orbit solution, we compare our computed orbits against three independent external trajectories provided by the CNES. The CNES products are part of the CryoSat-2 products distributed by ESA. The radial differences of our solution relative to the CNES precision orbits shows an average r.m.s. of 1.25 cm between Jun-2010 and Apr-2017. The SIRAL altimeter crossover difference statistics demonstrate that the quality of our orbit solution is comparable to that of the POE solution computed by the CNES. In this paper we will discuss three important changes in our POD activities that have brought the orbit performance to this level. The improvements concern the way we implement temporal gravity accelerations observed by GRACE; the implementation of ITRF2014 coordinates and velocities for the DORIS beacons and the SLR tracking sites. We also discuss an adjustment of the SLR retroreflector position within the satellite reference frame. An unexpected result is that we find a systematic difference between the median of the 10 s Doppler tracking residuals which displays a statistically significant pattern in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SSA) area where the median of the velocity residuals varies in the range of -0.15 to +0.15 mm/s.
Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Li, Dawei; Chu, Bo; Gu, Wei
Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine. Surprisingly, we found that activation of SAT1 expression induces lipid peroxidation and sensitizes cells to undergo ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress, which also leads to suppression of tumor growth in xenograft tumor models. Notably, SAT1 expression is down-regulated in human tumors, and CRISPR-cas9-mediated knockout of SAT1 expression partially abrogates p53-mediated ferroptosis. Moreover, SAT1 induction is correlated with the expression levels of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15), and SAT1-induced ferroptosis is significantly abrogated in the presence of PD146176, a specific inhibitor of ALOX15. Thus, our findings uncover a metabolic target of p53 involved in ferroptotic cell death and provide insight into the regulation of polyamine metabolism and ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are among the most powerful genetic markers known. A common method for the development of SSR markers is the construction of genomic DNA libraries enriched for SSR sequences, followed by DNA sequencing. However, designing optimal SSR markers from bulk sequence data is a laborious and time-consuming process. Results SAT (SSR Analysis Tool is a user-friendly Web application developed to minimize tedious manual operations and reduce errors. This tool facilitates the integration, analysis and display of sequence data from SSR-enriched libraries. SAT is designed to successively perform base calling and quality evaluation of chromatograms, eliminate cloning vector, adaptors and low quality sequences, detect chimera or partially digested sequences, search for SSR motifs, cluster and assemble the redundant sequences, and design SSR primer pairs. An additional virtual PCR step establishes primer specificity. Users may modify the different parameters of each step of the SAT analysis. Although certain steps are compulsory, such as SSR motifs search and sequence assembly, users do not have to run the entire pipeline, and they can choose selectively which steps to perform. A database allows users to store and query results, and to redo individual steps of the workflow. Conclusion The SAT Web application is available at http://sat.cirad.fr/sat, and a standalone command-line version is also freely downloadable. Users must send an email to the SAT administrator email@example.com to request a login and password.
Propp, A. M.; Benmergui, J. S.; Turner, A. J.; Wofsy, S. C.
In this study, we investigate the new information that will be provided by MethaneSat, a proposed satellite that will measure the total column dry-air mole fraction of methane at 1x1 km or 2x2 km spatial resolution with 0.1-0.2% random error. We run an atmospheric model to simulate MethaneSat's ability to characterize methane emissions from the Barnett Shale, a natural gas province in Texas. For comparison, we perform observation system simulation experiments (OSSEs) for MethaneSat, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric administration (NOAA) surface and aircraft network, and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The results demonstrate the added benefit that MethaneSat would provide in our efforts to monitor and report methane emissions. We find that MethaneSat successfully quantifies total methane emissions in the region, as well as their spatial distribution and steep gradients. Under the same test conditions, both the NOAA network and GOSAT fail to capture this information. Furthermore, we find that the results for MethaneSat depend far less on the prior emission estimate than do those for the other observing systems, demonstrating the benefit of high sampling density. The results suggest that MethaneSat would be an incredibly useful tool for obtaining detailed methane emission information from oil and gas provinces around the world.
DiCorcia, James D.; Ernst, Sebastian M.; Grace, J. Mike; Gump, David P.; Lewis, John S.; Foulds, Craig F.; Faber, Daniel R.
One concept to enable broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies is the Mothership mission architecture which delivers third-party nano-sats, experiments, and sensors to a near Earth asteroid or comet. Deep Space Industries' Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth, and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. It allows researchers to house their instruments in a low-cost nano-sat platform that does not require the high-performance propulsion or deep space communication capabilities that otherwise would be required for a solo asteroid mission. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. In addition, the Mothership and its deployed nano-sats can offer a platform for instruments which need to be distributed over multiple spacecraft. The Mothership is designed to carry 10 to 12 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accomodates the same volume as a traditional 3U Cubesat. This design was found to be more favorable for deep space due to its thermal characteristics. The CubeSat standard was originally designed with operations in low Earth orbit in mind. By deliberately breaking the standard, Deep Space Nano-Sats offer better performance with less chance of a critical malfunction in the more hostile deep space environment. The first mission can launch as early as Q4 2017, with subsequent, regular launches through the 2020's.
Jayaraman, Gayatri; Knoche, Lisa; Marvin, Christine; Bainter, Sue
The Nebraska Early Childhood Coach (ECC) training was a 3 day (8 hours) professional development event sponsored by the Nebraska Department of Education, Office of Child Development in 2009-2010. Sixty-five early childhood teachers and related service providers participated for the purpose of learning the basic principles and behaviors associated…
Jayaraman, Gayatri; Knoche, Lisa; Marvin, Christine; Bainter, Sue
The Nebraska Early Childhood Coach (ECC) training was a 3 day (8 hours) professional development event sponsored by the Nebraska Department of Education, Office of Child Development in 2009-2010. Sixty-five early childhood teachers and related service providers participated for the purpose of learning the basic principles and behaviors associated…
Full Text Available SAT-Expo Europe 2009 and integrated applicationsSAT-Expo was an exhibition held in Rome from the 19th until the 21st of March. SAT-Expo is the main euro-mediterranean satellite technology and services showcase.The 2009 edition featured 114 companies, 20 meeting sessions and more than 5400 attendees. This year's edition brought 10 foreign delegations, including France and China, together. The event focused on all the major topics regarding the satellite sector, including navigation, Earth Observation and communications.
Lic. Emilio Fernández Peña
Full Text Available Los servicios de difusión de canales de televisión de pago por satélite (Canal Satélite Digital y Vía Digital y cable son ya una realidad con importante presencia en el sistema televisivo español. Un millón cuatrocientos mil hogares reciben estos servicios con una preponderancia clara de los transmitidos por satélite respecto a los que usan el cable (1,2 millones.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CubeSats currently lack adequate inertial attitude knowledge and control required for future sophisticated science missions. Boeing?s Disc Resonator Gyro (DRG)...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As minimum cost will be required for a dedicated NanoSat Launch Vehicle, a series and parallel staged, highly modular vehicle architecture is proposed for design...
Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Stenseng, Lars; Knudsen, Per
GDR data, NOAA LRM data, but also Level1b (LRM, SAR and SAR-in waveforms) data have been analyzed. A suite of eight different empirical retrackers have been developed and investigated for their ability to predict marine gravity in the Arctic Ocean. The impact of the various improvement offered by Cryo...... days repeat offered by CryoSat-2 provides denser coverage than older geodetic mission data set like ERS-1. Thirdly, the 92 degree inclination of CryoSat-2 is designed to map more of the Arctic Ocean than previous altimetric satellites. Finally, CryoSat-2 is able to operate in two new modes (SAR and SAR......Sat-2 in comparison with conventional satellite altimetry have been studied and quantified both globally but particularly for the Arctic Ocean using a large number of marine and airborne surveys providing “ground truth” marine gravity....
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA desires new phase change systems to regulate heat transfer among components within a CubeSat small spacecraft. The temperature variation within the small...
Two specially developed fastbus modules for readout control and monitoring of the SAT calorimeter detector in the DELPHI experiment at CERN are described. The report is intended as a complete technical manual for these modules. 14 refs
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center and GWU are investigating applications of Micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters (μCAT) sub-systems for attitude and orbit correction of a PhoneSat...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellites such as CubeSats are in need of responsive propulsion, but are limited due to their size. Though single pulse, AP/HTPB fueled solid rocket motors...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — West Coast Solutions (WCS) and the Georgia Institute of Technology, in collaboration with Creare and Micro Cooling Concepts, proposes the development a SmallSat...
Full Text Available The authors present a variant of the Weighted Maximum Satisfiability Problem (Weighted Max-SAT), which is a modeling of the Semiring Constraint Satisfaction framework. They show how to encode a Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the CubeSat...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. proposes to develop the PowerCube, an integrated power, propulsion, and pointing solution for CubeSats. The PowerCube combines three...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To date, most CubeSat designs have been 6U or smaller and have operated within power budgets in the 10s of W or less. However, as the demand grows for greater...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need for compact, lightweight and efficient, low-cost deployable radiators for CubeSats, Roccor proposes to develop a high-strain laminate...
Full Text Available Increasing numbers of students taking the SAT have declined to identify their race/ethnicity. I examined the impact of non-respondents on the validity of reported racial/ethnic differences and year-to-year changes in test performance. Using an analysis reported by Wainer (1988 and SAT data from 1996 to 2003, I confirmed Wainer’s findings that non-respondents prevent accurate estimations of group differences based on SAT data. I then explored the impact of College Board press release information on news reports about the achievement gap. I found frequent reports of racial/ethnic differences in SAT scores and year-to-year changes in scores but negligible consideration of non-respondents. Press releases and media reports should include information about non-respondents and their impact on accuracy of reported differences based on race/ethnicity.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CubeSats enable a wide range of important, low-cost space missions, leveraging increasing densification of electronics and communications equipment to perform tasks...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VORAGO will design a rad-hard Smallsat / CubeSat Avionics single board that has the necessary robustness needed for long duration missions in harsh mission...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Today's CubeSats lack storable, green, safe propulsion options for complex science missions that may involve large Delta-V changes, proximity operations, and...
Idžanović, Martina; Ophaug, Vegard; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
Conventional (pulse-limited) altimeters determine the sea surface height with an accuracy of a few centimeters over the open ocean. Sea surface heights and tide-gauge sea level serve as each other’s buddy check. However, in coastal areas, altimetry suffers from numerous effects, which degrade its...... conventional altimeters. In this study, we explore the potential of CryoSat-2 to provide valid observations in the Norwegian coastal zone. We do this by comparing time series of CryoSat-2 sea level anomalies with time series of in situ sea level at 22 tide gauges, where the CryoSat-2 sea level anomalies...... are averaged in a 45-km area around each tide gauge. For all tide gauges, CryoSat-2 shows standard deviations of differences and correlations of 16 cm and 61%, respectively. We further identify the ocean tide and inverted barometer geophysical corrections as the most crucial, and note that a large amount...
Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.
This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing a mission concept for a CubeSat-based synoptic imaging survey to explore the ultraviolet sky for several key discoveries in time-domain...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance ADACS (Attitude Determination and Control System) for CubeSats incorporating Miniature Star Trackers is proposed. The proposed program will focus...
Ehrlich, Michael; Imbukwa, Khaboshi
News Stories Archive Research into how small satellites, known as CubeSats, communicate with each other and the Earth performed by a team of researchers in the Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Space Systems Academic Group...
Schneider, Raphael; Nygaard Godiksen, Peter; Ridler, Marc-Etienne
fitted to the CryoSat-2 data: In a first step, the average simulated water levels along the river were calibrated to the CryoSat-2 data by adapting the hydrodynamic cross section datums. Subsequently the simulated water level amplitudes were fitted to those obtained from Envisat virtual station time......Remote sensing provides valuable data for parameterization and updating of hydrological models, for example water level measurements of inland water bodies from satellite radar altimeters. Many studies have used satellite altimetry data from repeat-orbit missions such as Envisat, ERS or Jason...... on Sentinel-3. CryoSat-2 SARIn level 2 data is used to improve a 1D hydrodynamic model of the Brahmaputra river basin in South Asia set up in the DHI MIKE 11 software. CryoSat-2 water levels were extracted over river masks derived from Landsat imagery. After discharge calibration, simulated water levels were...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the last decade, the CubeSat platform has emerged as a viable alternative for both innovative technology development and scientific investigation. However, to...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the last decade, the CubeSat platform has emerged as a viable alternative for both innovative technology development and scientific investigation. However, to...
Planning and management support for NPP personnel SAT-based training programmes is described for the following job positions: reactor operator; turbine operator; reactor maintenance worker; pump maintenance worker; chemistry foreman; health physics foreman; electric maintenance worker
Ali, Anwar; Mughal, M. Rizwan; Ali, Haider; Reyneri, Leonardo
Electric power supply (EPS) and attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) are the most essential elements of any aerospace mission. Efficient EPS and precise ADCS are the core of any spacecraft mission. So keeping in mind their importance, they have been integrated and developed on a single tile called CubePMT module. Modular power management tiles (PMTs) are already available in the market but they are less efficient, heavier in weight, consume more power and contain less number of subsystems. Commercial of the shelf (COTS) components have been used for CubePMT implementation which are low cost and easily available from the market. CubePMT is developed on the design approach of AraMiS architecture: a project developed at Politecnico di Torino that provides low cost and higher performance space missions with dimensions larger than CubeSats. The feature of AraMiS design approach is its modularity. These modules can be reused for multiple missions which helps in significant reduction of the overall budget, development and testing time. One has just to reassemble the required subsystems to achieve the targeted specific mission.
Pereira, J. J.; Mamula, D.; Caulfield, M.; Gallagher, F. W., III; Spencer, D.; Petrescu, E. M.; Ostroy, J.; Pack, D. W.; LaRosa, A.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has begun planning for the future operational environmental satellite system by conducting the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study. In support of the NSOSA study, NOAA is exploring how CubeSat technology funded by NASA can be used to demonstrate the ability to measure three-dimensional profiles of global temperature and water vapor. These measurements are critical for the National Weather Service's (NWS) weather prediction mission. NOAA is conducting design studies on Earth Observing Nanosatellites (EON) for microwave (EON-MW) and infrared (EON-IR) soundings, with MIT Lincoln Laboratory and NASA JPL, respectively. The next step is to explore the technology required for a CubeSat mission to address NWS nighttime imagery requirements over the Arctic. The concept is called EON-Day/Night Band (DNB). The DNB is a 0.5-0.9 micron channel currently on the operational Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument, which is part of the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership and Joint Polar Satellite System satellites. NWS has found DNB very useful during the long periods of darkness that occur during the Alaskan cold season. The DNB enables nighttime imagery products of fog, clouds, and sea ice. EON-DNB will leverage experiments carried out by The Aerospace Corporation's CUbesat MULtispectral Observation System (CUMULOS) sensor and other related work. CUMULOS is a DoD-funded demonstration of COTS camera technology integrated as a secondary mission on the JPL Integrated Solar Array and Reflectarray Antenna mission. CUMULOS is demonstrating a staring visible Si CMOS camera. The EON-DNB project will leverage proven, advanced compact visible lens and focal plane camera technologies to meet NWS user needs for nighttime visible imagery. Expanding this technology to an operational demonstration carries several areas of risk that need to be addressed prior to an operational mission
Samson, S. A.
The identification of calcareous soils, through unique spectral responses of the vegetation to the chemical nature of calcareous soils, can improve the accuracy of delineating the boundaries of soil mapping units over conventional field techniques. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the use of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) in the identification and delineation of calcareous soils in the western Sandhills of Nebraska. Based upon statistical differences found in separating the spectral curves below 1.3 microns, calcareous and non-calcareous soils may be identified by differences in species of vegetation. Additional work is needed to identify biogeochemical differences between the two soils.
Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.
The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have
Williams, Karina; Gornall, Jemma; Harper, Anna; Wiltshire, Andy; Hemming, Debbie; Quaife, Tristan; Arkebauer, Tim; Scoby, David
The JULES-crop model (Osborne et al., 2015) is a parameterisation of crops within the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES), which aims to simulate both the impact of weather and climate on crop productivity and the impact of crop-lands on weather and climate. In this evaluation paper, observations of maize at three FLUXNET sites in Nebraska (US-Ne1, US-Ne2, US-Ne3) are used to test model assumptions and make appropriate input parameter choices. JULES runs are performed for the irrigate...
Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) have been shown to have a number of benefits over other technologies used to heat and cool buildings and provide hot water, combining high levels of occupant comfort with low operating and maintenance costs. Public facilities represent an increasingly important market for GHPs, and schools are a particularly good application, given the large land area that normally surrounds them. Nevertheless, some barriers remain to the increased use of GHPs in institutional and commercial applications. First, because GHPs are perceived as having higher installation costs than other space conditioning technologies, they are sometimes not considered as an option in feasibility studies. When they are considered, it can be difficult to compile the information required to compare them with other technologies. For example, a life cycle cost analysis requires estimates of installation costs and annually recurring energy and maintenance costs. But most cost estimators are unfamiliar with GHP technology, and no published GHP construction cost estimating guide is available. For this reason, estimates of installed costs tend to be very conservative, furthering the perception that GHPs are more costly than other technologies. Because GHP systems are not widely represented in the various softwares used by engineers to predict building energy use, it is also difficult to estimate the annual energy use of a building having GHP systems. Very little published data is available on expected maintenance costs either. Because of this lack of information, developing an accurate estimate of the life cycle cost of a GHP system requires experience and expertise that are not available in all institutions or in all areas of the country. In 1998, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into an agreement with the Lincoln, Nebraska, Public School District and Lincoln Electric Service, the local electric utility in the Lincoln area, to study four new, identical elementary
Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko
In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.
Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmed, Safia
A novel thermophilic bacterial strain of the genus Aeribacillus was isolated from Thar Dessert Pakistan. This strain showed significant antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The strain coded as ‘SAT4’ resembled with Aeribacillus pallidus in the morphological, biochemical and molecular tests. The production of antibacterial metabolites by SAT4 was optimized. These active metabolites were precipitated by 50% ammonium sulphate and p...
El-Shehawy, Laila I; Abu-Elnaga, Hany I; Rizk, Sonia A; Abd El-Kreem, Ahmed S; Mohamed, A A; Fawzy, Hossam G
In February 2012, a massive new foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak struck Egypt. In this work, one-step RT-PCR assays were used for in-house detection and differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in Egypt in this year using pan-serotypic and serotype-targeting sequence primers. FMDV SAT2 was the dominant virus in the examined isolates from the epidemic. The complete VP1 coding regions of two isolates were sequenced. The two isolates had 99.2 % sequence identity to most contemporary Egyptian SAT2 reference viruses, whereas they had 89.7-90.1 % identity to the SAT2/EGY/2/2012 isolate, which was collected from Alexandria, Egypt, and previously sequenced by WRLFMD. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Egypt had one topotype and two lineage of FMDV SAT2 in 2012. The Egyptian and the Palestinian 2012 strains were associated mainly with topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/Ghb-12, while the virus isolated from Alexandria Governorate belonged to the SAT2/VII/Alx-12 lineage. Topotype VII also comprised lineages that included strains isolated from Libya in 2012 and 2003. Furthermore, within the same topotype, the Egyptian SAT2/2012 isolates were related to strains from Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon and Nigeria. Nevertheless, more epidemiological work with neighboring countries is needed to prevent cross-border spread of disease and to reach a precise conclusion about the origin of the 2012 FMDV SAT2 emergency in the Middle East.
Agasid, Elwood Floyd; Perez, Andres Dono; Gazulla, Oriol Tintore; Trinh, Greenfield Tran; Uribe, Eddie Anthony; Keidar, Michael; Haque, Samudra; Teel, George
NASA Ames Research Center and the George Washington University have developed an electric propulsion subsystem that can be integrated into the PhoneSat bus. Experimental tests have shown a reliable performance by firing three different thrusters at various frequencies in vacuum conditions. The three thrusters were controlled by a SmartPhone that was running the PhoneSat software. The subsystem is fully operational and it requires low average power to function (about 0.1 W). The interface consists of a microcontroller that sends a trigger pulses to the PPU (Plasma Processing Unit), which is responsible for the thruster operation. Frequencies ranging from 1 to 50Hz have been tested, showing a strong flexibility. A SmartPhone acts as the main user interface for the selection of commands that control the entire system. The micro cathode arc thruster MicroCAT provides a high 1(sub sp) of 3000s that allows a 4kg satellite to obtain a (delta)V of 300m/s. The system mass is only 200g with a total of volume of 200(cu cm). The propellant is based on a solid cylinder made of Titanium, which is the cathode at the same time. This simplicity in the design avoids miniaturization and manufacturing problems. The characteristics of this thruster allow an array of MicroCATs to perform attitude control and orbital correcton maneuvers that will open the door for the implementation of an extensive collection of new mission concepts and space applications for CubeSats. NASA Ames is currently working on the integration of the system to fit the thrusters and PPU inside a 1.5U CubeSat together with the PhoneSat bus into a 1.5U CubeSat. This satellite is intended to be deployed from the ISS in 2015 and test the functionality of the thrusters by spinning the satellite around its long axis and measure the rotational speed with the phone byros. This test flight will raise the TRL of the propulsion system from 5 to 7 and will be a first test for further CubeSats with propulsion systems, a key
Marshall, William M.
CubeSats are increasingly being utilized for missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellites CubeSat unit (1U) defined as 10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm. Have been built up to 6U sizes. CubeSats are typically built up from commercially available off-the-shelf components, but have limited capabilities. By using additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities (such as propulsion), can be built into a system. This effort is part of STMD Small Satellite program Printing the Complete CubeSat. Interest in propulsion concepts for CubeSats is rapidly gaining interest-Numerous concepts exist for CubeSat scale propulsion concepts. The focus of this effort is how to incorporate into structure using additive manufacturing. End-use of propulsion system dictates which type of system to develop-Pulse-mode RCS would require different system than a delta-V orbital maneuvering system. Team chose an RCS system based on available propulsion systems and feasibility of printing using a materials extrusion process. Initially investigated a cold-gas propulsion system for RCS applications-Materials extrusion process did not permit adequate sealing of part to make this a functional approach.
Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny
Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.
Ehizibolo, D O; Haegeman, A; De Vleeschauwer, A R; Umoh, J U; Kazeem, H M; Okolocha, E C; Van Borm, S; De Clercq, K
The knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) dynamics and epidemiology in Nigeria and the West Africa subregion is important to support local and regional control plans and international risk assessment. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype South African territories (SAT)1 was isolated, identified and characterized from an FMD outbreak in cattle in Nigeria in 2015, 35 years after the last report of FMDV SAT1 in West Africa. The VP1 coding sequence of the Nigerian 2015 SAT1 isolates diverges from reported SAT1 topotypes resulting in a separate topotype. The reporting of a novel FMDV SAT1 strain in the virus pool 5 (West and Central Africa) highlights the dynamic and complex nature of FMDV in this region of Africa. Sustained surveillance is needed to understand the origin, the extent and distribution of this novel SAT1 topotype in the region as well as to detect and monitor the occurrence of (re-)emerging FMDV strains. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Siriex, Michel B.
In 1982 SAT proposed for the first time a second generation detector in the design of FLIRs for the TRIGAT program, since then different types of IR equipment have been developed on the basis of this technology: (1) An infra-red seeker for the MICA missile. (2) Three types of IRST: VAMPIR MB for naval applications, SIRENE for the Army and OSF for the Rafale aircraft. (3) Three thermal imagers: Condor 1 for the mast mounted sight equipping the long range anti tank system, Tiger installed on the sight of the medium range antitank system, and Condor 2 for the pilot sight of the TRIGAT French-German helicopter. Infra-red detectors are MCT IR-CCD focal plane arrays developed by SOFRADIR with the objective of the best standardization possible in spite of different configurations and specifications for each program. In this paper, we intend to present the main features of this technology for these programs and the advantages obtained by comparison with the first generation in terms of performance. Industrialization of these products is starting now, and a specific effort has been made to standardize the components, especially the driving and read out electronics. A set of ASICs has been developed to make compact detection modules including a detector in his dewar, a cooling machine, and a proximity electronic.
Cahoy, K.; Marinan, A.; Kerr, C.; Novak, B.; Webber, M.; Kasdin, N. J.
The high contrast requirement of 1010 needed to directly image an Earth-like exoplanet around a sun-like star at optical wavelengths requires space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs and wavefront control systems. Coronagraphs are needed to block the parent star's light and improve the ability of the system to detect photons that have reflected off of the exoplanet toward the observer. Wavefront control systems are needed to correct image plane aberrations and speckles caused by imperfections, thermal distortions, and diffraction in the telescope and optics that would otherwise corrupt the wavefront and ruin the desired contrast. The two key elements of wavefront control systems are (1) a way to detect the wavefront distortions (a wavefront sensor) and (2) a way to correct the distortions before the image plane (such as deformable mirrors, or DMs). In this paper, we investigate a compact and inexpensive CubeSat-based wavefront control testbed that can be used as a technology development precursor toward a larger mission.
Joeckel, R.M.; Cunningham, J.M.; Corner, R.G.; Brown, G.W.; Phillips, P.L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.
At least 22 tridactyl dinosaur tracks, poorly preserved in various degrees of expression, have recently been found at an exposure in the Dakota Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Albian) in Jefferson County, Nebraska. These tracks generally have broad, blunt digits and a broad posterior margin. The largest of the tracks measures 57 cm in length and 58 cm in width. All of the tracks lie within a stratigraphic horizon of 40 cm or less, but they do not form a single trackway. We interpret the trackmakers to have been ornithopods.The Jefferson County tracks are in a well-cemented sandstone with oscillation ripples, at a stratigraphic level between two well-established sequence boundaries. Channel forms and lateral accretion units are common in the stratigraphic interval enclosing the tracks, and the site is interpreted as a bar or sand flat in a tidally influenced river.The Jefferson County tracks are only the second known occurrence of large Mesozoic tetrapod tracks east of the Rocky Mountain Front-High Plains Margin, including the Black Hills of South Dakota, west of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and north of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Further, this paper is the first documentation of in situdinosaur fossils from the Nebraska-Iowa area.
Blacksberg, Jordana; Chesley, Steven R.; Ehlmann, Bethany; Raymond, Carol Anne
The Intrepid mission concept calls for phased deployment of a fleet of small highly autonomous rendezvous spacecraft designed to characterize the evolution, structure and composition of dozens of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Intrepid represents a marked departure from conventional solar system exploration projects, where a single unique and complex spacecraft is typically directed to explore a single target body. In contrast, Intrepid relies on the deployment of a large number of autonomous spacecraft to provide redundancy and ensure that the project goals are achieved at a small fraction of the cost of typical missions.The Intrepid science goals are threefold: (1) to understand the evolutionary processes that govern asteroid physical, chemical and dynamical histories and relate these results to solar system origins and evolution; (2) to facilitate impactor deflection scenarios for planetary defense by statistically characterizing relevant asteroid physical properties; (3) to quantify the presence and extractability of potentially useful resources on a large sample of asteroids. To achieve these goals, the baseline architecture includes multiple modular instruments including cameras, spectrometers, radar sounders, and projectiles that could interact with the target asteroid. Key questions to be addressed are: what is the total quantity of water in each object? How is the water incorporated? Are organics present? What is the asteroid physical structure? How would the object respond to impact/deflection?We have begun development of a miniature infrared point spectrometer, a cornerstone of the Intrepid payload, covering both shortwave infrared (SWIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral bands. The spectrometer is designed with a compact 2U form-factor, making it both relevant to Intrepid and implementable on a CubeSat. The combination of SWIR and MIR in a single integrated instrument would enable robust compositional interpretations from a single dataset combining both
Ham, Seung-Hee; Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Winker, David; L'Ecuyer, Tristan; Mace, Gerald G.; Painemal, David; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan; Miller, Walter F.
Two kinds of cloud products obtained from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), CloudSat, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared and analyzed in this study: Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-CALIPSO-CloudSat-MODIS (CCCM) product and CloudSat radar-lidar products such as GEOPROF-LIDAR and FLXHR-LIDAR. Compared to GEOPROF-LIDAR, low-level (40°). The difference occurs when hydrometeors are detected by CALIPSO lidar but are undetected by CloudSat radar. In the comparison of cloud radiative effects (CREs), global mean differences between CCCM and FLXHR-LIDAR are mostly smaller than 5 W m-2, while noticeable regional differences are found. For example, CCCM shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) CREs are larger than FXLHR-LIDAR along the west coasts of Africa and America because the GEOPROF-LIDAR algorithm misses shallow marine boundary layer clouds. In addition, FLXHR-LIDAR SW CREs are larger than the CCCM counterpart over tropical oceans away from the west coasts of America. Over midlatitude storm-track regions, CCCM SW and LW CREs are larger than the FLXHR-LIDAR counterpart.
Wild birds have been shown to be significant sources of numerous types of pathogens that are relevant to humans and agriculture. The presence of large numbers of migratory birds in such a sensitive and important ecosystem as the Platte River in central Nebraska, USA, could potent...
Watson, Betty U.; Goldgar, David E.
Comparing distribution of scores on the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude (H-NTLA) with those from the Wechsler Performance Scales for 71 hearing impaired Ss revealed a correlation of .85. However, the H-NTLA yielded more Ss with extreme scores. Findings stress the need for caution in interpreting extreme H-NTLA scores. (CL)
David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield
This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...
Campbell, Edward M.; Fortune, Jon; Severance, Donald; Holderegger, John; Fortune, Barbara
A database was assembled from data collected on all people served by the Developmental Disabilities divisions of Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming, including state institutions and state-funded programs (n=5,928). Information included provider expenditures associated with each individual, allocations made by individual reimbursement rates,…
Seiler, William J.
Describes how the Speech Communication Department at the University of Nebraska was targeted for elimination and survived. Addresses why it is necessary for the communication discipline to take an advocacy role, and provides thoughts about how departments can defend themselves from future attacks. (SR)
Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Read, A.L.; Wilhelmsen, E.
The performance of the DELPHI Small Angle Tagger (SAT) tracker in 1991 is presented. A method to use the SAT tracker for monitoring the internal geometry of the SAT calorimeter and thereby improving the luminosity measurement for DELPHI is described. A reduction from 0.35% to 0.05% in the relevant contribution to the systematic error on the luminosity is reported. 15 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs
Sarah W. Cooley
Full Text Available Recent deployments of CubeSat imagers by companies such as Planet may advance hydrological remote sensing by providing an unprecedented combination of high temporal and high spatial resolution imagery at the global scale. With approximately 170 CubeSats orbiting at full operational capacity, the Planet CubeSat constellation currently offers an average revisit time of <1 day for the Arctic and near-daily revisit time globally at 3 m spatial resolution. Such data have numerous potential applications for water resource monitoring, hydrologic modeling and hydrologic research. Here we evaluate Planet CubeSat imaging capabilities and potential scientific utility for surface water studies in the Yukon Flats, a large sub-Arctic wetland in north central Alaska. We find that surface water areas delineated from Planet imagery have a normalized root mean square error (NRMSE of <11% and geolocation accuracy of <10 m as compared with manual delineations from high resolution (0.3–0.5 m WorldView-2/3 panchromatic satellite imagery. For a 625 km2 subarea of the Yukon Flats, our time series analysis reveals that roughly one quarter of 268 lakes analyzed responded to changes in Yukon River discharge over the period 23 June–1 October 2016, one half steadily contracted, and one quarter remained unchanged. The spatial pattern of observed lake changes is heterogeneous. While connections to Yukon River control the hydrologically connected lakes, the behavior of other lakes is complex, likely driven by a combination of intricate flow paths, underlying geology and permafrost. Limitations of Planet CubeSat imagery include a lack of an automated cloud mask, geolocation inaccuracies, and inconsistent radiometric calibration across multiple platforms. Although these challenges must be addressed before Planet CubeSat imagery can achieve its full potential for large-scale hydrologic research, we conclude that CubeSat imagery offers a powerful new tool for the study and
McComas, David C.
In January 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) released the Core Flight System (cFS) as open source under the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) license. The cFS is based on flight software (FSW) developed for 12 spacecraft spanning nearly two decades of effort and it can provide about a third of the FSW functionality for a low-earth orbiting scientific spacecraft. The cFS is a FSW framework that is portable, configurable, and extendable using a product line deployment model. However, the components are maintained separately so the user must configure, integrate, and deploy them as a cohesive functional system. This can be very challenging especially for organizations such as universities building cubesats that have minimal experience developing FSW. Supporting universities was one of the primary motivators for releasing the cFS under NOSA. This paper describes the OpenSatKit that was developed to address the cFS deployment challenges and to serve as a cFS training platform for new users. It provides a fully functional out-of-the box software system that includes NASA's cFS, Ball Aerospace's command and control system COSMOS, and a NASA dynamic simulator called 42. The kit is freely available since all of the components have been released as open source. The kit runs on a Linux platform, includes 8 cFS applications, several kit-specific applications, and built in demos illustrating how to use key application features. It also includes the software necessary to port the cFS to a Raspberry Pi and instructions for configuring COSMOS to communicate with the target. All of the demos and test scripts can be rerun unchanged with the cFS running on the Raspberry Pi. The cFS uses a 3-tiered layered architecture including a platform abstraction layer, a Core Flight Executive (cFE) middle layer, and an application layer. Similar to smart phones, the cFS application layer is the key architectural feature for users to extend the FSW functionality to meet their
The net force acting on a drag-free satellite is purely gravitational as all other forces, mainly atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure, are canceled out. In order to achieve this, a free floating reference (test mass) inside the satellite is shielded against all forces but gravity and a system of thrusters is commanded by a control algorithm such that the relative displacement between the reference and the satellite stays constant. The main input to that control algorithm is the output of a sensor which measures the relative displacement between the satellite and the test mass. Internal disturbance forces such as electrostatic or magnetic forces cannot be canceled out his way and have to be minimized by a careful design of the satellite. A drag-free technology package is under development at Stanford since 2004. It includes an optical displacement sensor to measure the relative position of the test mass inside the satellite, a caging mechanism to lock the test mass during launch, a UV LED based charge management system to minimize the effect of electrostatic forces, a thermal enclosure, and the drag-free control algorithms. Possible applications of drag-free satellites in fundamental physics (Gravity Probe B, LISA), geodesy (GOCE), and navigation (TRIAD I). In this presentation we will highlight the progress of the technology development towards a drag-free mission. The planned mission on a SaudiSat bus will demonstrate drag-free technology on a small spacecraft at a fraction of the cost of previous drag-free missions. The target acceleration noise is 10-12 m/sec2. With multiple such satellites a GRACE-like mission with improved sensitivity and potentially improved spatial and temporal resolution can be achieved.
