WorldWideScience

Sample records for nearby ultraluminous infrared

  1. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously......] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths....

  2. SPITZER INFRARED LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Maiolino, Roberto; Nakagawa, Takao

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution infrared 5-35 μm spectroscopy of 17 nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z 12 L sun , are found in eight sources. We combine these results with those of our previous research to investigate the energy function of buried AGNs in a complete sample of optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs in the local universe at z < 0.3 (85 sources). We confirm a trend that we previously discovered: that buried AGNs are more common in galaxies with higher infrared luminosities. Because optical Seyferts also show a similar trend, we argue more generally that the energetic importance of AGNs is intrinsically higher in more luminous galaxies, suggesting that the AGN-starburst connections are luminosity dependent. This may be related to the stronger AGN feedback scenario in currently more massive galaxy systems, as a possible origin of the galaxy downsizing phenomenon.

  3. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.

    2001-12-01

    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  4. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong; Fang, Guanwen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs

  5. 2XMM ultraluminous X-ray source candidates in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Mateos, S.; Heard, V.

    2011-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are some of the most enigmatic X-ray bright sources known to date. It is generally accepted that they cannot host black holes as large as those associated with active galaxies, but they appear to be significantly more luminous than their better understood Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) cousins, while displaying an intriguing combination of differences and similarities with them. Through studying large, representative samples of these sources we may hope to enhance our understanding of them. To this end, we derive a large catalogue of 650 X-ray detections of 470 ULX candidates, located in 238 nearby galaxies, by cross-correlating the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The presented dedicated catalogue offers a significant improvement over those previously published in terms of both the number and the contribution of background contaminants, e.g. distant quasars, which we estimate to be at most 24 per cent, but more likely ˜17 per cent. To undertake population studies, we define a 'complete' sub-sample of sources compiled from observations of galaxies with sensitivity limits below 1039 erg s-1. The luminosity function of this sample is consistent with a simple power law of form N(>LX) ∝ L-0.96 ± 0.11X. Although we do not find any statistical requirement for a cut-off luminosity of Lc˜ 1040 erg s-1, as has been reported previously, we are not able to rule out its presence. Also, we find that the number of ULXs per unit galaxy mass, Su, decreases with increasing galaxy mass for ULXs associated with spiral galaxies, and is well modelled with a power law of form Su ∝ M-0.64 ± 0.07. This is in broad agreement with previous results, and is likely to be a consequence of the decrease in specific star formation and increase in metallicity with increasing spiral galaxy mass. Su is consistent with being constant with galaxy mass for sources associated with elliptical galaxies, implying this

  6. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  7. A Polarimetric Search for Hidden Quasars in Three Radio-selected Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.D.; Brotherton, M.S.; Stanford, S.A.; Breugel, W. van; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Antonucci, R.

    1999-01-01

    We have carried out a spectropolarimetric search for hidden broad-line quasars in three ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) discovered in the positional correlations between sources detected in deep radio surveys and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog. Only the high-ionization Seyfert 2 galaxy TF J1736+1122 is highly polarized, displaying a broad-line spectrum visible in polarized light. The other two objects, TF J1020+6436 and FF J1614+3234, display spectra dominated by a population of young (A type) stars similar to those of open-quotes E+Aclose quotes galaxies. They are unpolarized, showing no sign of hidden broad-line regions. The presence of young starburst components in all three galaxies indicates that the ULIRG phenomenon encompasses both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst activity, but the most energetic ULIRGs do not necessarily harbor open-quotes buried quasars.close quotes We find that a luminous infrared galaxy is most likely to host an obscured quasar if it exhibits a high-ionization ([O iii] λ5007/Hβ approx-gt 5) spectrum typical of a 'classic' Seyfert 2 galaxy with little or no Balmer absorption lines, is 'ultraluminous' (L IR approx-gt 10 12 L circle-dot ), and has a 'warm' IR color (f 25 /f 60 approx-gt 0.25). The detection of hidden quasars in this group but not in the low-ionization, starburst-dominated ULIRGs (classified as LINERs or H ii galaxies) may indicate an evolutionary connection, with the latter being found in younger systems. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  8. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  9. STELLAR POPULATION GRADIENTS IN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR GAS INFLOW TIMESCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Martin, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Using longslit, optical spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies, we measure the evolution in the star formation intensity during galactic mergers. In individual galaxies, we resolve kiloparsec scales allowing comparison of the nucleus, inner disk, and outer disk. We find that the strength of the Hβ absorption line increases with the projected distance from the center of the merger, typically reaching about 9 A around 10 kpc. At these radii, the star formation intensity must have rapidly decreased about 300-400 Myr ago; only stellar populations deficient in stars more massive than Type A produce such strong Balmer absorption. In contrast, we find the star formation history in the central kiloparsec consistent with continuous star formation. Our measurements indicate that gas depletion occurs from the outer disk inward during major mergers. This result is consistent with merger-induced gas inflow and empirically constrains the gas inflow timescale. Numerical simulations accurately calculate the total amount of infalling gas but often assume the timescale for infall. These new measurements are therefore central to modeling merger-induced star formation and active galactic nucleus activity.

  10. THE MERGER-TRIGGERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS CONTRIBUTION TO THE ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    It has long been thought that there is a connection between ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), quasars, and major mergers. Indeed, simulations show that major mergers are capable of triggering massive starbursts and quasars. However, observations by the Herschel Space Observatory suggest that, at least at high redshift, there may not always be a simple causal connection between ULIRGs and mergers. Here, we combine an evolving merger-triggered active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity function with a merger-triggered starburst model to calculate the maximum contribution of major mergers to the ULIRG population. We find that major mergers can account for the entire local population of ULIRGs hosting AGNs and ∼25% of the total local ULIRG luminosity density. By z ∼ 1, major mergers can no longer account for the luminosity density of ULIRGs hosting AGNs and contribute ∼<12% of the total ULIRG luminosity density. This drop is likely due to high-redshift galaxies being more gas rich and therefore able to achieve high star formation rates through secular evolution. Additionally, we find that major mergers can account for the local population of warm ULIRGs. This suggests that selecting high-redshift warm ULIRGs will allow for the identification of high-redshift merger-triggered ULIRGs. As major mergers are likely to trigger very highly obscured AGNs, a significant fraction of the high-redshift warm ULIRG population may host Compton thick AGNs.

  11. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  12. GOODS-HERSCHEL AND CANDELS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Dickinson, Mark; Alexander, David M.; Bell, Eric F.; Dahlen, Tomas; Lotz, Jennifer; Elbaz, David; Wiklind, Tommy; Faber, S. M.; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Bournaud, Frederic; Dannerbauer, Helmut; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Altieri, Bruno; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha; Davé, Romeel; Dunlop, James

    2012-01-01

    Using deep 100 and 160 μm observations in GOODS-South from GOODS-Herschel, combined with high-resolution HST/WFC3 near-infrared imaging from CANDELS, we present the first detailed morphological analysis of a complete, far-infrared (FIR) selected sample of 52 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L IR > 10 12 L ☉ ) at z ∼ 2. We also make use of a comparison sample of galaxies with lower IR luminosities but with the same redshift and H-band magnitude distribution. Our visual classifications of these two samples indicate that the fractions of objects with disk and spheroid morphologies are roughly the same but that there are significantly more mergers, interactions, and irregular galaxies among the ULIRGs (72 +5 –7 % versus 32 ± 3%). The combination of disk and irregular/interacting morphologies suggests that early-stage interactions, minor mergers, and disk instabilities could play an important role in ULIRGs at z ∼ 2. We compare these fractions with those of a z ∼ 1 sample selected from GOODS-H and COSMOS across a wide luminosity range and find that the fraction of disks decreases systematically with L IR while the fraction of mergers and interactions increases, as has been observed locally. At comparable luminosities, the fraction of ULIRGs with various morphological classifications is similar at z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 1, though there are slightly fewer mergers and slightly more disks at higher redshift. We investigate the position of the z ∼ 2 ULIRGs, along with 70 z ∼ 2 LIRGs, on the specific star formation rate versus redshift plane, and find 52 systems to be starbursts (i.e., they lie more than a factor of three above the main-sequence relation). We find that many of these systems are clear interactions and mergers (∼50%) compared to only 24% of systems on the main sequence relation. If irregular disks are included as potential minor mergers, then we find that up to ∼73% of starbursts are involved in a merger or interaction at some level

  13. GOODS-HERSCHEL AND CANDELS: THE MORPHOLOGIES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Lotz, Jennifer [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elbaz, David; Wiklind, Tommy [Joing ALMA Observatory, ESO, Santiago (Chile); Faber, S. M.; Aussel, Herve; Bethermin, Matthieu; Bournaud, Frederic; Dannerbauer, Helmut [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); McIntosh, Daniel H. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Altieri, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, James, E-mail: jeyhan@noao.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-20

    Using deep 100 and 160 {mu}m observations in GOODS-South from GOODS-Herschel, combined with high-resolution HST/WFC3 near-infrared imaging from CANDELS, we present the first detailed morphological analysis of a complete, far-infrared (FIR) selected sample of 52 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; L{sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) at z {approx} 2. We also make use of a comparison sample of galaxies with lower IR luminosities but with the same redshift and H-band magnitude distribution. Our visual classifications of these two samples indicate that the fractions of objects with disk and spheroid morphologies are roughly the same but that there are significantly more mergers, interactions, and irregular galaxies among the ULIRGs (72{sup +5}{sub -7}% versus 32 {+-} 3%). The combination of disk and irregular/interacting morphologies suggests that early-stage interactions, minor mergers, and disk instabilities could play an important role in ULIRGs at z {approx} 2. We compare these fractions with those of a z {approx} 1 sample selected from GOODS-H and COSMOS across a wide luminosity range and find that the fraction of disks decreases systematically with L{sub IR} while the fraction of mergers and interactions increases, as has been observed locally. At comparable luminosities, the fraction of ULIRGs with various morphological classifications is similar at z {approx} 2 and z {approx} 1, though there are slightly fewer mergers and slightly more disks at higher redshift. We investigate the position of the z {approx} 2 ULIRGs, along with 70 z {approx} 2 LIRGs, on the specific star formation rate versus redshift plane, and find 52 systems to be starbursts (i.e., they lie more than a factor of three above the main-sequence relation). We find that many of these systems are clear interactions and mergers ({approx}50%) compared to only 24% of systems on the main sequence relation. If irregular disks are included as potential minor mergers, then we find that up to {approx

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE CENSUS OF NEARBY INFRARED EXCESS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  15. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF X-RAY POINT SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES. II. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Song; Qiu, Yanli; Liu, Jifeng [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: songw@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: jfliu@bao.ac.cn [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    Based on the recently completed Chandra /ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library of 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ( α ∼ 1.50 ± 0.07) to elliptical (∼1.21 ± 0.02), to spirals (∼0.80 ± 0.02), to peculiars (∼0.55 ± 0.30), and to irregulars (∼0.26 ± 0.10). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosities for different types of galaxies. A radial dependency is found for ellipticals, with a flatter XLF slope for sources located between D {sub 25} and 2 D {sub 25}, suggesting the XLF slopes in the outer region of early-type galaxies are dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. This study shows that the ULX rate in early-type galaxies is 0.24 ± 0.05 ULXs per surveyed galaxy, on a 5 σ confidence level. The XLF for ULXs in late-type galaxies extends smoothly until it drops abruptly around 4 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1}, and this break may suggest a mild boundary between the stellar black hole population possibly including 30 M {sub ⊙} black holes with super-Eddington radiation and intermediate mass black holes.

  16. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  17. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  18. A Chandra Observation of the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 19254-7245 (The Superantennae): X-Ray Emission from the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and the Diffuse Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a Chandra observation of IRAS 19254-7245, a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy also known as the Superantennae. The high spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to disentangle for the first time the diffuse starburst (SB) emission from the embedded Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the southern nucleus. No AGN activity is detected in the northern nucleus. The 2-10 keV spectrum of the AGN emission is fitted by a flat power law (TAU = 1.3) and an He-like Fe Kalpha line with equivalent width 1.5 keV, consistent with previous observations. The Fe K line profile could be resolved as a blend of a neutral 6.4 keV line and an ionized 6.7 keV (He-like) or 6.9 keV (H-like) line. Variability of the neutral line is detected compared with the previous XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, demonstrating the compact size of the iron line emission. The spectrum of the galaxy-scale extended emission excluding the AGN and other bright point sources is fitted with a thermal component with a best-fit kT of approximately 0.8 keV. The 2-10 keV luminosity of the extended emission is about one order of magnitude lower than that of the AGN. The basic physical and structural properties of the extended emission are fully consistent with a galactic wind being driven by the SB. A candidate ultraluminous X-ray source is detected 8 south of the southern nucleus. The 0.3 - 10 keV luminosity of this off-nuclear point source is approximately 6 x 10(exp 40) erg per second if the emission is isotropic and the source is associated with the Superantennae.

  19. ALMA INVESTIGATION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC EMISSION LINES IN THE AGN-HOSTING ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551−4250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Izumi, Takuma, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551−4250 at HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 lines at both vibrational ground ( v = 0) and vibrationally excited ( v {sub 2} = 1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v {sub 2} = 1f J = 4–3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 3–2 emission lines at v = 0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO{sup +} v {sub 2} = 1f J = 3–2 emission line is not. Given the high energy level of v {sub 2} = 1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5–35 μ m spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO{sup +} and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation temperature between v {sub 2} = 1f and v = 0, after correction for possible line opacity, suggests that infrared radiative pumping affects rotational ( J -level) excitation at v = 0 at least for HCN and HNC. The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} v = 0 flux ratio is higher than those of starburst-dominated regions, and will increase even more when the derived high HCN opacity is corrected. The enhanced HCN-to-HCO{sup +} flux ratio in this AGN-hosting galaxy can be explained by the high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} abundance ratio and sufficient HCN excitation at up to J = 4, rather than the significantly higher efficiency of infrared radiative pumping for HCN than HCO{sup +}.

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TP-AGB STARS TO THE MID-INFRARED COLORS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D., E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 {mu}m. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  1. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TP-AGB STARS TO THE MID-INFRARED COLORS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisari, Nora E.; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 μm. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  2. THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY: A HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY ANTHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Schlawin, E. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Staudaher, S.; Smith, J. D. T.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Jarrett, T. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Sheth, K.; Buckalew, B. A.; Moustakas, J.; Roussel, H.; Bot, C.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Gordon, K. D.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared spectra are presented for 155 nuclear and extranuclear regions from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The fluxes for nine atomic forbidden and three molecular hydrogen mid-infrared emission lines are also provided, along with upper limits in key lines for infrared-faint targets. The SINGS sample shows a wide range in the ratio of [S III] 18.71 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm, but the average ratio of the ensemble indicates a typical interstellar electron density of 300-400 cm -3 on ∼23'' x 15'' scales and 500-600 cm -3 using ∼11'' x 9'' apertures, independent of whether the region probed is a star-forming nuclear, a star-forming extranuclear, or an active galactic nuclei (AGN) environment. Evidence is provided that variations in gas-phase metallicity play an important role in driving variations in radiation field hardness, as indicated by [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, for regions powered by star formation. Conversely, the radiation hardness for galaxy nuclei powered by accretion around a massive black hole is independent of metal abundance. Furthermore, for metal-rich environments AGN are distinguishable from star-forming regions by significantly larger [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm ratios. Finally, [Fe II] 25.99 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm versus [Si II] 34.82 μm/[S III] 33.48 μm also provides an empirical method for discerning AGN from normal star-forming sources. However, similar to [Ne III] 15.56 μm/[Ne II] 12.81 μm, these mid-infrared line ratios lose their AGN/star-formation diagnostic powers for very low metallicity star-forming systems with hard radiation fields.

  3. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nakanishi, Kouichiro, E-mail: masa.imanishi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  4. Quasar Feedback in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy F11119+3257: Connecting the Accretion Disk Wind with the Large-scale Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Bolatto, A.; Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2017-07-01

    In Tombesi et al., we reported the first direct evidence for a quasar accretion disk wind driving a massive (>100 M ⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow. The target was F11119+3257, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with unambiguous type 1 quasar optical broad emission lines. The energetics of the accretion disk wind and molecular outflow were found to be consistent with the predictions of quasar feedback models where the molecular outflow is driven by a hot energy-conserving bubble inflated by the inner quasar accretion disk wind. However, this conclusion was uncertain because the mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of the outflowing molecular gas were estimated from the optically thick OH 119 μm transition profile observed with Herschel. Here, we independently confirm the presence of the molecular outflow in F11119+3257, based on the detection of ˜±1000 km s-1 blue- and redshifted wings in the CO(1-0) emission line profile derived from deep ALMA observations obtained in the compact array configuration (˜2.″8 resolution). The broad CO(1-0) line emission appears to be spatially extended on a scale of at least ˜7 kpc from the center. Mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of (80-200) {R}7-1 M ⊙ yr-1, (1.5-3.0) {R}7-1 L AGN/c, and (0.15-0.40)% {R}7-1 {L}{AGN}, respectively, are inferred from these data, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor appropriate for a ULIRG (R 7 is the radius of the outflow normalized to 7 kpc, and L AGN is the AGN luminosity). These rates are time-averaged over a flow timescale of 7 × 106 yr. They are similar to the OH-based rates time-averaged over a flow timescale of 4 × 105 yr, but about a factor of 4 smaller than the local (“instantaneous” ≲105 yr) OH-based estimates cited in Tombesi et al. The implications of these new results are discussed in the context of time-variable quasar-mode feedback and galaxy evolution. The need for an energy-conserving bubble to explain the molecular outflow

  5. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D; Duschl, W J; Hönig, S F; Gandhi, P; Smette, A

    2012-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 μm emission is minor in the central parsecs of most LLAGN. Therefore, the observed MIR emission in the VISIR and Michelle data is most likely emitted by the AGN itself, which, for higher luminosity AGN, is interpreted as thermal emission from a dusty torus. Furthermore, the 12 /amemission of the LLAGN is strongly correlated with the absorption corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the MIR- X-ray correlation found previously for AGN is extended to a range from 10 40 to 10 45 erg/s. This correlation is independent of the object type, and in particular the low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Michelle fall exactly on the power-law fit valid for brighter AGN. In addition, no dependency of the MIR-X-ray ratio on the accretion rate is found. These results are consistent with the unification model being applicable even in the probed low-luminosity regime.

  6. Star Formation In Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs): X-Ray and Infrared Source Catalogs and Membership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Richert, Alexander J. W.; Ota, Yosuke [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Gran Bretana 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaiso (Chile); Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS (Chile); Bate, Matthew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4SB (United Kingdom); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-Ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) project is aimed at providing a detailed study of the young stellar populations and of star cluster formation in the nearby 22 star-forming regions (SFRs) for comparison with our earlier MYStIX survey of richer, more distant clusters. As a foundation for the SFiNCs science studies, here, homogeneous data analyses of the Chandra X-ray and Spitzer mid-infrared archival SFiNCs data are described, and the resulting catalogs of over 15,300 X-ray and over 1,630,000 mid-infrared point sources are presented. On the basis of their X-ray/infrared properties and spatial distributions, nearly 8500 point sources have been identified as probable young stellar members of the SFiNCs regions. Compared to the existing X-ray/mid-infrared publications, the SFiNCs member list increases the census of YSO members by 6%–200% for individual SFRs and by 40% for the merged sample of all 22 SFiNCs SFRs.

  7. THE NEAR-INFRARED CORONAL LINE SPECTRUM OF 54 NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Prieto, M. A.; Portilla, J. G.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the emission of coronal lines (CLs) and nuclear activity in 36 Type 1 and 18 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analyzed, for the first time, based on near-infrared (0.8-2.4 μm) spectra. The eight CLs studied, of Si, S, Fe, Al, and Ca elements and corresponding to ionization potentials (IPs) in the range 125-450 eV, are detected (3σ) in 67% (36 AGNs) of the sample. Our analysis shows that the four most frequent CLs [Si VI] 1.963 μm, [S VIII] 0.9913 μm, [S IX] 1.252 μm, and [Si X] 1.430 μm display a narrow range in luminosity, with most lines located in the interval log L 39-40 erg s –1 . We found that the non-detection is largely associated with either loss of spatial resolution or increasing object distance: CLs are essentially nuclear and easily lose contrast in the continuum stellar light for nearby sources or get diluted by the strong AGN continuum as the redshift increases. Yet, there are AGNs where the lack of coronal emission, i.e., lines with IP ≥ 100 eV, may be genuine. The absence of these lines reflects a non-standard AGN ionizing continuum, namely, a very hard spectrum lacking photons below a few Kev. The analysis of the line profiles points out a trend of increasing FWHM with increasing IPs up to energies around 300 eV, where a maximum in the FWHM is reached. For higher IP lines, the FWHM remains nearly constant or decreases with increasing IPs. We ascribe this effect to an increasing density environment as we approach the innermost regions of these AGNs, where densities above the critical density of the CLs with IPs larger than 300 eV are reached. This sets a strict range limit for the density in the boundary region between the narrow and the broad region of 10 8 -10 9 cm –3 . A relationship between the luminosity of the CLs and that of the soft and hard X-ray emission and the soft X-ray photon index is observed: the coronal emission becomes stronger with both increasing X-ray emission (soft and hard) and

  8. Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Inference: Hierarchical Models for Nearby SN Ia in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, R. P.; Narayan, G.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Friedman, A. S.; Hicken, M.

    2010-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova light curves spanning optical through near infrared data simultaneously. The near infrared light curves are found to be excellent standard candles (sigma(MH) = 0.11 +/- 0.03 mag) that are less vulnerable to systematic error from dust extinction, a major confounding factor for cosmological studies. A hierarchical statistical framework incorporates coherently multiple sources of randomness and uncertainty, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances, for probabilistic inference with Type Ia SN light curves. Inferences are drawn from the full probability density over individual supernovae and the SN Ia and dust populations, conditioned on a dataset of SN Ia light curves and redshifts. To compute probabilistic inferences with hierarchical models, I have developed BayeSN, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm based on Gibbs sampling. This code explores and samples the global probability density of parameters describing individual supernovae and the population. I have applied this hierarchical model to optical and near infrared data of over 100 nearby Type Ia SN from PAIRITEL, the CfA3 sample, and the literature. Using this statistical model, I find that SN with optical and NIR data have a smaller residual scatter in the Hubble diagram than SN with only optical data. The continued study of Type Ia SN in the near infrared will be important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  9. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  10. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Davy Kirkpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  11. New far infrared images of bright, nearby, star-forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. AL, Jr.; Cole, David M.; Dowell, C. Darren; Lees, Joanna F.; Lowenstein, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Broadband imaging in the far infrared is a vital tool for understanding how young stars form, evolve, and interact with their environment. As the sensitivity and size of detector arrays has increased, a richer and more detailed picture has emerged of the nearest and brightest regions of active star formation. We present data on M 17, M 42, and S 106 taken recently on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory with the Yerkes Observatory 60-channel far infrared camera, which has pixel sizes of 17 in. at 60 microns, 27 in. at 100 microns, and 45 in. at 160 and 200 microns. In addition to providing a clearer view of the complex central cores of the regions, the images reveal new details of the structure and heating of ionization fronts and photodissociation zones where radiation form luminous stars interacts with adjacent molecular clouds.

  12. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    -ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may...

  13. The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: A High-Resolution Spectroscopy Anthology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Daniel A.; SINGS Team

    2009-05-01

    Results from high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy are presented for 155 nuclear and extranuclear regions from SINGS. The SINGS sample shows a wide range in the ratio of [SIII]18.71/[SIII]33.48, but the average ratio of the ensemble indicates a typical interstellar electron density of 300--400 cm-3 on 23"x15" scales and 500--600 cm-3 using 11"x9" apertures, independent of whether the region probed is a star-forming nuclear, a star-forming extranuclear, or an AGN environment. Evidence is provided that variations in gas-phase metallicity play an important role in driving variations in radiation field hardness, as indicated by [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81, for regions powered by star formation. Conversely, the radiation hardness for galaxy nuclei powered by accretion around a massive black hole is independent of metal abundance. Furthermore, for metal-rich environments AGN are distinguishable from star-forming regions by significantly larger [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81 ratios. Finally, [FeII]25.99/[NeII]12.81 versus [SiII]34.82/[SIII]33.48 also provides an empirical method for discerning AGN from normal star-forming sources. However, similar to [NeIII]15.56/[NeII]12.81, these mid-infrared line ratios lose their AGN/star-formation diagnostic powers for very low metallicity star-forming systems with hard radiation fields.

  14. Near-infrared metallicities, radial velocities, and spectral types for 447 nearby M dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Centro de Astrofsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Covey, Kevin [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lloyd, James P., E-mail: enewton@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present metallicities, radial velocities, and near-infrared (NIR) spectral types for 447 M dwarfs determined from moderate resolution (R ≈ 2000) NIR spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF)/SpeX. These M dwarfs are primarily targets of the MEarth Survey, a transiting planet survey searching for super Earths around mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 pc. We present NIR spectral types for each star and new spectral templates for the IRTF in the Y, J, H, and K-bands, created using M dwarfs with near-solar metallicities. We developed two spectroscopic distance calibrations that use NIR spectral type or an index based on the curvature of the K-band continuum. Our distance calibration has a scatter of 14%. We searched 27 NIR spectral lines and 10 spectral indices for metallicity sensitive features, taking into account correlated noise in our estimates of the errors on these parameters. We calibrated our relation using 36 M dwarfs in common proper pairs with an F-, G-, or K-type star of known metallicity. We validated the physical association of these pairs using proper motions, radial velocities, and spectroscopic distance estimates. Our resulting metallicity calibration uses the sodium doublet at 2.2 μm as the sole indicator for metallicity. It has an accuracy of 0.12 dex inferred from the scatter between the metallicities of the primaries and the estimated metallicities of the secondaries. Our relation is valid for NIR spectral types from M1V to M5V and for –1.0 dex < [Fe/H] < +0.35 dex. We present a new color-color metallicity relation using J – H and J – K colors that directly relates two observables: the distance from the M dwarf main sequence and equivalent width of the sodium line at 2.2 μm. We used radial velocities of M dwarf binaries, observations at different epochs, and comparison between our measurements and precisely measured radial velocities to demonstrate a 4 km s{sup –1} accuracy.