Johannesen, Jason K; Lurie, Jessica B; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D
The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) uses a 64-second video of geometric shapes set in motion to portray themes of social relatedness and intentions. Considered a test of "Theory of Mind," the SAT-MC assesses implicit social attribution formation while reducing verbal and basic cognitive demands required of other common measures. We present a comparability analysis of the SAT-MC and the new SAT-MC-II, an alternate form created for repeat testing, in a university sample (n = 92). Score distributions and patterns of association with external validation measures were nearly identical between the two forms, with convergent and discriminant validity supported by association with affect recognition ability and lack of association with basic visual reasoning. Internal consistency of the SAT-MC-II was superior (alpha = .81) to the SAT-MC (alpha = .56). Results support the use of SAT-MC and new SAT-MC-II as equivalent test forms. Demonstrating relatively higher association to social cognitive than basic cognitive abilities, the SAT-MC may provide enhanced sensitivity as an outcome measure of social cognitive intervention trials.
This exploratory phenomenological study investigates the lived experiences of six high school physics teachers in Nebraska regarding their perceptions on the impact of participating in a science-based out-of-school program. By exploring the research question, we discover how this experience relates to these teachers' self-concept and professional growth. Open-ended, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews are used as the data collection method to explore teachers' perceptions. Responses reveal that teachers participating in the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP) as a means of exploring advanced, extracurricular physics projects perceive their participation as an opportunity for enrichment, collaboration, helping their students, and empowerment. Intertwined in the presented narratives, teachers refer to their schools' limited administrative support as a source of struggle tied to the challenge of balancing school and teaching responsibilities with CROP participants' responsibilities. This study proposes teachers must feel confident with their specific subject area to achieve a progressive view of self, and that supplemental professional development opportunities are crucial to physics teaching.
Mészáros, István; Tóth, Renáta; Olasz, Ferenc; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán
The SAT protein (SATp) of porcine parvovirus (PPV) accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and SAT deletion induces the slow-spreading phenotype. The in vitro comparison of the wild-type Kresse strain and its SAT knockout (SAT - ) mutant revealed that prolonged cell integrity and late viral release are responsible for the slower spreading of the SAT - virus. During PPV infection, regardless of the presence or absence of SATp, the expression of downstream ER stress response proteins (Xbp1 and CHOP) was induced. However, in the absence of SATp, significant differences in the quantity and the localization of CHOP were detected, suggesting a role of SATp in the induction of irreversible ER stress in infected cells. The involvement of the induction of irreversible ER stress in porcine testis (PT) cell necrosis and viral egress was confirmed by treatment of infected cells by ER stress-inducing chemicals (MG132, dithiothreitol, and thapsigargin), which accelerated the egress and spreading of both the wild-type and the SAT - viruses. UV stress induction had no beneficial effect on PPV infection, underscoring the specificity of ER stress pathways in the process. However, induction of CHOP and its nuclear translocation cannot alone be responsible for the biological effect of SAT, since nuclear CHOP could not complement the lack of SAT in a coexpression experiment. IMPORTANCE SATp is encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the PPV genome. Earlier we showed that SATp of the attenuated PPV NADL-2 strain accumulates in the ER and accelerates virus release and spreading. Our present work revealed that slow spreading is a general feature of SAT - PPVs and is the consequence of prolonged cell integrity. PPV infection induced ER stress in infected cells regardless of the presence of SATp, as demonstrated by the morphological changes of the ER and expression of the stress response proteins Xbp1 and CHOP. However, the presence of SATp made the ER stress more severe and
Whitni K. Redman
Full Text Available Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95% closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%. The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic
Redman, Whitni K.; Bryant, Jay E.; Ahmad, Gul
Aim: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. Materials and Methods: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures. Results: We found that as many as 93.10% of the investigated coyotes were infected with one or more helminth infections. A total of 10 different species of helminth parasites were recovered from the intestines of coyotes under investigation. Among the 10 species of helminths, 5 were identified as cestodes while the remaining 5 were nematodes. A total of 82.75% of the animals were infected with one or more species of nematodes, while 75.86% of them were colonized with one or more species of cestode parasites. The most abundant species in coyotes were Toxascaris leonina (68.95%) closely followed by Taenia hydatigena (58.62%). The prevalence of Ancylostoma caninum and Taenia pisiformis were recorded at 31.03%, followed by those of Toxocara canis and Echinococcus spp. at 24.13%, respectively. Three animals were infected with Trichuris vulpis while three other coyotes each were found to be harboring Uncinaria stenocephala, Dipylidium caninum, or Hymenolepis diminuta. The presence of H. diminuta might have been the result of the ingestion of a rodent by the respective coyotes. Conclusion: From the overall analysis of the present data and comparing it with the previous reports of various scientists over several decades, we can conclude that intestinal helminths are still very much prevalent among the coyote population in the Southeast Nebraska and Iowa area. The relatively high prevalence of the zoonotic parasite species
One of the essential requirements for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation and maintenance is the availability of competent personnel, and thus systematic approach to training (SAT) is recognized world-wide. Many countries have applied and implemented the use of SAT in their training systems as demonstrated by the results of the IAEA World Survey on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training. This report complements two IAEA publications, the Guidebook on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel and its Evaluation (Technical Reports Series No. 380) and the IAEA World Survey of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training (IAEA-TECDOC-1063). It provides a detailed overview and analysis of the experience gained worldwide on the introduction and application of SAT, including the reasons why SAT was introduced and lessons learned. The technical document will be of use for nuclear power plant managers and supervisors and all those responsible for training of personnel. The report was initiated by the International Working Group at a Technical Committee Meeting. Experiences gained from the application of SAT in the following Member States are included: Armenia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mexico, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom and United States of America
One of the essential requirements for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation and maintenance is the availability of competent personnel, and thus systematic approach to training (SAT) is recognized world-wide. Many countries have applied and implemented the use of SAT in their training systems as demonstrated by the results of the IAEA World Survey on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training. This report complements two IAEA publications, the Guidebook on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel and its Evaluation (Technical Reports Series No. 380) and the IAEA World Survey of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training (IAEA-TECDOC-1063). It provides a detailed overview and analysis of the experience gained worldwide on the introduction and application of SAT, including the reasons why SAT was introduced and lessons learned. The technical document will be of use for nuclear power plant managers and supervisors and all those responsible for training of personnel. The report was initiated by the International Working Group at a Technical Committee Meeting. Experiences gained from the application of SAT in the following Member States are included: Armenia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Mexico, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom and United States of America. Refs, figs, tabs
Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.; Féménias, P.; Fornari, M.; Scagliola, M.; Baker, S.; Brockley, D.; Mannan, R.; Hall, A.; Webb, E.; Garcia-Mondéjar, A.; Roca, M.; Mantovani, P. L.
Over the past 20 years, satellite radar altimetry has shown its ability to revolutionize our understanding of the ocean and climate. These advances were mainly limited to ice-free regions, leaving aside large portions of Polar Regions. Launched in 2010, the polar-orbiting CryoSat Satellite was designed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea ice and the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. To reach this goal, the CryoSat products have to meet the highest performance, through constant improvements of the associated Instrument Processing Facility. Since April 2015, the CryoSat ice products are generated with the Baseline C; which represents a major processor upgrade. Several improvements have been implemented belong this new Baseline, such as SAR retracker optimized for Freeboard retrieval and a coarse slant correction, which is applied directly on the stack data in conjunction with the window delay alignment. The resulting waveforms show more power and the trailing edge is modified, leading to improved L2 geophysical parameters. This paper provides an overview of the CryoSat data characteristics, assessment and exploitation over Polar Regions. In this respect, new science-oriented diagnostics have been implemented to thoroughly understand the signatures within the altimeter signals over sea-ice and land ice areas, to validate the data and therefore propose potential way of improvements for next CryoSat processing Baselines.
Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinase Sat4p has been originally identified as a protein involved in salt tolerance and stabilization of plasma membrane transporters, implicating a cytoplasmic localization. Our study revealed an additional mitochondrial (mt localization, suggesting a dual function for Sat4p. While no mt related phenotype was observed in the absence of Sat4p, its overexpression resulted in significant changes of a specific mitochondrial subproteome. As shown by a comparative two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE approach combined with mass spectrometry, particularly two groups of proteins were affected: the iron-sulfur containing aconitase-type proteins (Aco1p, Lys4p and the lipoamide-containing subproteome (Lat1p, Kgd2p and Gcv3p. The lipoylation sites of all three proteins could be assigned by nanoLC-MS/MS to Lys75 (Lat1p, Lys114 (Kgd2p and Lys102 (Gcv3p, respectively. Sat4p overexpression resulted in accumulation of the delipoylated protein variants and in reduced levels of aconitase-type proteins, accompanied by a decrease in the activities of the respective enzyme complexes. We propose a regulatory role of Sat4p in the late steps of the maturation of a specific subset of mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster proteins, including Aco1p and lipoate synthase Lip5p. Impairment of the latter enzyme may account for the observed lipoylation defects.
Wilson David P
Full Text Available Abstract SaSAT (Sampling and Sensitivity Analysis Tools is a user-friendly software package for applying uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to mathematical and computational models of arbitrary complexity and context. The toolbox is built in Matlab®, a numerical mathematical software package, and utilises algorithms contained in the Matlab® Statistics Toolbox. However, Matlab® is not required to use SaSAT as the software package is provided as an executable file with all the necessary supplementary files. The SaSAT package is also designed to work seamlessly with Microsoft Excel but no functionality is forfeited if that software is not available. A comprehensive suite of tools is provided to enable the following tasks to be easily performed: efficient and equitable sampling of parameter space by various methodologies; calculation of correlation coefficients; regression analysis; factor prioritisation; and graphical output of results, including response surfaces, tornado plots, and scatterplots. Use of SaSAT is exemplified by application to a simple epidemic model. To our knowledge, a number of the methods available in SaSAT for performing sensitivity analyses have not previously been used in epidemiological modelling and their usefulness in this context is demonstrated.
Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René; Skourup, Henriette
From 2003 to 2008 DTU Space together with ESA and several international partners carried out airborne and ground field campaigns in preparation for CryoSat validation; called CryoVEx: CryoSat Validation Experiments covering the main ice caps in Greenland, Canada and Svalbard and sea ice in the Ar......From 2003 to 2008 DTU Space together with ESA and several international partners carried out airborne and ground field campaigns in preparation for CryoSat validation; called CryoVEx: CryoSat Validation Experiments covering the main ice caps in Greenland, Canada and Svalbard and sea ice...... in the Arctic Ocean. The main goal of the airborne surveys was to acquire coincident scanning laser and CryoSat type radar elevation measurements of the surface; either sea ice or land ice. Selected lines have been surveyed along with detailed mapping of validation sites coordinated with insitu field work...... and helicopter electromagnetic surveying. This paper summarises the pre-launch campaigns and presents some of the result from the coincident measurement from airborne and ground observations....
Full Text Available CubeSat picosatellites have a limited area of walls for solar cells assembling and the available area has to be effectively shared with other parts, such as planar antennas, optical sensors, camera lens, and access port. With standard size of solar cell strings, it is not possible to construct a reliable solar panel for CubeSat with redundant strings interconnection. Typical solar panels for CubeSat consist of two solar cell strings serially wired with no redundancy in case of solar string failure. The loss of electric energy from one solar panel can cause a serious problem for most picosatellites due to minimum margin in the blueprints of the picosatellite subsystem power budget. In this paper, we propose a new architecture of solar panels for PilsenCUBE CubeSat with a high level of redundancy in the case of solar string failure or following switched power regulator failure. Our solar panels use a high efficiency triple junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge in the form of small triangle strings from the Spectrolab Company. A suitable technology for precise solar cell assembling is also discussed, because CubeSat picosatellites are usually developed by small teams with limited access to high-end facilities.
The Northern Great Plains (NGP) region – Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota and Nebraska – is a largely rural area that provides important agricultural and ecological services, including biological diversity. The NGP is projected to experience rising atmospheric CO2, warming and ...
We evaluated the effectiveness of existing turtle fences through collecting and analyzing turtle mortality data along U.S. Hwy 83, in and around Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Nebraska, USA. We also investigated the level of connectivity for tur...
Morrison, John M.; Jeffrey, Hazel; Gorter, Hessel; Anderson, Pamela; Clark, Craig; Holmes, Alan; Feldman, Gene C.; Patt, Frederick S.
Sustained ocean color monitoring is vital to understanding the marine ecosystem. It has been identified as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) and is a vital parameter in understanding long-term climate change. Furthermore, observations can be beneficial in observing oil spills, harmful algal blooms and the health of fisheries. Space-based remote sensing, through MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments, have provided a means of observing the vast area covered by the ocean which would otherwise be impossible using ships alone. However, the large pixel size makes measurements of lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones difficult. Furthermore, retirement of a number of widely used and relied upon ocean observation instruments, particularly MERIS and SeaWiFS, leaves a significant gap in ocean color observation opportunities This paper presents an overview of the SeaHawk mission, a collaborative effort between Clyde Space Ltd., the University of North Carolina Wilmington, Cloudland Instruments, and Goddard Spaceflight Center, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The goal of the project is to enhance the ability to observe ocean color in high temporal and spatial resolution through use of a low-cost, next-generation ocean color sensor flown aboard a CubeSat. The final product will be 530 times smaller (0.0034 vs 1.81m3) and 115 time less massive (3.4 vs 390.0kg) but with a ground resolution 10 times better whilst maintaining a signal/noise ratio 50% that of SeaWiFs. This paper will describe the objectives of the mission, outline the payload specification and the spacecraft platform to support it.
Park, Cynthia N; Overall, Lisa M; Smith, Loren M; Lagrange, Ted; McMurry, Scott
Our objective was to document potential wild pollinating insects in south central Nebraska. This intensively cultivated region is known as the Rainwater Basin and contains some of the most endangered wetland systems in North America. We used blue vane traps to passively collect insects and insect nets to actively collect on flowering plants from April through October in 2014 and 2015. Habitat types included playa wetlands, adjacent mixed and tallgrass prairies, and agricultural fields. Over 112,000 insects were collected; Hymenoptera represented 78% of the total, and the families Apidae and Halictidae comprised 99% of the total melittofauna. Insects from 13 orders were collected, but Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant potential pollinators.
Truesdell, D.B.; Daddazio, P.L.; Martin, T.S.
The Hot Springs Quadrangle, South Dakota and Nebraska, was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria developed by the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface reconnaissance was conducted using a portable scintillometer and a gamma spectrometer. Geochemical sampling was carried out in all geologic environments accessible within the quadrangle. Additional investigations included the followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical anomalies and a subsurface study. Environments favorable for sandstone-type deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group and Chadron Member of the White River Group. Environments favorable for marine black-shale deposits occur in the Hayden Member of the Minnelusa Formation. A small area of the Harney Peak Granite is favorable for authigenic deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the Precambrian granitic and metasedimentary rocks and Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks other than those previously mentioned
Landon, Matthew K.; Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Eggemeyer, Kathleen D.
Evapotranspiration (ET) in riparian areas is a poorly understood component of the regional water balance in the Platte River Basin, where competing demands have resulted in water shortages in the ground-water/surface-water system. From April 2002 through March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Platte River Cooperative Hydrology Study Group, and Central Platte Natural Resources District conducted a micrometeorological study of water and energy balances at two sites in central Nebraska near Odessa and Gothenburg to improve understanding of ET rates and factors affecting them in Platte River riparian forests. A secondary objective of the study was to constrain estimates of ground-water use by riparian vegetation to satisfy ET consumptive demands, a useful input to regional ground-water flow models. Both study sites are located on large islands within the Platte River characterized by a cottonwood-dominated forest canopy on primarily sandy alluvium. Although both sites are typical of riparian forests along the Platte River in Nebraska, the Odessa understory is dominated by deciduous shrubs, whereas the Gothenburg understory is dominated by eastern redcedars. Additionally, seasonal ground-water levels fluctuated more at Odessa than at Gothenburg. The study period of April 2002 through March 2006 encompassed precipitation conditions ranging from dry to wet. This study characterized the components of the water balance in the riparian zone of each site. ET was evaluated from eddy-covariance sensors installed on towers above the forest canopy at a height of 26.1 meters. Precipitation was measured both above and below the forest canopy. A series of sensors measured soil-moisture availability within the unsaturated zone in two different vertical profiles at each site. Changes in ground-water altitude were evaluated from piezometers. The areal footprint represented in the water balance extended up to 800 meters from each tower. During the study, ET was less variable
Ricardo Franco de Lima
Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed to verify evidences of validity and reliability of Luria-Nebraska Test for Children (TLN-C, in Portuguese. Three hundred eighty-seven students aged 6–13 years old, with learning difficulties, comprised the study. They were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III and TLN-C; and effect of age differences, as well as accuracy rating by internal consistency were investigated. Age effects were found for all subtests and in the general score, except for receptive speech subtest, even when total IQ effect was controlled. Reliability analysis had satisfactory results (0.79. The TLN-C showed evidences of validity and reliability. Receptive speech subtest requires revision.
The Nuclear Power Training Center Ltd. (NTC) was established in June 1972 to train PWR plant operators. Operator training was started in Apr. 1974. Presently we have three full-scope, control-room simulators. Recently IAEA recommended that its Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) be used for the training of NPP personnel. We thoroughly examined the SAT-based process and compared it against the NTC training program. As a result, we have recognized that the NTC training program satisfies the SAT-based training process. We now intend to improve the feedback step of the NTC training system. Our efforts continue to produce a relevant program at the forefront of our profession. (author)
Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Vinther, Kasper
computational cost of estimating bias in measurements is worthwhile. The simulations where performed in a simulation environment for the CubeSat AAUSAT3, where robustness has been an important factor during tuning of the attitude estimators. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve acceptable Cube......This paper describes a quaternion implementation of an Unscented Kalman Filter for attitude estimation on CubeSats using measurements of a sun vector, a magnetic field vector and angular velocity. Using unit quaternions provides a singularity free attitude parameterization. However, the unity...... constraint requires a redesign of the Unscented Kalman Filter. Therefore, a quaternion error state is introduced. Emphasis has been put in making the implementation accessible to other CubeSat by using realistic models of COTS components used for attitude sensing and simulations have shown that the extra...
The IAEA and many Member States have recognized the benefits of a systematic approach when training nuclear power plant personnel. The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) fully described in the IAEA publications, is recommended as the best practice for attaining and maintaining the competence and qualification of NPP personnel. Typically, SAT is organised into distinct phases of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation, and relies on Feedback as a process for continuous improvement This document is addressed to nuclear power operating organisations facing the challenge of developing training programs for their own personnel. The intention was to provide Member States with examples of the Analysis phase to form foundation of SAT-based training programs. This document is also available in CD form
Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René; Kildegaard Rose, Stine
Sat-2 by comparison to airborne and ground measurements. This is possible only through a major effort involving a large group of international partners. DTU Space has been involved in the CryoVEx campaigns with airborne activities since 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter...... (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. The campaigns are focused on five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice...... north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar-5 carrying an EM-bird. This presentation summarizes the 2011-12 airborne campaigns...
Silva, Marsil A. C.; Guerrieri, Daduí C.; Cervone, Angelo; Gill, Eberhard
CubeSats have been extensively used in the past decade as scientific tools, technology demonstrators and for education. Recently, PocketQubes have emerged as an interesting and even smaller alternative to CubeSats. However, both satellite types often lack some key capabilities, such as micropropulsion, in order to further extend the range of applications of these small satellites. This paper reviews the current development status of micropropulsion systems fabricated with MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) and silicon technology intended to be used in CubeSat or PocketQube missions and compares different technologies with respect to performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and power as well as in terms of operational complexity. More than 30 different devices are analyzed and divided into 7 main categories according to the working principle. A specific outcome of the research is the identification of the current status of MEMS technologies for micropropulsion including key opportunities and challenges.
Bowen, Brent D.; Russell, Valerie; Vlasek, Karisa; Avery, Shelly; Calamaio, Larry; Carstenson, Larry; Farritor, Shane; deSilva, Shan; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne
The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) continues to recognize the necessity of increasing the quantity and quality of highly skilled graduates and faculty involved with NASA. Through NASA Workforce Development funds awarded in 2002, NSGC spearheaded customer- focused workforce training and higher education, industry and community partnerships that are significantly impacting the state s workforce in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) competencies. NSGC proposes to build upon these accomplishments to meet the steadily increasing demand for STEM skills and to safeguard minority representation in these disciplines. A wide range of workforce development activities target NASA s need to establish stronger connections among higher education, industry, and community organizations. Participation in the National Student Satellite Program (NSSP), Community Internship Program, and Nebraska Science and Technology Recruitment Fair will extend the pipeline of employees benefiting NASA as well as Nebraska. The diversity component of this proposal catapults from the exceptional reputation NSGC has built by delivering geospatial science experiences to Nebraska s Native Americans. For 6 years, NSGC has fostered and sustained partnerships with the 2 tribal colleges and 4 reservation school districts in Nebraska to foster aeronautics education and outreach. This program, the Nebraska Native American Outreach Program (NNAOP), has grown to incorporate more than educational institutions and is now a partnership among tribal community leaders, academia, tribal schools, and industry. The content focus has broadened from aeronautics in the school systems to aerospace technology and earth science applications in tribal community decision-making and workforce training on the reservations. To date, participants include faculty and staff at 4 Nebraska tribal schools, 2 tribal colleges, approximately 1,000 Native American youth, and over 1,200 community members
Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Ball, L.B.; Steele, G.V.; Deszcz-Pan, M.
This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey conducted by Fugro Airborne Surveys in areas of eastern Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the Lower Platte North and Lower Platte South Natural Resources Districts, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey flight lines covered 1,418.6 line km (882 line mile). The survey was flown from April 22 to May 2, 2009. The objective of the contracted survey was to improve the understanding of the relation between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic data were converted to georeferenced electrical resistivity grids and maps for each frequency that represent different approximate depths of investigation for each survey area. The electrical resistivity data were input into a numerical inversion to estimate resistivity variations with depth. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of flight line data, digital grids, digital databases of the inverted electrical resistivity with depth, and digital maps of the apparent resistivity and total magnetic field. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. The survey areas, Swedeburg and Sprague, were chosen based on results from test flights in 2007 in eastern Nebraska and needs of local water managers. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the area.
Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C
Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.
Maat, P.B.; Johnson, W.C.
Loess of late Quaternary age mantles most of Nebraska south of the Platte River Valley. At least five late Quaternary loesses are recognized: from oldest to youngest, one or more undifferentiated pre-lllinoian loesses, the Loveland Loess, the Gilman Canyon Loess, which exhibits a well developed soil and rests unconformably on the Sangamon soil, the Peoria Loess capped by the Brady soil, and the Bignell Loess, which is distributed discontinuously. Previous research shows that the Loveland Loess is Illinoian. the Gilman Canyon Loess and Peoria Loess are Wisconsin, and the Bignell Loess is Holocene. We present here the first thermoluminescence (TL) age estimates and new C ages for these late Quaternary loesses at two key sections in southwestern Nebraska, the Eustis ash pit and the Bignell Hill road cut. TL age estimates from all samples collected from Eustis ash pit and Bignell Hill were internally consistent. TL and C age estimates from these two sections generally agree and support previous age determinations. The TL age estimate on Loveland Loess indicates deposition at 163 ka. TL and radiocarbon age estimates indicate that Oilman Canyon Loess, believed to be deposited during the Farmdale interstade, first began to accumulate at about 40 ka: the lower part of the Gilman Canyon Loess is 36 ka at Eustis and the middle of the unit is 30 ka at Bignell Hill. The lower and upper parts of the Peoria Loess give age estimates of 24 ka and 17 ka, respectively. TL age estimates for deposition of the Bignell Loess are 9 ka near the base, in agreement with radiocarbon age estimates, and 6 ka immediately below the modern soil, substantiating its Holocene age. Comparisons of TL age estimates with ??18O and insolation curves which show loess deposition during interglacial and interstadial as well as glacial periods, indicate that loess deposition on the Great Plains can occur under a variety of climatic conditions.
Isham, B.; Gustavsson, B.; Bullett, T. W.; Bergman, J. E. S.; Rincón-Charris, A.; Bruhn, F.; Funk, P.
The ionosphere is a source of many radio emissions in the various low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency bands (0 to 30 MHz). In addition to natural radio emissions, artificial emissions can be stimulated using high-power radiowave ionospheric modification facilities. Two complementary projects are underway for the purpose of improving our knowledge of the processes of radio emissions from the ionosphere. One project is the Aguadilla radio array, located in northwestern Puerto Rico. The Aguadilla array is intended to produce 2 to 25 MHz radio images of the ionosphere, as well as to perform bistatic radar imaging of the ionosphere over Puerto Rico. The array will consist of multiple antenna elements, each of which is a single active (electromagnetically short) crossed electric dipole. The elements are arranged within a roughly 200 by 300-meter core array, in a semi-random pattern providing an optimal distribution of baseline vectors, with 6-meter minimum spacing to eliminate spacial aliasing. In addition, several elements are arranged in a partial ring around the central core, providing a roughly four times expanded region in u-v space for improved image resolution and quality. Phase is maintained via cabled connections to a central location. A remote array is also being developed, in which phase is maintained between elements by through the use of GPS-disciplined rubidium clocks. The other project involves the GimmeRF radio instrument, designed for 0.3 to 30 MHz vector observation of the radio electric field, and planned for launch in 2020 on a CubeSat. The data rate that can be sustained by GimmeRF far exceeds any available communication strategy. By exploiting fast on-board computing and efficient artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms for analysis and data selection, the usage of the telemetry link can be optimized and value added to the mission. Radio images recorded by the radio array from below the ionosphere can be directly compared with the
Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, a neuropsychiatric condition characterised by attention and impulsivity problems, is one of the most common behavioral disorders. The first line of treatment for ADHD is psychostimulant medication, but this has limited effectiveness, particularly in adults, and is often associated with adverse side-effects. Thus, it is imperative that new non-pharmaceutical approaches to treatment are developed. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a non-pharmacological Self-Alert Training (SAT intervention on ADHD symptom prevalence, psychological and cognitive functioning, and on everyday functional impairment in adults with ADHD. Fifty-one adult participants with a current diagnosis of ADHD were randomized to either SAT or a Control Training (CT program. They were assessed at baseline, immediately following the 5-week training period, and after 3 months using ADHD symptoms scales, as well as a series of neuropsychological tests and psychological questionnaires. Subjective ratings of everyday life attention and memory problems were also collected. The SAT group showed significant improvements in ADHD inattentive and impulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms and in self-efficacy ratings compared to the CT group at both post-training and at the 3-month assessment. Pre-post improvements in SAT participants on untrained cognitive tasks measuring selective attention and executive functions were also observed. Finally, the SAT group reported improved subjective ratings of everyday life attention at both assessment points. This pattern of results suggests that SAT may be beneficial in treating ADHD symptoms as well as psychological and cognitive impairments in adult ADHD. A large-scale randomized controlled trial is needed.
Erdoǧan, Enes; Inalhan, Gokhan; Kemal Üre, Nazım
Recent studies show that there is a high probability that a liquid ocean exists under thick icy surface of Jupiter's Moon Europa. The findings also show that Europa has features that are similar to Earth, such as geological activities. As a result of these studies, Europa has promising environment of being habitable and currently there are many missions in both planning and execution level that target Europa. However, these missions usually involve extremely high budgets over extended periods of time. The objective of this talk is to argue that the mission costs can be reduced significantly by integrating CubeSat systems within Europa exploration missions. In particular, we introduce an integrated CubeSat-micro probe system, which can be used for measuring the size and depth of the hypothetical liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa. The systems consist of an entry module that houses a CubeSat combined with driller measurement probes. Driller measurement probes deploy before the system hits the surface and penetrate the surface layers of Europa. Moreover, a micro laser probe could be used to examine the layers. This process enables investigation of the properties of the icy layer and the environment beneath the surface. Through examination of different scenarios and cost analysis of the components, we show that the proposed CubeSat systems has a significant potential to reduce the cost of the overall mission. Both subsystem requirements and launch prices of CubeSats are dramatically cheaper than currently used satellites. In addition, multiple CubeSats may be used to dominate wider area in space and they are expandable in face of potential failures. In this talk we discuss both the mission design and cost reduction aspects.
Wen, Y. L.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lou, B.
Nowadays, we were facing with water resource shortage along with water pollution. It was important to undertake the cost effective technology to treat polluted water whilst encourage water reuse. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) was an efficient technology, using the infiltration process of mediation, adsorption and biodegradation on the pollutants in the environment to achieve the goal of recycling water. For a better understanding of the transport and attenuation of para-nitrophenol (P-NP) and the change of microbial community at the stress of p-nitrophenol in soil aquifer treatment system, two column experiments were operated to investigate the physical, chemical, and microbial dynamics. At the same time, the bio-augment method was used to enhance the SAT biodegradation system. The SAT column experiment was operated about 38 days, which demonstrated that two reduction zones were revealed at the middle of the column and the biodiversity of the microbial community could be destroyed under the P-NP stress. Absorption was the main removal mechanism according to the obtained experimental data. By using the displacement method, the BIO-SAT system was operated about 36 days, which showed perfect outcome for the P-NP removal at a higher concentration. From the PCR-DGGE and high throughput sequencing study, enhanced bacteria could form a stable biological community with indigenous communities. Through the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) microbial degradation and environmental factors, the results showed that the pH was a very important parameter affects the degradation of nitrophenol degradation bacteria. The metal ions under the condition of low concentration can promote the growth of microbial degradation. This study provide valuable result on the attenuation potential of for the bio-enhanced SAT system (BIO-SAT). (No Image Selected)
Opoku, Samuel T; Apenteng, Bettye A; Lin, Ge; Chen, Li-Wu; Palm, David; Rauner, Thomas
There is a dearth of literature evaluating the effectiveness of programs aimed at recruiting and retaining physicians in rural Nebraska. Taking advantage of the Nebraska Health Professional Tracking System, this study attempts to comparatively assess the effectiveness of the J-1 visa waiver and state loan repayment programs in the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural Nebraska. A mixed methods approach was used. We tracked 240 physicians who enrolled in the J-1 visa waiver and state loan repayment programs between 1996 and 2012 until 2013. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to obtain perspectives on the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural Nebraska through the 2 programs. Results from multilevel survival regression analysis indicated that physicians enrolled in the J-1 visa waiver program were more likely to leave rural Nebraska when compared with those enrolled in the state loan repayment program. Participants in the qualitative study, however, cautioned against declaring one program as superior over the other, given that the 2 programs addressed different needs for different communities. In addition, results suggested that fostering the integration of physicians and their families into rural communities might be a way of enhancing retention, regardless of program. The findings from this study highlight the complexity of recruitment and retention issues in rural Nebraska and suggest the need for more holistic and family-centered approaches to addressing these issues. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Jiang, Liguang; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
, the Northeast China Plain, and the central Yangtze River basin. Estimated changes in volume indicate that surface water variation contributes significantly to terrestrial storage variation, especially in the Qaidam Basin and the Tibetan Plateau. CryoSat-2 is capable of measuring regional-scale river level....... Comparatively, accuracy is much lower over the Yangtze and Pearl Rivers (RMSE ~ 2.6 m and ~ 3.3 m), probably due to intensive inland waterway navigation. CryoSat-2 shows great potential for monitoring surface water at national scale in China....
Regina Maria Kuranaga dos Santos
O problema de manobras ótimas de atitude de um satélite artificial com simetria cilíndrica ou esférica é analisado, considerando um sistema de propulsão a baixo empuxo e potência limitada. O problema de Mayer, com o sistema dinâmico descrito pelas equações do movimento rotacional do satélite, na forma canônica estendida, nas variáveis de Andoyer, é considerado. Um modelo analítico para manobras de atitude de pequena amplitude, considerando a atitude de referência descrita pelo movimento rotac...
Wikne, J.C.; Skaali, B.
The Small Angle Tagger (SAT) in the DELPHI experiment at CERN concists of detector units placed close to the beam on both sides of the interaction point. The track detector part of the SAT is built of Si-strip detectors where position can be measured to an accurancy of 1 mm in the radial direction. A specially developed Fastbus module for reading and front end buffering of the data from the track detector is decribed in the report. The description is intended as a complete technical manual for the module. 13 refs.; 27 figs
Full Text Available SAT-Expo Europe 2008: new scenarios for Location Based Services From the 27th to the 29th of March, the 14th edition of SAT-Expo Europe 2008 was held in Rome. The exhibition showed some of the latest innovations and initiatives, by italian and european aerospace industries, regarding satellite technologies and satellite applications. Workshops and conference meetings have been organized with industry managers and public administrators around the main topics, while thousands of visitors were visiting stands and meet professionals of the space sector.