  15. Infrared Emission from Kilonovae: The Case of the Nearby Short Hard Burst GRB 160821B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lau, Ryan M. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Korobkin, Oleg; Wollaeger, Ryan; Fryer, Christopher L. [Computational Methods Group (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present constraints on Ks-band emission from one of the nearest short hard gamma-ray bursts, GRB 160821B, at z = 0.16, at three epochs. We detect a red relativistic afterglow from the jetted emission in the first epoch but do not detect any excess kilonova emission in the second two epochs. We compare upper limits obtained with Keck I/MOSFIRE to multi-dimensional radiative transfer models of kilonovae, that employ composition-dependent nuclear heating and LTE opacities of heavy elements. We discuss eight models that combine toroidal dynamical ejecta and two types of wind and one model with dynamical ejecta only. We also discuss simple, empirical scaling laws of predicted emission as a function of ejecta mass and ejecta velocity. Our limits for GRB 160821B constrain the ejecta mass to be lower than 0.03 M {sub ⊙} for velocities greater than 0.1 c. At the distance sensitivity range of advanced LIGO, similar ground-based observations would be sufficiently sensitive to the full range of predicted model emission including models with only dynamical ejecta. The color evolution of these models shows that I – K color spans 7–16 mag, which suggests that even relatively shallow infrared searches for kilonovae could be as constraining as optical searches.

  16. Toward the comprehension of the infrared to submillimeter view of the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galametz, Maud

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the interstellar medium (ISM) of nearby galaxies to characterize the physical properties of the gas and dust. We especially focused our study on low-metallicity galaxies of the Local Universe, ideal candidates to study the influence of metal enrichment on the ISM properties of galaxies. Previous studies have shown that the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of low metallicity galaxies differ significantly from those of massive galaxies and that the dust-to-gas mass ratio (D/G) of the galaxy could be dependent of the metallicity. Observations of low-metallicity galaxies also often led to the detection of an excess at submillimeter (sub-mm) wavelengths not always accounted for in usual SED models. Further studies and observations had to be performed to better cover the far-IR to sub-mm range and probe the coldest phase of dust. We adopt a multi-wavelength approach to model and analyse the SEDs of 4 low-metallicity galaxies observed with LABOCA at 870 μm. We estimated the fraction of cool dust to be significant compared to the total dust mass of the galaxies. Some D/Gs are incoherent compared to what is expected from the current chemical evolution model, revealing possible reservoirs of gas not detected by current HI or CO observations. I enlarged the first sample to a wider range of metallicities and showed that sub-mm measurements significantly affect the dust mass estimates of galaxies. For dustier galaxies for which the SED usually peaks at longer wavelengths, sub-mm fluxes are crucial to position the peak and the Rayleigh-Jeans slope of their SED. For low-metallicity galaxies, the sub-mm wavelength domain harbours an excess that may imply a large amount of very cold dust. Our results confirm that low-metallicity galaxies can exhibit a sub-mm excess when observed at longer wavelengths. Obtaining a more precise inventory of the cold dust and resolve the main actors of dust evolution in massive star forming regions and molecular clouds

  17. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 statistical analysis, and fit an exponential curve to the data to describe the expected amount of decrease in SFR seen for a U/LIRG in my sample over a given change in starburst age. Finally, I find evidence that the stellar mass and starburst mass fractions influence whether a U/LIRG in my sample will have a strong AGN and SFR, respectively. I compare the SFR-Mstar relationship seen in my sample with those predicted by models and found from previous observations. I find that the U/LIRGs with older starbursts (>125 Myr) agree with previous results, while those with younger starbursts show a large dispersion in Mstar. I conclude that this is supporting evidence that the star formation histories and timescales at which the IR power sources in U/LIRGs evolve

  18. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, A. C. A. [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Öberg, K. I. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F., E-mail: aboogert@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  19. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G.; Öberg, K. I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H 2 O ices form at extinctions of A K = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A V = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H 2 O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10 –5 relative to N H ) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH 3 OH abundance ( 2 O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A K increases as a function of A K . Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R V ∼ 3.5 (A K = 0.71) and R V ∼ 5.0 (A K = 1.47). For lines of sight with A K > 1.0 mag, the τ 9.7 /A K ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ 9.7 /A K ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A 7.4 /A K continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts

  20. TORUS AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM FITTING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Mason, Rachel; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.; Roche, Patrick F.; Levenson, Nancy A.; Elitzur, Moshe; Packham, Christopher; Young, Stuart; Diaz-Santos, Tanio

    2011-01-01

    We used the CLUMPY torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions and ground-based high angular resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of 13 nearby Seyfert galaxies. This allowed us to put tight constraints on torus model parameters such as the viewing angle i, the radial thickness of the torus Y, the angular size of the cloud distribution σ torus , and the average number of clouds along radial equatorial rays N 0 . We found that the viewing angle i is not the only parameter controlling the classification of a galaxy into type 1 or type 2. In principle, type 2s could be viewed at any viewing angle i as long as there is one cloud along the line of sight. A more relevant quantity for clumpy media is the probability for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) photon to escape unabsorbed. In our sample, type 1s have relatively high escape probabilities, P esc ∼ 12%-44%, while type 2s, as expected, tend to have very low escape probabilities. Our fits also confirmed that the tori of Seyfert galaxies are compact with torus model radii in the range 1-6 pc. The scaling of the models to the data also provided the AGN bolometric luminosities L bol (AGN), which were found to be in good agreement with estimates from the literature. When we combined our sample of Seyfert galaxies with a sample of PG quasars from the literature to span a range of L bol (AGN) ∼ 10 43 -10 47 erg s -1 , we found plausible evidence of the receding torus. That is, there is a tendency for the torus geometrical covering factor to be lower (f 2 ∼ 0.1-0.3) at high AGN luminosities than at low AGN luminosities (f 2 ∼ 0.9-1 at ∼10 43 -10 44 erg s -1 ). This is because at low AGN luminosities the tori appear to have wider angular sizes (larger σ torus ) and more clouds along radial equatorial rays. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that this is due to contamination by extended dust structures not associated with the dusty torus at low AGN luminosities

  1. The Statistical Properties of Galaxies Containing Ultraluminous X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2004-05-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies containing ultraluminous X-ray objects (ULXs). Our primary goal is to establish the fraction of galaxies containing a ULX as a function of ULX luminosity. Our sample is based on ROSAT HRI observations of galaxies. We find that ~12% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1039 ergs s-1, and ~1% of galaxies contain at least one ULX with LX>1040 ergs s-1. These ULX frequencies are lower limits, since ROSAT HRI observations would miss absorbed ULXs (i.e., with NH>~1021cm-2) and those within ~10" of the nucleus (due to the positional error circle of the ROSAT HRI). The Hubble type distribution of galaxies with a ULX differs significantly from the distribution of types for nearby Third Reference Catalog galaxies but does not differ significantly from the galaxy type distribution of galaxies observed by the HRI in general. We find no increase in the mean far-infrared (FIR) luminosity or FIR/K-band luminosity ratio for galaxies with a ULX relative to galaxies observed by the HRI in general; however, this result is also most likely biased by the soft bandpass of the HRI and the relatively low number of high star formation rate galaxies observed by the HRI with enough sensitivity to detect a ULX.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are

  3. The SAURON project : XIX. Optical and near-infrared scaling relations of nearby elliptical, lenticular and Sa galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R. F.; Bureau, M.; Jeong, H.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; Shapiro, K. L.; van den Bosch, R.C.E.; van der Wolk, G.; Weijmans, A.; Yi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based MDM Observatory V-band and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera 3.6-mu m-band photometric observations of the 72 representative galaxies of the SAURON survey. Galaxies in our sample probe the elliptical E, lenticular S0 and spiral Sa populations in the nearby Universe, both in field

  4. The SAURON project - XIX. Optical and near-infrared scaling relations of nearby elliptical, lenticular and Sa galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R. F.; Bureau, M.; Jeong, H.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; Shapiro, K. L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van der Wolk, G.; Weijmans, A.; Yi, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based MDM Observatory V-band and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera 3.6-?m-band photometric observations of the 72 representative galaxies of the SAURON survey. Galaxies in our sample probe the elliptical E, lenticular S0 and spiral Sa populations in the nearby Universe, both in field

  5. Infrared Spectroscopic Survey of the Quiescent Medium of Nearby Clouds. I. Ice Formation and Grain Growth in Lupus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, A.; Chiar, J.; Knez, C.; Öberg, K.; Mundy, L.; Pendleton, Y.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dishoeck, van E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 {$μ$}m) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H$_{2}$O ices form at extinctions of A

  6. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: IS THERE EVIDENCE FOR SHOCK EXCITATION IN NARROW-LINE REGIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagao, T.; Toba, Y. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Yanagisawa, K. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Honjo 3037-5, Kamogata-cho, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Matsuoka, K. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ikeda, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Taniguchi, Y., E-mail: terao@cosmos.phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [The Open University of Japan, Wakaba 2-11, Mihama-ku, Chiba 261-8586 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    One of the important unsettled problems regarding active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is the major ionization mechanism of gas clouds in AGN narrow-line regions (NLRs). In order to investigate this issue, we present our J -band spectroscopic observations of a sample of 26 nearby Seyfert galaxies. In our study, we use the flux ratio of the following two forbidden emission lines, [Fe ii]1.257  μ m and [P ii]1.188  μ m, because it is known that this ratio is sensitive to the ionization mechanism. We obtain the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratio or its lower limit for 19 objects. In addition to our data, we compile this flux ratio (or its lower limit) for 23 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the literature. Based on the collected data, we find that three Seyfert galaxies show very large lower limits of the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratios (≳10): NGC 2782, NGC 5005, and Mrk 463. It is thus suggested that the contribution of the fast shock in the gas excitation is significantly large for them. However, more than half of the Seyfert galaxies in our sample show moderate [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratios (∼2), which is consistent with pure photoionization by power-law ionizing continuum emission. We also find that the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratio shows no clear correlation with the radio loudness, suggesting that the radio jet is not the primary origin of shocks in NLRs of Seyfert galaxies.

  7. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A.; Hurley, K.; Mangano, V.; Burrows, D. N.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H.; Oates, S.; Cline, T. L.; Krimm, H. A.; Pagani, C.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E iso = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10 54 erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L iso = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 10 54 erg s –1 . A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ∼ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ∼ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early Universe.

  8. SYSTEMATIC VARIATIONS IN CO2/H2O ICE ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES FOUND WITH AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Onaka, T.; Shimonishi, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios in seven nearby star-forming galaxies based on the AKARI near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) spectra. The CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios show clear variations between 0.05 and 0.2 with the averaged value of 0.14 ± 0.01. The previous study on M82 revealed that the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios strongly correlate with the intensity ratios of the hydrogen recombination Brα line to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3.3 μm feature. In the present study, however, we find no correlation for the seven galaxies as a whole due to systematic differences in the relation between CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance and Brα/PAH 3.3 μm intensity ratios from galaxy to galaxy. This result suggests that there is another parameter that determines the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios in a galaxy in addition to the Brα/PAH 3.3 μm ratios. We find that the CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios positively correlate with the specific star formation rates of the galaxies. From these results, we conclude that CO 2 /H 2 O ice abundance ratios tend to be high in young star-forming galaxies

  9. Ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2017-06-01

    While ultraluminous supersoft X-ray sources (ULSs) bear features for intermediate mass black holes or very massive white dwarfs possibly close to Chandrasekhar mass limit, our recent discovery of processing relativistic baryonic jets from a prototype ULS in M81 demonstrate that they are not IMBHs or WDs, but black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. This discovery strengthens the recent ideas that ULXs are stellar black holes with supercritical accretion, and provides a vivid manifestation of what happens when a black hole devours too much, that is, it will generate thick disk winds and fire out sub-relativistic baryonic jets along the funnel as predicted by recent numerical simulations.

  10. An accreting pulsar with extreme properties drives an ultraluminous x-ray source in NGC 5907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Gian Luca; Belfiore, Andrea; Stella, Luigi; Esposito, Paolo; Casella, Piergiorgio; De Luca, Andrea; Marelli, Martino; Papitto, Alessandro; Perri, Matteo; Puccetti, Simonetta; Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Salvetti, David; Tiengo, Andrea; Zampieri, Luca; D'Agostino, Daniele; Greiner, Jochen; Haberl, Frank; Novara, Giovanni; Salvaterra, Ruben; Turolla, Roberto; Watson, Mike; Wilms, Joern; Wolter, Anna

    2017-02-24

    Ultraluminous x-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies shine brighter than any x-ray source in our Galaxy. ULXs are usually modeled as stellar-mass black holes (BHs) accreting at very high rates or intermediate-mass BHs. We present observations showing that NGC 5907 ULX is instead an x-ray accreting neutron star (NS) with a spin period evolving from 1.43 seconds in 2003 to 1.13 seconds in 2014. It has an isotropic peak luminosity of [Formula: see text]1000 times the Eddington limit for a NS at 17.1 megaparsec. Standard accretion models fail to explain its luminosity, even assuming beamed emission, but a strong multipolar magnetic field can describe its properties. These findings suggest that other extreme ULXs (x-ray luminosity [Formula: see text] 10 41 erg second[Formula: see text]) might harbor NSs. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Chandra reveals a black hole X-ray binary within the ultraluminous supernova remnant MF 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. P.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-06-01

    We present evidence, based on Chandra ACIS-S observations of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946, that the extraordinary X-ray luminosity of the MF 16 supernova remnant actually arises in a black hole X-ray binary. This conclusion is drawn from the point-like nature of the X-ray source, its X-ray spectrum closely resembling the spectrum of other ultraluminous X-ray sources thought to be black hole X-ray binary systems, and the detection of rapid hard X-ray variability from the source. We briefly discuss the nature of the hard X-ray variability, and the origin of the extreme radio and optical luminosity of MF 16 in light of this identification.

  12. {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th St, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain); Hughes, Annie [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Kramer, Carsten [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Meier, David [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Pl, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Murphy, Eric [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas, E-mail: m.jimenez@zah.uni-heidelberg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure {sup 13}CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of {sup 12}CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  13. CARMA SURVEY TOWARD INFRARED-BRIGHT NEARBY GALAXIES (STING). III. THE DEPENDENCE OF ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR GAS SURFACE DENSITIES ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Tony; Xue, Rui; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Fisher, David B.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Leroy, Adam K.; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and H I emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the H I column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee and Krumholz, which balances H 2 formation and dissociation. The observed H I column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe H I column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse H I component that did not contribute to H 2 shielding. We also find that the H 2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stellar disk

  14. The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source X-37 Is a Background Quasar in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Christopher, M. H.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter we report that a bright, X-ray source in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9), previously identified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), is in fact a background quasar. We identify an isolated infrared and optical counterpart within 0.3" +/- 0.5" of the X-ray source X-37. After acquiring an optical spectrum of its counterpart, we use the narrow [O III] and broad Hα emission lines to identify X-37 as a quasar at a redshift of z=0.26. Through a U, V, and Ks photometric analysis, we demonstrate that most of the observable light along this line of sight is from the quasar. We discuss the implications of this discovery and the importance of acquiring spectra for optical and IR counterparts to ULXs.

  15. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS). IV. Discovery of High-redshift AGB Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Whitelock, P. A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sonneborn, G.; Sloan, G. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Meixner, M.; McDonald, I.; Jones, O. C.; Javadi, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Britavskiy, N.; Bonanos, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The survey for DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS) identified several candidate Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in nearby dwarf galaxies and showed that dust can form even in very metal-poor systems ({\\boldsymbol{Z}}∼ 0.008 {Z}ȯ ). Here, we present a follow-up survey with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), using filters that are capable of distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) stars: F127M, F139M, and F153M. We include six star-forming DUSTiNGS galaxies (NGC 147, IC 10, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans B, Sextans A, and Sag DIG), all more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds and spanning 1 dex in metallicity. We double the number of dusty AGB stars known in these galaxies and find that most are carbon rich. We also find 26 dusty M-type stars, mostly in IC 10. Given the large dust excess and tight spatial distribution of these M-type stars, they are most likely on the upper end of the AGB mass range (stars undergoing Hot Bottom Burning). Theoretical models do not predict significant dust production in metal-poor M-type stars, but we see evidence for dust excess around M-type stars even in the most metal-poor galaxies in our sample (12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.26{--}7.50). The low metallicities and inferred high stellar masses (up to ∼10 {M}ȯ ) suggest that AGB stars can produce dust very early in the evolution of galaxies (∼30 Myr after they form), and may contribute significantly to the dust reservoirs seen in high-redshift galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-14073.

  16. "1"3CO/C"1"8O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure "1"3CO(1-0)/C"1"8O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of "1"2CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved "1"3CO/C"1"8O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  17. Monitoring variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to monitor variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. In particular, since the launch of Chandra, M31 has been regularly observed. It is perhaps the only nearby galaxy which is observed by an X-ray telescope regularly throughout operation. With 10 years of observations, the center of M31 has been observed with Chandra for nearly 1 Msec and the X-ray skies of M31 consist of many transients and variables. Furthermore, the X-ray Telescope of Swift has been monitoring several ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies regularly. Not only can we detect long-term X-ray variability, we can also find spectral variation as well as possible orbital period. In this talk, I will review some of the important Chandra and Swift monitoring observations of nearby galaxies in the past 10 years. I will also present a "high-definition" movie of M31 and discuss the possibility of detecting luminous transients in M31 with MAXI.

  18. Magnetic field strength of a neutron-star-powered ultraluminous X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Fürst, F.; Middleton, M. J.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Heida, M.; Barret, D.; Bachetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are bright X-ray sources in nearby galaxies not associated with the central supermassive black hole. Their luminosities imply they are powered by either an extreme accretion rate onto a compact stellar remnant, or an intermediate mass ( 100-105M⊙) black hole1. Recently detected coherent pulsations coming from three bright ULXs2-5 demonstrate that some of these sources are powered by accretion onto a neutron star, implying accretion rates significantly in excess of the Eddington limit, a high degree of geometric beaming, or both. The physical challenges associated with the high implied accretion rates can be mitigated if the neutron star surface field is very high (1014 G)6, since this suppresses the electron scattering cross-section, reducing the radiation pressure that chokes off accretion for high luminosities. Surface magnetic field strengths can be determined through cyclotron resonance scattering features7,8 produced by the transition of charged particles between quantized Landau levels. Here, we present the detection at a significance of 3.8σ of an absorption line at 4.5 keV in the Chandra spectrum of a ULX in M51. This feature is likely to be a cyclotron resonance scattering feature produced by the strong magnetic field of a neutron star. Assuming scattering off electrons, the magnetic field strength is implied to be 1011 G, while protons would imply a magnetic field of B 1015 G.

  19. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections,

  20. A radio monitoring survey of ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg s-1. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times over 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is ≈0.15 mJy (4σ) for radio flares and ≈60 μJy for continuous emission. In M 82 two ULXs seem to have coincident compact radio sources, which are probably supernova remnants. No continuous or flaring radio emission has been detected from any other ULX. Thus, ULXs do not generally emit steady-state radio emission above radio powers of 1.5 × 1017 W/Hz. The non-detections of the continuous emission are consistent with beamed or unbeamed radio emission from accreting black holes of ≤ 103 M⊙ based on the radio/X-ray correlation. Other published radio detections (M 82, NGC 5408) are also discussed in this context. Both detections are significantly above our detection limit. If ULXs have flaring radio emission above 4 × 1017 W/Hz we can give an upper limit on the duty cycle of the flares of 6%. This upper limit is in agreement with the observed number of flares in Galactic radio transients. Additionally we present a yet unreported radio double structure in the nearby low-luminosity AGN NGC 4736.

  1. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  2. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G.; Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R.; Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W.; Blain, A. W.; Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D. J.; Masci, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by ∼1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 ± 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 ± 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed ∼1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the ∼0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early epochs (>4 Gyr ago

  3. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Benford, D. J. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Masci, F. J. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by {approx}1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 {+-} 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 {+-} 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed {approx}1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the {approx}0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  4. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  5. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources and their Implication for Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerding, E. G.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Falcke, H.

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of a radio monitoring campaign to search for radio emission from nearby ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs). These intriguing sources are bright off-nuclear X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding LX > 1039 erg/sec. Assuming isotropic emission the Eddington Limit suggests that they harbor intermediate mass black holes. Due to the problems of this explanation also other possibilities are currently discussed, among them are anisotropic emission, super-Eddington accretion flows or relativistically beamed emission from microquasars. Detections of compact radio cores at the positions of ULXs would be a direct hint to jet-emission. However, as the ULX phenomenom is connected to star formation we have to assume that they are strongly accreting objects. Thus, similar to their nearest Galactic cousins, the very high state X-ray binaries (see e.g., GRS 1915), ULXs may show radio flares. A well-defined sample of the 9 nearest ULXs has been monitored eight times during 5 months with the Very Large Array in A and B configuration. Our limiting sensitivity is 0.15 mJy (4 σ ) for flares and 68 μ Jy for continuous emission. In M82 some ULXs seem to be connected to radio supernova remnants. Besides that no flare or continuous emission has been detected. As the timescales of radio flares in ULXs are highly uncertain, it could well be that we have undersampled the lightcurve. However, upper bounds for the probability to detect a flare can be given. The upper limits for the continuous emission are compared with the emission found in NGC 5408 X-1 and with quasars and microquasars. We show that these limits are well in agreement with the microblazar model using the Radio/X-ray correlation of XRBs and AGN. Thus, it could well be that ULXs are microblazers which may be radio loud.

  6. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  7. Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Liming [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M. [IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) light curves (LCs) of a tidal disruption event candidate in the center of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy F01004−2237 using archival WISE and NEOWISE data from 2010 to 2016. At the peak of the optical flare, F01004−2237 was IR quiescent. About three years later, its MIR fluxes have shown a steady increase, rising by 1.34 and 1.04 mag in 3.4 and 4.6 μ m up to the end of 2016. The host-subtracted MIR peak luminosity is 2–3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. We interpret the MIR LCs as an infrared echo, i.e., dust reprocessed emission of the optical flare. Fitting the MIR LCs using our dust model, we infer a dust torus of the size of a few parsecs at some inclined angle. The derived dust temperatures range from 590–850 K, and the warm dust mass is ∼7 M {sub ⊙}. Such a large mass implies that the dust cannot be newly formed. We also derive the UV luminosity of 4–11 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. The inferred total IR energy is 1–2 × 10{sup 52} erg, suggesting a large dust covering factor. Finally, our dust model suggests that the long tail of the optical flare could be due to dust scattering.

  8. Radio Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources ---Microblazars or Intermediate-Mass Black Holes?---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körding, E.; Colbert, E.; Falcke, H.

    In recent years Ultra-Luminous X-Ray sources (ULXs) received wide attention, however, their true nature is not yet understood. Many explanations have been suggested, including intermediate-mass black holes, super-Eddington accretion flows, anisotropic emission, and relativistic beaming of microquasars. We model the logN-logS distribution of ULXs assuming that each neutron star or black hole XRB can be described by an accretion disk plus jet model, where the jet is relativistically beamed. The distribution can be either fit by intermediate-mass black holes or by stellar mass black holes with mildly relativistic jets. Even though the jet is intrinsically weaker than the accretion disk, relativistic beaming can in the latter approach lead to the high fluxes observed. To further explore the possibility of microblazars contributing to the ULX phenomenon, we have embarked on a radio-monitoring study of ULXs in nearby galaxies with the VLA. However, up to now no radio flare has been detected. Using the radio/X-ray correlation the upper limits on the radio flux can be converted into upper limits for the black hole masses of MBH ≲ 10^3 M⊙.

  9. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  10. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  11. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Zampieri, L.; Stella, L.; Israel, G. L.; Wolter, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M ⊙ black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  12. Pulsator-like Spectra from Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources and the Search for More Ultraluminous Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintore, F.; Mereghetti, S. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Zampieri, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Stella, L.; Israel, G. L. [INAF—Osservatorio astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 44, I-00078, Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Wolter, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are a population of extragalactic objects whose luminosity exceeds the Eddington limit for a 10 M {sub ⊙} black hole (BH). Their properties have been widely interpreted in terms of accreting stellar-mass or intermediate-mass BHs. However at least three neutron stars (NSs) have been recently identified in ULXs through the discovery of periodic pulsations. Motivated by these findings we studied the spectral properties of a sample of bright ULXs using a simple continuum model which was extensively used to fit the X-ray spectra of accreting magnetic NSs in the Galaxy. We found that such a model, consisting of a power-law with a high-energy exponential cut-off, fits most of the ULX spectra analyzed here very well, at a level comparable to that of models involving an accreting BH. On these grounds alone we suggest that other non-pulsating ULXs may host NSs. We also found that above 2 keV the spectrum of known pulsating ULXs is harder than that of the majority of the other ULXs of the sample, with only IC 342 X-1 and Ho IX X-1 displaying spectra of comparable hardness. We thus suggest that these two ULXs may host an accreting NS and encourage searches for periodic pulsations in the flux.