Full Text Available SAT-Expo Europe 2008: new scenarios for Location Based ServicesFrom the 27th to the 29th of March, the 14th edition of SAT-Expo Europe 2008 was held in Rome. The exhibition showed some of the latest innovations and initiatives, by italian and european aerospace industries, regarding satellite technologies and satellite applications. Workshops and conference meetings have been organized with industry managers and public administrators around the main topics, while thousands of visitors were visiting stands and meet professionals of the space sector.
This thesis describes the functionality and performance of the fastbus trigger modules for the Small Angle Tagger (SAT) detector in the DELPHI experiment at the LEP machine at CERN. The main purpose of the modules is to provide a Bhabha trigger for the SAT calorimeter used for luminosity measurements. The author has bee responsible for the design, production, testing and installation of the trigger modules. All the test programs necessary to confirm that the modules function according to the specifications are included in this work. Is does not, however, aim to make detailed technical descriptions of the modules. 44 refs., 39 figs., 18 tabs
Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter
Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential
Scott, Katherine A; Kotecha, Abhay; Seago, Julian; Ren, Jingshan; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Maree, Francois F
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), particularly strains of the O and SAT serotypes, is notoriously unstable. Consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile SAT viruses have been linked to the induction of immunity with a poor duration and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. In silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the interpentamer interface, supporting increased stability. We assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant viruses in regard to their growth kinetics, antigenicity, plaque morphology, genetic stability, and temperature, ionic, and pH stability by using Thermofluor and inactivation assays in order to evaluate potential SAT2 vaccine candidates with improved stability. The most stable mutant for temperature and pH stability was the S2093Y single mutant, while other promising mutants were the E3198A, L2094V, and S2093H single mutants and the F2062Y-H2087M-H3143V triple mutant. Although the S2093Y mutant had the greatest stability, it exhibited smaller plaques, a reduced growth rate, a change in monoclonal antibody footprint, and poor genetic stability properties compared to those of the wild-type virus. However, these factors affecting production can be overcome. The addition of 1 M NaCl was found to further increase the stability of the SAT2 panel of viruses. The S2093Y and S2093H mutants were selected for future use in stabilizing SAT2 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in cloven-hoofed livestock and wildlife. The control of the disease by vaccination is essential, especially at livestock-wildlife interfaces. The instability of some serotypes, such as SAT2, affects the quality of vaccines and therefore the duration of immunity. We have shown that we can improve the stability of SAT2 viruses by mutating residues at the capsid interface through predictive modeling. This is an important finding for
Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Connor, Laurence N.; Farrell, Sinead L.
The CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) has been conducted by ESA, to examine the uncertainties in the satellite measurement of e.g. sea ice thickness. In this study, we aim to estimate the sea ice freeboard from CryoSat-2, and compare it with the high-resolution Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS......) measurements collected along CryoSat-2 ground tracks from the CryoVEx 2012 campaign, together with NASA’s Operation IceBridge data. We will use the CryoSat SAR data level 1b (L1b) to discriminate the leads and from this, estimate the sea ice freeboard. Furthermore, we are looking at the CryoSat level 2 (L2...
The Oligocene White River Group consists of the Chadron and the overlying Brule Formations in northwestern Nebraska. The Chadron Formation consists of alluvial and colluvial vitric mudstone beds, but in addition contains white persistent layers (purplish-white layers) that probably resulted from soil formation on vitric parent material. West of the current study area a basal sandstone facies of the Chadron is host rock for the Crow Butte uranium deposit. The Brule, which consists mostly of pedogenically altered alluvial and fluvial vitric mudstone deposits, contains a uraniferous lacustrine facies northwest of Chadron, Nebraska. Detrital minerals in rocks of the White River Group include quartz, feldspar, volcanic glass, smectite, and illite. Chemical precipitate minerals in the lacustrine facies are calcite, dolomite, and gypsum. Authigenic minerals include calcite, dolomite, gypsum, smectite, opal, chalcedony, together with oxidized uranium minerals
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro-cathode Arc Thruster Phonesat Experiment was a joint project between George Washington University and NASA Ames Research Center that successfully...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to mature the technology readiness of a radiation tolerant smallsat computer system for a subsequent orbital flight demonstration. The...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future satellite systems and interplanetary missions are projected to require power electronics and energy storage systems that are less massive and smaller than the...
Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.
Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.
Hite, Jenny; Lord, Joan
This brief report offers analysis of ACT and SAT results from 2008 to 2013 in the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. The brief focuses on the increase in test participation rates and points to policies that SREB states initiated that affected these rates. Five SREB states currently require 100 percent student participation on the…
Zhai, C.; Shao, M.; Lai, S.; Boerner, P.; Dyer, J.; Lu, E.; Reitsema, H.; Buie, M.
We report results from analyzing the data taken by the sCMOS cameras on board of SkySat3 using the synthetic tracking technique. The analysis demonstrates the expected sensitivity improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the faint asteroids from properly stacking up the short exposure images in post-processing.
Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
recovery of geophysical signal was achieved from measurements averaged to 5 Hz, rather than the simulated 20 Hz full resolution data. A first validation of these theoretical modelling results with respect to resolution and noise is presented using various CryoSat-2 data, and evaluated against conventional...
Passaretti, Mike; Hayes, Ron
Small satellites and in particular CubeSats, have increasingly become more viable as platforms for payloads typically requiring much larger bus structures. As advances in technology make payloads and instruments for space missions smaller, lighter and more power efficient, a niche market is emerging from the university community to perform rapidly developed, low-cost missions on very small spacecraft - micro, nano, and picosatellites. In just the last few years, imaging, biological and new technology demonstration missions have been either proposed or have flown using variations of the CubeSat structure as a basis. As these missions have become more complex, and the CubeSat standard has increased in both size (number of cubes) and mass, available power has become an issue. Body-mounted solar cells provide a minimal amount of power; deployable arrays improve on that baseline but are still limited. To truly achieve maximum power, deployed tracked arrays are necessary. To this end, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, along with MMA of Nederland Colorado, has developed a solar array drive assembly (SADA) and deployable solar arrays specifically for CubeSat missions. In this paper, we discuss the development of the SADA.
Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine
This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom
After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...
Kohout, Tomáš; Näsilä, A.; Tikka, T.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.; Kestilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Kallio, E.
Roč. 18 (2016) ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : CubeSat * asteroid * AIDA * reflectance spectra ASPECT Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/EGU2016-8434.pdf
Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René
After the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, the first direct validation campaign of the satellite was carried out in the April-May 2011. Part of this was repeated in Spring 2012. DTU Space has been involved in ESA’s CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) with airborne activities since...... 2003. To validate the performance of the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter (SIRAL), the aircraft is equipped with an airborne version of the SIRAL altimeter (ASIRAS) together with a laser scanner. Of particular interest is to study the penetration depth of SIRAL into both land- and sea ice. This can be done...... of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat-2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the AlfredWegener Institute (AWI) Polar- 5 carrying an EM induction sounder. The paper presents an overview of the 2011-12 airborne campaigns...
Coe, R.P.; Bruno, R.J.
The Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) has become the internationally accepted standard for the identification, organization, development and delivery of performance - based training. The SAT methodology has been defined and endorsed by the National Academy for Nuclear Training (NANT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through the routine use of the SAT process organizations, including non-nuclear industries, have been provided with a consistent methodology to determine the level of knowledge and skills that are required to successfully perform job related tasks. However, due to the complexity of each NPP job position and those in other highly technical organizations an enormous volume of data is required to develop, deliver and maintain a performance - based training program. This burden most often falls on the Training Department and requires proficient information management to ensure that all aspects of job performance are incorporated into position specific training programs. Traditionally the SAT process has been a costly and labor- intensive endeavor that many organizations are beginning to challenge as 'too expensive'. Organizations in the US are spending 60+ billion dollars annually on training and the number is growing rapidly. These organizations are also demanding that training: Develop shorter timeframes for learning; Bring physically disconnected employees together in a virtual learning environment; Optimize training by leveraging technology; Be diverse enough to support employee careers; More clearly demonstrate training's ROI; Accommodate cultural diversity and learning differences. (author)
Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels
, in space, multiple autonomous processes intended for spacecraft applications such as autonomous star identification, attitude determination and identification and tracking of non-stellar objects, imaging and real-time compression of image and science data for further ground analysis. AVS successfully...... determined the attitude and attitude dynamics of TeamSat....
With a rapid increase in the interest in use of nanosatellites in the past decade, finding a precise and low-power-consuming attitude control system for these satellites has been a real challenge. In this thesis, it is intended to design and test an electrospray thruster system that could perform the attitude control of a 1-unit CubeSat. Firstly, an experimental setup is built to calculate the conductivity of different liquids that could be used as propellants for the CubeSat. Secondly, a Time-Of-Flight experiment is performed to find out the thrust and specific impulse given by these liquids and hence selecting the optimum propellant. On the other hand, a colloidal thruster system for a 1-U CubeSat is designed in Solidworks and fabricated using Lathe and CNC Milling Machine. Afterwards, passive propellant feeding is tested in this thruster system. Finally, the electronic circuit and wireless control system necessary to remotely control the CubeSat is designed and the final testing is performed. Among the propellants studied, Ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN) was selected as the best propellant for the CubeSat. Theoretical design and fabrication of the thruster system was performed successfully and so was the passive propellant feeding test. The satellite was assembled for the final experiment but unfortunately the microcontroller broke down during the first test and no promising results were found out. However, after proving that one thruster works with passive feeding, it could be said that the ACS testing would have worked if we had performed vacuum compatibility tests for other components beforehand.
NASA Ames Research Center and the George Washington University are developing an electric propulsion subsystem that will be integrated into the PhoneSat bus. Experimental tests have shown a reliable performance by firing three different thrusters at various frequencies in vacuum conditions. The interface consists of a microcontroller that sends a trigger pulse to the Pulsed Plasma Unit that is responsible for the thruster operation. A Smartphone is utilized as the main user interface for the selection of commands that control the entire system. The propellant, which is the cathode itself, is a solid cylinder made of Titanium. This simplicity in the design avoids miniaturization and manufacturing problems. The characteristics of this thruster allow an array of µCATs to perform attitude control and orbital correction maneuvers that will open the door for the implementation of an extensive collection of new mission concepts and space applications for CubeSats. NASA Ames is currently working on the integration of the system to fit the thrusters and the PPU inside a 1.5U CubeSat together with the PhoneSat bus. This satellite is intended to be deployed from the ISS in 2015 and test the functionality of the thrusters by spinning the satellite around its long axis and measure the rotational speed with the phone gyros. This test flight will raise the TRL of the propulsion system from 5 to 7 and will be a first test for further CubeSats with propulsion systems, a key subsystem for long duration or interplanetary small satellite missions.
Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.
The Rainwater Basin in Nebraska has been a historic staging area for midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) since the 1950s and, in the mid-1990s, millions of midcontinent lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) expanded their spring migration route to include this region. In response to speculation that snow geese may be in direct competition with white-fronted geese, we compared staging ecology by quantifying diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and time budgets during springs 1998–1999. Collected white-fronted geese (n = 190) and snow geese (n = 203) consumed primarily corn (Zea mays; 97–98% aggregate dry mass) while staging in Nebraska; thus, diet overlap was nearly complete. Both species used cornfields most frequently during the morning (54–55%) and wetlands more during the afternoon (51–65%). When found grouped together, snow goose abundance was greater than white-fronted goose abundance by an average of 57 times (se = 11, n = 131 groups) in crop fields and 28 times (se = 9, n = 84 groups) in wetlands. Snow geese and white-fronted geese flew similar distances between roosting and feeding sites, leaving and returning to wetland roost sties at similar times in mornings and afternoons. Overlap in habitat-specific time budgets was high; resting was the most common behavior on wetlands, and foraging was a common behavior in fields. We observed 111 interspecific agonistic interactions while observing white-fronted and snow geese. White-fronted geese initiated and dominated more interactions with other waterfowl species than did snow geese (32 vs. 14%). Certain aspects of spring-staging niches (i.e., diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and habitat-specific behavior) of white-fronted and snow geese overlapped greatly at this mid-latitude staging site, creating opportunity for potential food- and habitat-based competition between species. Snow geese did not consistently dominate
Convinced since 1997 that the satellite was capable of providing a real added value either autonomously or as a complement to terrestrial infrastructures, CNES (the French Space Agency) began a determined study, validation and demonstration procedure for new satellite services. At a national but also European and worldwide level, several experiments or projects have been set-up. In each of them (tele-consultations, distant education, tele-epidemiology, tele-echography, assistance to people, training and therapeutic assistance, disaster telemedicine, etc...) well suited satcoms are used. (telecommunications for broadcasting, multicasting, downloading,...- localization, positioning, - low medium and high data rate bidirectional systems,). Medical reference people are associated in each pilot projects first to define the needs but also to manage the medical validation aspects. Our aim is always to test, validate and adapt these new services to bring them into line with the users' expectations. The value added of these technologies in sustainable healthcare services are systematically demonstrated in real situations, with real users, both in terms of quality of service and of economic validity. For several projects CNES has developed typical hardware, or technical on as technical platform. The main projects and their relevant satcom systems will be presented and discussed : - Tele-consultation, - Distance learning and training, - Assistance to people, - Tele-epidemiology, - Disaster telemedicine.
Roč. 112, č. 12 (2012), s. 490-493 ISSN 0020-0190 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.488, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020019012000774
Full Text Available A time-saving approach to perform technical calculations of thermal conditions of orbital motion of 3U CubeSat nanosatellite was applied, which made it possible to make the thermal calculations of a satellite with simple structure geometry using MatLab and SolidWorks Simulation. Passive thermal regulation facilities are sufficient for a 3U CubeSat to provide thermal conductivity of the case’s structural elements and to remove heat from the lighted surface and internal components to the satellite’s shadowed surface. Application of spectrally selective coatings allows narrowing the range of surface temperatures of 3U CubeSat.
Haak, Danielle M.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.
The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species found throughout the USA. Little is known about this species’ life history or ecology, and only one population estimate has been published, for Wild Plum Lake in southeast Nebraska. A recent die-off event occurred at this same reservoir and we present a mortality estimate for this B. chinensis population using a quadrat approach. Assuming uniform distribution throughout the newly-exposed lake bed (20,900 m2), we estimate 42,845 individuals died during this event, amounting to approximately 17% of the previously-estimated population size of 253,570. Assuming uniform distribution throughout all previously-reported available habitat (48,525 m2), we estimate 99,476 individuals died, comprising 39% of the previously-reported adult population. The die-off occurred during an extreme drought event, which was coincident with abnormally hot weather. However, the exact reason of the die-off is still unclear. More monitoring of the population dynamics of B. chinensis is necessary to further our understanding of this species’ ecology.
Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.
The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.
Surovchak, Scott [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The 2008 Long-Term Surveillance Plan [LTSP] for the Decommissioned Hallam Nuclear Power Facility, Hallam, Nebraska (http://www.lm.doe.gov/Hallam/Documents.aspx) requires groundwater monitoring once every 2 years. Seventeen monitoring wells at the Hallam site were sampled during this event as specified in the plan. Planned monitoring locations are shown in Attachment 1, Sampling and Analysis Work Order. Water levels were measured at all sampled wells and at two additional wells (6A and 6B) prior to the start of sampling. Additionally, water levels of each sampled well were measured at the beginning of sampling. See Attachment 2, Trip Report, for additional details. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Gross alpha and gross beta are the only parameters that were detected at statistically significant concentrations. Time/concentration graphs of the gross alpha and gross beta data are included in Attachment 3, Data Presentation. The gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations observed are consistent with values previously observed and are attributed to naturally occurring radionuclides (e.g., uranium and uranium decay chain products) in the groundwater.
Sesmero, Juan P
This study develops a model of crop residue (i.e. stover) supply and derived demand for irrigation water accounting for non-linear effects of soil organic matter on soil's water holding capacity. The model is calibrated for typical conditions in central Nebraska, United States, and identifies potential interactions between water and biofuel policies. The price offered for feedstock by a cost-minimizing plant facing that stover supply response is calculated. Results indicate that as biofuel production volumes increase, soil carbon depletion per unit of biofuel produced decreases. Consumption of groundwater per unit of biofuel produced first decreases and then increases (after a threshold of 363 dam(3) of biofuels per year) due to plants' increased reliance on the extensive margin for additional biomass. The analysis reveals a tension between biofuel and water policies. As biofuel production raises the economic benefits of relaxing water conservation policies (measured by the "shadow price" of water) increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pettijohn, R.A.; Engberg, R.A.
Eleven sets of samples from five sites on Antelope Creek and Dead Man 's Run in Lincoln, Nebraska, were collected from December 1982 through June 1983 to study water-quality variations. Specific-conductance values generally were similar for Antelope Creek at 52nd Street and 27th Street, but during a low-flow survey of December 1 they increased from 974 to 8,700 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 C from 27th Street to Court Street. Seepage of saline water from underlying bedrock to the stream occurs in this reach. Specific-conductance values were less variable for Dead Man 's Run, increasing an average of only 47 percent from 66th Street to U.S. Highway 6. Specific-conductance values were less at high flows in Antelope Creek, except in samples collected on January 6, 1983, which contained runoff from salted streets. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these samples were from 5 to 10 times greater than those measured in any other samples. Stray-current corrosion occurs when current flows between dissimilar metals. Zinc-coated wire of channel-stabilization structures (gabions) may be an anode and material within the stream banks may be a cathode. Dissolution of the zinc coating by this type of corrosion may be a cause for gabion deterioration in both streams. (USGS)
Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Nebraska. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.
Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0844 (United States); Shockley, Johnette [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 203B Peter Kiewit Institute, Omaha, NE 68182-0178 (United States); Hoagland, Kyle [UNL Water Center, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583-0995 (United States)
The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent.
Steele, Gregory V.; Cannia, James C.
In 1993, a 3-year study was begun to describe the geohydrology and water quality of the North Platte River alluvial aquifer near Oshkosh, Garden County, Nebraska. The study's objectives are to evaluate the geohydrologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and to establish a network of observation wells for long-term monitoring of temporal variations and spatial distributions of nitrate and major-ion concentrations. Monitor wells were installed at 11 sites near Oshkosh. The geohydrology of the aquifer was characterized based on water-level measurements and two short-term aquifer tests. Bimonthly water samples were collected and analyzed for pH, specific conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients that included dissolved nitrate. Concentrations of major ions were defined from analyses of semiannual water samples. Analyses of the geohydrologic and water-quality data indicate that the aquifer is vulnerable to nitrate contamination. These data also show that nitrate concentrations in ground water flowing into and out of the study area are less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Level of 10 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Ground water from Lost Creek Valley may be mixing with ground water in the North Platte River Valley, somewhat moderating nitrate concentrations near Oshkosh.
Within the context of innovative coursework and other educational activities, we are proposing the establishment of a University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) Center for the Use of Space Data in Teaching and Learning. This Center will provide an exciting and motivating process for educators at all levels to become involved in professional development and training which engages real life applications of mathematics, science, and technology. The Center will facilitate innovative courses (including online and distance education formats), systematic degree programs, classroom research initiatives, new instructional methods and tools, engaging curriculum materials, and various symposiums. It will involve the active participation of several Departments and Colleges on the UNO campus and be well integrated into the campus environment. It will have a direct impact on pre-service and in-service educators, the K12 (kindergarten through 12th grade) students that they teach, and other college students of various science, mathematics, and technology related disciplines, in which they share coursework. It is our belief that there are many exciting opportunities represented by space data and imagery, as a context for engaging mathematics, science, and technology education. The UNO Center for Space Data Use in Teaching and Learning being proposed in this document will encompass a comprehensive training and dissemination strategy that targets the improvement of K-12 education, through changes in the undergraduate and graduate preparation of teachers in science, mathematics and technology education.
Merino, G. G.; Jones, D.; Stooksbury, D. E.; Hubbard, K. G.
In this paper, linear and spherical semivariogram models were determined for use in kriging hourly and daily solar irradiation for every season of the year. The data used to generate the models were from 18 weather stations in western Nebraska. The models generated were tested using cross validation. The performance of the spherical and linear semivariogram models were compared with each other and also with the semivariogram models based on the best fit to the sample semivariogram of a particular day or hour. There were no significant differences in the performance of the three models. This result and the comparable errors produced by the models in kriging indicated that the linear and spherical models could be used to perform kriging at any hour and day of the year without deriving an individual semivariogram model for that day or hour.The seasonal mean absolute errors associated with kriging, within the network, when using the spherical or the linear semivariograms models were between 10% and 13% of the mean irradiation for daily irradiation and between 12% and 20% for hourly irradiation. These errors represent an improvement of 1%-2% when compared with replacing data at a given site with the data of the nearest weather station.
Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon, Teyona; Shockley, Johnette; Hoagland, Kyle
The occurrence and estimated concentration of twenty illicit and therapeutic pharmaceuticals and metabolites in surface waters influenced by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and in wastewater effluents in Nebraska were determined using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Samplers were installed in rivers upstream and downstream of treated WWTP discharge at four sites and in a discharge canal at a fifth location. Based on differences in estimated concentrations determined from pharmaceuticals recovered from POCIS, WWTP effluent was found to be a significant source of pharmaceutical loading to the receiving waters. Effluents from WWTPs with trickling filters or trickling filters in parallel with activated sludge resulted in the highest observed in-stream pharmaceutical concentrations. Azithromycin, caffeine, 1,7-dimethylzanthine, carbamazepine, cotinine, DEET, diphenhydramine, and sulfamethazine were detected at all locations. Methamphetamine, an illicit pharmaceutical, was detected at all but one of the sampling locations, representing only the second report of methamphetamine detected in WWTP effluent and in streams impacted by WWTP effluent. - Passive samplers were used to develop semi-quantitative estimates of pharmaceutical concentrations in receiving waters influenced by wastewater effluent
Grandstaff, D.E., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Terry, D.O. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)
Fossil bones and teeth from terrestrial environments encode unique rare earth and trace element (REE and TE) signatures as a function of redox conditions, pH, concentrations of complexing ligands, and water-colloid interactions. This signature is set early in the fossilization process and serves as a paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic proxy. These signatures can also be used to interpret temporal and spatial averaging within vertebrate accumulations, and can help relocate displaced fossil bones back into stratigraphic context. Rare earth elements in vertebrate fossils from upper Eocene and Oligocene strata of Toadstool Geologic Park, northwestern Nebraska, record mixing and evolution of Paleogene vadose or groundwaters and variations in paleoenvironments. REE signatures indicate that HREE-enriched alkaline groundwater reacted with LREE- and MREE-enriched sediments to produce 3-component mixtures. REE signatures become increasingly LREE- and MREE-enriched toward the top of the studied section as the paleoenvironment became cooler and drier, suggesting that REE signatures may be climate proxies. Time series analysis suggests that REE ratios are influenced by cycles of ca. 1050, 800, 570, 440, and 225 ka, similar to some previously determined Milankovitch astronomical and climate periodicities.
Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Densmore, Brenda K.; Strauch, Kellan R.
In 2011, unprecedented flooding in the Missouri River prompted transportation agencies to increase the frequency of monitoring riverbed elevations near bridges that cross the Missouri River. Hydrographic surveys were completed in cooperation with the Nebraska Department of Roads, using a multibeam echosounder at 15 highway bridges spanning the Missouri River from Niobrara to Rulo, Nebraska during and after the extreme 2011 flood. Evidence of bed elevation change near bridge piers was documented. The greatest amount of bed elevation change during the 2011 flood documented for this study occurred at the Burt County Missouri River Bridge at Decatur, Nebraska, where scour of about 45 feet, from before flooding, occurred between a bridge abutment and pier. Of the remaining sites, highway bridges where bed elevation change near piers appeared to have exceeded 10 feet include the Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge at Blair, Nebr., Bellevue Bridge at Bellevue, Nebr., and Nebraska City Bridge at Nebraska City, Nebr. Hydrographic surveys at 14 of the 15 sites were completed in mid-July and again in early October or late-November 2011. Near three of the bridges, the bed elevation of locations surveyed in July increased by more than 10 feet, on average, by late October or early November 2011. Bed elevations increased between 1 and 10 feet, on average, near six bridges. Near the remaining four bridges, bed elevations decreased between 1 and 4 feet, on average, from July to late October or early November.
Scagliola, Michele; Tagliani, Nicolas; Fornari, Marco; Bouzinac, Catherine; Parrinello, Tommaso
CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. The attitude information of the spacecraft is provided by star trackers, that have an internal accuracy of few arc-seconds. By analysis of the CryoSat products, two different studies [1, 2] verified the existence of a bias between the pitch reported by the star trackers and the actual pitch of CryoSat during its flight. However those studies, that use two different methods to evaluate the actual pitch, provided different values for the pitch bias. This poster is aimed at describing a further method to estimated the pitch with which the satellite is actually flying by analysis of the stacks of the single look echoes that are accumulated for a given location of sea surface during the Level1 processing. In fact, over ocean the power of the single look echoes for a given point is shaped by the along-track antenna pattern. As a consequence, estimating the angular direction of pointing of the antenna from the stack, an estimate of the pitch can be obtained. Finally, the bias evaluated starting from the pitch measured with the proposed method is compared with the pitch bias measured in [1, 2].  Galin,N. and Wingham, D., Estimating Pitch Angle of CryoSat-2 using the Power Distribution of the Synthetic Aperture, presented at SAR Altimetry Expert Group Meeting, Southampton UK, June 25-27, 2013.  Smith, W.H.F. and Scharroo, R., Retracking range, SWH, sigma-naught, and attitude in CryoSat conventional ocean data. In proceedings of Ocean Surface Topography Science Team Meeting. San Diego, October 19-21, 2011.
Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.
This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth
Julia, Gaudelli,; Baker, Steve; Haas, Christian
Since its launch in April 2010 Cryosat has been collecting valuable sea ice data over the Arctic region. Over the same period ESA’s CryoVEx and NASA IceBridge validation campaigns have been collecting a unique set of coincident airborne measurements in the Arctic. The CryoVal-SI project has...... community. In this talk we will describe the composition of the validation dataset, summarising how it was processed and how to understand the content and format of the data. We will also explain how to access the data and the supporting documentation....
Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
Over the last few decades, satellite altimetry has proven to be valuable for monitoring lake levels. With the new generation of altimetry missions, CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3, which operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and SAR Interferometric (SARIn) modes, the footprint size is reduced...... to approximately 300 m in the along-track direction. Here, the performance of these new modes is investigated in terms of uncertainty of the estimated water level from CryoSat-2 data and the agreement with in situ data. The data quality is compared to conventional low resolution mode (LRM) altimetry products from...... of that of the Envisat results. Generally, the CryoSat-2 lake levels also show a better agreement with the in situ data. The lower uncertainty of the CryoSat-2 results entails a more detailed description of water level variations....
Burckhardt, Rachel M; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C
Soil is a complex niche, where survival of microorganisms is at risk due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Many microbes chemically modify cytotoxic compounds to block their deleterious effects. Streptothricin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by streptomycetes that affects Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria alike. Here we identify the SatA (for s treptothricin a ce t yltransferase A , formerly YyaR) enzyme of Bacillus subtilis as the mechanism used by this soil bacterium to detoxify streptothricin. B. subtilis strains lacking satA were susceptible to streptothricin. Ectopic expression of satA + restored streptothricin resistance to B. subtilis satA ( Bs SatA) strains. Purified Bs SatA acetylated streptothricin in vitro at the expense of acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A single acetyl moiety transferred onto streptothricin by SatA blocked the toxic effects of the antibiotic. SatA bound streptothricin with high affinity ( K d [dissociation constant] = 1 μM), and did not bind acetyl-CoA in the absence of streptothricin. Expression of B. subtilis satA + in Salmonella enterica conferred streptothricin resistance, indicating that SatA was necessary and sufficient to detoxify streptothricin. Using this heterologous system, we showed that the SatA homologue from Bacillus anthracis also had streptothricin acetyltransferase activity. Our data highlight the physiological relevance of lysine acetylation for the survival of B. subtilis in the soil. IMPORTANCE Experimental support is provided for the functional assignment of gene products of the soil-dwelling bacilli Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis This study focuses on one enzyme that is necessary and sufficient to block the cytotoxic effects of a common soil antibiotic. The enzyme alluded to is a member of a family of proteins that are broadly distributed in all domains of life but poorly studied in B. subtilis and B. anthracis The initial characterization of the enzyme provides insights into its
Sun-Mack, S.; Gibson, S.; Chen, Y.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.
The goal of this paper is to provide the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of aerosols, clouds, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from Aqua CERES and MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat. All of these instruments are flying in formation as part of the Aqua Train, or A-Train. This paper will present the preliminary results of merging aerosol and cloud data from the CALIPSO active lidar, cloud data from CloudSat, integrated column aerosol and cloud data from the MODIS CERES analyses, and surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiation fluxes from CERES. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.
Zi, Zhike; Zheng, Yanan; Rundell, Ann E; Klipp, Edda
It has long been recognized that sensitivity analysis plays a key role in modeling and analyzing cellular and biochemical processes. Systems biology markup language (SBML) has become a well-known platform for coding and sharing mathematical models of such processes. However, current SBML compatible software tools are limited in their ability to perform global sensitivity analyses of these models. This work introduces a freely downloadable, software package, SBML-SAT, which implements algorithms for simulation, steady state analysis, robustness analysis and local and global sensitivity analysis for SBML models. This software tool extends current capabilities through its execution of global sensitivity analyses using multi-parametric sensitivity analysis, partial rank correlation coefficient, SOBOL's method, and weighted average of local sensitivity analyses in addition to its ability to handle systems with discontinuous events and intuitive graphical user interface. SBML-SAT provides the community of systems biologists a new tool for the analysis of their SBML models of biochemical and cellular processes.
Schneider, Raphael; Godiksen, Peter Nygaard; Villadsen, Heidi
, satellite altimeters are used in various ways to provide information about such river basins. Most missions provide virtual station time series of water levels at locations where their repeat orbits cross rivers. CryoSat-2 is equipped with a new type of altimeter, providing estimates of the actual ground....... This allowed extraction of river water levels over previously unmonitored narrow stretches of the river. In the Assam Valley section of the Brahmaputra River, CryoSat-2 data and Envisat virtual station data were combined to calibrate cross sections in a 1-D hydrodynamic model of the river. The hydrologic......Availability of in situ river monitoring data, especially of data shared across boundaries, is decreasing, despite growing challenges for water resource management across the entire globe. This is especially valid for the case study of this work, the Brahmaputra Basin in South Asia. Commonly...
The global coverage of in situ observations of surface water dynamics is insufficient to effectively manage water resources. Moreover, the availability of these data is decreasing, due to the lack of gauging stations and data sharing. Satellite radar altimetry, initially developed to monitor ocean...... water levels, also offers measurements of water levels of rivers and lakes on a global scale. Because of the continuous upstart of new missions, and sensor and processing innovations, the importance of satellite altimetry data for the hydrologic community is increasing. CryoSat-2, launched......) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (SARIn) mode. SAR and SARIn have reduced footprint size in the along-track direction owing to delay/Doppler processing, potentially increasing observation accuracy. Second, CryoSat-2 is placed on a unique long-repeat orbit with a cycle of 369 days. This is different...
Johnson, J.; Schillinger, L.
The system (ERIS) provides an inventory of the energy related programs and research activities from 1974 to the present in the states of Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. Areas of research covered include coal, reclamation, water resources, environmental impacts, socioeconomic impacts, energy conversion, mining methodology, petroleum, natural gas, oilshale, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy conservation and land use. Each project description lists title, investigator(s), research institution, sponsor, funding, time frame, location, a descriptive abstract of the research and title reports and/or publications generated by the research. All projects are indexed by location, personal names, organizations and subject keywords.
De la Torre, Pedro
This document describes the integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system: an autonomous modular system for tracking the movements of large pelagic fish using acoustic telemetry and satellite communications. The sensor platform is described along with the propulsion and navigation systems. An application for tracking the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Red Sea is included along with a discussion of the technical difficulties that such a system faces.
Hurley, Michael; Duffey, Timothy; Huffine, Christopher; Weldy, Ken; Cleveland, Jeff; Hauser, Joe
The Secretary of Defense’s Office of Force Transformation (OFT) is currently undertaking an initiative to develop a low-cost, responsive, operationally relevant space capability using small satellites. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is tasked to be program manger for this initiative, which seeks to make space assets and capabilities available to operational users. TacSat-1 is the first in a series of small satellites that will result in rapid, tailored, and operationally relevant experim...
Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouzinac, Catherine; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso
CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvement in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. Towards the release of the BaselineC of the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products, that is expected during 2014, several improvements have been identified: • a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected • a range bias of about -0.6730 m will be corrected • the waveform length in the Level1b product will be doubled with respect to BaselineB • improved processing for 1Hz echoes to have sharper waveforms • surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms This poster details the main improvements that are foreseen to be included in the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products in BaselineC.
Schneider, Raphael; Ridler, Marc-Etienne; Godiksen, Peter Nygaard; Madsen, Henrik; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter
There are numerous hydrologic studies using satellite altimetry data from repeat-orbit missions such as Envisat or Jason over rivers. This study is one of the first examples for the combination of altimetry from drifting-ground track satellite missions, namely CryoSat-2, with a river model. CryoSat-2 SARIn Level 2 data is used to improve a 1D hydrodynamic model of the Brahmaputra River in South Asia, which is based on the Saint-Venant equations for unsteady flow and set up in the MIKE HYDRO River software. After calibration of discharge and water level the hydrodynamic model can accurately and bias-free represent the spatio-temporal variations of water levels. A data assimilation framework has been developed and linked with the model. It is a flexible framework that can assimilate water level data which are arbitrarily distributed in time and space. The setup has been used to assimilate CryoSat-2 water level observations over the Assam valley for the years 2010-2015, using an Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF). Performance improvement in terms of discharge forecasting skill was then evaluated. For experiments with synthetic CryoSat-2 data the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) was improved by up to 32%, whilst for experiments assimilating real data it could be improved by up to 10%. The developed methods are expected to be transferable to other rivers and altimeter missions. The model setup and calibration is based almost entirely on globally available remote sensing data.