  13. Ultraluminous X-ray sources as neutrino pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2018-05-01

    The classical limit on the accretion luminosity of a neutron star is given by the Eddington luminosity. The advanced models of accretion on to magnetized neutron stars account for the appearance of magnetically confined accretion columns and allow the accretion luminosity to be higher than the Eddington value by a factor of tens. However, the recent discovery of pulsations from ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in NGC 5907 demonstrates that the accretion luminosity can exceed the Eddington value up to by a factor of 500. We propose a model explaining observational properties of ULX-1 in NGC 5907 without any ad hoc assumptions. We show that the accretion column at extreme luminosity becomes advective. Enormous energy release within a small geometrical volume and advection result in very high temperatures at the bottom of accretion column, which demand to account for the energy losses due to neutrino emission which can be even more effective than the radiation energy losses. We show that the total luminosity at the mass accretion rates above 1021 g s-1 is dominated by the neutrino emission similarly to the case of core-collapse supernovae. We argue that the accretion rate measurements based on detected photon luminosity in case of bright ULXs powered by neutron stars can be largely underestimated due to intense neutrino emission. The recently discovered pulsating ULX-1 in galaxy NGC 5907 with photon luminosity of {˜ } 10^{41} {erg s^{-1}} is expected to be even brighter in neutrinos and is thus the first known Neutrino Pulsar.

  14. Disturbance Ecology from nearby Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, D. H.; Kretschmer, K.; Diehl, R.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of Galactic Supernovae are carried out to study the rate of nearby events, which may have a direct effect on Earth's ecology though ionizing radiation and cosmic ray bombardment. A nearby supernova may have left a radioactive imprint (60Fe) in recent galactic history.

  15. Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, M.J.; Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Markoff, S.; Fender, R.; Henze, M.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Roberts, T.P.; Walton, D.; Carpenter, J.; Macquart, J.-P.; Bower, G.C.; Gurwell, G.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Harris, J.; Daniel, M.; Miah, J.; Done, C.; Morgan, J.S.; Dickinson, H.; Charles, P.; Burwitz, V.; Della Valle, M.; Freyberg, M.; Greiner, J.; Hernanz, M.; Hartmann, D.H.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Riffeser, A.; Sala, G.; Seitz, S.; Reig, P.; Rau, A.; Orio, M.; Titterington, D.; Grainge, K.

    2013-01-01

    A subset of ultraluminous X-ray sources (those with luminosities of less than 1040 erg s−1; ref. 1) are thought to be powered by the accretion of gas onto black holes with masses of ~5-20 , probably by means of an accretion disk2, 3. The X-ray and radio emission are coupled in such Galactic sources;

  16. An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects....

  17. New insights into the X-ray properties of nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brnadt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Levan, A. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2008-02-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  18. Study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared with the ISOCAM instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the mid-infrared between 3 and 16 μm with the ISOCAM instrument. The study of nearby prototypical galaxies such as NGC 1068 and M 82 lead me to decompose the emission into three components. The star forming regions are characterized by (1) the infrared bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 μm originating from the photo-dissociation regions and also by (2) a continuum at 15 μm produced by the very small grains in HII regions. I show that AGNs have (3) strong continuum with an important contribution between 3 and 10 μm arising from hot dust heated to high temperatures of the order of 1000 K. I present two diagnostic diagrams based on the spectral properties of the three components allowing me to distinguish AGNs from starburst regions. In interacting galaxies, I show that some extra-nuclear regions harboring starburst activity can dominate the emission at 15 μm as in the Cartwheel and the Antennae galaxies. Using mid-infrared spectral features, I also define two prototypes of ultra-luminous galaxies dominated either by starburst activity in the case of Arp 220 or by the AGN in the Super-Antennae galaxy (IRAS 19254-7245). I explain how this diagram and the selection criteria evolve according to redshift. Finally, I show how we can develop new diagnostics using filters of the IRAC instrument on board the next infrared space observatory SIRTF. (author) [fr

  19. Hydride Molecules towards Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Raquel R.; La, Ngoc; Goldsmith, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Observations carried out by the Herschel Space Observatory revealed strong spectroscopic signatures from light hydride molecules within the Milky Way and nearby active galaxies. To better understand the chemical and physical conditions of the interstellar medium, we conducted the first comprehensive survey of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and water molecular lines observed through the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer. By collecting and analyzing the sub-millimeter spectra of over two hundred sources, we found that the HF J = 1 - 0 rotational transition which occurs at approximately 1232 GHz was detected in a total of 39 nearby galaxies both in absorption and emission. The analysis will determine the main excitation mechanism of HF in nearby galaxies and provide steady templates of the chemistry and physical conditions of the ISM to be used in the early universe, where observations of hydrides are more scarce.

  20. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  1. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Komugi, Shinya [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Koshida, Shintaro [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Manabe, Sho [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nakashima, Asami, E-mail: tateuchi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  2. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  3. Planetesimals around nearby millisecond pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1992-05-01

    We predict that it is possible to observe line emissions of OH, CN and C 2 from the planetesimals around some of the nearby millisecond pulsars, such as PSR1257+12. Observation of these lines will provide an independent test of either an existing planetary system or one which is in the process of formation. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  4. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  5. AMMONIA AS A TEMPERATURE TRACER IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY MERGER Arp 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Henkel, Christian; Weiß, Axel; Braatz, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ammonia (NH 3 ) and the 1.2 cm radio continuum toward the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Arp 220. We detect the NH 3 (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), and (6,6) inversion lines in absorption against the unresolved, (62 ± 9) mJy continuum source at 1.2 cm. The peak apparent optical depths of the ammonia lines range from ∼0.05 to 0.18. The absorption lines are well described by single-component Gaussians with central velocities in between the velocities of the eastern and western cores of Arp 220. Therefore, the ammonia likely traces gas that encompasses both cores. The absorption depth of the NH 3 (1,1) line is significantly shallower than expected based on the depths of the other transitions. The shallow (1,1) profile may be caused by contamination from emission by a hypothetical, cold (∼ 14 cm –2 . This layer would have to be located behind or away from the radio continuum sources to produce the contaminating emission. The widths of the ammonia absorption lines are ∼120-430 km s –1 , in agreement with those of other molecular tracers. We cannot confirm the extremely large line widths of up to ∼1800 km s –1 previously reported for this galaxy. Using all of the ATCA detections except for the shallow (1,1) line, we determine a rotational temperature of (124 ± 19) K, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of T kin = (186 ± 55) K. Ammonia column densities depend on the excitation temperature. For excitation temperatures of 10 K and 50 K, we estimate N(NH 3 ) = (1.7 ± 0.1) × 10 16 cm –2 and (8.4 ± 0.5) × 10 16 cm –2 , respectively. The relation scales linearly for possible higher excitation temperatures. Our observations are consistent with an ortho-to-para-ammonia ratio of unity, implying that the ammonia formation temperature exceeds ∼30 K. In the context of a model with a molecular ring that connects the two nuclei in Arp

  6. Constraints on the OH-to-H Abundance Ratio in Infrared-bright Galaxies Derived from the Strength of the OH 35 μm Absorption Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Myra; Veilleux, Sylvain; González-Alfonso, Eduardo; Spoon, Henrik; Sturm, Eckhard

    2018-02-01

    We analyze Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the OH 35 μm feature in 15 nearby (z ≲ 0.06) (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). All objects exhibit OH 35 μm purely in absorption, as expected. The small optical depth of this transition makes the strength of this feature a good indicator of the true OH column density. The measured OH 35 μm equivalent widths imply an average OH column density and a 1-σ standard deviation to the mean of {N}{OH}=1.31+/- 0.22× {10}17 cm‑2. This number is then compared with the hydrogen column density for a typical optical depth at 35 μm of ∼0.5 and gas-to-dust ratio of 125 to derive an OH-to-H abundance ratio of {X}{OH}=1.01+/- 0.15× {10}-6. This abundance ratio is formally a lower limit. It is consistent with the values generally assumed in the literature. The OH 35 μm line profiles predicted from published radiative transfer models constrained by observations of OH 65, 79, 84, and 119 μm in 5 objects (Mrk 231, Mrk 273, IRAS F05189-2524, IRAS F08572+3915, and IRAS F20551-4250) are also found to be consistent with the IRS OH 35 μm spectra.

  7. AN UPDATED ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF GALEX NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song, E-mail: ybai@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: songw@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang Distict, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1′. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV − K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX–β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  8. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous x-ray source in the outskirts of circinus observed with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.

    2013-01-01

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-N...

  9. A composite plot of far-infrared versus radio luminosity, and the origin of far-infrared luminosity in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopp, H.M.; Alexander, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a composite plot of far-infrared versus radioluminosity for late-type galaxies, Seyferts, quasars and radio galaxies. The most striking result is that the radio and far-infrared luminosities of radio-quiet quasars are correlated and follow the same correlation as normal star-forming galaxies and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, whereas the radio-loud quasars have luminosities in both bands similar to those of radio galaxies. We conclude that the far-infrared emission from radio-quiet quasars is from star-forming host galaxies and not from active galactic nuclei. The far-infrared radio plot may be a powerful discriminator between host galaxy type. (author)

  10. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ALL-SKY LIRG SURVEY: COMPARISON OF ULTRAVIOLET AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Justin H.; Armus, Lee; Surace, Jason A.; Petric, Andreea; Bridge, Carrie; Haan, Sebastian; Inami, Hanae; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Chan, Ben H. P.; Madore, Barry F.; Evans, Aaron S.; Kim, Dong-Chan; Sanders, David B.; Appleton, Phil; Frayer, David T.; Lord, Steven; Schulz, Bernhard; Bothun, Greg; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Melbourne, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of a complete sample of 202 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The galaxies span the full range of interaction stages, from isolated galaxies to interacting pairs to late stage mergers. We present a comparison of the UV and infrared properties of 135 galaxies in GOALS observed by GALEX and Spitzer. For interacting galaxies with separations greater than the resolution of GALEX and Spitzer (∼2''-6''), we assess the UV and IR properties of each galaxy individually. The contribution of the FUV to the measured star formation rate (SFR) ranges from 0.2% to 17.9%, with a median of 2.8% and a mean of 4.0% ± 0.4%. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the GOALS sample is extremely high, with a median value (3.9 x 10 -10 yr -1 ) that is comparable to the highest SSFRs seen in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample. We examine the position of each galaxy on the IR excess-UV slope (IRX-β) diagram as a function of galaxy properties, including IR luminosity and interaction stage. The LIRGs on average have greater IR excesses than would be expected based on their UV colors if they obeyed the same relations as starbursts with L IR 11 L sun or normal late-type galaxies. The ratio of L IR to the value one would estimate from the IRX-β relation published for lower luminosity starburst galaxies ranges from 0.2 to 68, with a median value of 2.7. A minimum of 19% of the total IR luminosity in the RBGS is produced in LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies with red UV colors (β>0). Among resolved interacting systems, 32% contain one galaxy which dominates the IR emission while the companion dominates the UV emission. Only 21% of the resolved systems contain a single galaxy which dominates both wavelengths.

  11. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  12. Proper motion survey for solar nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    For its microlensing observations EROS 2 built one of the largest CCD mosaic opera ting since 1996. This instrument allowed us to survey a large area of the sky, to look for faint, cool compact objects in the Solar neighborhood that may contribute to the Dark Matter revealed by flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. We imaged over 400 square degrees, at least three times over four years, with a single, stable instrument. The aim of this work is the reduction, the analysis and the detection of high proper motion objects that would look like those expected in a dark halo. We selected and analyzed thousands of images taken in two bands, visible and near-infrared, and obtained a catalogue of several thousand stars with proper motion typically higher than 80 milli-arc-seconds per year. None of these candidates displays the expected properties of the halo objects: very high proper motion and faintness. The second part of our work was to put constraints on the contributions of white dwarfs and brown dwarfs ta the halo. To do that, we simulated our data set and estimated our sensitivity to halo objects. We compared our results about moderately high proper motion stars with existing Galactic models, and confirmed the robustness of these models. We deduced a upper limit ta the contribution of M_v = 17.5 white dwarfs to the standard halo of 10% (at the 95% confidence level), or 5% of a 14 Gyr old halo, and to the contribution of brown dwarfs of 7% (95% C.L.). Finally, among our candidates, several interesting objects, that do not belong to the halo but are among the coolest and faintest known, have been discovered. Systematic search for faint, nearby objects thus lead us to study disk L dwarfs, as well as old white dwarfs of the disk. (author) [fr

  13. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N H ≳ 5 × 10 24 cm −2 . The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L 2–10,int = (0.8–1.7) × 10 42 erg s −1 , consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1

  14. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Arévalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Matt, G.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Rigby, J. R.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (˜0.5-100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X-1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X-1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of NH ≳ 5 × 1024 cm-2. The range of 2-10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L2-10,int = (0.8-1.7) × 1042 erg s-1, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X-1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ˜ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3-8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X-1.

  15. On the nature of the ultraluminous X-ray transient in Cen~A (NGC 5128)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Finger, Mark H.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Wu, Kinwah

    2005-01-01

    We combine 9 ROSAT, 9 Chandra, and 2 XMM-Newton observations of the Cen~A galaxy to obtain the X-ray light curve of 1RXH J132519.8-430312 (=CXOU J132519.9$-$430317) spanning 1990 to 2003. The source reached a peak 0.1-2.4 keV flux F_X>10^{-12} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} during a 10~day span in 1995 July. The inferred peak isotropic luminosity of the source therefore exceeded 3 10^{39} ergs s^{-1}, which places the source in the class of ultra-luminous X-ray sources. Coherent pulsations at 13.264 Hz ...

  16. On the Magnetic Field of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsar M82 X-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kun; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-04-01

    The discovery of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsar M82 X-2 has stimulated lively discussion on the nature of the accreting neutron star. In most of the previous studies the magnetic field of the neutron star was derived from the observed spin-up/down rates based on the standard thin, magnetized accretion disk model. However, under super-Eddington accretion the inner part of the accretion disk becomes geometrically thick. In this work we consider both radiation feedback from the neutron star and the sub-Keplerian rotation in a thick disk and calculate the magnetic moment–mass accretion rate relations for the measured rates of spin change. We find that the derived neutron star's dipole magnetic field depends on the maximum accretion rate adopted, but is likely ≲10{sup 13} G. The predicted accretion rate change can be used to test the proposed models by comparison with observations.

  17. Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-05-01

    I will review observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources (ULXs; Lx > 1E39 erg/s), in particular those observations that have helped reveal the nature of these curious objects. Some recent observations suggest that ULXs are a heterogenous class. Although ULX phenomenology is not fully understood, I will present some examples from the (possibly overlapping) sub-classes. Since ULXs are the most luminous objects in starburst galaxies, they, and ``normal'' luminous black-hole high-mass X-ray binaries are intimately tied to the global galaxian X-ray-star-formation connection. Further work is needed to understand how ULXs form, and how they are associated with the putative population of intermediate-mass black holes.

  18. Pox 186: A Nearby Protogalaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies {BCDGs} typically consist of clusters of early-type stars embedded in older, evolved stellar populations similar in size and shape to normal dwarf ellipticals. However, deep ground-based CCD images of one faint BCDG, Pox 186, reveal a very compact { 5" diameter} structure with no evidence of an underlying older population. Optical spectroscopy of this object also indicates that a large number of Wolf-Rayet stars are present, which implies that a burst of star formation must have occurred very recently {Pox 186 is a protogalaxy, forming its very first generation of stars. Further investigation of this possibility requires the high angular resolution and ultraviolet spectral coverage that only HST can provide. Using WFPC2, we propose to image the galaxy in the U, V, and I bands, in order to better test for the presence of an underlying evolved population and to reveal any substructure in its star-forming regions. Using STIS, we will obtain low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the galaxy for combination with ground-based spectra covering the optical through near infrared. This will allow us to determine its spectral energy distribution, metallicity, and dust content, which will in turn constrain its age and star formation history.

  19. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  20. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  1. Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.

  2. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overall radio detection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and we estimate that at least ∼50% (∼20% of all bright nearby galaxies) are true AGN. By comparing the radio luminosity function of the LINERs, composite LINER/Hll and Seyferts galaxies in the Palomar sample with those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, we fhd that our sources naturally extend the radio luminosity function of powerful AGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*

  3. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  4. Spectral state transitions of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source IC 342 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, H.; Kaaret, P.; Lang, C.; Feng, H.; Grisé, F.; Miller, N.; Cseh, D.; Corbel, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2014-10-01

    We observed the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) IC 342 X-1 simultaneously in X-ray and radio with Chandra and the JVLA to investigate previously reported unresolved radio emission coincident with the ULX. The Chandra data reveal a spectrum that is much softer than observed previously and is well modelled by a thermal accretion disc spectrum. No significant radio emission above the rms noise level was observed within the region of the ULX, consistent with the interpretation as a thermal state though other states cannot be entirely ruled out with the current data. We estimate the mass of the black hole using the modelled inner disc temperature to be 30 M_{⊙} ≲ M√{cosi}≲ 200 M_{⊙} based on a Shakura-Sunyaev disc model. Through a study of the hardness and high-energy curvature of available X-ray observations, we find that the accretion state of X-1 is not determined by luminosity alone.

  5. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  6. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY (United States); Cook, D. O. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA (United States); Roussel, H. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, Paris (France); Armus, L.; Helou, G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA (United States); Looze, I. De [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD (United States); Groves, B. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Capetown, Rondebosch (South Africa); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR {sub C} I {sub C} and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  7. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; Looze, I. De; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  8. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  9. NuSTAR OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE CANDIDATE IN NGC 5643

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Moro, A. Del [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Puccetti, S. [ASI Science Data Center, via Galileo Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Ricci, C. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); and others

    2015-12-10

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼0.5–100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality ≳10 keV observations, together with the presence of a nearby X-ray luminous source, NGC 5643 X–1, have left significant uncertainties in the characterization of the nuclear spectrum. NuSTAR now enables the AGN and NGC 5643 X–1 to be separately resolved above 10 keV for the first time and allows a direct measurement of the absorbing column density toward the nucleus. The new data show that the nucleus is indeed obscured by a CT column of N{sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}. The range of 2–10 keV absorption-corrected luminosity inferred from the best-fitting models is L{sub 2–10,int} = (0.8–1.7) × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}, consistent with that predicted from multiwavelength intrinsic luminosity indicators. In addition, we also study the NuSTAR data for NGC 5643 X–1 and show that it exhibits evidence of a spectral cutoff at energy E ∼ 10 keV, similar to that seen in other ULXs observed by NuSTAR. Along with the evidence for significant X-ray luminosity variations in the 3–8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X–1.

  10. Spectrophotometry of nearby field galaxies : The data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, RA; Fabricant, D; Franx, M; Caldwell, N

    We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, R surface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range of luminosities (M(B) = -14 to -22). Here we present the

  11. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  12. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F- 31100 Toulouse (France); Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fabian, A. C., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  13. DIFFERENT TYPES OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN NGC 4631

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, Roberto; Ghosh, Kajal K.

    2009-01-01

    We have re-examined the most luminous X-ray sources in the starburst galaxy NGC 4631, using XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT data. The most interesting source is a highly variable supersoft ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). We suggest that its bolometric luminosity ∼ a few 10 39 erg s -1 in the high/supersoft state: this is an order of magnitude lower than estimated in previous studies, thus reducing the need for extreme or exotic scenarios. Moreover, we find that this source was in a noncanonical low/soft (kT ∼ 0.1-0.3 keV) state during the Chandra observation. By comparing the high and low state, we argue that the spectral properties may not be consistent with the expected behavior of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that recurrent super-Eddington outbursts with photospheric expansion from a massive white dwarf (M wd ∼> 1.3 M sun ), powered by nonsteady nuclear burning, may be a viable possibility, in alternative to the previously proposed scenario of a super-Eddington outflow from an accreting stellar-mass black hole. The long-term average accretion rate required for nuclear burning to power such white-dwarf outbursts in this source and perhaps in other supersoft ULXs is ∼(5-10) x 10 -6 M sun yr -1 : this is comparable to the thermal-timescale mass transfer rate invoked to explain the most luminous hard-spectrum ULXs (powered by black hole accretion). The other four most luminous X-ray sources in NGC 4631 (three of which can be classified as ULXs) appear to be typical accreting black holes, in four different spectral states: high/soft, convex-spectrum, power-law with soft excess, and simple power-law. None of them require masses ∼>50 M sun .

  14. Impact of ultraluminous X-ray sources on photoabsorption in the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S.; Khabibullin, I.

    2018-05-01

    In the local Universe, integrated X-ray emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) is dominated by the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosity ≳1040 erg s-1. Such rare objects probably also dominated the production of X-rays in the early Universe. We demonstrate that a ULX with LX ˜ 1040-1041 erg s-1 (isotropic-equivalent luminosity in the 0.1-10 keV energy band) shining for ˜105 yr (the expected duration of a supercritically accreting phase in HMXBs) can significantly ionize the ISM in its host dwarf galaxy of total mass M ˜ 107-108 M⊙ and thereby reduce its opacity to soft X-rays. As a result, the fraction of the soft X-ray (below 1 keV) radiation from the ULX escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM) can increase from ˜20-50 per cent to ˜30-80 per cent over its lifetime. This implies that HMXBs can induce a stronger heating of the IGM at z ≳ 10 compared to estimates neglecting the ULX feedback on the ISM. However, larger galaxies with M ≳ 3 × 108 M⊙ could not be significantly ionized even by the brightest ULXs in the early Universe. Since such galaxies probably started to dominate the global star formation rate at z ≲ 10, the overall escape fraction of soft X-rays from the HMXB population probably remained low, ≲30 per cent, at these epochs.

  15. Multiband counterparts of two eclipsing ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.; Johnston, H. M.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.; Schwope, A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Anderson, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    We present the discovery and interpretation of ionized nebulae around two ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51; both sources share the rare property of showing X-ray eclipses by their companion stars and are therefore prime targets for follow-up studies. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we found an elongated, 100-pc-long emission-line structure associated with one X-ray source (CXOM51 J132940.0+471237; ULX-1 for simplicity), and a more circular, ionized nebula at the location of the second source (CXOM51 J132939.5+471244; ULX-2 for simplicity). We observed both nebulae with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. From our analysis of the optical spectra, we argue that the gas in the ULX-1 bubble is shock-ionized, consistent with the effect of a jet with a kinetic power of ≈2 × 1039 erg s-1. Additional X-ray photoionization may also be present, to explain the strength of high-ionization lines such as He II λ4686 and [Ne V] λ3426. On the other hand, the emission lines from the ULX-2 bubble are typical for photoionization by normal O stars suggesting that the nebula is actually an H II region not physically related to the ULX but is simply a chance alignment. From archival Very Large Array data, we also detect spatially extended, steep-spectrum radio emission at the location of the ULX-1 bubble (consistent with its jet origin), but no radio counterpart for ULX-2 (consistent with the lack of shock-ionized gas around that source).

  16. A Radio Study of the Ultra-luminous FIR Galaxy NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Wilson, A. S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    1993-05-01

    A number of galaxies observed in the IRAS mission are noted to emit ~ 99% of their bolometric flux in the FIR, with FIR luminosities in excess of 10(11) Lsun. The interacting galaxy NGC 6240 has often been referred to as the ``proto-typical'' ultra-luminous (L_FIR >~ 10(12) Lsun) FIR galaxy. The origin of the FIR excess remains a disputed subject in the literature. New observations of NGC 6240 were taken with the VLA at 20cm in the B-configuration, and at 3.6cm in the A-configuration. No significant radio emission was detected from or near the possible ultra-massive ``dark core'' hypothesized by Bland-Hawthorn et. al. (1991); however, approximately 30% of Seyfert galaxies have 20 cm radio luminosities weaker than the upper limit derived from the radio maps. The non-thermal radio emission from luminous FIR galaxies is tightly correlated with the FIR emission. Previous radio observations of NGC 6240 revealed two compact, steep-spectrum nuclear sources, nearly coincident with the two nuclear sources seen in optical images. The 2 images from the new VLA observations and 5 images from previous VLA observations are used to identify the morphological and spectral features of the strong, compact components in the nuclear regions (~ 3 kpc) from the nucleus. Feasible explanations for the radio emission are discussed. The models that have been proposed in the literature for the FIR excess of NGC 6240 are evaluated for consistency with the observed radio emission.

  17. General Relativistic Radiation MHD Simulations of Supercritical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star: Modeling of Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken, E-mail: takahashi@cfca.jp, E-mail: ken.ohsuga@nao.ac.jp [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    By performing 2.5-dimensional general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate supercritical accretion onto a non-rotating, magnetized neutron star, where the magnetic field strength of dipole fields is 10{sup 10} G on the star surface. We found the supercritical accretion flow consists of two parts: the accretion columns and the truncated accretion disk. The supercritical accretion disk, which appears far from the neutron star, is truncated at around ≃3 R {sub *} ( R {sub *} = 10{sup 6} cm is the neutron star radius), where the magnetic pressure via the dipole magnetic fields balances with the radiation pressure of the disks. The angular momentum of the disk around the truncation radius is effectively transported inward through magnetic torque by dipole fields, inducing the spin up of a neutron star. The evaluated spin-up rate, ∼−10{sup −11} s s{sup −1}, is consistent with the recent observations of the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars. Within the truncation radius, the gas falls onto a neutron star along the dipole fields, which results in a formation of accretion columns onto the northern and southern hemispheres. The net accretion rate and the luminosity of the column are ≃66 L {sub Edd}/ c {sup 2} and ≲10 L {sub Edd}, where L {sub Edd} is the Eddington luminosity and c is the light speed. Our simulations support a hypothesis whereby the ultraluminous X-ray pulsars are powered by the supercritical accretion onto the magnetized neutron stars.

  18. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband cover...

  19. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous x-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the...

  20. NUSTAR and Xmm-Newton Observations of the Extreme Ultraluminous X-Ray Source NGC 5907 UlX1: A Vanishing Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ~5 × 1040 erg s–1. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ~4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term...

  1. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband s...

  2. Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

  3. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  4. Stellar Death in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, Thomas Warren-Son

    The night sky is replete with transient and variable events that help shape our universe. The violent, explosive deaths of stars represent some of the most energetic of these events, as a single star is able to outshine billions during its final moments. Aside from imparting significant energy into their host environments, stellar deaths are also responsible for seeding heavy elements into the universe, regulating star formation in their host galaxies, and affecting the evolution of supermassive black holes at the centers of their host galaxies. The large amount of energy output during these events allows them to be seen from billions of lightyears away, making them useful observational probes of physical processes important to many fields of astronomy. In this dissertation I present a series of observational studies of two classes of transients associated with the deaths of stars in the nearby universe: tidal disruption events (TDEs) and supernovae (SNe). Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), the objects I discuss were all bright and nearby, and were subject to extensive follow-up observational campaigns. In the first three studies, I present observational data and theoretical models of ASASSN-14ae, ASASSN-14li, and ASASSN-15oi, three TDEs discovered by ASAS-SN and three of the most well-studied TDEs ever discovered. Next I present the discovery of ASASSN-13co, an SN that does not conform to the traditional model of Type II SNe. Finally, I discuss the full sample of bright SNe discovered from 2014 May 1 through 2016 December 31, which is significantly less biased than previous nearby SN samples due to the ASAS-SN survey approach, and perform statistical analyses on this population that will be used for future studies of nearby SNe and their hosts.

  5. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  6. Discovery of a highly variable dipping ultraluminous X-ray source in M94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier [CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Remillard, Ronald A., E-mail: dlin@ua.edu [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report the discovery of a new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) 2XMM J125048.6+410743 within the spiral galaxy M94. The source has been observed by ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton on several occasions, exhibiting as a highly variable persistent source or a recurrent transient with a flux variation factor of ≳100, a high duty cycle (at least ∼70%), and a peak luminosity of L {sub X} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} (0.2-10 keV, absorbed). In the brightest observation, the source is similar to typical low-luminosity ULXs, with the spectrum showing a high-energy cutoff but harder than that from a standard accretion disk. There are also sporadical short dips, accompanied by spectral softening. In a fainter observation with L {sub X} ∼ 3.6 × 10{sup 38} erg s{sup –1}, the source appears softer and is probably in the thermal state seen in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs). In an even fainter observation (L {sub X} ∼ 9 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}), the spectrum is harder again, and the source might be in the steep-power-law state or the hard state of BHBs. In this observation, the light curve might exhibit ∼7 hr (quasi-)periodic large modulations over two cycles. The source also has a possible point-like optical counterpart from Hubble Space Telescope images. In terms of the colors and the luminosity, the counterpart is probably a G8 supergiant or a compact red globular cluster containing ∼2 × 10{sup 5} K dwarfs, with some possible weak UV excess that might be ascribed to accretion activity. Thus, our source is a candidate stellar-mass BHB with a supergiant companion or with a dwarf companion residing in a globular cluster. Our study supports that some low-luminosity ULXs are supercritically accreting stellar-mass BHBs.

  7. DETERMINING STAR FORMATION RATES FOR INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Weiner, B. J.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Donley, J. L.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Blaylock, M.; Marcillac, D.

    2009-01-01

    We show that measures of star formation rates (SFRs) for infrared galaxies using either single-band 24 μm or extinction-corrected Paα luminosities are consistent in the total infrared luminosity = L(TIR) ∼ 10 10 L sun range. MIPS 24 μm photometry can yield SFRs accurately from this luminosity upward: SFR(M sun yr -1 ) = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun ) from L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 L sun to 10 11 L sun and SFR = 7.8 x 10 -10 L(24 μm, L sun )(7.76 x 10 -11 L(24)) 0.048 for higher L(TIR). For galaxies with L(TIR) ≥ 10 10 L sun , these new expressions should provide SFRs to within 0.2 dex. For L(TIR) ≥ 10 11 L sun , we find that the SFR of infrared galaxies is significantly underestimated using extinction-corrected Paα (and presumably using any other optical or near-infrared recombination lines). As a part of this work, we constructed spectral energy distribution templates for eleven luminous and ultraluminous purely star forming infrared galaxies and over the spectral range 0.4 μm to 30 cm. We use these templates and the SINGS data to construct average templates from 5 μm to 30 cm for infrared galaxies with L(TIR) = 5x 10 9 to 10 13 L sun . All of these templates are made available online.

  8. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  9. Demographics of Starbursts in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the frequency of circumnuclear starbursts in Seyfert galaxies using medium-resolution H and K band spectroscopy. An unbiased sample of ~20 nearby Seyfert galaxies was observed at the KeckII telescope with an average seeing of ~0.7''. Preliminary analysis shows strong stellar absorption lines for most galaxies in our sample. Comparison of stellar equivalent widths in the H and K band will allow us to determine the average age of the dominating stellar population. Evidence for an age trend with Seyfert type would provide a strong hint toward a starburst/AGN connection.

  10. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D 4 in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m F475W = 28.0 mag, m F606W = 27.3 mag, and m F814W = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  11. Analysis of Quasi-periodic Oscillations and Time Lag in Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-Jian; Xiao, Guang-Cheng; Zhang, Shu; Ma, Xiang; Yan, Lin-Li; Qu, Jin-Lu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-Cui; Zhang, Liang, E-mail: lizijian@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2017-04-10

    We investigated the power density spectrum (PDS) and time lag of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed by XMM-Newton . We determined the PDSs for each ULX and found that five of them show intrinsic variability due to obvious quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of mHz–1 Hz, consistent with previous reports. We further investigated these five ULXs to determine their possible time lag. The ULX QPOs exhibit a soft time lag that is linearly related to the QPO frequency. We discuss the likelihood of the ULX QPOs being type-C QPO analogs, and the time lag models. The ULXs might harbor intermediate-mass black holes if their QPOs are type-C QPO analogs. We suggest that the soft lag and the linearity may be due to reverberation.

  12. Measuring the black hole mass in ultraluminous X-ray sources with the X-ray scaling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Titarchuk, L.

    2018-01-01

    In our recent work, we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BH), could be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive black holes accreting at moderate to high level. Here, we apply this X-ray scaling method to ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) to constrain their MBH. Using 49 ULXs with multiple XMM-Newton observations, we infer that ULXs host both stellar mass BHs and intermediate mass BHs. The majority of the sources of our sample seem to be consistent with the hypothesis of highly accreting massive stellar BHs with MBH ∼ 100 M⊙. Our results are in general agreement with the MBH values obtained with alternative methods, including model-independent variability methods. This suggests that the X-ray scaling method is an actual scale-independent method that can be applied to all BH systems accreting at moderate-high rate.

  13. NEW DEBRIS DISKS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moór, A.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balog, Z.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Csengeri, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Juhász, A., E-mail: moor@konkoly.hu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3, OHA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of nearby young moving group members harbor circumstellar debris dust disks. Due to their proximity and youth, these disks are attractive targets for studying the early evolution of debris dust and planetesimal belts. Here we present 70 and 160 μ m observations of 31 systems in the β Pic moving group, and in the Tucana–Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations, using the Herschel Space Observatory . None of these stars were observed at far-infrared wavelengths before. Our Herschel measurements were complemented by photometry from the WISE satellite for the whole sample, and by submillimeter/millimeter continuum data for one source, HD 48370. We identified six stars with infrared excess, four of them are new discoveries. By combining our new findings with results from the literature, we examined the incidence and general characteristics of debris disks around Sun-like members of the selected groups. With their dust temperatures of <45 K the newly identified disks around HD 38397, HD 48370, HD 160305, and BD-20 951 represent the coldest population within this sample. For HD 38397 and HD 48370, the emission is resolved in the 70 μ m Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrograph images, the estimated radius of these disks is ∼90 au. Together with the well-known disk around HD 61005, these three systems represent the highest mass end of the known debris disk population around young G-type members of the selected groups. In terms of dust content, they resemble the hypothesized debris disk of the ancient solar system.

  14. Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M 101 ULX-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bregman, Joel N; Bai, Yu; Justham, Stephen; Crowther, Paul

    2013-11-28

    There are two proposed explanations for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities in excess of 10(39) erg s(-1). They could be intermediate-mass black holes (more than 100-1,000 solar masses, M sun symbol) radiating at sub-maximal (sub-Eddington) rates, as in Galactic black-hole X-ray binaries but with larger, cooler accretion disks. Alternatively, they could be stellar-mass black holes radiating at Eddington or super-Eddington rates. On its discovery, M 101 ULX-1 had a luminosity of 3 × 10(39) erg s(-1) and a supersoft thermal disk spectrum with an exceptionally low temperature--uncomplicated by photons energized by a corona of hot electrons--more consistent with the expected appearance of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. Here we report optical spectroscopic monitoring of M 101 ULX-1. We confirm the previous suggestion that the system contains a Wolf-Rayet star, and reveal that the orbital period is 8.2 days. The black hole has a minimum mass of 5 M sun symbol, and more probably a mass of 20 M sun symbol-30 M sun symbol, but we argue that it is very unlikely to be an intermediate-mass black hole. Therefore, its exceptionally soft spectra at high Eddington ratios violate the expectations for accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Accretion must occur from captured stellar wind, which has hitherto been thought to be so inefficient that it could not power an ultraluminous source.

  15. Pan-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AT z Almost-Equal-To 0.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomiuk, L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Berger, E.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Czekala, I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chevalier, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Gezari, S.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Narayan, G.; Stubbs, C. W. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wood-Vasey, W. M., E-mail: lchomiuk@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present the discovery of two ultraluminous supernovae (SNe) at z Almost-Equal-To 0.9 with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. These SNe, PS1-10ky and PS1-10awh, are among the most luminous SNe ever discovered, comparable to the unusual transients SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6. Like SN 2005ap and SCP 06F6, they show characteristic high luminosities (M{sub bol} Almost-Equal-To -22.5 mag), blue spectra with a few broad absorption lines, and no evidence for H or He. We have constructed a full multi-color light curve sensitive to the peak of the spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame ultraviolet, and we have obtained time series spectroscopy for these SNe. Given the similarities between the SNe, we combine their light curves to estimate a total radiated energy over the course of explosion of (0.9-1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. We find photospheric velocities of 12,000-19,000 km s{sup -1} with no evidence for deceleration measured across {approx}3 rest-frame weeks around light curve peak, consistent with the expansion of an optically thick massive shell of material. We show that, consistent with findings for other ultraluminous SNe in this class, radioactive decay is not sufficient to power PS1-10ky, and we discuss two plausible origins for these events: the initial spin-down of a newborn magnetar in a core-collapse SN, or SN shock breakout from the dense circumstellar wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star.

  16. DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rupke, David S. N., E-mail: alexm@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: rupked@rhodes.edu [Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

  17. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  18. LUMINOUS BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS A FUNCTION OF GALAXY INFRARED LUMINOSITY REVEALED THROUGH SPITZER LOW-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 5-35 μm low-resolution spectroscopic energy diagnostics of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z> 0.15, classified optically as non-Seyferts. Based on the equivalent widths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and the optical depths of silicate dust absorption features, we searched for signatures of intrinsically luminous, but optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs. We then combined the results with those of non-Seyfert ULIRGs at z IR 12 L sun . We found that the energetic importance of buried AGNs clearly increases with galaxy infrared luminosity, becoming suddenly discernible in ULIRGs with L IR > 10 12 L sun . For ULIRGs with buried AGN signatures, a significant fraction of infrared luminosities can be accounted for by the detected buried AGN and modestly obscured (A V < 20 mag) starburst activity. The implied masses of spheroidal stellar components in galaxies for which buried AGNs become important roughly correspond to the value separating red massive and blue less-massive galaxies in the local universe. Our results may support the widely proposed AGN-feedback scenario as the origin of galaxy downsizing phenomena, where galaxies with currently larger stellar masses previously had higher AGN energetic contributions and star formation originating infrared luminosities, and have finished their major star formation more quickly, due to stronger AGN feedback.

  19. The ultraluminous x-ray sources ngc 1313 x-1 and x-2: a broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR...

  20. NuSTAR, XMM-Newton and Suzaku Observations of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Holmberg II X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walton, D. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first broadband 0.3-25.0 keV X-ray observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg II X-1, performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in 2013 September. The NuSTAR data provide the first observations of Holmberg II X-1 above 10 keV and reveal a very steep high...

  1. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  2. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Grunblatt, Samuel K.; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Kane, Stephen R.; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P.; Ciardi, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Wright, Jason T.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the discovery of three modestly irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of 15.4 ± 2.4 {M}\\oplus , a semimajor axis of 0.55 au, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 (ρ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of 12.9 ± 1.6 {M}\\oplus and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 au. HD 164922 c has a semimajor axis of 0.34 au and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semimajor axis of 0.44 au, has a minimum mass of 25 ± 2 {M}\\oplus , and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photometry from the Automated Photometric Telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory failed to detect any transits, but the precise, high-cadence APT photometry helped to disentangle planetary-reflex motion from stellar activity. These planets were discovered as part of an ongoing radial velocity survey of bright, nearby, chromospherically inactive stars using the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope at Lick Observatory. The high-cadence APF data combined with nearly two decades of radial velocity data from Keck Observatory and gives unprecedented sensitivity to both short-period low-mass, and long-period intermediate-mass planets. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of Hawai‘I, the University of California, and NASA.

  3. X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

    A long-standing debate in the field of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs: luminosities > 3x1039 ergs s-1) is whether these objects are powered by stellar-mass black holes (mass range of 3-25 solar masses) undergoing hyper-accretion/emission or if they host the long-sought after class of intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses) accreting material at sub-Eddington rates. We present X-ray time and energy spectral variability studies of ULXs in order to understand their physical environments and accurately weigh their compact objects. A sample of ULXs exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with centroid frequencies in the range of 10-200 mHz. The nature of the power density spectra (PDS) of these sources is qualitatively similar to stellar-mass black holes when they exhibit the so-called type-C low-frequency QPOs (frequency range of 0.2-15 Hz). However, the crucial difference is that the characteristic frequencies within the PDS of ULXs, viz., the break frequencies and the centroid frequencies of the QPOs, are scaled down by a factor of approximately 10-100 compared to stellar-mass black holes. It has thus been argued that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C low-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes and that the observed difference in the frequencies (a fewx0.01 Hz compared with a few Hz) is due to the presence of intermediate-mass black holes ( MULX = (QPOstellar-mass black hole }/QPOULX)xM stellar-mass black hole, where M and QPO are the mass and the QPO frequency, respectively) within these ULXs. We analyzed all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray data of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1 in order to test the hypothesis that the ULX mHz QPOs are the type-C analogs by searching for a correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the energy spectral power-law index as type-C QPOs show such a dependence. From our multi-epoch timing and spectral analysis of ULXs NGC 5408 X-1 and M82 X-1, we found that the mHz QPOs of these sources vary

  4. Discovery of a New Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Covey, K.; Frazier, O.; Hawley, S. L.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.; McGlynn, T.; Reid, I. N.; Shaklan, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby star with a very large proper motion of 5.06 +/- 0.03 arcsec/yr. The star is called SO025300.5+165258 and referred to herein as HPMS (high proper motion star). The discovery came as a result of a search of the SkyMorph database, a sensitive and persistent survey that is well suited for finding stars with high proper motions. There are currently only 7 known stars with proper motions greater than 5 arcsec/yr. We have determined a preliminary value for the parallax of pi = 0.43 +/- 0.13 arcsec. If this value holds our new star ranks behind only the Alpha Centauri system (including Proxima Centauri) and Barnard's star in the list of our nearest stellar neighbours. The spectrum and measured tangential velocity indicate that HPMS is a main-sequence star with spectral type M6.5. However, if our distance measurement is correct, the HPMS is underluminous by 1.2 +/- 0.7 mag.

  5. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  6. DETECTION OF A NEARBY HALO DEBRIS STREAM IN THE WISE AND 2MASS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillmair, Carl J. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc; Masci, Frank J.; Conrow, Tim [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: carl@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: roc@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: fmasci@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: tim@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: bsesar@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: peter.r.eisenhardt@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: wright@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Combining the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer All-Sky Release with the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog, we detect a nearby, moderately metal-poor stellar debris stream spanning 24° across the southern sky. The stream, which we designate Alpheus, is at an estimated distance of ∼1.9 kpc. Its position, orientation, width, estimated metallicity, and, to some extent, its distance, are in approximate agreement with what one might expect of the leading tidal tail of the southern globular cluster NGC 288.

  7. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 (angstrom) for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the loW--redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and folloW--up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based folloW--up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of folloW--up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager

  8. An atlas of high-resolution IRAS maps on nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Walter

    1993-01-01

    An atlas of far-infrared IRAS maps with near 1 arcmin angular resolution of 30 optically large galaxies is presented. The high-resolution IRAS maps were produced with the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM) image construction and enhancement technique developed at IPAC. The MCM technique, which recovers the spatial information contained in the overlapping detector data samples of the IRAS all-sky survey scans, is outlined and tests to verify the structural reliability and photometric integrity of the high-resolution maps are presented. The infrared structure revealed in individual galaxies is discussed. The atlas complements the IRAS Nearby Galaxy High-Resolution Image Atlas, the high-resolution galaxy images encoded in FITS format, which is provided to the astronomical community as an IPAC product.

  9. Discovery of a 115 Day Orbital Period in the Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a 115 day periodicity in SWIFT/XRT monitoring data from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. Our o ngoing campaign samples its X-ray flux approximately twice weekly and has now achieved a temporal baseline of ti 485 days. Periodogram ana lysis reveals a significant periodicity with a period of 115.5 +/- 4 days. The modulation is detected with a significance of 3.2 x 10(exp -4) . The fractional modulation amplitude decreases with increasing e nergy, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.02 above 1 keV to 0.24 +/- 0.02 below 1 keV. The shape of the profile evolves as well, becoming less sharply peaked at higher energies. The periodogram analysis is consistent wi th a periodic process, however, continued monitoring is required to c onfirm the coherent nature of the modulation. Spectral analysis indic ates that NGC 5408 X-1 can reach 0.3 - 10 keV luminosities of approxi mately 2 x 10 40 ergs/s . We suggest that, like the 62 day period of the ULX in M82 (X41.4-1-60), the periodicity detected in NGC 5408 X-1 represents the orbital period of the black hole binary containing the ULX. If this is true then the secondary can only be a giant or super giant star.

  10. Swift Detection of a 65 Day X-Ray Period from the Ultraluminous Pulsar NGC 7793 P13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Li, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kong, Albert K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lupin Chun-Che, E-mail: cphu@hku.hk, E-mail: liliray@pa.msu.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-01-20

    NGC 7793 P13 is an ultraluminous X-ray source harboring an accreting pulsar. We report on the detection of a ∼65 day period X-ray modulation with Swift observations in this system. The modulation period found in the X-ray band is P = 65.05 ± 0.10 days and the profile is asymmetric with a fast rise and a slower decay. On the other hand, the u -band light curve collected by Swift UVOT confirmed an optical modulation with a period of P = 64.24 ± 0.13 days. We explored the phase evolution of the X-ray and optical periodicities and propose two solutions. A superorbital modulation with a period of ∼2700–4700 days probably caused by the precession of a warped accretion disk is necessary to interpret the phase drift of the optical data. We further discuss the implication if this ∼65 day periodicity is caused by the superorbital modulation. Estimated from the relationship between the spin-orbital and orbital-superorbital periods of known disk-fed high-mass X-ray binaries, the orbital period of P13 is roughly estimated as 3–7 days. In this case, an unknown mechanism with a much longer timescale is needed to interpret the phase drift. Further studies on the stability of these two periodicities with a long-term monitoring could help us to probe their physical origins.

  11. The Influence of Galactic Outflows on the Formation of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco; Ferrara; Broadhurst

    2000-06-10

    We show that the gas in growing density perturbations is vulnerable to the influence of winds outflowing from nearby collapsed galaxies that have already formed stars. This suggests that the formation of nearby galaxies with masses less, similar10(9) M( middle dot in circle) is likely to be suppressed, irrespective of the details of galaxy formation. An impinging wind may shock-heat the gas of a nearby perturbation to above the virial temperature, thereby mechanically evaporating the gas, or the baryons may be stripped from the perturbation entirely if they are accelerated to above the escape velocity. We show that baryonic stripping is the most effective of these two processes, because shock-heated clouds that are too large to be stripped are able to radiatively cool within a sound crossing time, limiting evaporation. The intergalactic medium temperatures and star formation rates required for outflows to have a significant influence on the formation of low-mass galaxies are consistent with current observations, but may soon be examined directly via associated distortions in the cosmic microwave background and with near-infrared observations from the Next Generation Space Telescope, which may detect the supernovae from early-forming stars.

  12. VLA-ANGST: A HIGH-RESOLUTION H I SURVEY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Jürgen; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Walter, Fabian; De Blok, W. J. G.; Koribalski, Bärbel; West, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the 'Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)'. VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km s –1 ) and spatial (∼6'') resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (H I) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic Hubble Space Telescope survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D ∼ –1 for the majority of the galaxies). The VLA-ANGST data products are made publicly available through a dedicated Web site (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vla-angst). With available star formation histories from resolved stellar populations and lower resolution ancillary observations from the far-infrared to the ultraviolet, VLA-ANGST will enable detailed studies of the relationship between the ISM and star formation in dwarf galaxies on a ∼100 pc scale.

  13. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  14. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L IR > 10 11.5 L ☉ ). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L C II /L FIR ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L C II –L FIR relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L C II /L FIR ratio and the far-IR color L 60 /L 100 observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L C II /L FIR at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L C II /L FIR ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L IR /L CO ′ or L IR /M H 2 ), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the present day and z > 1 is already significant by z ∼ 0.3.

  15. Symposium “Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies”

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, Keiichi; ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE PROCEEDINGS

    2008-01-01

    This is a proceedings book of the symposium "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies" held on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, on June 25 – 30, 2006. The symposium focused on mapping the interstellar media and other components in galaxies. Latest results of the following main topics are presented in the volume: Our Galaxy -- mass distribution, local ISM, supermassive black holes and their environments Central part of nearby galaxies -- ISM around starbursts, fueling mechanisms Nearby Galaxies -- molecular gas and star formation, gas dynamics Galactic environment and evolution -- formation of our Galaxy, origin of supermassive black holes The nature of the Dark Matter component -- effects on the internal structures of galaxies

  16. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100087 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  17. On the Nature of the mHz X-ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

  18. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  19. The Glory of a Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Optical Light from a Hot Stellar Corona Detected with the VLT Summary The solar corona is a beautiful sight during total solar eclipses . It is the uppermost region of the extended solar atmosphere and consists of a very hot (over 1 million degrees), tenuous plasma of highly ionised elements that emit strong X-ray radiation. There is also a much weaker coronal emission in the optical part of the spectrum . The Sun is a normal star and X-ray observations from rockets and orbiting X-ray telescopes have shown that many other stars also possess coronae . But due to observational limits of the telescopes available so far, the much fainter optical emission from stellar coronae had never been detected. Now, however, an optical coronal line from iron ions that have lost 12 electrons (Fe XIII) has for the first time been observed in a star other than the Sun . The object, a cool star named CN Leonis , is located at a distance of 8 light-years. This impressive observational feat was performed with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , within a programme by German astronomer Jürgen Schmitt and his collaborators at the University of Hamburg Observatory. The possibility to observe stellar coronae with ground-based telescopes opens up new and exciting research opportunities, including the detailed study of stellar cycles , similar to the 11-year solar period. PR Photo 24a/01 : The solar corona during the August 11, 1999, solar eclipse. PR Photo 24b/01 : The nearby star CN Leonis . PR Photo 24c/01 : Ultraviolet spectrum of CN Leonis , obtained with UVES at VLT KUEYEN. PR Photo 24d/01 : The coronal Fe XIII emission line at 3388 Ångstrom in CN Leonis . The 'coronium' mystery ESO PR Photo 24a/01 ESO PR Photo 24a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 450 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 899 x 800 pix - 328k] [HiRes - JPEG: 3000 x 2669 pix - 3.1Mk] Caption : Photo of the solar corona, obtained by Philippe Duhoux (ESO) on August 11

  20. Discovery of path nearby clusters in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Zheng, Kai; Jensen, Christian S.; Yang, Bin; Kalnis, Panos; Li, Guohe; Wen, Ji Rong

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of regions of interest in large cities is an important challenge. We propose and investigate a novel query called the path nearby cluster (PNC) query that finds regions of potential interest (e.g., sightseeing places and commercial

  1. Backyard Worlds: Finding Nearby Brown Dwarfs Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    Recent discoveries of cool brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and microlensing surveys both point to an undiscovered population of brown dwarfs and rogue planets in the solar neighborhood. We propose to develop and sustain a novel website that enables a unique and powerful citizen-science based search for these and other high-proper-motion objects at 3.5 and 4.6 microns. Through this search, we have an opportunity to discover new ultracool Y dwarfs, crucial links between star formation and planet formation, and also the Sun's nearest neighbors-potentially a system closer than Proxima Centauri. NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) is nominally sensitive enough to detect a 250 K brown dwarf to > 6 pc and even a Jupiter analog to > 0.6 pc. However, high proper motion objects like these can easily be confused with variable stars, electronic noise, latent images, optical ghosts, cosmic ray hits, and so on in the WISE archive. Computer-based searches for high-proper motion objects falter in dense star fields, necessitating visual inspection all candidates. Our citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9", remedies this problem by engaging volunteers to visually inspect WISE and NEOWISE images. Roughly 104,000 participants have already begun using a preliminary version of the site to examine time-resolved co-adds of unWISE-processed images, four epochs spanning 2010 to 2014. They have already performed more than 3.6 million classifications of these images since the site's launch on February 15, 2017. Besides seeking new brown dwarfs and nearby stars, this site is also the most sensitive all-sky WISE-based search for a planet orbiting the Sun beyond Pluto (sometimes called Planet Nine). Preliminary analysis data from the site has resulted in the discovery of 13 brown dwarf candidates including 6 T dwarfs. We obtained a spectrum of one of these candidates and published it in Astrophysical Journal Letters, with four citizen scientists

  2. H α IMAGING OF NEARBY SEYFERT HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theios, Rachel L.; Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ross, Nathaniel R., E-mail: rtheios@astro.caltech.edu [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, 2000 E El Segundo Boulevard, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We used narrowband (Δ λ = 70 Å) interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 m telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby ( z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 μ m active galaxy sample. We obtained pure emission-line images of each galaxy, which reach down to a flux limit of 7.3 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} arcsec{sup −2}, and corrected these images for [N ii] emission and extinction. We separated the H α emission line of the “nucleus” (central 100–1000 pc) from that of the host galaxy. The extended H α emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and indeed correlates well with other indicators of current star formation rates (SFRs) in these galaxies: extended 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, total far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The H α luminosity we measured in the centers of our galaxies is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), and is linearly correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is, however, an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s, because their nuclear H α emission includes a strong additional contribution from the broad-line region. We found a correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity. In spite of selection effects, we concluded that the absence of bright Seyfert nuclei in galaxies with low SFRs is real, albeit only weakly significant. Finally, we used our measured spatial distributions of H α emission to determine what these Seyfert galaxies would look like when observed through fixed apertures (e.g., a spectroscopic fiber) at high redshifts. We found that although all of these Seyfert galaxies would be detectable emission-line galaxies at any redshift, most of them would appear to be dominated by (>67%) their H ii region emission. Only the most luminous AGNs (log( L {sub Hα}/erg s

  3. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L X ≥ 10 40 erg s –1 ). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass ∼10 M ☉ or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the ∼>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow

  4. A SAMPLE OF SEYFERT-2 GALAXIES WITH ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY-WIDE NARROW-LINE REGIONS: QUASAR LIGHT ECHOES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, M.; Diaz, R.; Levenson, N. A.; Winge, C.; Holhjem, K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of Seyfert-2 galaxies in SDSS-DR8 with galaxy-wide, ultraluminous narrow-line regions (NLRs) at redshifts z = 0.2-0.6. With a space density of 4.4 Gpc –3 at z ∼ 0.3, these 'green beans' (GBs) are amongst the rarest objects in the universe. We are witnessing an exceptional and/or short-lived phenomenon in the life cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The main focus of this paper is on a detailed analysis of the GB prototype galaxy J2240–0927 (z = 0.326). Its NLR extends over 26 × 44 kpc and is surrounded by an extended NLR. With a total [O III] λ5008 luminosity of (5.7 ± 0.9) × 10 43 erg s –1 , this is one of the most luminous NLRs known around any type-2 galaxy. Using VLT/XSHOOTER, we show that the NLR is powered by an AGN, and we derive resolved extinction, density, and ionization maps. Gas kinematics is disturbed on a global scale, and high-velocity outflows are absent or faint. This NLR is unlike any other NLR or extended emission line region known. Spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS reveals extended, high-luminosity [O III] emission also in other GBs. WISE 24 μm luminosities are 5-50 times lower than predicted by the [O III] fluxes, suggesting that the NLRs reflect earlier, very active quasar states that have strongly subsided in less than a galaxy's light-crossing time. These light echoes, or ionization echoes, are about 100 times more luminous than any other such echo known to date. X-ray data are needed for photoionization modeling and to verify the light echoes.