Singh, K; Stewart, G.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt
The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT), India’s first X-ray telescope based on the principle of grazing incidence, was launched aboard the AstroSat and made operational on October 26, 2015. X-rays in the energy band of 0.3–8.0 keV are focussed on to a cooled charge coupled device thus providing ...
G?mez-Enri, Jesus; Scozzari, Andrea; Soldovieri, Francesco; Coca, Josep; Vignudelli, Stefano
This article describes an investigation of the new possibilities offered by SAR altimetry compared with conventional altimetry in the detection and characterization of non-ocean targets. We explore the capabilities of the first SAR altimeter installed on the European Space Agency satellite CryoSat-2 for the detection and characterization of ships. We propose a methodology for the detection of anomalous targets in the radar signals, based on the advantages of SAR/Doppler processing over conven...
Naeije, M.; Schrama, E.; Scharroo, R.
Running ahead of the continuously growing need for operational use of sea level products, TUDelft started off the Radar Altimeter Database System RADS many years ago. This system attends to a global international sea- level service. It supports, on one hand, science, like studies on ocean circulation, El Nio, sea level change, and ice topography, and on the other hand (offshore) operations, like delivery of ocean current information, wind and wave statistics, ice detection and ice classification. At present, the database is used by a large scientific community throughout the world, and is daily maintained and developed by Altimetrics LLC, TUDelft and NOAA. It contains all historic altimeter data, and now has to be up- dated with the data from ESAs ice mission CryoSat-2, which was launched successfully in April 2010. These new data are important to augment the data set and by that to improve the estimates of sea level change and its contributors. For this the data have to be validated and calibrated, necessary corrections added and improved (including modelling of corrections that are not directly available from the CryoSat-2 platform), and the orbit ac- curacy verified and if possible the orbits brushed up. Subsequently, value-added ocean and ice products need to be developed in synergy with all the other satellite altimeter data. During the commissioning phase we primarily looked at the sanity of the available level-1b and level-2 Low Resolution Mode (LRM) data. Here, for the 2011 CryoSat Validation Workshop, we present the results of our calibration and validation of LRM L2 data by internal comparison of CryoSat-2 and external comparison with other satellites. We have established a range bias of 3.77 (measurement range too long) and a timing bias of 8.2ms (measurement range too late).
Bushahab, A.; Al-Mansoori, S.; Al-Suwaidi, K.; Al Matroushi, Hessa; Al-Tunaiji, E.; Al Shamsi, Meera
Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) was established by the Dubai Government in 2006. After three years of working together with Satrec Initiative (South Korea), EIAST was able to launch DubaiSat-1 on the 29th of July 2009. Building on the success of DubaiSat-1 and the roll out of the knowledge transfer program, UAE engineers were involved in almost 70% of the total build and design of DubaiSat-2. Targeting the commercial market, DubaiSat-2 was launched on the 21st of November 2013 for capturing 1-meter resolution images. The 1st Cal/Val phase was the most critical phase in the satellite life-time, where most of the initial measurements took place. This phase extended over the period of 25/11/2013 till 12/12/2013. Moreover, this phase included most of the relative calibration tasks, color balancing and band matching. 2nd Cal/Val phase included most of the debugging and the pointing accuracy calibration tests. This phase extended over the period of 11/02/2014 till 09/03/2014. This phase emphasized on the calibration of the pointing accuracy. The 3rd Cal/Val phase included fine tuning for the Gyro system to further increase the stability of the satellite and thus improve the pointing accuracy. Moreover, new techniques were implemented to the Pan-Sharpening and to the MTF compensation procedures to enhance the final product. This phase extended over the period of 04/05/2014 till 21/05/2014.
De la Torre, Pedro; Berumen, Michael L.; Salama, Khaled N.; Smith, E. Lloyd
This document describes the integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system: an autonomous modular system for tracking the movements of large pelagic fish using acoustic telemetry and satellite communications. The sensor platform is described along with the propulsion and navigation systems. An application for tracking the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Red Sea is included along with a discussion of the technical difficulties that such a system faces.
Rapp, Anita D; Lebsock, Matthew; L’Ecuyer, Tristan
A climatology of low cloud surface precipitation occurrence and intensity from the new CloudSat 2C-RAIN-PROFILE algorithm is presented from June 2006 through December 2010 for the southeastern Pacific region of marine stratocumulus. Results show that over 70% of low cloud precipitation falls as drizzle. Application of an empirical evaporation model suggests that 50–80% of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the surface. Segregation of the CloudSat ascending and descending overpasses shows that the majority of precipitation occurs at night. Examination of the seasonal cycle shows that the precipitation is most frequent during the austral winter and spring; however there is considerable regional variability. Conditional rain rates increase from east to west with a maximum occurring in the region influenced by the South Pacific Convergence Zone. Area average rain rates are highest in the region where precipitation rates are moderate, but most frequent. The area average surface rain rate for low cloud precipitation for this region is ∼0.22 mm d −1 , in good agreement with in situ estimates, and is greatly improved over earlier CloudSat precipitation products. These results provide a much-needed quantification of surface precipitation in a region that is currently underestimated in existing satellite-based precipitation climatologies. (letter)
Bouffard, Jerome; Brockley, David; Calafat, Francisco; Féménias, Pierre; Fornari, Marco; Garcia-Mondejar, Albert; Mannan, Rubinder; Parrinello, Tommaso; Scagliola, Michele
CryoSat is the first ESA polar-orbiting satellite specifically designed to measure the changes in the thickness of polar sea-ice and, in the elevation of the ice sheets and mountain glaciers. Going beyond its ice-monitoring objective, CryoSat is also demonstrating to be a valuable source of data for oceanographic applications ranging from low to high latitudes. Two levels of ESA products are distributed to the scientific user community: the Level 1b products essentially contain average echoes collected along the ground track, while the Level 2 products contain elevations and associated geophysical parameters retrieved from these echoes. To enable their full exploitation, these products have to meet the highest quality, which is assessed through routine Quality Control and Validation activities. Based on the outcomes from these activities, and the feedback from the Scientific Community, the product periodically evolves in order to accommodate a wide range of new scientific and operational applications over the Sea ice, the Land Ice and the Ocean domains. The main objectives of this paper are to give an overview of the CryoSat product characteristics, to present the main outcomes from the quality assessment activities and to discuss future algorithms and product format improvements expected with the next processing Baselines.
Parrinello, T.; Mardle, N.; Ortega, B.; Bouffard, J.; Badessi, S.; Frommknecht, B.; Davidson, M.
CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. CryoSat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Initial results have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. The CryoSat mission reached its 4th years of operational life in April 2014. Since its launch has delivered high quality products to the worldwide cryospheric and marine community that is increasing every year. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on the next scientific development of the mission in its extended period of operations.
Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Plummer, D.; Carson, R.
Spatial resolution improvements in computed tomography (CT) have been limited by the large and unique error propagation properties of this technique. The desire to provide maximum image resolution has resulted in the use of reconstruction filter functions designed to produce tomographic images with resolution as close as possible to the intrinsic detector resolution. Thus, many CT systems produce images with excessive noise with the system resolution determined by the detector resolution rather than the reconstruction algorithm. CT is a rigorous mathematical technique which applies an increasing amplification to increasing spatial frequencies in the measured data. This mathematical approach to spatial frequency amplification cannot distinguish between signal and noise and therefore both are amplified equally. We report here a method in which tomographic resolution is improved by using very small detectors to selectively amplify the signal and not noise. Thus, this approach is referred to as the signal amplification technique (SAT). SAT can provide dramatic improvements in image resolution without increases in statistical noise or dose because increases in the cutoff frequency of the reconstruction algorithm are not required to improve image resolution. Alternatively, in cases where image counts are low, such as in rapid dynamic or receptor studies, statistical noise can be reduced by lowering the cutoff frequency while still maintaining the best possible image resolution. A possible system design for a positron CT system with SAT is described
Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave; Stephens, Graeme; Partain, Philip
This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3-dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.
Bridges, C. P.; Yeomans, B.; Iacopino, C.; Frame, T. E.; Schofield, A.; Kenyon, S.; Sweeting, M. N.
Modern computers are now far in advance of satellite systems and leveraging of these technologies for space applications could lead to cheaper and more capable spacecraft. Together with NASA AMES's PhoneSat, the STRaND-1 nanosatellite team has been developing and designing new ways to include smart-phone technologies to the popular CubeSat platform whilst mitigating numerous risks. Surrey Space Centre (SSC) and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) have led in qualifying state-of-the-art COTS technologies and capabilities - contributing to numerous low-cost satellite missions. The focus of this paper is to answer if 1) modern smart-phone software is compatible for fast and low-cost development as required by CubeSats, and 2) if the components utilised are robust to the space environment. The STRaND-1 smart-phone payload software explored in this paper is united using various open-source Linux tools and generic interfaces found in terrestrial systems. A major result from our developments is that many existing software and hardware processes are more than sufficient to provide autonomous and operational payload object-to-object and file-based management solutions. The paper will provide methodologies on the software chains and tools used for the STRaND-1 smartphone computing platform, the hardware built with space qualification results (thermal, thermal vacuum, and TID radiation), and how they can be implemented in future missions.
Pasang Arung Padang
Full Text Available ITS-Sat merupakan jenis satelit piko yang saat ini sedang dikembangkan di Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. ITS-Sat membutuhkan suatu protokol komunikasi yang mengatur tata cara komunikasi satelit. Protokol AX.25 merupakan protokol komunikasi yang digunakan dalam sistem komunikasi ITS-Sat. Protokol ini berada pada layer data link dalam model OSI Layer. Protokol ini dapat membangun dan memutuskan link serta melakukan pengiriman data. Protokol AX.25 menggabungkan data-data field menjadi suatu frame. Makalah ini mengimplementasikan protokol AX.25 ke dalam modul PAD (Packet Assembler Dissassembler. Protokol AX.25 diimplementasikan ke dalam mikrokontroler yang merupakan otak dari modul PAD dengan menggunakan bahasa pemograman. Modul PAD berfungsi untuk mengkapsulasi data tiap field menjadi sebuah frame AX.25 sebelum dikirim dan kemudian frame AX.25 yang diterima dienkapsulasi kembali menjadi data field. Modul PAD yang dibuat dapat mengirim dan menerima data teks sebanyak 500 karakter. Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa modul PAD yang dibuat mampu melakukan komunikasi antar modul PAD dengan baik.
Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Lu, Ye; Blandino, John; Demetriou, Michael A.; Paschalidis, Nicholas
This study presents a 3-Unit CubeSat design with commercial-off-the-shelf hardware, Teflon-fueled micropulsed plasma thrusters, and an attitude determination and control approach. The micropulsed plasma thruster is sized by the impulse bit and pulse frequency required for continuous compensation of expected maximum disturbance torques at altitudes between 400 and 1000 km, as well as to perform stabilization of up to 20 deg /s and slew maneuvers of up to 180 deg. The study involves realistic power constraints anticipated on the 3-Unit CubeSat. Attitude estimation is implemented using the q method for static attitude determination of the quaternion using pairs of the spacecraft-sun and magnetic-field vectors. The quaternion estimate and the gyroscope measurements are used with an extended Kalman filter to obtain the attitude estimates. Proportional-derivative control algorithms use the static attitude estimates in order to calculate the torque required to compensate for the disturbance torques and to achieve specified stabilization and slewing maneuvers or combinations. The controller includes a thruster-allocation method, which determines the optimal utilization of the available thrusters and introduces redundancy in case of failure. Simulation results are presented for a 3-Unit CubeSat under detumbling, pointing, and pointing and spinning scenarios, as well as comparisons between the thruster-allocation and the paired-firing methods under thruster failure.
Miao, Chiyuan; Duan, Qingyun; Sun, Qiaohong; Kong, Dongxian; Ye, Aizhong; Di, Zhenhua; Gong, Wei; Huang, Yong; Yang, Tiantian
Assessing the performance of climate models in surface air temperature (SAT) simulation and projection have received increasing attention during the recent decades. This paper assesses the performance of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating intra-annual, annual and decadal temperature over Northern Eurasia from 1901 to 2005. We evaluate the skill of different multi-model ensemble techniques and use the best technique to project the future SAT changes under different emission scenarios. The results show that most of the general circulation models (GCMs) overestimate the annual mean SAT in Northern Eurasia and the difference between the observation and the simulations primarily comes from the winter season. Most of the GCMs can approximately capture the decadal SAT trend; however, the accuracy of annual SAT simulation is relatively low. The correlation coefficient R between each GCM simulation and the annual observation is in the range of 0.20 to 0.56. The Taylor diagram shows that the ensemble results generated by the simple model averaging (SMA), reliability ensemble averaging (REA) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) methods are superior to any single GCM output; and the decadal SAT change generated by SMA, REA and BMA are almost identical during 1901–2005. Heuristically, the uncertainty of BMA simulation is the smallest among the three multi-model ensemble simulations. The future SAT projection generated by the BMA shows that the SAT in Northern Eurasia will increase in the 21st century by around 1.03 °C/100 yr, 3.11 °C/100 yr and 7.14 °C/100 yr under the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, respectively; and the warming accelerates with the increasing latitude. In addition, the spring season contributes most to the decadal warming occurring under the RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5 scenarios, while the winter season contributes most to the decadal warming occurring under the RCP 8.5 scenario. Generally, the uncertainty of the SAT
Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.
The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed
Holmes, M.; Advance-Nebraska Evaluation Team
At the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), 20% of short list candidates for faculty openings in science, engineering and mathematics (STEM) brought an academic partner into the hiring picture between 2008 and 2010, with a peak of 38% in 2010. Having a process in place to address dual career opportunities is a key component in an overall strategy to increase the number of women STEM faculty: 83% of academic scientist women's partners are also academics in STEM, according to a 2009 Stanford report, and 54% of academic scientist men's are. Offering two positions to qualified couples benefits the institution by increasing the chances of recruitment and retention of both candidates. UNL's ADVANCE program, ADVANCE-Nebraska, developed a process to take advantage of dual career opportunities. Nine dual career couples have been hired in the last three years; we expected to hire eight during the five-year life of the grant. We increased the proportion of women in the Engineering College by twenty percent (from n=10 to n=12). The success of the program arises from four key components: early notification to short-list candidates of the dual career program, a point person to coordinate dual career requests across the campus, flexible faculty appointments that provide a variety of opportunities for the partner, and a funding stream to support the partner hire. The point person, the ADVANCE Program Director, was created by the provost through the ADVANCE program. The Director communicates with every short list candidate for each open faculty position and with department and search committee chairs across STEM colleges as soon as the candidate is selected. When there is an eligible partner of the candidate who receives the job offer, if there is approval from the Office of Academic Affairs, the Dean of the target college, and the chair and faculty of the partner's target department, the partner is brought to UNL to interview, and the faculty of the partner's target department
Wilson, Emily L.; DiGregorio, A. J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Ammons, Mark S.; Bruner, William W.; Carter, Darrell; Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Strahan, Susan E.; Oman, Luke D.; Hoffman, Christine; Garner, Richard M.
We present a design for a 4 U (20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm) occultation-viewing laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) that measures methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) in the limb that is designed for deployment on a 6 U CubeSat. The LHR design collects sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas and mixes it with a distributive feedback (DFB) laser centered at 1640 nm that scans across CO2, CH4, and H2O absorption features. Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere measurements of these gases provide key inputs to stratospheric circulation models: measuring stratospheric circulation and its variability is essential for projecting how climate change will affect stratospheric ozone.
We present a design for a 4 U (20 cm 20 cm 10 cm) occultation-viewing laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) that measures methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor(H2O) in the limb that is designed for deployment on a 6 U CubeSat. The LHR design collects sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas and mixes it with a distributive feedback (DFB) laser centered at 1640 nm that scans across CO2, CH4, and H2O absorption features. Upper troposphere lower stratosphere measurements of these gases provide key inputs to stratospheric circulation models: measuring stratospheric circulation and its variability is essential for projecting how climate change will affect stratospheric ozone.