  5. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼ sun . The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 M sun , even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 M sun , with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  6. Testing the Paradigm that Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-11-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish as a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray-luminous objects possess the flattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra bandpass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity >=5 × 1039 erg s-1) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs—i.e., the "simple IMBH model"—is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to a large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find that (1) cool-disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) cool-disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 1039 erg s-1, down to our sample limit of 1038.3 erg s-1. The fact that cool-disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which strong statistical support was never found.

  7. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  8. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    As if it werent enough that quasars distant and bright nuclei of galaxies twinkle of their own accord due to internal processes, nature also provides another complication: these distant radio sources can also appear to twinkle because of intervening material between them and us. A new study has identified a possible source for the material getting in the way.Unexplained VariabilityA Spitzer infrared view of the Helix nebula, which contains ionized streamers of gas extending radially outward from the central star. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.]Distant quasars occasionally display extreme scintillation, twinkling with variability timescales shorter than a day. This intra-day variability is much greater than we can account for with standard models of the interstellar medium lying between the quasar and us. So what could cause this extreme scattering instead?The first clue to this mystery came from the discovery of strong variability in the radio source PKS 1322110. In setting up follow-up observations of this object, Mark Walker (Manly Astrophysics, Australia) and collaborators noticed that, in the plane of the sky, PKS 1322110 lies very near the bright star Spica. Could this be coincidence, or might this bright foreground star have something to do with the extreme scattering observed?Diagram explaining the source of the intra-day radio source variability as intervening filaments surrounding a hot star. [M. Walker/CSIRO/Manly Astrophysics]Swarms of ClumpsWalker and collaborators put forward a hypothesis: perhaps the ultraviolet photons of nearby hot stars ionize plasma around them, which in turn causes the extreme scattering of the distant background sources.As a model, the authors consider the Helix Nebula, in which a hot, evolved star is surrounded by cool globules of molecular hydrogen gas. The radiation from the star hits these molecular clumps, dragging them into long radial streamers and ionizing their outer skins.Though the molecular clumps in the Helix

  9. A Mid-Infrared Search for Kardashev Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wright, J.; Griffith, R.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are using the WISE all-sky Source Catalog to search for and put upper limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. Any galaxy-spanning (Type III) civilization with an energy supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess, and nearby (extended) galaxies with civilizations with supplies more than about 80% of their stellar luminosity will be well-distinguished from nearly all natural sources in WISE color-color space. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO can all be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust.

  10. Cepheid distance scale: a new application for infrared photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGonegal, R.; McLaren, R.A.; McAlary, C.W.; Madore, B.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that near-infrared photometry of Cepheid variables provides a powerful and practical means of calibrating the distance scale to nearby galaxies. Compared with similar work in the blue, random-phase observations in the near-infrared produce a factor of 2.5 decrease in the apparent width of the period-luminosity relation. This we attribute to a substantially decreased effect of differential reddening at long wavelengths, to the low sensitivity of the infrared flux to metallicity variations, and furthermore to the fact that the cyclical luminosity variations are also greatly reduced in the infrared

  11. Substellar objects in nearby young clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar population in Lupus 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mužić, Koraljka [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago 19001 (Chile); Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C. [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martí, Belén López, E-mail: kmuzic@eso.org [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28261 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-20

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (∼1 Myr), nearby (∼200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ∼1.4 deg{sup 2} on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M {sub ☉}, for A{sub V} ≤ 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T {sub eff} ≤ 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H{sub α} or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T {sub eff} = (4120 ± 175) – (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later.

  12. Substellar objects in nearby young clusters (SONYC). VIII. Substellar population in Lupus 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mužić, Koraljka; Scholz, Alexander; Geers, Vincent C.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Martí, Belén López

    2014-01-01

    SONYC—Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters—is a survey program to investigate the frequency and properties of substellar objects in nearby star-forming regions. We present a new imaging and spectroscopic survey conducted in the young (∼1 Myr), nearby (∼200 pc) star-forming region Lupus 3. Deep optical and near-infrared images were obtained with MOSAIC-II and NEWFIRM at the CTIO 4 m telescope, covering ∼1.4 deg 2 on the sky. The i-band completeness limit of 20.3 mag is equivalent to 0.009-0.02 M ☉ , for A V ≤ 5. Photometry and 11-12 yr baseline proper motions were used to select candidate low-mass members of Lupus 3. We performed a spectroscopic follow-up of 123 candidates, using VIMOS at the Very Large Telescope, and we identify 7 probable members, among which 4 have spectral type later than M6.0 and T eff ≤ 3000 K, i.e., are probably substellar in nature. Two of the new probable members of Lupus 3 appear underluminous for their spectral class and exhibit emission line spectrum with strong H α or forbidden lines associated with active accretion. We derive a relation between the spectral type and effective temperature: T eff = (4120 ± 175) – (172 ± 26) × SpT, where SpT refers to the M spectral subtype between 1 and 9. Combining our results with the previous works on Lupus 3, we show that the spectral type distribution is consistent with that in other star-forming regions, as well as the derived star-to-brown dwarf ratio of 2.0-3.3. We compile a census of all spectroscopically confirmed low-mass members with spectral type M0 or later.

  13. An extremely luminous and variable ultraluminous X-ray source in the outskirts of Circinus observed with NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Bauer, F. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Following a serendipitous detection with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), we present a multi-epoch spectral and temporal analysis of an extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) located in the outskirts of the Circinus galaxy, hereafter Circinus ULX5, including coordinated XMM-Newton+NuSTAR follow-up observations. The NuSTAR data presented here represent one of the first instances of a ULX reliably detected at hard (E > 10 keV) X-rays. Circinus ULX5 is variable on long time scales by at least a factor of ∼5 in flux, and was caught in a historically bright state during our 2013 observations (0.3-30.0 keV luminosity of 1.6 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}). During this epoch, the source displayed a curved 3-10 keV spectrum, broadly similar to other bright ULXs. Although pure thermal models result in a high energy excess in the NuSTAR data, this excess is too weak to be modeled with the disk reflection interpretation previously proposed to explain the 3-10 keV curvature in other ULXs. In addition to flux variability, clear spectral variability is also observed. While in many cases the interpretation of spectral components in ULXs is uncertain, the spectral and temporal properties of all the high quality data sets currently available strongly support a simple disk-corona model reminiscent of that invoked for Galactic binaries, with the accretion disk becoming more prominent as the luminosity increases. However, although the disk temperature and luminosity are well correlated across all time scales currently probed, the observed luminosity follows L∝T {sup 1.70±0.17}, flatter than expected for simple blackbody radiation. The spectral variability displayed here is highly reminiscent of that observed from known Galactic black hole binaries (BHBs) at high luminosities. This comparison implies a black hole mass of ∼90 M {sub ☉} for Circinus ULX5. However, given the diverse behavior observed from Galactic BHB accretion disks, this mass estimate is

  14. ULX spectra revisited: Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars as the engines of ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios; Godet, Olivier; Bachetti, Matteo; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Aims: In light of recent discoveries of pulsating ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and recently introduced theoretical schemes that propose neutron stars (NSs) as the central engines of ULXs, we revisit the spectra of eighteen well known ULXs, in search of indications that favour this newly emerging hypothesis. Methods: We examine the spectra from high-quality XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. We use a combination of elementary black body and multicolour disk black body (MCD) models, to diagnose the predictions of classic and novel theoretical models of accretion onto NSs. We re-interpret the well established spectral characteristics of ULXs in terms of accretion onto lowly or highly magnetised NSs, and explore the resulting parameter space for consistency. Results: We confirm the previously noted presence of the low-energy (≲6 keV) spectral rollover and argue that it could be interpreted as due to thermal emission. The spectra are well described by a double thermal model consisting of a "hot" (≳1 keV) and a "cool" (≲0.7 keV) multicolour black body (MCB). Under the assumption that the "cool" MCD emission originates in a disk truncated at the neutron star magnetosphere, we find that all ULXs in our sample are consistent with accretion onto a highly magnetised (B ≳ 1012 G) neutron star. We note a strong correlation between the strength of the magnetic field, the temperature of the "hot" thermal component and the total unabsorbed luminosity. Examination of the NuSTAR data supports this interpretation and also confirms the presence of a weak, high-energy (≳15 keV) tail, most likely the result of modification of the MCB emission by inverse Compton scattering. We also note that the apparent high-energy tail, may simply be the result of mismodelling of MCB emission with an atypical temperature (T) versus radius (r) gradient, using a standard MCD model with a fixed gradient of T r-0.75. Conclusions: We have offered a new and robust physical interpretation for

  15. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aldering, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antilogus, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aragon, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baltay, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bongard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buton, C [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Copin, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Gangler, E. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Loken, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pain, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Pecontal, E. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Pereira, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rabinowitz, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rigaudier, G. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Ripoche, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Runge, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scalzo, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smadja, G. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Tao, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2017-07-06

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  16. A New Offset Debris Ring around a Nearby Star Observed with the HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Bryden, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    We are conducting an HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging study of nearby stars that have Spitzer-measured infrared excesses indicating that they are surrounded by debris disks. Around one of the stars we have imaged a debris ring with a sharp inner edge and extending from about 165 AU to 250 AU. The ring center is offset from the star by -8 AU with a visually estimated intrinsic ellipticity of e-0.1 , suggestive of gravitational perturbation of the disk by a planet, like the Fomalhaut disk. Assuming a neutral disk color, the mean surface brightness of V=22.3 mag/square arcsec makes this the second faintest disk yet imaged in scattered light, second to HD 207129.

  17. Discovery of Temperate Earth-Sized Planets Transiting a Nearby Ultracool Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehin, Emmanuel; Gillon, Michael; Lederer, Susan M.; Delrez, Laetitia; De Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valerie; Burgasser, Adam; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star using data collected by the Liège TRAPPIST telescope, located in la Silla (Chile). TRAPPIST-1 is an isolated M8.0+/-0.5-type dwarf star at a distance of 12.0+/-0.4 parsecs as measured by its trigonometric parallax, with an age constrained to be > 500 Myr, and with a luminosity, mass, and radius of 0.05%, 8% and 11.5% those of the Sun, respectively. The small size of the host star, only slightly larger than Jupiter, translates into Earth-like radii for the three discovered planets, as deduced from their transit depths. The inner two planets receive four and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Several orbits remain possible for the third planet based on our current data. The infrared brightness of the host star combined with its Jupiter-like size offer the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  18. IDENTIFYING NEARBY, YOUNG, LATE-TYPE STARS BY MEANS OF THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B.; Bessell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a significant fraction of late-type members of nearby, very young associations (age ∼<10 Myr) display excess emission at mid-IR wavelengths indicative of dusty circumstellar disks. We demonstrate that the detection of mid-IR excess emission can be utilized to identify new nearby, young, late-type stars including two definite new members ('TWA 33' and 'TWA 34') of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Both new TWA members display mid-IR excess emission in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalog and they show proper motion and youthful spectroscopic characteristics—namely, Hα emission, strong lithium absorption, and low surface gravity features consistent with known TWA members. We also detect mid-IR excess—the first unambiguous evidence of a dusty circumstellar disk—around a previously identified UV-bright, young, accreting star (2M1337) that is a likely member of the Lower-Centaurus Crux region of the Scorpius-Centaurus Complex.

  19. Temporal Variation of Tectonic Tremor Activity Associated with Nearby Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Pu, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and slow slip events, located downdip from the seismogenic zone, hold the key to recurring patterns of typical earthquakes. Several findings of slow aseismic slip during the prenucletion processes of nearby earthquakes have provided new insight into the study of stress transform of slow earthquakes in fault zones prior to megathrust earthquakes. However, how tectonic tremor is associated with the occurrence of nearby earthquakes remains unclear. To enhance our understanding of the stress interaction between tremor and earthquakes, we developed an algorithm for the automatic detection and location of tectonic tremor in the collisional tectonic environment in Taiwan. Our analysis of a three-year data set indicates a short-term increase in the tremor rate starting at 19 days before the 2010 ML6.4 Jiashian main shock (Chao et al., JGR, 2017). Around the time when the tremor rate began to rise, one GPS station recorded a flip in its direction of motion. We hypothesize that tremor is driven by a slow-slip event that preceded the occurrence of the shallower nearby main shock, even though the inferred slip is too small to be observed by all GPS stations. To better quantify what the necessary condition for tremor to response to nearby earthquakes is, we obtained a 13-year ambient tremor catalog from 2004 to 2016 in the same region. We examine the spatiotemporal relationship between tremor and 37 ML>=5.0 (seven events with ML>=6.0) nearby earthquakes located within 0.5 degrees to the active tremor sources. The findings from this study can enhance our understanding of the interaction among tremor, slow slip, and nearby earthquakes in the high seismic hazard regions.

  20. Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, Nearby Galaxies, and the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Abolfathi, Bela; Albareti, Franco D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Alonso-García, Javier; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett; Aquino-Ortíz, Erik; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; van den Bosch, Remco; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, William N.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cappellari, Michele; Delgado Carigi, Maria Leticia; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrera, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy J.; Cherinka, Brian; Cheung, Edmond; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comparat, Johan; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Garrido Cuadra, Daniel; Cunha, Katia; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davies, Roger; Dawson, Kyle; de la Macorra, Axel; Dell'Agli, Flavia; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Di Mille, Francesco; Diamond-Stanic, Aleks; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Donor, John; Downes, Juan José; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Eigenbrot, Arthur D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Mike; Escoffier, Stephanie; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Feuillet, Diane K.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Fredrickson, Alexander; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fuentes, Carla E.; Galbany, Lluís; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Gaulme, Patrick; Geisler, Doug; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hahn, ChangHoon; Hall, Matthew; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Fred; Gonzalez Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Holzer, Parker H.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Ivans, Inese I.; Ivory, KeShawn; Jackson, Kelly; Jensen, Trey W.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Kamble, Vikrant; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Klaene, Mark; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Lazarz, Daniel; Lee, Youngbae; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Liang, Fu-Heng; Li, Cheng; Li, Hongyu; Lian, Jianhui; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bertran de Lis, Sara; Liu, Chao; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; MacDonald, Nicholas K.; Deconto Machado, Alice; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Maiolino, Roberto; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, Arturo; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGrath, Brianne; McGreer, Ian D.; Medina Peña, Nicolás; Melendez, Matthew; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Miyaji, Takamitsu; More, Surhud; Mulchaey, John; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; Negrete, Alenka; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Ntelis, Pierros; O'Connell, Julia E.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Patten, Alim Y.; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Poleski, Radosław; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roman-Lopes, A.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Rosado, Margarita; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Aguado, D. S.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana, Felipe A.; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; da Silva Schimoia, Jaderson; Schlafly, Edward F.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Shao, Zhengyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Simon, Joshua D.; Skinner, Danielle; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sobreira, Flavia; Somers, Garrett; Souto, Diogo; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Stauffer, Fritz; Steinmetz, Matthias; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Suzuki, Nao; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; de la Torre, Sylvain; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martinez Valpuesta, Inma; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vivek, M.; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zoccali, Manuela; Zou, Hu

    2017-07-01

    We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median z˜ 0.03). The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) is mapping the galaxy, quasar, and neutral gas distributions between z˜ 0.6 and 3.5 to constrain cosmology using baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions, and the shape of the power spectrum. Within eBOSS, we are conducting two major subprograms: the SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS), investigating X-ray AGNs and galaxies in X-ray clusters, and the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), obtaining spectra of variable sources. All programs use the 2.5 m Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory; observations there began in Summer 2014. APOGEE-2 also operates a second near-infrared spectrograph at the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, with observations beginning in early 2017. Observations at both facilities are scheduled to continue through 2020. In keeping with previous SDSS policy, SDSS-IV provides regularly scheduled public data releases; the first one, Data Release 13, was made available in 2016 July.

  1. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar system has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby SNe. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record...

  2. Prospects for SODART observations of nearby clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Using the current best understanding of the SODART mirror system, the Bragg panel and of the LEPC/HEPC responses [1] we have studied the feasibility and prospects for SODART studies of nearby clusters of galaxies. From simulated HEPC data of the cluster Abell 2256, we demonstrate that SODART...

  3. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  4. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.

    2018-04-01

    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ∼ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ∼ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known ULX pulsars, particularly in light of the recent discovery of a likely proton cyclotron line in another ULX, M51 ULX-8.

  5. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NGC 6822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-J. Sohn

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 estimated from the so-called Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method. To detect the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB we use the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs and luminosity functions (LFs in the near-infrared JHK bands. Foreground stars, main-sequence stars, and supergiant stars have been classified on the (g - K, g plane and removed on the near-infrared CMDs, from which only RGB and AGB stars are remained on the CMDs and LFs. By applying the Savitzky-Golay filter to the obtained LFs and detecting the peak in the second derivative of the observed LFs, we determined the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB. Theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones with the age of 12Gyr and the metallicity range of -2.0 <[Fe/H]< -0.5. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 6822 are (m - M

  6. UNVEILING THE σ-DISCREPANCY IN INFRARED-LUMINOUS MERGERS. I. DUST AND DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothberg, Barry; Fischer, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Mergers in the local universe present a unique opportunity for studying the transformations of galaxies in detail. Presented here are recent results, based on multi-wavelength, high-resolution imaging and medium resolution spectroscopy, which demonstrate how star formation and the presence of red supergiants and/or asymptotic giant branch stars have led to a serious underestimation of the dynamical masses of infrared-bright galaxies. The dominance of a nuclear disk of young stars in the near-infrared bands, where dust obscuration does not block their signatures, can severely bias the global properties measured in a galaxy, including mass. This explains why past studies of gas-rich luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which have measured dynamical masses using the 1.62 or 2.29 μm CO band heads, have found that these galaxies are forming m m* ellipticals. Moreover, merger remnants, including LIRGs, are placed on the I-band fundamental plane for the first time and appear to be virtually indistinguishable from elliptical galaxies.

  7. THE CARMA PAIRED ANTENNA CALIBRATION SYSTEM: ATMOSPHERIC PHASE CORRECTION FOR MILLIMETER WAVE INTERFEROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATION TO MAPPING THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY ARP 193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B. Ashley; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Curley, Roger; Pound, Marc W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teng, Stacy H.; Teuben, Peter J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Peréz, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lamb, James W.; Woody, David P.; Leitch, Erik M.; Muchovej, Stephen J.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States); Bock, Douglas C.-J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Plambeck, Richard L. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009–2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ∼2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≲6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in {sup 12}CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0.″12 × 0.″18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ∼30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ∼10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2}; we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253.

  8. Safety aspects of nuclear power plants nearby urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1986-01-01

    According to the Environmental Experts Council smaller reactors would correspond best to the heat demand of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study discusses and investigates into the present safety concepts and site selection criteria, trends towards power plant sites nearby urban areas, site-dependent parameters and their influence on the extent of damage, protective aims, compatibility of the protective aims proposed, and the protective measures required. (DG) [de

  9. The Long Term Features of Tropical Cyclones Nearby Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Shyuan; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is affected by several factors. The variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has been examined in the past decade. Previous studies showed that TC activity (such as TC number, intensity and tracks) has multiscale variation or affected by natural oscillation of different scales. However, most of these studies focused mainly on the entire WNP. Very few studies examined the variability of annual TC track or the variability of TC number in the area nearby Taiwan, which caused severe economic loss and life damage to Taiwan in the typhoon season. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the variation of TC activity nearby Taiwan to address its long term features, and also the possible relationship with the associated flow patterns. Preliminary results of wavelet analysis showed that the TC number nearby Taiwan during 1970-2014 had multiscale variations. The following analysis focused on the scale about 4- and 11-year signals, in the targeted area of 118o-125oE, 20o-27oN. The positive phases of both scale 4 and scale 11 showed a tendency of TC tracks toward Taiwan area, while the negative phases showed a lower tendency toward Taiwan. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied on the 4-yr and the 11-yr filtered 500-hPa wind fields and geopotential heights. Results showed that the 4-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U- and V-wind fields, suggesting that the TC track patterns were affected mainly by the midlevel steering flow. On the other hand, the 11-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U-wind field and geopotential anomalies, indicating that the main cause of the difference in TC occurrence nearby Taiwan was the location of TC formation.

  10. CCD photometry of Cepheid sequences in four nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.

    1991-01-01

    We present Isaac Newton Telescope B and V CCD observations of deep photometric sequences in the vicinity of Cepheid variable stars in three nearby galaxies - M31, M33 and NGC 2403. We have also checked the photometry of the brightest stars in M81 and its dwarf companion, Holmberg IX. We use our data, combined with other recent results, to re-analyse the Cepheid distances to these galaxies. (author)

  11. Nearby Galaxies: Templates for Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    OpenAIRE

    Lockman, F. J.; Ott, J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of nearby galaxies including the Milky Way have provided fundamental information on the evolution of structure in the Universe, the existence and nature of dark matter, the origin and evolution of galaxies, and the global features of star formation. Yet despite decades of work, many of the most basic aspects of galaxies and their environments remain a mystery. In this paper we describe some outstanding problems in this area and the ways in which large radio facilities will contribute ...

  12. A search for thermal extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstein, G.; Margon, B.

    1977-01-01

    We present the first extreme ultraviolet (100-1000 A) observations of radio pulsars. Using an EUV telescope carried aboard the Apollo-Soyuz mission, data were acquired on the nearby pulsars PSR 1133 + 16, 1451 - 68 and 1929 + 10. The data are interpreted to set limits on the effective temperatures of the neutron stars, yielding T 5 K in the best cases, and the limits compared with theoretical predictions. (orig./BJ) [de

  13. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. C. Cox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover of nature exposure and (b health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  14. Nearby Red Dwarfs are Sexy for Planets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Subasavage, J. P.; RECONS Team

    2005-12-01

    The RECONS group continues to discover many nearby red dwarfs in the southern sky through a combination of proper motion surveys, literature review, and ultimately, our parallax program CTIOPI. Already, we have measured the first accurate parallaxes for 11 of the nearest 100 stellar systems, including four within 5 parsecs of the Sun. These nearby red dwarfs are prime candidates for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) because the astrometric perturbations are largest for planets orbiting stars of low mass that are nearby. In addition, new multiple red dwarf systems can be targeted for mass determinations, thereby providing points on a comprehensive mass-luminosity relation for the most populous members of the Galaxy. Recent atmospheric modeling of planets orbiting red dwarfs indicates that even if the planets are tidally locked, heat distribution is highly effective in keeping the worlds balmy over the entire surface. Red dwarfs are therefore "back on the table" as viable hosts of life-bearing planets. Given their ubiquity, red dwarfs are being seriously considered as prime SETI targets, and will allow us to answer not only the question "Are We Alone?" but "Just How Alone Are We?" This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, and Georgia State University.

  15. The Broadband XMM-Newton and NuSTAR X-ray Spectra of Two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in the Galaxy IC 342

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bachetti, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present results for two Ultraluminous X-ray Sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being $1.04+0.0...