Wilson, Emily L; Oman, Luke D; DiGregorio, A J; Garner, Richard M; Riot, Vincent J; Ammons, Mark S; Bruner, William W; Carter, Darrell; Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Strahan, Susan E; Hoffman, Christine
We present a design for a 4 U (20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm) occultation-viewing laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) that measures methane (CH 4 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water vapor (H 2 O) in the limb that is designed for deployment on a 6 U CubeSat. The LHR design collects sunlight that has undergone absorption by the trace gas and mixes it with a distributive feedback (DFB) laser centered at 1640 nm that scans across CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 O absorption features. Upper troposphere/lower stratosphere measurements of these gases provide key inputs to stratospheric circulation models: measuring stratospheric circulation and its variability is essential for projecting how climate change will affect stratospheric ozone. (paper)
Wingeyer, Ana; Mamo, Martha; Schacht, Walter; McCallister, Dennis; Sutton, Pamela
As a precautionary principle, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit establishes that the primary pollutant in concrete grinding residue (CGR) is its alkalinity and restricts CGR roadside discharge to 11 Mg ha or the agronomic liming rate, whichever is lower. We evaluated the effect of CGR application on roadside soil chemical properties, existing vegetation, and rainfall runoff. Five CGR rates (0, 11, 22, 45, and 90 dry Mg ha) were tested on roadsides slopes at two different locations in eastern Nebraska. Vegetation, soil, and runoff characteristics were evaluated before CGR application and 30 d and 1 yr after CGR application. Soil pH of control plots averaged 8.3 and 8.5 for each site respectively, across depths and slope positions, thus not requiring any liming for agronomic purposes. Soil electrical conductivity (EC, 1:1) averages of control plots were 0.79 and 1.24 dS m across depths and slope positions. In the short term (30 d) the highest CGR application affected the 0- to 7.5-cm soil depth by increasing soil extractable Ca (21 and 25% for each site, respectively), soil pH (0.2, south site), and soil EC (0.2 dS m) compared with the control. However, these changes in soil did not persist 1 yr after CGR application. The pH buffering capacity of soil prevented post-CGR-application pH from exceeding 8.9, even at the highest application rate. Application of CGR did not produce any differences in biomass production, botanical composition, and runoff characteristics at either site. From our study, CGR up to ?90 dry Mg ha-about the amount produced during diamond grinding operations-can be one-time applied to roadside soils of similar characteristics on already established vegetation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Wang, Hongmei; Kim, Jungyoon; Su, Dejun; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Li-Wu; Huang, Terry T-K
Reducing childhood obesity remains a public health priority given its high prevalence and its association with increased risk of adult obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the joint influence of multiple risk factors on adolescent overweight status. We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years in fall 2008 in a Midwestern city in Nebraska. On the basis of survey data for 791 youths aged 12 to 18 years, we conducted latent class analysis to group youths by the joint occurrence of dietary behavior, physical activity, parenting practices, and physician advice. We then examined the association between the groups and overweight status by using logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parent and family information. Youths were clustered into 3 groups. Group I (52%) were youths with healthy dietary behavior and physical activity, less permissive parenting practices, and physician advice; Group II (30%) were youths with moderately healthy dietary behavior and physical activity, less permissive parenting practices, and no physician advice; and Group III (18%) were youths with unhealthy dietary behavior and physical activity, permissive parenting practices, and physician advice. Youths in Groups I and II were less likely to be overweight than youths in Group III. Youths with healthier behavior and less permissive parenting practices were less likely to be overweight. Study findings highlight the need to address obesity risk factors among youths with unhealthy dietary behavior, inadequate exercise, permissive parenting practices, and some physician advice. Tailored interventions should be used to target youths with different obesity risk factors.
Aust, Shelly K; Ahrendsen, Dakota L; Kellar, P Roxanne
Conservation of the evolutionary diversity among organisms should be included in the selection of priority regions for preservation of Earth's biodiversity. Traditionally, biodiversity has been determined from an assessment of species richness (S), abundance, evenness, rarity, etc. of organisms but not from variation in species' evolutionary histories. Phylogenetic diversity (PD) measures evolutionary differences between taxa in a community and is gaining acceptance as a biodiversity assessment tool. However, with the increase in the number of ways to calculate PD, end-users and decision-makers are left wondering how metrics compare and what data are needed to calculate various metrics. In this study, we used massively parallel sequencing to generate over 65,000 DNA characters from three cellular compartments for over 60 species in the asterid clade of flowering plants. We estimated asterid phylogenies from character datasets of varying nucleotide quantities, and then assessed the effect of varying character datasets on resulting PD metric values. We also compared multiple PD metrics with traditional diversity indices (including S) among two endangered grassland prairies in Nebraska (U.S.A.). Our results revealed that PD metrics varied based on the quantity of genes used to infer the phylogenies; therefore, when comparing PD metrics between sites, it is vital to use comparable datasets. Additionally, various PD metrics and traditional diversity indices characterize biodiversity differently and should be chosen depending on the research question. Our study provides empirical results that reveal the value of measuring PD when considering sites for conservation, and it highlights the usefulness of using PD metrics in combination with other diversity indices when studying community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Ours is just one example of the types of investigations that need to be conducted across the tree of life and across varying ecosystems in order to build
Kinzel, P.J.; Runge, J.T.
Rivers are conduits for water and sediment supplied from upstream sources. The sizes of the sediments that a river bed consists of typically decrease in a downstream direction because of natural sorting. However, other factors can affect the caliber of bed sediment including changes in upstream water-resource development, land use, and climate that alter the watershed yield of water or sediment. Bed sediments provide both a geologic and stratigraphic record of past fluvial processes and quantification of current sediment transport relations. The objective of this fact sheet is to describe and compare longitudinal measurements of bed-sediment sizes made along the Platte River, Nebraska from 1931 to 2009. The Platte River begins at the junction of the North Platte and South Platte Rivers near North Platte, Nebr. and flows east for approximately 500 kilometers before joining the Missouri River at Plattsmouth, Nebr. The confluence of the Loup River with the Platte River serves to divide the middle (or central) Platte River (the Platte River upstream from the confluence with the Loup River) and lower Platte River (the Platte River downstream from the confluence with Loup River). The Platte River provides water for a variety of needs including: irrigation, infiltration to public water-supply wells, power generation, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The Platte River Basin includes habitat for four federally listed species including the whooping crane (Grus americana), interior least tern (Sterna antillarum), piping plover (Charadrius melodus), and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). A habitat recovery program for the federally listed species in the Platte River was initiated in 2007. One strategy identified by the recovery program to manage and enhance habitat is the manipulation of streamflow. Understanding the longitudinal and temporal changes in the size gradation of the bed sediment will help to explain the effects of past flow regimes and anticipated
Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.
Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.
A sampling program to assess the effects of entrainment in the cooling water systems at the Fort Calhoun and Cooper Nuclear Stations on larval fishes was carried out in the months of May, June, and July of 1974--1976. Fish larvae were collected with 2.3 m long, 0.5 m diameter Nitex plankton nets. The samples were taken to laboratory facilities where the living and dead larvae were separated from the debris, counted, and preserved for later identification and measurement. Samples collected above the intake structures of the power plants were used to determine the seasonal patterns, species composition, and abundance of ichthyoplankton in this region of the Missouri River. Relatively low larval fish densities throughout May and early June were generally followed by a single 2 to 3 week long peak in density in late June and early July, due primarily to the larvae of Aplodinotus grunniens. The observed densities then declined to near zero by the end of July. The horizontal distribution of ichthyoplankton was determined by dividing the river above the intake into three sections and sampling the sites sequentially. The highest concentrations of larvae were generally found along the cutting bank (Nebraska shore) and the lowest in the middle of the river. Twenty-four hour sampling was conducted to identify possible diurnal differences in the ichthyoplankton densities above the intake. On six occasions, collections were made every two hours over a 24-hour period. Although great variations in densities were noted over the sampling period, significant differences between mean day and night densities were demonstrated only once, and no recurring temporal pattern in drift rates was identified. Net-induced sampling mortality was found to be a significant factor in the analysis of entrainment mortality
Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Grand Island Quadrangle, Nebraska/Kansas are reported. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 564 groundwater and 532 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur primarily in shallow wells (0 to 20 m) along or near the Platte and Republican Rivers, which flow west to east along the northern and southern portions of the quadrangle, respectively. Waters containing high concentration of uranium in the northern portion of the quadrangle occur in recent alluvium and nearby glacial deposits. In the southern portion of the quadrangle, waters containing high uranium concentrations occur in Recent alluvium and the Niobrara Chalk in the southeast. Stream sediment data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur in sediments along the Platte River in the northern portion of the quadrangle and paralleling the Republican River in the southeastern portion. Sediments with high uranium values along the Platte River are derived from glacial and alluvial deposits. High uranium values paralleling the Republican River in the southeast are derived from the Niobrara Chalk, the Carlile Shale, and glacial and alluvial deposits. High U-NT and thorium values, and high values for cerium, niobium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium suggest the presence of clays and/or residual minerals in the southeast. Sediment derivation and the leaching of possible ash-rich loess and alluvial deposits and/or uranium-rich alkaline evaporite deposits could account for high uranium concentrations in sediment and groundwaters within the quadrangle
Sidle, John G.; Kirsch, E.M.
Endangered Least Terns (Sterna antillarum) and threatened Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest at commercial sand and gravel mining operations (sand pits) along the Platte River system in Nebraska. Sandbar habitat has been disappearing since the early 1900's along the Platte River system, but numbers of sand pits have increased. We hypothesized that birds would more fully utilize sand pits where suitable sandbar habitat was limited. We inventoried sand pits and censused terns and plovers on both habitats along the Loup River, part of the North Loup River, and most of the Platte River during 1988-1991. Using aircraft, we also quantified features of suitable sand pits present on the central Platte in 1988 and lower Platte in 1990, and related features to abundance and presence of birds. We found 225 sand pits of which 78 were suitable and 187 were unsuitable for nesting. Along the central Platte, where sandbar habitat is severely degraded, birds nested at 81% of the suitable sand pits (N = 32) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (61-94%) nested on sand pits. Along the lower Platte, where both sandbar and sand pit habitat are plentiful, birds nested at 60% of the suitable sand pits (N = 35) at least once during 1988-1991, and most birds (60-86%) nested on sandbars. Numbers of terns and plovers were more weakly correlated with features of sand pits on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Least Terns and Piping Plovers seem to use more of the suitable sand pit habitat on the central Platte than on the lower Platte. Sand pits probably have influenced the birds' distribution by providing alternative nesting habitat along rivers where suitable sandbars are rare or absent.
Casal, T. G.; Davidson, M.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Perrera, A.; Armitage, T.; Bianchi, R.; Parrinello, T.; Fornari, M.; Skourup, H.
In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int]. CryoSat-2, ESA's third Earth Explorer, is Europe's first mission dedicated to monitoring Earth's ice fields. The satellite carries a sophisticated radar altimeter that can measure the thickness of sea ice down to centimetres and also monitor changes in ice sheets, particularly around the edges where icebergs are calved from the vast ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica. On order to gather data to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission, in yet another remarkable collaborative effort, ESA and NASA met up over the Arctic Ocean in April 2012 to perform some carefully coordinated flights directly under CryoSat orbiting above. The aim of this large-scale campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly along the line traced by ESA's CryoSat satellite orbiting high above. A range of sensors installed on the different aircraft was used to gather
Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso
The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in . From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival.  Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across
As a consequential effort to the previous NDOR research project (P564) on moisture damage, this report presents : outcomes from this project incorporated with the previous project. Performance changes and fundamental material : characteristics associ...
Schneider, Raphael; Nygaard Godiksen, Peter; Villadsen, Heidi; Madsen, Henrik; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter
Hydrological models are developed and used for flood forecasting and water resources management. Such models rely on a variety of input and calibration data. In general, and especially in data scarce areas, remote sensing provides valuable data for the parameterization and updating of such models. Satellite radar altimeters provide water level measurements of inland water bodies. So far, many studies making use of satellite altimeters have been based on data from repeat-orbit missions such as Envisat, ERS or Jason or on synthetic wide-swath altimetry data as expected from the SWOT mission. This work represents one of the first hydrologic applications of altimetry data from a drifting orbit satellite mission, using data from CryoSat-2. We present an application where CryoSat-2 data is used to improve a hydrodynamic model of the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in South Asia set up in the DHI MIKE 11 software. The model's parameterization and forcing is mainly based on remote sensing data, for example the TRMM 3B42 precipitation product and the SRTM DEM for river and subcatchment delineation. CryoSat-2 water levels were extracted over a river mask derived from Landsat 7 and 8 imagery. After calibrating the hydrological-hydrodynamic model against observed discharge, simulated water levels were fitted to the CryoSat-2 data, with a focus on the Brahmaputra river in the Assam valley: The average simulated water level in the hydrodynamic model was fitted to the average water level along the river's course as observed by CryoSat-2 over the years 2011-2013 by adjusting the river bed elevation. In a second step, the cross section shapes were adjusted so that the simulated water level dynamics matched those obtained from Envisat virtual station time series. The discharge calibration resulted in Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.86 and 0.94 for the Ganges and Brahmaputra. Using the Landsat river mask, the CryoSat-2 water levels show consistency along the river and are in
Korepanov, Valery; Lappas, Vaios
values may be advisable to measure to study them: if for FWC - electrons density and temperature and electric field variations, if for AGW - neutral particles concentration and magnetic fields variations, and TEC variations and thermal anomalies at the Earth’s surface and in the atmosphere for both. Also it became clear that the monitoring has to be made minimum in two, better in three points, preferably with the possibility to control the distance between them. This will increase the possibility to extract the seismogenic variations, being mostly local, at the background of the variations of other nature, being mostly enough spacious or even global. Taking into account the present and predictable reduction of the expenses for space scientific research, it would be extremely important to realize such a multi-point mission using the cheapest carriers - nanosatellites, especially cubesats. The analysis of both aspects of this problem - FWC and AGW mechanisms validation and the availability of miniaturized but enough sensitive scientific instrumentation, able to operate onboard cubesats, is made in the report. It shows that the scientific payload creation to realize the given task with the cubesats swarm is possible, including mini-thrusters able realizing the cubesats maneuvers on the orbit to control the distance between satellites. This allows us to come to conclusion that the realization of the cubesat project dedicated to the further study of important problem - detection of EQ precursors from space - may be put into practice at the present step of space science and technology development. Both necessary conditions - existence of scientific and experimental substantiation and of corresponding nanosatellite technology - are fulfilled. These works were partially supported by SSAU Contract No 1-16/12 and EC Framework 7 funded project 312993.
Chu, C.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Heckert, E.; Doelling, D. R.
In Langley NASA, Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are merged with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The CERES merged product (C3M) matches up to three CALIPSO footprints with each MODIS pixel along its ground track. It then assigns the nearest CloudSat footprint to each of those MODIS pixels. The cloud properties from MODIS, retrieved using the CERES algorithms, are included in C3M with the matched CALIPSO and CloudSat products along with radiances from 18 MODIS channels. The dataset is used to validate the CERES retrieved MODIS cloud properties and the computed TOA and surface flux difference using MODIS or CALIOP/CloudSAT retrieved clouds. This information is then used to tune the computed fluxes to match the CERES observed TOA flux. A visualization tool will be invaluable to determine the cause of these large cloud and flux differences in order to improve the methodology. This effort is part of larger effort to allow users to order the CERES C3M product sub-setted by time and parameter as well as the previously mentioned visualization capabilities. This presentation will show a new graphical 3D-interface, 3D-CERESVis, that allows users to view both passive remote sensing satellites (MODIS and CERES) and active satellites (CALIPSO and CloudSat), such that the detailed vertical structures of cloud properties from CALIPSO and CloudSat are displayed side by side with horizontally retrieved cloud properties from MODIS and CERES. Similarly, the CERES computed profile fluxes whether using MODIS or CALIPSO and CloudSat clouds can also be compared. 3D-CERESVis is a browser-based visualization tool that makes uses of techniques such as multiple synchronized cursors, COLLADA format data and Cesium.
Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Kayla J.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.5-mile reach of the Big Papillion Creek from 0.6 mile upstream from the State Street Bridge to the 72nd Street Bridge in Omaha, Nebraska, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Big Papillion Creek at Fort Street at Omaha, Nebraska (station 06610732). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.
Hobza, Christopher M.; Asch, Theodore H.; Bedrosian, Paul A.
Nebraska's Upper Loup Natural Resources District is currently (2011) participating in the Elkhorn-Loup Model to understand the effect of various groundwater-management scenarios on surface-water resources. During Phase 1 of the Elkhorn-Loup Model, a lack of subsurface geological information in the Upper Loup Natural Resources District, hereafter referred to as the upper Loup study area, was identified as a gap in current knowledge that needed to be addressed. To improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the upper Loup study area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Loup Natural Resources District and the University of Nebraska Conservation and Survey Division, collected and described the lithology of drill cuttings from nine test holes, and concurrently collected borehole geophysical data to identify the base of the High Plains aquifer. Surface geophysical data also were collected using time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) methods at test-hole locations and between test holes, as a quick, non-invasive means of identifying the base of the High Plains aquifer.
Altarelli, Fabrizio; Monasson, Remi; Zamponi, Francesco
For large clause-to-variable ratios, typical K-SAT instances drawn from the uniform distribution have no solution. We argue, based on statistical mechanics calculations using the replica and cavity methods, that rare satisfiable instances from the uniform distribution are very similar to typical instances drawn from the so-called planted distribution, where instances are chosen uniformly between the ones that admit a given solution. It then follows, from a recent article by Feige, Mossel and Vilenchik (2006 Complete convergence of message passing algorithms for some satisfiability problems Proc. Random 2006 pp 339-50), that these rare instances can be easily recognized (in O(log N) time and with probability close to 1) by a simple message-passing algorithm