  16. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J. [Also at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. (United States); Rangwala, N. [Visiting Scientist, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center. (United States); Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A., E-mail: jkamenetzky@as.arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado at Boulder, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  17. Flares of Nearby, Mid-to-late M-dwarfs Characterized by the MEarth Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondrik, Nicholas; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Stellar flares are both a curse and a blessing: Transit and radial velocity searches for exoplanets are hindered by the variability caused by flares, while the characteristics of this variability offer valuable insight into the magnetic properties of the star. We present an analysis of flare events of nearby, mid-to-late M-dwarfs from the MEarth Project. MEarth consists of a northern and a southern array of 8 telescopes each that photometrically monitors most mid-to-late M-dwarfs within 30 parsecs. Although the initial motivation was to search for exoplanet transits, the cadence of approximately 20 minutes is well-suited to capturing long-lived flares. However, MEarth employs a single, wide, red bandpass, which poses challenges to the robust detection of flare events, which are typically bluer in color. Using MEarth data, our team has recently published trigonometric parallaxes and estimates of rotation periods for an unprecedented number of nearby low-mass stars. We also gathered supplementary optical and near infrared spectra of a subset of these stars. We describe here the properties of the flares detected by MEarth, and explore the relation of the presence of flares on individual stars with stellar parameters such as rotational period, mass, and H-alpha equivalent width. We also provide an estimate of flare rate for individual stars by injecting flares into our pipeline.The MEarth project acknowledges funding from the National Science Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowship for Science and Engineering. This work was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.

  18. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  19. Stellar bars and the spatial distribution of infrared luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based 10 micron observations of the central region of over 100 infrared luminous galaxies are presented. A first order estimate of the spatial distribution of infrared emission in galaxies is obtained through a combination of ground-based and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data. The galaxies are nearby and primarily noninteracting, permitting an unbiased investigation of correlations with Hubble type. Approximately 40% of the early-type barred galaxies in this sample are associated with enhanced luminosity in the central (approximately 1 kpc diameter) region. The underlying luminosity source is attributed to both Seyfert and star formation activity. Late-type spirals are different in that the spatial distribution of infrared emission and the infrared luminoisty are not strongly dependent on barred morphology

  20. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  1. IRAS 14348-1447, an Ultraluminous Pair of Colliding, Gas-Rich Galaxies: The Birth of a Quasar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D B; Scoville, N Z; Soifer, B T

    1988-02-05

    Ground-based observations of the object IRAS 14348-1447, which was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, show that it is an extremely luminous colliding galaxy system that emits more than 95 percent of its energy at far-infrared wavelengths. IRAS 14348-1447, which is receeding from the sun at 8 percent of the speed of light, has a bolometric luminosity more than 100 times larger than that of our galaxy, and is therefore as luminous as optical quasars. New optical, infrared, and spectroscopic measurements suggest that the dominant luminosity source is a dustenshrouded quasar. The fuel for the intense activity is an enormous supply of molecular gas. Carbon monoxide emission has been detected at a wavelength of 2.6 millimeters by means of a new, more sensitive receiver recently installed on the 12-meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. IRAS 14348-1447 is the most distant and luminous source of carbon monoxide line emission yet detected. The derived mass of interstellar molecular hydrogen is 6 x 10(10) solar masses. This value is approximately 20 times that of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way and is similar to the largest masses of atomic hydrogen found in galaxies. A large mass of molecular gas may be a prerequisite for the formation of quasars during strong galactic collisions.

  2. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs......) of these objects from 60 to 850μm. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs...

  3. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF SECONDARY COMPONENTS IN NEARBY VISUAL BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical characterization of secondary subsystems in binaries helps to distinguish between various scenarios of multiple-star formation. The Differential Speckle Survey Instrument was used at the Gemini-N telescope for several hours in 2015 July to probe the binarity of 25 secondary components in nearby solar-type binaries. Six new subsystems were resolved, with meaningful detection limits for the remaining targets. The large incidence of secondary subsystems agrees with other similar studies. The newly resolved subsystem HIP 115417 Ba,Bb causes deviations in the observed motion of the outer binary from which an astrometric orbit of Ba,Bb with a period of 117 years is deduced.

  4. Spectral differential imaging detection of planets about nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct ground-based optical imaging of planets in orbit about nearby stars may be accomplished by spectral differential imaging using multiple passband acoustooptic filters with a CCD. This technique provides two essential results. First, it provides a means to modulate the stellar flux reflected from a planet while leaving the flux from the star and other sources in the same field of view unmodulated. Second, spectral differential imaging enables the CCD detector to achieve a sufficiently high dynamic range to locate planets near a star in spite of an integrated brightness differential of 5 x 10 8 . Spectral differential imaging at nearby diffraction limited imaging conditions with telescope apodization can reduce the time to conduct a sensitive planetary search to a few hours in some cases. The feasibility of this idea is discussed here and shown to provide, in principle, the discrimination and sensitivity to detect a Jovian-class planet about stars at distances of about 10 parsecs. The detection of brown dwarfs is shown to be feasible as well. 31 references

  5. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  6. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  7. A Herschel-Resolved Debris Disk Around the Nearby G Star HIP 32480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is providing unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the far-infrared. The DUNES Key Project (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI Carlos Eiroa) has finished its survey of 133 FGK stars within 25 pc of the Sun using the PACS photometer at 100 and 160 microns. We report the detection of a resolved debris ring around HIP 32480, a G0 star 16.5 parsecs distant. The ring is almost 300 AU in diameter and inclined 30 degrees from edge-on. We present a thermal emission model for the system that fits the Spitzer spectroscopy and Herschel images of the system. We find a minimum grainsize of approximately 4 microns in the main ring and a distinct warm dust population interior to it. Faint detached emission features just outside the ring may trace a separate, more distant ring in the system. The non-detection of the ring in archival HST/ACS coronagraphic images limits the dust grain albedo in the ring to be no more than 10%.

  8. A Resolved Debris Disk Around the Nearby G Star HIP 32480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Bryden, G. C.; Marshall, J.; Eiroa, C.; Absil, O.; Mora, A.; Krist, J. E.; Su, K. Y. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is providing unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the far-infrared. The DUNES Key Project (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI Carlos Eiroa) has finished its survey of 133 FGK stars within 25 pc of the Sun using the PACS photometer at 100 and 160 microns. We report the detection of a resolved debris ring around HIP 32480, a GO star 16.5 parsecs distant. The ring is almost 300 AU in diameter and inclined 30 degrees from edge-on. We present a thermal emission model for the system that fits the Spitzer spectroscopy and Herschel images of the system. We find a minimum grain-size of 4 microns in the main ring and a distinct warm dust population interior to it. Faint detached emission features just outside the ring may trace a separate, more distant ring in the system. The non-detection of the ring in archival HST/ACS coronagraphic images limits the dust grain albedo in the ring to be no more than 10%.

  9. Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valérie; Burgasser, Adam J; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Opitom, Cyrielle; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Sahu, Devendra K; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Magain, Pierre; Queloz, Didier

    2016-05-12

    Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as 'ultracool dwarfs'. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15 per cent of the population of astronomical objects near the Sun. Core-accretion theory predicts that, given the small masses of these ultracool dwarfs, and the small sizes of their protoplanetary disks, there should be a large but hitherto undetected population of terrestrial planets orbiting them--ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets. Here we report observations of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star only 12 parsecs away. The inner two planets receive four times and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Our data suggest that 11 orbits remain possible for the third planet, the most likely resulting in irradiation significantly less than that received by Earth. The infrared brightness of the host star, combined with its Jupiter-like size, offers the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  10. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M * /M ☉ ) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  11. Gradients of stellar population properties and evolution clues in a nearby galaxy M101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lin; Kong, Xu; Lin, Xuanbin; Mao, Yewei; Cheng, Fuzhen [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zou, Hu; Jiang, Zhaoji; Zhou, Xu, E-mail: linlin@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Multiband photometric images from ultraviolet and optical to infrared are collected to derive spatially resolved properties of the nearby Scd-type galaxy M101. With evolutionary stellar population synthesis models, two-dimensional distributions and radial profiles of age, metallicity, dust attenuation, and star formation timescale in the form of the Sandage star formation history are obtained. When fitting with the models, we use the IRX-A {sub FUV} relation, found to depend on a second parameter of birth rate b (ratio of present- and past-averaged star formation rates), to constrain the dust attenuation. There are obvious parameter gradients in the disk of M101, which supports the theory of an 'inside-out' disk growth scenario. Two distinct disk regions with different gradients of age and color are discovered, similar to another late-type galaxy, NGC 628. The metallicity gradient of the stellar content is flatter than that of H II regions. The stellar disk is optically thicker inside than outside and the global dust attenuation of this galaxy is lower compared with galaxies of similar and earlier morphological type. We note that a variational star formation timescale describes the real star formation history of a galaxy. The timescale increases steadily from the center to the outskirt. We also confirm that the bulge in this galaxy is a disk-like pseudobulge, whose evolution is likely to be induced by some secular processes of the small bar which is relatively young, metal-rich, and contains much dust.

  12. Origins Space Telescope: Nearby Galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Sandstrom, Karin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.eduThis presentation will summarize the science case related to Nearby Galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Interstellar Medium (Interstellar Medium). The Origins Space Telescope will enable a wealth of unprecedented scientific advances in this area, both those we know to expect, and the discovery space that lies unexplored. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multiphase ISM; connecting these physics across scales of galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei, and their interplay, over cosmic time. Origins will unveil the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets by allowing us to trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself.

  13. Ionized Gas Kinematics around an Ultra-luminous X-Ray Source in NGC 5252: Additional Evidence for an Off-nuclear AGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5252 contains a recently identified ultra-luminous X-ray (ULX) source that has been suggested to be a possible candidate off-nuclear low-mass active galactic nucleus. We present follow-up optical integral-field unit observations obtained using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs on the Gemini-North telescope. In addition to confirming that the ionized gas in the vicinity of the ULX is kinematically associated with NGC 5252, the new observations reveal ordered motions consistent with rotation around the ULX. The close coincidence of the excitation source of the line-emitting gas with the position of the ULX further suggests that ULX itself is directly responsible for the ionization of the gas. The spatially resolved measurements of [N ii] λ 6584/H α surrounding the ULX indicate a low gas-phase metallicity, consistent with those of other known low-mass active galaxies but not that of its more massive host galaxy. These findings strengthen the proposition that the ULX is not a background source but rather that it is the nucleus of a small, low-mass galaxy accreted by NGC 5252.

  14. The ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2: A broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: matteo.bachetti@irap.omp.eu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV. The NuSTAR data demonstrate that X-1 has a clear cutoff above 10 keV, whose presence was only marginally detectable with previous X-ray observations. This cutoff rules out the interpretation of X-1 as a black hole in a standard low/hard state, and it is deeper than predicted for the downturn of a broadened iron line in a reflection-dominated regime. The cutoff differs from the prediction of a single-temperature Comptonization model. Further, a cold disk-like blackbody component at ∼0.3 keV is required by the data, confirming previous measurements by XMM-Newton only. We observe a spectral transition in X-2, from a state with high luminosity and strong variability to a lower-luminosity state with no detectable variability, and we link this behavior to a transition from a super-Eddington to a sub-Eddington regime.

  15. THE XMM-NEWTON LONG LOOK OF NGC 1365: LACK OF A HIGH/SOFT STATE IN ITS ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, R.; Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Fabbiano, G.; Bianchi, S.; Kuncic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on our long (∼300 ks) 2007 XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365, we report here on the spectral and timing behavior of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), which had previously reached isotropic X-ray luminosities L X ∼ 4 x 10 40 erg s -1 (0.3-10 keV band). In 2007, they were in a lower state (L X ∼ 5 x 10 39 and 1.5 x 10 39 erg s -1 for X1 and X2, respectively). Their X-ray spectra were dominated by power laws with photon indices Γ ∼ 1.8 and 1.2, respectively. Thus, their spectra were similar to those at their outburst peaks. Both sources have been seen to vary by a factor of 20 in luminosity over the years, but their spectra are always dominated by a hard power law; unlike most stellar-mass black holes, they have never been found in a canonical high/soft state dominated by a standard disk. The lack of a canonical high/soft state seems to be a common feature of ULXs. We speculate that the different kind of donor star and/or a persistently super-Eddington accretion rate during their outbursts may prevent accretion flows in ULXs from settling into steady standard disks.

  16. A Predicted Astrometric Microlensing Event by a Nearby White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Peter; Smith, Leigh C.; Wyn Evans, N.; Belokurov, Vasily; Smart, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    We used the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue, part of Gaia Data Release 1, to search for candidate astrometric microlensing events expected to occur within the remaining lifetime of the Gaia satellite. Our search yielded one promising candidate. We predict that the nearby DQ type white dwarf LAWD 37 (WD 1142-645) will lens a background star and will reach closest approach on November 11th 2019 (± 4 days) with impact parameter 380 ± 10 mas. This will produce an apparent maximum deviation of the source position of 2.8 ± 0.1 mas. In the most propitious circumstance, Gaia will be able to determine the mass of LAWD 37 to ˜3%. This mass determination will provide an independent check on atmospheric models of white dwarfs with helium rich atmospheres, as well as tests of white dwarf mass radius relationships and evolutionary theory.

  17. Gravitational interaction of a black hole with nearby matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Redmount, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of a black hole with nearby matter is examined with a membrane paradigm which includes a 3+1 formalism that splits spacetime coordinates into a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces and one-dimensional time. Emphasis is placed on the influence of matter and its gravity on the shape and evolution of the hole horizon and the effects of the hole on the matter. Universal time coordinates and fiduciary observers are defined outside a dynamically perturbed black hole and tidal gravitational fields are assumed to carry information on the disturbances. The exterior of the hole is examined in terms of the perturbed tidal fields and the material energy, momentum and stress which produce the perturbations. Finally, a membrane model is derived for the interaction of matter and its tidal fields with the stretched null horizon

  18. PROBING EXTRAGALACTIC DUST THROUGH NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S. L.; Li Aigen

    2010-01-01

    The quantities and wavelength dependencies of the dust extinction along the lines of sight toward 33 nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts z V derived from the Drude approach is generally larger by a factor of ∼2-5 than that inferred by assuming a SMC-type template extinction law. Consistent with previous studies, the extinction-to-gas ratio is mostly smaller than that of the MW, and does not seem to correlate with the shape of the extinction curve. It is shown that the standard silicate-graphite interstellar grain model closely reproduces the extinction curves of all 33 GRBs host galaxies. For these 33 bursts at z < 2, we find no evidence for the evolution of the dust extinction, dust sizes, and relative abundances of silicate to graphite on redshifts.

  19. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  20. COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS WITH ASTROMETRIC ACCELERATION. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Hartung, Markus; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Hipparcos astrometric binaries were observed with the NICI adaptive optics system at Gemini-S, completing the work of Paper I. Among the 65 F, G, and K dwarfs within 67 pc of the Sun studied here, we resolve 18 new subarcsecond companions, remeasure 7 known astrometric pairs, and establish the physical nature of yet another 3 wider companions. The 107 astrometric binaries targeted at Gemini so far have 38 resolved companions with separations under 3''. Modeling shows that bright enough companions with separations on the order of an arcsecond can perturb the Hipparcos astrometry when they are not accounted for in the data reduction. However, the resulting bias of parallax and proper motion is generally below formal errors and such companions cannot produce fake acceleration. This work contributes to the multiplicity statistics of nearby dwarfs by bridging the gap between spectroscopic and visual binaries and by providing estimates of periods and mass ratios for many astrometric binaries.

  1. Resolving the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot

    High-resolution studies of nearby stellar populations have served as a foundation for our quest to understand the nature of galaxies. Today, studies of resolved stellar populations constrain fundamental relations -- such as the initial mass function of stars, the time scales of stellar evolution, the timing of mass loss and amount of energetic feedback, the color-magnitude relation and its dependency on age and metallicity, the stellar-dark matter connection in galaxy halos, and the build up of stellar populations over cosmic time -- that represent key ingredients in our prescription to interpret light from the Universe and to measure the physical state of galaxies. More than in any other area of astrophysics, WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. Our WFIRST GO Science Investigation Team (F) will develop three WFIRST (notional) GO programs related to resolved stellar populations to fully stress WFIRST's Wide Field Instrument. The programs will include a Survey of the Milky Way, a Survey of Nearby Galaxy Halos, and a Survey of Star-Forming Galaxies. Specific science goals for each program will be validated through a wide range of observational data sets, simulations, and new algorithms. As an output of this study, our team will deliver optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of MW environments and galaxy halos; cosmological simulations

  2. Radioactive Iron Rain: Evidence of a Nearby Supernova Explosion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A very close supernova explosion could have caused a mass extinction of life in Earth. In 1996, Brian Fields, the late Dave Schramm and the speaker proposed looking for unstable isotopes such as Iron 60 that could have been deposited by a recent nearby supernova explosion. A group from the Technical University of Munich has discovered Iron 60 in deep-ocean sediments and ferromanganese crusts due to one or more supernovae that exploded O(100) parsecs away about 2.5 million years ago. These results have recently been confirmed by a group from the Australian National University, and the Munich group has also discovered supernova Iron 60 in lunar rock samples. This talk will discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of supernova models, and the possible implications for life on Earth.

  3. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  4. Smooth H I Low Column Density Outskirts in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianjamasimanana, R.; Walter, Fabian; de Blok, W. J. G.; Heald, George H.; Brinks, Elias

    2018-06-01

    The low column density gas at the outskirts of galaxies as traced by the 21 cm hydrogen line emission (H I) represents the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium, i.e., where galaxies are believed to get their supply of gas to fuel future episodes of star formation. Photoionization models predict a break in the radial profiles of H I at a column density of ∼5 × 1019 cm‑2 due to the lack of self-shielding against extragalactic ionizing photons. To investigate the prevalence of such breaks in galactic disks and to characterize what determines the potential edge of the H I disks, we study the azimuthally averaged H I column density profiles of 17 nearby galaxies from the H I Nearby Galaxy Survey and supplemented in two cases with published Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS data. To detect potential faint H I emission that would otherwise be undetected using conventional moment map analysis, we line up individual profiles to the same reference velocity and average them azimuthally to derive stacked radial profiles. To do so, we use model velocity fields created from a simple extrapolation of the rotation curves to align the profiles in velocity at radii beyond the extent probed with the sensitivity of traditional integrated H I maps. With this method, we improve our sensitivity to outer-disk H I emission by up to an order of magnitude. Except for a few disturbed galaxies, none show evidence of a sudden change in the slope of the H I radial profiles: the alleged signature of ionization by the extragalactic background.

  5. Seasonal variations of ambient air mercury species nearby an airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Yang, Kuang-Pu Ou; Xiao, You-Fu; Huang, Wen-Chuan; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the collection of ambient air mercury species (total gaseous mercury (TGM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), gaseous element mercury (GEM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) pollutants at airport nearby sampling site during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 by using Four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder. The results indicated that the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations were 5.04 ± 2.43 ng/m3, 29.58 ± 80.54 pg/m3, 4.70 ± 2.63 ng/m3, respectively during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 (n = 49) period at this airport sampling site nearby. In addition, the results also indicated that the average PBM concentrations in TSP and PM2.5 were 0.35 ± 0.08 ng/m3 and 0.09 ± 0.03 ng/m3, respectively. And the average PBM in TSP concentrations order follows as summer > autumn > spring > winter, while the average PBM in PM2.5 concentrations order follows as spring > summer > winter > autumn. Moreover, the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations order follow as spring > summer > autumn > winter. Finally, the Asian continent has the highest average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) when compared with the American and European continents, and the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) displayed declined trends for North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (Spain, Sweden and Southern Baltic) during the years of 2004-2014. Also noteworthy is that the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM) displayed increasing trends in China and Taiwan during the years of 2008-2016. Japan and Korea are the only two exceptions. Those above two countries mercury species concentrations displayed decreasing trends during years of 2008-2015.

  6. The JHKs Magnitudes of the Red Giant Branch Tip and the Distance Moduli of Nearby Dwarf Galaxy NGC 205

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have used the near-infrared JHKS photometric data of resolved stars in a nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 205 to determine the magnitudes of the red giant branch tip (TRGB. By applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the observed luminosity functions (LFs in each band, we derived the second derivatives of the LFs so as to determine the magnitudes of the TRGB. Absolute magnitudes of the TRGB in JHKs bands were measured from the Yonsei-Yale isochrones. By comparing the determined apparent magnitudes and the theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB, we estimated the distance moduli of NGC 205 to be (m-M = 24.10±0:08, 24.08±0.12 and 24.14±0.14 in J, H, and Ks bands, respectively.

  7. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Bally, John; Green, Wayne; Fox, Ori D.; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D.; Hsiao, Eric

    2017-01-01

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M [4.5] = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s −1 ), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M 4.5 = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  8. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cao, Yi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Masci, Frank J.; Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Andrews, Jennifer E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bally, John; Green, Wayne [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hsiao, Eric, E-mail: jj@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL, 32306 (United States); and others

    2017-03-10

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer /IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ( M {sub [4.5]} = −17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] − [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ( D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s{sup −1}), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μ m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A {sub V} = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous ( M {sub 4.5} = −16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A{sub V} ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  9. Dust spectral energy distributions of nearby galaxies: an insight from the Herschel Reference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Heinis, S.; Galametz, M.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Galliano, F.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S. C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    correlated, suggesting that the diffuse dust component is heated by both the young stars in star-forming regions and the diffuse evolved population. We use these results to provide a new set of infrared templates calibrated with Herschel observations on nearby galaxies and a mean SED template to provide the z = 0 reference for cosmological studies. For the same purpose, we place our sample on the SFR - M∗ diagram. The templates are compared to the most popular infrared SED libraries, enlightening a large discrepancy between all of them in the 20-100 μm range. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Table 4 and appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Fox, Ori D.

    2017-01-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr −1 to >7 mag yr −1 . SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  11. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Cook, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bally, John [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Masci, Frank; Armus, Lee [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boyer, Martha [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cantiello, Matteo [Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-04-20

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer /IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between −11 and −14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]–[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from <0.1 mag yr{sup −1} to >7 mag yr{sup −1}. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  12. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  13. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  14. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W., E-mail: dwalton@srl.caltech.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  15. NUSTAR AND XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF THE EXTREME ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE NGC 5907 ULX1: A VANISHING ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, D. J.; Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Middleton, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Roberts, T. P.; Sutton, A. D. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zhang, W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results obtained from two broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5907 ULX1, known to have a peak X-ray luminosity of ∼5 × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. These XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations, separated by only ∼4 days, revealed an extreme level of short-term flux variability. In the first epoch, NGC 5907 ULX1 was undetected by NuSTAR, and only weakly detected (if at all) with XMM-Newton, while in the second NGC 5907 ULX1 was clearly detected at high luminosity by both missions. This implies an increase in flux of ∼2 orders of magnitude or more during this ∼4 day window. We argue that this is likely due to a rapid rise in the mass accretion rate, rather than to a transition from an extremely obscured to an unobscured state. During the second epoch we observed the broadband 0.3-20.0 keV X-ray luminosity to be (1.55 ± 0.06) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}, similar to the majority of the archival X-ray observations. The broadband X-ray spectrum obtained from the second epoch is inconsistent with the low/hard accretion state observed in Galactic black hole binaries, but is well modeled with a simple accretion disk model incorporating the effects of photon advection. This strongly suggests that when bright, NGC 5907 ULX1 is a high-Eddington accretor.

  16. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  17. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  18. Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.A.; Soifer, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    For 10 months the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) provided astronomers with what might be termed their first view of the infrared sky on a clear, dark night. Without IRAS, atmospheric absorption and the thermal emission from both the atmosphere and Earthbound telescopes make the task of the infrared astronomer comparable to what an optical astronomer would face if required to work only on cloudy afternoons. IRAS observations are serving astronomers in the same manner as the photographic plates of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey; just as the optical survey has been used by all astronomers for over three decades, as a source of quantitative information about the sky and as a roadmap for future observations, the results of IRAS will be studied for years to come. IRAS has demonstrated the power of infrared astronomy from space. Already, from a brief look at a miniscule fraction of the data available, we have learned much about the solar system, about nearby stars, about the Galaxy as a whole and about distant extragalactic systems. Comets are much dustier than previously thought. Solid particles, presumably the remnants of the star-formation process, orbit around Vega and other stars and may provide the raw material for planetary systems. Emission from cool interstellar material has been traced throughout the Galaxy all the way to the galactic poles. Both the clumpiness and breadth of the distribution of this material were previously unsuspected. The far-infrared sky away from the galactic plane has been found to be dominate by spiral galaxies, some of which emit more than 50% and as much as 98% of their energy in the infrared - an exciting and surprising revelation. The IRAS mission is clearly the pathfinder for future mission that, to a large extent, will be devoted to the discoveries revealed by IRAS. 8 figures

  19. EVIDENCE FOR ACCRETION IN A NEARBY, YOUNG BROWN DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of the young, nearby, brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112. The object has a spectral type of M7.5; it shows Li absorption and signatures of accretion, which implies that it still has a disk and suggests an age below 10 Myr. The space motion vector and position on the sky indicate that the brown dwarf is probably a member of the ∼20 Myr old Tuc-Hor association, or that it may be an ejected member of the ∼12 Myr old β Pic association; both would imply that 2MASS J0041353-562112 may in fact be older than 10 Myr. No accreting star or brown dwarf was previously known in these associations. Assuming an age of 10 Myr, the brown dwarf has a mass of about 30 M Jup and is located at 35 pc distance. The newly discovered object is the closest accreting brown dwarf known. Its membership to an association older than 10 Myr implies that either disks in brown dwarfs can survive as long as in more massive stars, perhaps even longer, or that star formation in Tuc-Hor or β Pic occurred more recently than previously thought. The history and evolution of this object can provide new fundamental insight into the formation process of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets.

  20. The POKEMON Speckle Survey of Nearby M-Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, Gerard; von Braun, Kaspar; Horch, Elliott; Clark, Catherine; DSSI Speckle Team

    2018-01-01

    The POKEMON (Pervasive Overview of Kompanions of Every M-dwarf in Our Neighborhood) survey of nearby M-dwarfs intends to inspect, at diffraction-limited resolution, every low-mass star out to 15pc, along with selected additional objects to 25pc. The primary emphasis of the survey is detection of low-mass companions to these M-dwarfs for refinement of the low-mass star multiplicity rate. The resultant catalog of M-dwarf companions will also guide immediate refinement of transit planet detection results from surveys such as TESS. POKEMON is using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) speckle camera, along with the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI) speckle imager on 3.5-m WIYN; the survey takes advantage of the extremely rapid observing cadence rates possible with WIYN and (especially) DCT. The current status and preliminary results from the first 20+ nights of observing will be presented. Gotta observe them all!

  1. Do landfills affect the environmental quality of nearby streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When inappropriately disposed, solid waste may contaminate the soil, water and air, leading to severe negative impacts on biodiversity. The Brazilian National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS requires municipalities to ensure the environmental quality of landfills. Accordingly, our objective was to evaluate the community of aquatic insects in a stream with stretches downstream and upstream of a sanitary landfill. Our hypothesis was that there will be no differences in insect community between the stretches (downstream and upstream on the basis of the premise that landfills abiding by the PNRS do not cause environmental damage to nearby areas. There was no change in any aspect of the composition of the macroinvertebrate community as a result of the landfill. The only changes observed in the macroinvertebrate communities occurred between the dry and rainy seasons, which were related to the seasonality and consequent changes in the environmental conditions of the water over the year. Our study, although limited, showed primary and pioneering evidence that the PNRS can contribute positively to the conservation of the biotic quality of aquatic environments, further reinforcing the need for immediate implementation of the PNRS throughout the country.

  2. Scaling Relations between Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam; Walter, Fabian

    2011-04-01

    High resolution, multi-wavelength maps of a sizeable set of nearby galaxies have made it possible to study how the surface densities of H i, H2 and star formation rate (ΣHI, ΣH2, ΣSFR) relate on scales of a few hundred parsecs. At these scales, individual galaxy disks are comfortably resolved, making it possible to assess gas-SFR relations with respect to environment within galaxies. ΣH2, traced by CO intensity, shows a strong correlation with ΣSFR and the ratio between these two quantities, the molecular gas depletion time, appears to be constant at about 2 Gyr in large spiral galaxies. Within the star-forming disks of galaxies, ΣSFR shows almost no correlation with ΣHI. In the outer parts of galaxies, however, ΣSFR does scale with ΣHI, though with large scatter. Combining data from these different environments yields a distribution with multiple regimes in Σgas - ΣSFR space. If the underlying assumptions to convert observables to physical quantities are matched, even combined datasets based on different SFR tracers, methodologies and spatial scales occupy a well define locus in Σgas - ΣSFR space.

  3. Radiation-Induced Correlation between Molecules Nearby Metallic Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Osaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate optical absorption of molecules embedded nearby metallic antennas by using discrete dipole approximation method. It is found that the spectral peak of the absorption is shifted due to the radiation-induced correlation between the molecules. The most distinguishing feature of our work is to show that the shift is largely enhanced even when the individual molecules couple with localized surface plasmons near the different antennas. Specifically, we first consider the case that two sets of dimeric gold blocks with a spacing of a few nanometers are arranged and reveal that the intensity and spectral peak of the optical absorption strongly depend on the position of the molecules. In addition, when the dimeric blocks and the molecules are periodically arranged, the peak shift is found to increase up to ~1.2 meV (300 GHz. Because the radiation-induced correlation is essential for collective photon emission, our result implies the possibility of plasmon-assisted superfluorescence in designed antenna-molecule complex systems.

  4. Multicolor photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster A119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jintao; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Ma Jun; Wu Zhenyu; Fan Zhou; Zhang Tianmeng; Zou Hu; Yuan Qirong; Wu Jianghua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0.0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC field of view of 58' × 58', there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions of 1376 galaxies brighter than i BATC = 19.5, the photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of early-type galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of sight. No significant evidence for morphology or luminosity segregations is found in either sample. With the PEGASE evolutionary synthesis model, the environmental effect on the properties of star formation is confirmed. Faint galaxies in the low-density region tend to have longer time scales of star formation, smaller mean stellar ages, and lower metallicities in their interstellar medium, which is in agreement with the context of the hierarchical cosmological scenario. (research papers)

  5. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of γ-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the open-quotes KT boundary.close quotes The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events. 24 refs

  6. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  7. LOW-MASS VISUAL COMPANIONS TO NEARBY G-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    A complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20'', 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to a companion frequency of 0.13 ± 0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by an alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions-a necessary step toward reaching unbiased multiplicity statistics over the full range of orbital periods and, eventually, understanding the origin of multiple systems.

  8. [Nearby nature as a moderator of stress during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraliza, José Antonio; Collado, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the relation between the amount of nature existing in children's daily environments and the way children deal with stressful events. Every day, children are exposed to situations that cause stress. Taking into account previous studies, it is thought that the greener the place where children spend their time, the better they cope with adversities. Thus, when comparing the stress level of children who are exposed to the same amount of adverse situations, the children who have more frequent daily contact with nature will show less stress than those who do not spend time in nature. This effect from nearby nature is called a buffering effect. The present study provides empirical evidence of the buffering effect caused by the existence of Nature in the residential and the school environment. Therefore, our results show that children who have more access to nature increase their resilience, showing a lower stress level than children whose contact with nature is less frequent.

  9. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Schramm, D N

    1995-01-03

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of gamma-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the "KT boundary." The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events.

  10. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nearby starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Reda; Bouchachi, Dallel

    2018-04-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. The quest for their mysterious origin is currently a major scientific challenge. Here we explore the possibility that these particles originate from nearby starburst galaxies, a scenario that matches the recent observation by the Telescope Array experiment of a cosmic-ray hotspot above 57 EeV not far from the direction of the starburst galaxy M82. Specifically, we study the stochastic propagation in space of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays through the state-of-the-art simulation framework CRPropa 3, taking into account all relevant particle interactions as well as deflections by the intervening magnetic fields. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of this model, we consider the energy spectrum, the cosmogenic neutrinos and gamma rays, and the distribution of arrival directions. The starburst galaxy scenario reproduces well observations from both the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatories, making it very attractive for explaining the origin of cosmic rays at the highest energies.

  11. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  12. The Keck/OSIRIS Nearby AGN Survey (KONA). I. The Nuclear K-band Properties of Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Malkan, M.; Davies, R.; Yu, P. C.; Shaver, S.; Davis, B.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN survey (KONA), a new adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopic survey of Seyfert galaxies. KONA permits at ∼0.″1 resolution a detailed study of the nuclear kinematic structure of gas and stars in a representative sample of 40 local bona fide active galactic nucleus (AGN). KONA seeks to characterize the physical processes responsible for the coevolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, principally inflows and outflows. With these IFU data of the nuclear regions of 40 Seyfert galaxies, the KONA survey will be able to study, for the first time, a number of key topics with meaningful statistics. In this paper we study the nuclear K-band properties of nearby AGN. We find that the K-band (2.1 μm) luminosities of the compact Seyfert 1 nuclei are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosities, implying a non-stellar origin for the majority of the continuum emission. The best-fit correlation is log L K = 0.9log L 2–10 keV + 4 over three orders of magnitude in both K-band and X-ray luminosities. We find no strong correlation between 2.1 μm luminosity and hard X-ray luminosity for the Seyfert 2 galaxies. The spatial extent and spectral slope of the Seyfert 2 galaxies indicate the presence of nuclear star formation and attenuating material (gas and dust), which in some cases is compact and in some galaxies extended. We detect coronal-line emission in 36 galaxies and for the first time in 5 galaxies. Finally, we find 4/20 galaxies that are usually classified as Seyfert 2 based on their optical spectra exhibit a broad component of Brγ emission, and one galaxy (NGC 7465) shows evidence of a double nucleus. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M

  13. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie

    1991-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  14. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M r < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters

  15. Ages of galaxy bulges and disks from optical and near-infrared colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, RF; Balcells, M

    We compare optical and near-infrared colors of disks and bulges in a diameter-limited sample of inclined, bright, nearby, early-type spirals. Color profiles along wedge apertures at 15 degrees from the major axis and on the minor axis on the side of the galaxy opposite to the dust lane are used to

  16. Exploring the Dust Content of Galactic Winds with Herschel. II. Nearby Dwarf Galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-03-01

    We present results from analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20% of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar disks, but this fraction reaches ˜60% in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disk by energy inputs from on-going star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disk by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disk that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  17. Exploring the dust content of galactic winds with Herschel - II. Nearby dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-06-01

    We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20 per cent of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar discs, but this fraction reaches ˜60 per cent in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disc by energy inputs from ongoing star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disc by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disc that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  18. DISCOVERY OF FIVE CANDIDATE ANALOGS FOR η CARINAE IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Rubab [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Adams, Scott M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-12-20

    The late-stage evolution of very massive stars such as η Carinae may be dominated by episodic mass ejections that may later lead to Type II superluminous supernova (SLSN-II; e.g., SN 2006gy). However, as long as η Car is one of a kind, it is nearly impossible to quantitatively evaluate these possibilities. Here, we announce the discovery of five objects in the nearby (∼4–8 Mpc) massive star-forming galaxies M51, M83, M101, and NGC 6946 that have optical through mid-infrared (mid-IR) photometric properties consistent with the hitherto unique η Car. The Spitzer mid-IR spectral energy distributions of these L{sub bol} ≃ 3–8 × 10{sup 6} L{sub ⊙} objects rise steeply in the 3.6–8 μm bands and then turn over between 8 and 24 μm, indicating the presence of warm (∼400–600 K) circumstellar dust. Their optical counterparts in HST images are ∼1.5–2 dex fainter than their mid-IR peaks and require the presence of ∼5–10 M{sub ⊙} of obscuring material. Our finding implies that the rate of η Car–like events is a fraction f = 0.094 (0.040 < f < 0.21 at 90% confidence) of the core-collapse supernova (ccSN) rate. If there is only one eruption mechanism and Type II superluminous supernovae are due to ccSNe occurring inside these dense shells, then the ejection mechanism is likely associated with the onset of carbon burning (∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} years), which is also consistent with the apparent ages of massive Galactic shells.

  19. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  20. A Metagenomic Survey of Serpentinites and Nearby Soils in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. Y.; Hsu, Y. W.; Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Shih, Y. J.; Chen, J. S.; Hsu, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The serpentinite of Taiwan is originated from the subduction zone of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Many small bodies of serpentinite are scattered around the lands of the East Rift Valley, which are also one of the major agricultural areas in Taiwan. Since microbial communities play a role both on weathering process and soil recovery, uncovering the microbial compositions in serpentinites and surrounding soils may help people to understand the roles of microorganisms on serpentinites during the nature weathering process. In this study, microorganisms growing on the surface of serpentinites, in the surrounding soil, and agriculture soils that are miles of horizontal distance away from serpentinite were collected. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to examine the metagenomics of uncultured microbial community in these samples. The metagenomics were further clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to analyze relative abundance, heatmap of OTUs, and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Our data revealed the different types of geographic material had their own distinct structures of microbial community. In serpentinites, the heatmaps based on the phylogenetic pattern showed that the OTUs distributions were similar in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and WPS-1/WPS-2. On the other hand, the heatmaps of phylogenetic pattern of agriculture soils showed that the OTUs distributions in phyla of Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, WPS-1/WPS-2, and Proteobacteria were similar. In soil nearby the serpentinite, some clusters of OTUs in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and WPS-1/WPS-2 have disappeared. Our data provided evidence regarding kinetic evolutions of microbial communities in different geographic materials.

  1. Nearby stars of the Galactic disc and halo - IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy has an age of about 13 billion years. Solar-type stars evolve all the long way to the realm of degenerate objects on essentially this time-scale. This, as well as the particular advantage that the Sun offers through reliable differential spectroscopic analyses, render these stars the ideal tracers for the fossil record of our parent spiral. Astrophysics is a science that is known to be notoriously plagued by selection effects. The present work - with a major focus in this fourth contribution on model atmosphere analyses of spectroscopic binaries and multiple star systems - aims at a volume-complete sample of about 300 nearby F-, G-, and K-type stars that particularly avoids any kinematical or chemical pre-selection from the outset. It thereby provides an unbiased record of the local stellar populations - the ancient thick disc and the much younger thin disc. On this base, the detailed individual scrutiny of the long-lived stars of both populations unveils the thick disc as a single-burst component with a local normalization of no less than 20 per cent. This enormous fraction, combined with its much larger scaleheight, implies a mass for the thick disc that is comparable to that of the thin disc. On account of its completely different mass-to-light ratio the thick disc thereby becomes the dark side of the Milky Way, an ideal major source for baryonic dark matter. This massive, ancient population consequently challenges any gradual build-up scenario for our parent spiral. Even more, on the supposition that the Galaxy is not unusual, the thick disc - as it emerges from this unbiased spectroscopic work - particularly challenges the hierarchical cold-dark-matter-dominated formation picture for spiral galaxies in general.

  2. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-01-20

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f {sub SF}) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h {sup −1} Mpc (D8). The slope of f {sub SF} versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f {sub SF} of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f {sub SF} and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f {sub SF} in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  3. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  4. Discovery of path nearby clusters in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of regions of interest in large cities is an important challenge. We propose and investigate a novel query called the path nearby cluster (PNC) query that finds regions of potential interest (e.g., sightseeing places and commercial districts) with respect to a user-specified travel route. Given a set of spatial objects O (e.g., POIs, geo-tagged photos, or geo-tagged tweets) and a query route q , if a cluster c has high spatial-object density and is spatially close to q , it is returned by the query (a cluster is a circular region defined by a center and a radius). This query aims to bring important benefits to users in popular applications such as trip planning and location recommendation. Efficient computation of the PNC query faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during query processing, and how to identify clusters with high density effectively. To address these challenges, a novel collective search algorithm is developed. Conceptually, the search process is conducted in the spatial and density domains concurrently. In the spatial domain, network expansion is adopted, and a set of vertices are selected from the query route as expansion centers. In the density domain, clusters are sorted according to their density distributions and they are scanned from the maximum to the minimum. A pair of upper and lower bounds are defined to prune the search space in the two domains globally. The performance of the PNC query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data. © 2014 IEEE.

  5. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  6. THE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES OF NEARBY S0 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meng-Yuan; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Luwenjia, E-mail: qsgu@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China (China)

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of nuclear activities in nearby S0 galaxies. After cross-matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) and visually checking the SDSS images, we derive a sample of 583 S0 galaxies with the central spectrophotometric information. In order to separate nebular emission lines from the underlying stellar contribution, we fit the stellar population model to the SDSS spectra of these S0 galaxies. According to the BPT diagram, we find that 8% of S0 galaxies show central star-forming activity, while the fractions of Seyfert, Composite, and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are 2%, 8%, and 21.4%, respectively. We also find that star-forming S0s have the lowest stellar masses, over one magnitude lower than the others, and that the active S0s are mainly located in the sparse environment, while the normal S0s are located in the dense environment, which might suggest that the environment plays an important role in quenching star formation and/or AGN activity in S0 galaxies. By performing bulge-disk decomposition of 45 star-forming S0s in g - and r -bands with the 2D fitting software Galfit, as well as exploiting the catalog of 2D photometric decompositions of Meert et al., we find that the bulges of approximately one-third of star-forming S0 galaxies (16/45) are bluer than their disks, while for other types of S0s the bulge and disk components show similar color distributions. Besides, the Sérsic index of most star-forming S0s bulges is less than two, while for normal S0s, it is between two and six.

  7. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  8. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Thornton, John; Anderson-Mahoney, P.M.; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  9. The circumnuclear environment of nearby non-interacting Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogge, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the physical conditions prevailing in the regions immediately surrounding the active nuclei in 20 nearby, non-interacting Seyfert galaxies is reported. CCD interference-band images isolating the bright emission lines of Hα + [N II] λλ6548, 6583 and [O III] λ5007 have been obtained to search for spatially extended circumnuclear emission regions. Long-slit, low resolution spectrophotometry of interesting cases was used to probe the ionization state of the extended emission regions. For comparison, a CCD Hα + [N II] interference-band imaging survey of a statistically significant sample of 91 bright non-Seyfert spiral galaxies meeting the same non-interaction criteria has been carried out. Only three out of nine Seyfert 1s have spatially extended ionized gas regions compared with eight out of eleven Seyfert 2s. Enhanced circumnuclear star formation is uncommon to both Seyfert 1s and 2s. Extended emission in Seyfert 1s has essentially the same morphology in both Hα + [N II] and [O III] emission. In the Seyfert 2s, the Hα + [N II] and [O III] images show different extended emission morphologies. The [O III] emission regions appear as either one- or two-sided structures, four of which are resolved into two distinct cones of high-ionization gas emanating from the active nucleus. The morphology and ionization of these regions suggest collimation of the nuclear ionizing radiation field. The 91 non-interacting non-Seyfert spiral galaxies exhibit a rich variety of nuclear and circumnuclear emission-line structures ranging from no emission detected to bright stellar nuclei with complicated circumnuclear emission regions extending for many kiloparsecs

  10. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f SF ) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h −1 Mpc (D8). The slope of f SF versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f SF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f SF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f SF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  11. Infrared signatures for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, R.S.; Sharpe, S.W.; Kelly, J.F.

    1994-04-01

    PNL's capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm -1 at 2 laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at ∼10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl 4 at 770--800 cm -1 . This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO 2 laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks

  12. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  13. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks: A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Francesco, J. Di; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.; Craigon, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral

  14. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by 12 CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between Σ mol and Σ SFR but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR . At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed α CO equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR ∼2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1σ scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, Σ SFR ∝Σ mol N . We find N = 1 ± 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between τ dep mol and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased τ dep mol in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale τ dep mol with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H 2 conversion factor (α CO ) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed τ dep mol trends. After applying a D/G-dependent α CO , some weak correlations between τ dep mol and local conditions persist. In particular, we observe lower τ dep mol and enhanced CO excitation associated with nuclear gas concentrations in a subset of our targets. These appear to reflect real enhancements in the

  15. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various

  16. Black holes at the centers of nearby dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Edward C.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Sugarman, Hannah R.; Vélez, Darik O. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d⩽80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M{sub BH}⩽10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. Thus, as a set, the host galaxies in our sample are the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Our sample is dominated by narrow-line (type 2) AGNs, and it appears to have a much lower fraction of broad-line objects than that observed for luminous, optically selected Seyfert galaxies. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O iii] λ5007 luminosities of the Seyfert nuclei in our sample have a median value of L{sub 5007}=2×10{sup 5} L{sub ⊙} and extend down to ∼10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙}. Using published data for broad-line IMBH candidates, we have derived an [O iii] bolometric correction of log(L{sub bol}/L{sub 5007})=3.0±0.3, which is significantly lower than values obtained for high-luminosity AGNs. Applying this correction to our sample, we obtain minimum black hole mass estimates that fall mainly in the 10{sup 3} M{sub ⊙}–10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} range, which is roughly where the predicted mass functions for different black hole seed formation scenarios overlap the most. In the stellar mass range that includes the bulk of the AGN host galaxies in our sample, we derive a lower limit on the AGN fraction

  17. The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1999-05-01

    We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 - 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are ~ 10(37) -10(40) erg s(-1) (with a mean of 3 x 10(39) erg s(-1) ). The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~ 390 pc. The fact that compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six) galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an AGN indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources are accreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep (Gamma ~ 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object in these galaxies may be similar to a Black Hole Candidate in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT ~ 0.7 keV) gas dominates the emission. The fact that (for both spiral and elliptical galaxies) the spectral slope is steeper than in normal type 1 AGNs and that relatively low absorbing columns (N_H ~ 10(21) cm(-2) ) were found to the power-law component indicates that these objects are somehow geometrically and/or physically different from AGNs in normal active galaxies. The X-ray sources in the spiral and elliptical galaxies may be black hole X-ray binaries, low-luminosity AGNs, or possibly young X-ray luminous supernovae. Assuming the sources in the spiral galaxies are accreting black holes in their soft state, we estimate black hole masses ~ 10(2) -10(4) M_sun.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar neighborhood. XXXIX. Nearby white dwarfs (Subasavage+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, J. P.; Jao, W.-C.; Henry, T. J.; Harris, H. C.; Dahn, C. C.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P.; Dunlap, B. H.; Barlow, B. N.; Ianna, P. A.; Lepine, S.; Margheim, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    Standardized photometric observations were carried out at three separate telescopes. The Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 0.9m telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) was used during Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) observing runs when conditions were photometric. A Tektronics 2K*2K detector was used in region-of-interest mode centered on the central quarter of the full CCD producing a Field Of View (FOV) of 6.8'*6.8'. The SMARTS 1.0m telescope at CTIO was used with the Y4KCam 4K*4K imager, producing a 19.7'*19.7' FOV. Finally, the Ritchey 40-in telescope at USNO Flagstaff Station (NOFS) was used with a Tektronics 2K*2K detector with a 20.0'*20.0' FOV. Near-infrared JHKs photometry was collected for WD0851-246, at the CTIO 4.0 m Blanco telescope using the NEWFIRM during an engineering night on 2011.27 UT. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) Extremely Wide-field Infrared Image (NEWFIRM) is a 4K*4K InSb mosaic that provides a 28'*28' FOV on the Blanco telescope. Additional photometry values were extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR12 (Alam et al. 2015, Cat. V/147), 2MASS, and the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) DR9 Large Area Survey (LAS; see Lawrence et al. 2012, Cat. II/319), when available. Two White Dwarfs (WDs) presented here (WD1743-545 and WD2057-493) are newly discovered nearby WDs identified during a spectroscopic survey of WD candidates in the southern hemisphere (J. Subasavage et al. 2017, in preparation) taken from the SUPERBLINK catalog (Lepine & Shara 2015ASPC..493..455S). A third WD included here (WD2307-691) was previously unclassified, yet is a common proper-motion companion to a Hipparcos star within 25pc (HIP114416). A fourth WD (WD2028-171) was suspected to be a WD by the authors based on a trawl of the New Luyten Two Tenths (NLTT) catalog (Luyten 1979, Cat. I/98). Finally, a fifth WD (WD1241

  19. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn C. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  20. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE BULGELESS GALAXIES NGC 337 AND ESO 501-23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, Garrett; Mathur, Smita; Martini, Paul; Grier, Catherine J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, Linda [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: somers@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8{sup +4.4}{sub -3.5} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with Γ= 1.18{sup +0.19}{sub -0.11} and N{sub H} = 1.13{sup +7.07}{sub -1.13}×10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08{sup +0.05}{sub -0.07}×10{sup -12} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Its X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies L{sub X} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected.

  1. Motions in Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence of Hidden Superstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. X-ray Image of Fornax with labels X-ray Image of Fornax with labels "At a relatively nearby distance of about 60 million light years, the Fornax cluster represents a crucial laboratory for studying the interplay of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter as the cluster evolves." said Caleb Scharf of Columbia University in New York, NY, lead author of a paper describing the Chandra survey that was presented at an American Astronomical Society meeting in New Orleans, LA. "What we are seeing could be associated directly with the intergalactic gas surrounding a very large scale structure that stretches over millions of light years." The infalling galaxy group, whose motion was detected by Michael Drinkwater of the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues, is about 3 million light years from the cluster core, so a collision with the core will not occur for a few billion years. Insight as to how this collision will look is provided by the elliptical galaxy NGC 1404 that is plunging into the core of the cluster for the first time. As discussed by Scharf and another group

  2. H I absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    H I absorption studies yield information on both active galactic nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for H I absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disc. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with H I detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic discs. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of H I content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous H I surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  3. THE SPITZER LOCAL VOLUME LEGACY: SURVEY DESCRIPTION AND INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Johnson, L. C.; Schuster, M. D.; Calzetti, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Block, M.; Marble, A. R.; Gil de Paz, A.; Lee, J. C.; Begum, A.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Funes, J. G.; Gordon, K. D.; Johnson, B. D.; Sakai, S.; Skillman, E. D.; Van Zee, L.; Walter, F.

    2009-01-01

    The survey description and the near-, mid-, and far-infrared flux properties are presented for the 258 galaxies in the Local Volume Legacy (LVL). LVL is a Spitzer Space Telescope legacy program that surveys the local universe out to 11 Mpc, built upon a foundation of ultraviolet, Hα, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging from 11HUGS (11 Mpc Hα and Ultraviolet Galaxy Survey) and ANGST (ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury). LVL covers an unbiased, representative, and statistically robust sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, exploiting the highest extragalactic spatial resolution achievable with Spitzer. As a result of its approximately volume-limited nature, LVL augments previous Spitzer observations of present-day galaxies with improved sampling of the low-luminosity galaxy population. The collection of LVL galaxies shows a large spread in mid-infrared colors, likely due to the conspicuous deficiency of 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from low-metallicity, low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, the far-infrared emission tightly tracks the total infrared emission, with a dispersion in their flux ratio of only 0.1 dex. In terms of the relation between the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and the ultraviolet spectral slope, the LVL sample shows redder colors and/or lower infrared-to-ultraviolet ratios than starburst galaxies, suggesting that reprocessing by dust is less important in the lower mass systems that dominate the LVL sample. Comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the amplitude of deviations from the relation found for starburst galaxies correlates with the age of the stellar populations that dominate the ultraviolet/optical luminosities.

  4. BANYAN. II. Very low mass and substellar candidate members to nearby, young kinematic groups with previously known signs of youth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne

    2014-01-01

    We present Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II (BANYAN II), a modified Bayesian analysis for assessing the membership of later-than-M5 objects to any of several Nearby Young Associations (NYAs). In addition to using kinematic information (from sky position and proper motion), this analysis exploits 2MASS-WISE color-magnitude diagrams in which old and young objects follow distinct sequences. As an improvement over our earlier work, the spatial and kinematic distributions for each association are now modeled as ellipsoids whose axes need not be aligned with the Galactic coordinate axes, and we use prior probabilities matching the expected populations of the NYAs considered versus field stars. We present an extensive contamination analysis to characterize the performance of our new method. We find that Bayesian probabilities are generally representative of contamination rates, except when a parallax measurement is considered. In this case contamination rates become significantly smaller and hence Bayesian probabilities for NYA memberships are pessimistic. We apply this new algorithm to a sample of 158 objects from the literature that are either known to display spectroscopic signs of youth or have unusually red near-infrared colors for their spectral type. Based on our analysis, we identify 25 objects as new highly probable candidates to NYAs, including a new M7.5 bona fide member to Tucana-Horologium, making it the latest-type member. In addition, we reveal that a known L2γ dwarf is co-moving with a bright M5 dwarf, and we show for the first time that two of the currently known ultra red L dwarfs are strong candidates to the AB Doradus moving group. Several objects identified here as highly probable members to NYAs could be free-floating planetary-mass objects if their membership is confirmed.

  5. BANYAN. II. Very low mass and substellar candidate members to nearby, young kinematic groups with previously known signs of youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne [Département de Physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-03-10

    We present Bayesian Analysis for Nearby Young AssociatioNs II (BANYAN II), a modified Bayesian analysis for assessing the membership of later-than-M5 objects to any of several Nearby Young Associations (NYAs). In addition to using kinematic information (from sky position and proper motion), this analysis exploits 2MASS-WISE color-magnitude diagrams in which old and young objects follow distinct sequences. As an improvement over our earlier work, the spatial and kinematic distributions for each association are now modeled as ellipsoids whose axes need not be aligned with the Galactic coordinate axes, and we use prior probabilities matching the expected populations of the NYAs considered versus field stars. We present an extensive contamination analysis to characterize the performance of our new method. We find that Bayesian probabilities are generally representative of contamination rates, except when a parallax measurement is considered. In this case contamination rates become significantly smaller and hence Bayesian probabilities for NYA memberships are pessimistic. We apply this new algorithm to a sample of 158 objects from the literature that are either known to display spectroscopic signs of youth or have unusually red near-infrared colors for their spectral type. Based on our analysis, we identify 25 objects as new highly probable candidates to NYAs, including a new M7.5 bona fide member to Tucana-Horologium, making it the latest-type member. In addition, we reveal that a known L2γ dwarf is co-moving with a bright M5 dwarf, and we show for the first time that two of the currently known ultra red L dwarfs are strong candidates to the AB Doradus moving group. Several objects identified here as highly probable members to NYAs could be free-floating planetary-mass objects if their membership is confirmed.

  6. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Schuster, Karl-Friedrich [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/ Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  7. Knowing Our Neighbors: Four New Nearby High Proper Motion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Finch, Charlie T.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) team measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent astrometric measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish three high proper motion systems as members (2MASS J02511490-0352459, 2MASS J15345704-1418486, and 2MASS J09211410-2104446) and confirm a fourth (2MASS J23062928-0502285). All four proper motions exceed 0.9”/yr. 2MA0251 travels 2.1497±0.0009”/yr in 149.20±0.05° at a distance of 11.0±0.4 pc. 2M2306 moves 1.0344±0.0007”/yr in 118.50±0.08° at a distance of 12.7±0.2 pc. 2MA1534 goes 0.9726±0.0004”/yr in 251.50 ±0.05° at a distance of 10.93±0.10 pc. 2MA0921 shifts 0.9489±0.0003”/yr in 164.70±0.04° at a distance of 12.3±0.2 pc. The corresponding tangential velocities are 112.4, 62.4, 50.4, and 55.5 km/s whereas the median for parallaxes previously published by RECONS is 53 km/s. With radial velocities in the literature of -75.5 to 80.53 km/s, none of these is a candidate member of any young moving groups.To characterize these late M-early L systems more fully, RECONS obtained VRI photometry; their I -band magnitudes range from 14.10 to 16.55. Over their astrometric baselines of 7.75 to 8.99 years, these demonstrated long-term I-band variability of 0.0135 mag. or less, indicating they may be older systems.With each new confirmation, we come closer to completing the census of the Solar Neighborhood.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College

  8. Astronomers See First Stages of Planet-Building Around Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    about the same size are present," Claussen said. Not only does TW Hydrae show evidence of ongoing planet formation, it also shows signs that at least one giant planet may have formed already. Wilner's colleague, Nuria Calvet (CfA), has created a computer simulation of the disk around TW Hydrae using previously published infrared observations. She showed that a gap extends from the star out to a distance of about 400 million miles - similar to the distance to the asteroid belt in our solar system. The gap likely formed when a giant planet sucked up all the nearby material, leaving a hole in the middle of the disk. Located about 180 light-years away in the constellation Hydra the Water Snake, TW Hydrae consists of a 10 million-year-old star about four-fifths as massive as the Sun. The protoplanetary disk surrounding TW Hydrae contains about one-tenth as much material as the Sun -- more than enough to form one or more Jupiter-sized worlds. "TW Hydrae is unique," said Wilner. "It's nearby, and it's just the right age to be forming planets. We'll be studying it for decades to come." This research was published in the June 20, 2005, issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  9. Probing the LHS Catalog. I. New Nearby Stars and the Coolest Subdwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Gizis, John E.; Reid, I. Neill

    1997-01-01

    We present moderate resolution spectroscopy of 112 cool dwarf stars to supplement the observations we have already presented in the Palomar/MSU Nearby-Star Spectroscopic Survey. The sample consists of 72 suspected nearby stars added to the The Preliminary Third Catalog of Nearby Stars since 1991 as well as 40 faint red stars selected from the LHS catalog. LHS 1826 is more metal-poor and cooler than the coolest previously known extreme subdwarf, LHS 1742a. LHS 2195 is a very late M dwarf of ty...

  10. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF COMPACT STARBURSTS: DISTANCING THEMSELVES FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Condon, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Evans, A. S., E-mail: emurphy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures and 1.4 to 8.44 GHz radio spectral indices with 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption features for a sample of 36 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that galaxies having small 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EQWs), which signal the presence of weak PAH emission and/or an excess of very hot dust, also have flat spectral indices. The three active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified through their excessively large 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures are also identified as AGN via their small 6.2 {mu}m PAH EQWs. We also find that the flattening of the radio spectrum increases with increasing silicate optical depth, 8.44 GHz brightness temperature, and decreasing size of the radio source even after removing potential AGN, supporting the idea that compact starbursts show spectral flattening as the result of increased free-free absorption. These correlations additionally suggest that the dust obscuration in these galaxies must largely be coming from the vicinity of the compact starburst itself, and is not distributed throughout the (foreground) disk of the galaxy. Finally, we investigate the location of these infrared-bright systems relative to the main sequence (star formation rate versus stellar mass) of star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We find that the radio spectral indices of galaxies flatten with increasing distance above the main sequence, or in other words, with increasing specific star formation rate. This indicates that galaxies located above the main sequence, having high specific star formation rates, are typically compact starbursts hosting deeply embedded star formation that becomes more optically thick in the radio and infrared with increased distance above the main sequence.

  11. The infrared luminosity function of AKARI 90 μm galaxies in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2018-03-01

    Local infrared (IR) luminosity functions (LFs) are necessary benchmarks for high-redshift IR galaxy evolution studies. Any accurate IR LF evolution studies require accordingly accurate local IR LFs. We present IR galaxy LFs at redshifts of z ≤ 0.3 from AKARI space telescope, which performed an all-sky survey in six IR bands (9, 18, 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm) with 10 times better sensitivity than its precursor Infrared Astronomical Satellite. Availability of 160 μm filter is critically important in accurately measuring total IR luminosity of galaxies, covering across the peak of the dust emission. By combining data from Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 13 (DR 13), six-degree Field Galaxy Survey and the 2MASS Redshift Survey, we created a sample of 15 638 local IR galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, factor of 7 larger compared to previously studied AKARI-SDSS sample. After carefully correcting for volume effects in both IR and optical, the obtained IR LFs agree well with previous studies, but comes with much smaller errors. Measured local IR luminosity density is ΩIR = 1.19 ± 0.05 × 108L⊙ Mpc-3. The contributions from luminous IR galaxies and ultraluminous IR galaxies to ΩIR are very small, 9.3 per cent and 0.9 per cent, respectively. There exists no future all-sky survey in far-IR wavelengths in the foreseeable future. The IR LFs obtained in this work will therefore remain an important benchmark for high-redshift studies for decades.

  12. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  13. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  14. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  15. High resolution radio observations of nuclear and circumnuclear regions of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A; Perez-Torres, M A [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA, CSIC), PO Box 3004, 18080-Granada (Spain); Colina, L [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia - IEM, CSIC, C, Serrano 115, 28005 Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, J M [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE, CSIC) and IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: antxon@iaa.es, E-mail: torres@iaa.es, E-mail: colina@damir.iem.csic.es, E-mail: torrelle@ieec.fcr.es

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution radio observations of the nuclear region of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) have shown that its radio structure consists of a compact high surface-brightness central radio source immersed in a diffuse low brightness circumnuclear halo. While the central component could be associated with an AGN or compact star-forming regions where radio supernovae are exploding, it is well known that the circumnuclear regions host bursts of star-formation. The studies of radio supernovae can provide essential information about stellar evolution and CSM/ISM properties in regions hidden by dust at optical and IR wavelengths. In this contribution, we show results from radio interferometric observations from NGC 7469, IRAS 18293-3413 and IRAS 17138-1017 where three extremely bright radio supernovae have been found. High-resolution radio observations of these and other LIRGs would allow us to determine the core-collapse supernova rate in them as well as their star-formation rate.

  16. Cold Molecular Gas Along the Merger Sequence in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takuji; Komugi, Shinya; Matsuhara, Hideo; Armus, Lee; Inami, Hanae; Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kohno, Kotaro; Evans, Aaron S.; Arimatsu, Ko

    2017-08-01

    We present an initial result from the 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of 79 galaxies in 62 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (LIRG and ULIRG) systems obtained using the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. This is a systematic 12CO (J = 1-0) survey of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. The molecular gas mass of the sample is in the range 2.2× {10}8{--}7.0× {10}9 {M}⊙ within the central several kiloparsecs subtended by the 15\\prime\\prime beam. A method to estimate the size of a CO gas distribution is introduced, which is combined with the total CO flux in the literature. This method is applied to part of our sample, and we find that the median CO radius is 1-4 kpc. From the early stage to the late stage of mergers, we find that the CO size decreases while the median value of the molecular gas mass in the central several-kiloparsec region is constant. Our results statistically support a scenario where molecular gas inflows toward the central region from the outer disk to replenish gas consumed by starburst, and that such a process is common in merging LIRGs.

  17. Heaviest Stellar Black Hole Discovered in Nearby Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers have located an exceptionally massive black hole in orbit around a huge companion star. This result has intriguing implications for the evolution and ultimate fate of massive stars. The black hole is part of a binary system in M33, a nearby galaxy about 3 million light years from Earth. By combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Gemini telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, the mass of the black hole, known as M33 X-7, was determined to be 15.7 times that of the Sun. This makes M33 X-7 the most massive stellar black hole known. A stellar black hole is formed from the collapse of the core of a massive star at the end of its life. Chandra X-ray Image of M33 X-7 Chandra X-ray Image of M33 X-7 "This discovery raises all sorts of questions about how such a big black hole could have been formed," said Jerome Orosz of San Diego State University, lead author of the paper appearing in the October 18th issue of the journal Nature. M33 X-7 orbits a companion star that eclipses the black hole every three and a half days. The companion star also has an unusually large mass, 70 times that of the Sun. This makes it the most massive companion star in a binary system containing a black hole. Hubble Optical Image of M33 X-7 Hubble Optical Image of M33 X-7 "This is a huge star that is partnered with a huge black hole," said coauthor Jeffrey McClintock of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "Eventually, the companion will also go supernova and then we'll have a pair of black holes." The properties of the M33 X-7 binary system - a massive black hole in a close orbit around a massive companion star - are difficult to explain using conventional models for the evolution of massive stars. The parent star for the black hole must have had a mass greater than the existing companion in order to have formed a black hole before the companion star. Gemini Optical Image of M33 X-7 Gemini Optical Image of M33 X-7 Such a massive star would

  18. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the

  19. Nearby supernova factory announces 34 supernovae in one year'; best Rookie year ever for supernova search

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), an international collaboration based at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, announced that it had discovered 34 supernovae during the first year of the prototype system's operation (2 pages).

  20. Robo-AO Kepler Survey. IV. The Effect of Nearby Stars on 3857 Planetary Candidate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Duev, Dmitry A.; Howard, Ward; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kulkarni, S. R.; Morton, Tim; Salama, Maïssa

    2018-04-01

    We present the overall statistical results from the Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey, comprising of 3857 high-angular resolution observations of planetary candidate systems with Robo-AO, an automated laser adaptive optics system. These observations reveal previously unknown nearby stars blended with the planetary candidate host stars that alter the derived planetary radii or may be the source of an astrophysical false positive transit signal. In the first three papers in the survey, we detected 440 nearby stars around 3313 planetary candidate host stars. In this paper, we present observations of 532 planetary candidate host stars, detecting 94 companions around 88 stars; 84 of these companions have not previously been observed in high resolution. We also report 50 more-widely separated companions near 715 targets previously observed by Robo-AO. We derive corrected planetary radius estimates for the 814 planetary candidates in systems with a detected nearby star. If planetary candidates are equally likely to orbit the primary or secondary star, the radius estimates for planetary candidates in systems with likely bound nearby stars increase by a factor of 1.54, on average. We find that 35 previously believed rocky planet candidates are likely not rocky due to the presence of nearby stars. From the combined data sets from the complete Robo-AO KOI survey, we find that 14.5 ± 0.5% of planetary candidate hosts have a nearby star with 4″, while 1.2% have two nearby stars, and 0.08% have three. We find that 16% of Earth-sized, 13% of Neptune-sized, 14% of Saturn-sized, and 19% of Jupiter-sized planet candidates have detected nearby stars.

  1. The Structure of the Nearby Giant Star-Forming Region 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Eric; Baldwin, Jack; Hanson, Margaret; Ferland, Gary; Troland, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The rates of star formation and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study of these processes in the two nearest giant star-forming regions, 30 Doradus and NGC 3603, as an aide in understanding the nature of Giant Extragalactic H II Regions, starbursts, and Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies. We recently completed our observations of NGC 3603. Here we request 2 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain a dense grid of optical long-slit spectra criss- crossing 30 Dor. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3800 different spots in the nebula. We also request 3 nights on SOAR to take K-band long slit spectra covering H^+ Br(gamma) and several H_2 lines across three representative edge-on ionization fronts in 30 Dor. The IR spectra will be taken in locations also covered by the optical spectra, and will tell us about the structure, pressure support and heating mechanisms in the photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) at these points. Either half of this project can stand on its own, but both parts together will permit the PI to complete his PhD thesis.

  2. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  3. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - II. The sample and surface mass density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Riffel, R.; Davies, R.; Bianchin, M.; Diniz, M. R.; Schönell, A. J.; Burtscher, L.; Crenshaw, M.; Fischer, T. C.; Dahmer-Hahn, L. G.; Dametto, N. Z.; Rosario, D.

    2018-02-01

    We present and characterize a sample of 20 nearby Seyfert galaxies selected for having BAT 14-195 keV luminosities LX ≥ 1041.5 erg s-1, redshift z ≤ 0.015, being accessible for observations with the Gemini Near-Infrared Field Spectrograph (NIFS) and showing extended [O III]λ5007 emission. Our goal is to study Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) feeding and feedback processes from near-infrared integral-field spectra, which include both ionized (H II) and hot molecular (H2) emission. This sample is complemented by other nine Seyfert galaxies previously observed with NIFS. We show that the host galaxy properties (absolute magnitudes MB, MH, central stellar velocity dispersion and axial ratio) show a similar distribution to those of the 69 BAT AGN. For the 20 galaxies already observed, we present surface mass density (Σ) profiles for H II and H2 in their inner ˜500 pc, showing that H II emission presents a steeper radial gradient than H2. This can be attributed to the different excitation mechanisms: ionization by AGN radiation for H II and heating by X-rays for H2. The mean surface mass densities are in the range (0.2 ≤ ΣH II ≤ 35.9) M⊙ pc-2, and (0.2 ≤ ΣH2 ≤ 13.9)× 10-3 M⊙ pc-2, while the ratios between the H II and H2 masses range between ˜200 and 8000. The sample presented here will be used in future papers to map AGN gas excitation and kinematics, providing a census of the mass inflow and outflow rates and power as well as their relation with the AGN luminosity.

  4. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  5. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  6. Infrared emission from protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Shu, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The emergent spectral energy distribution at infrared to radio wavelengths is calculated for the simplest theoretical construct of a low-mass protostar. It is shown that the emergent spectrum in the infrared is insensitive to the details assumed for the temperature profile as long as allowance is made for a transition from optically thick to optically thin conditions and luminosity conservation isenforced at the inner and outer shells. The radiation in the far infrared and submillimeter wavelengths depends on the exact assumptions made for grain opacities at low frequencies. An atlas of emergent spectral energy distributions is presented for a grid of values of the instantaneous mass of the protostar and the mass infall rate. The attenuated contribution of the accretion shock to the near-infrared radiation is considered. 50 references

  7. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  9. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  10. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    2016-06-10

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  11. Nearby Type Ia Supernova Follow-up at the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Jonathan; O'Neill, Katie; Kilpatrick, Charles; Foley, Ryan

    2018-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) provide an effective way to study the expansion of the universe through analyses of their photometry and spectroscopy. The interpretation of high-redshift SN Ia is dependent on accurate characterization of nearby, low-redshift targets. To help build up samples of nearby SN Ia, the Thacher Observatory has begun a photometric follow-up program in 4 photometric bands. Here we present the observations and analysis of multi-band photometry for several recent supernovae as well as FLOYDS spectra from the Las Cumbres Observatory.

  12. Measurement of radioactivity in the atmosphere and pollution nearby an atomic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is particularly interested in studies on atmospheric radioactivity by reason of the necessity to control the atmosphere nearby nuclear plants as uranium mines, nuclear reactors and hot laboratories or radioactive materials treatment plants. Thus, the CEA developed different apparatus to control and monitor the atmosphere nearby its sites. These air monitors are essentially of two types: the first one, called 'Babar', monitors smokes, fogs and dusts, the second type is an ionization chamber and measures the concentration of radioactive gas in the air. The functioning and sensitivity of these two systems are discussed. (M.P.)

  13. Infrared photometry of the nuclei of early-type radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.B.; Bailey, J.

    1986-01-01

    J,H,K,L' two-aperture photometry and single-aperture 10-μm(N) photometry of the nuclei of 44 nearby radio elliptical and SO galaxies are presented. Clear infrared excesses are found from the galaxies with broad emission-lines, the BL Lac objects, and two other galaxies, one of which appears to have an extended infrared excess. In addition, the sample as a whole appears to have positive 10-μm emission which is believed to be largely due to starlight. The near-infrared colours in general are characteristic of normal starlight, with only the strongest 10-μm emitters showing a significant near-infrared excess. These latter galaxies have blue optical colours. (author)

  14. A MOLECULAR STAR FORMATION LAW IN THE ATOMIC-GAS-DOMINATED REGIME IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Dumas, Gaelle; Sandstrom, Karin; Leroy, Adam K.; Bigiel, Frank; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Kramer, Carsten; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl; Usero, Antonio; Weiss, Axel; Wiesemeyer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    We use the IRAM HERACLES survey to study CO emission from 33 nearby spiral galaxies down to very low intensities. Using 21 cm line atomic hydrogen (H I) data, mostly from THINGS, we predict the local mean CO velocity based on the mean H I velocity. By re-normalizing the CO velocity axis so that zero corresponds to the local mean H I velocity we are able to stack spectra coherently over large regions. This enables us to measure CO intensities with high significance as low as I CO ∼ 0.3 K km s -1 (Σ H 2 ∼1 M sun pc -2 ), an improvement of about one order of magnitude over previous studies. We detect CO out to galactocentric radii r gal ∼ r 25 and find the CO radial profile to follow a remarkably uniform exponential decline with a scale length of ∼0.2 r 25 . Here we focus on stacking as a function of radius, comparing our sensitive CO profiles to matched profiles of H I, Hα, far-UV (FUV), and Infrared (IR) emission at 24 μm and 70 μm. We observe a tight, roughly linear relationship between CO and IR intensity that does not show any notable break between regions that are dominated by molecular gas (Σ H 2 >Σ H i ) and those dominated by atomic gas (Σ H 2 H i ). We use combinations of FUV+24 μm and Hα+24 μm to estimate the recent star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Σ SFR , and find approximately linear relations between Σ SFR and Σ H 2 . We interpret this as evidence of stars forming in molecular gas with little dependence on the local total gas surface density. While galaxies display small internal variations in the SFR-to-H 2 ratio, we do observe systematic galaxy-to-galaxy variations. These galaxy-to-galaxy variations dominate the scatter in relationships between CO and SFR tracers measured at large scales. The variations have the sense that less massive galaxies exhibit larger ratios of SFR-to-CO than massive galaxies. Unlike the SFR-to-CO ratio, the balance between atomic and molecular gas depends strongly on the total gas surface density

  15. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  16. TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY ESTIMATION OF RESOLVED AND UNRESOLVED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Bendo, G.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Kennicutt, R.; Lee, J. C.; Van Zee, L.; Moustakas, J.

    2010-01-01

    The total infrared (TIR) luminosity from galaxies can be used to examine both star formation and dust physics. We provide here new relations to estimate the TIR luminosity from various Spitzer bands, in particular from the 8 μm and 24 μm bands. To do so, we use data for 45'' subregions within a subsample of nearby face-on spiral galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) that have known oxygen abundances as well as integrated galaxy data from the SINGS, the Local Volume Legacy survey (LVL), and Engelbracht et al. samples. Taking into account the oxygen abundances of the subregions, the star formation rate intensity, and the relative emission of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8 μm, the warm dust at 24 μm, and the cold dust at 70 μm and 160 μm, we derive new relations to estimate the TIR luminosity from just one or two of the Spitzer bands. We also show that the metallicity and the star formation intensity must be taken into account when estimating the TIR luminosity from two wave bands, especially when data longward of 24 μm are not available.

  17. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  18. Why Seychelles Warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands : unwilling or unable to fly there?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Piersma, T; Kraaijeveld, K; Kraaijeveld-Smit, F; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a rare island endemic which, from 1920 to 1988, occurred only on Cousin Island (29 ha) in the Seychelles. Despite the saturated nature of this population and the possibility of obtaining higher reproductive success on new nearby islands,

  19. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA survey. II. Supernova environmental metallicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbany, L.; Stanishev, V.; Mourão, A. M.; Rodrigues, M.; Flores, H.; Walcher, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Badenes, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mollá, M.; Meidt, S.; Pérez, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that can rule the progenitor's fate. We present the second study of nearby supernova (SN) host galaxies (0.005 ⊙) > 10 dex) by targeted searches. We neither found evidence that the metallicity at the SN

  20. XMM-Newton view of X-ray overdensities from nearby galaxy clusters : the environmental dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caglar,; T.; Hudaverdi,; M.,

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we studied ten nearby (z≤0.038) galaxy clusters to understand possible interactions between hot plasma and member galaxies. A multi-band source detection was applied to detect point-like structures within the intra-cluster medium. We examined spectral properties of a total of 391 X-ray

  1. UVES abundances of stars in nearby galaxies : How good are theoretical isochrones?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Piotto, G; Meylan, G; Djougovski, SG; Riello, M

    2003-01-01

    Here we report some results from an ESO-VLT programme to observe individual stars in nearby dwarf galaxies at high resolution with the UVES spectrograph (Tolstoy, Venn, Shetrone, Primas, Hill, Kaufer & Szeifert 2002, submitted to AJ). We mainly concentrate on illustrating the issues and

  2. Properly Interpreting the Epidemiologic Evidence about the Health Effects of Industrial Wind Turbines on Nearby Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that wind turbines cause serious health problems in nearby residents, usually stress-disorder-type diseases, at a nontrivial rate. The bulk of the evidence takes the form of thousands of adverse event reports. There is also a small amount of systematically gathered data. The adverse event reports provide compelling…

  3. Metasurface Cloak Performance Near-by Multiple Line Sources and PEC Cylindrical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Yatman, William H.; Pehrson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The performance/robustness of metasurface cloaks to a complex field environment which may represent a realistic scenario of radiating sources is presently reported. Attention is devoted to the cloak operation near-by multiple line sources and multiple perfectly electrically conducting cylinders. ...

  4. Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby Residents in Abeokuta Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) meter was employed to monitor the level of particulate matter (PM10) within and around five quarry sites selected for this study. The data collected from hospital records of ...

  5. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  6. Direct imaging of haloes and truncations in face-on nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, J. H.; Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Trujillo, I.; Fliri, J.; Cisternas, M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.

    2016-01-01

    We use ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe 82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and co-added SDSS/Stripe 82 imaging allows us to probe down to 29-30 r'-mag/arcsec2 and thus reach into the very faint

  7. Infrared source test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, L.

    1994-11-15

    The purpose of the Infrared Source Test (IRST) is to demonstrate the ability to track a ground target with an infrared sensor from an airplane. The system is being developed within the Advance Technology Program`s Theater Missile Defense/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) section. The IRST payload consists of an Amber Radiance 1 infrared camera system, a computer, a gimbaled mirror, and a hard disk. The processor is a custom R3000 CPU board made by Risq Modular Systems, Inc. for LLNL. The board has ethernet, SCSI, parallel I/O, and serial ports, a DMA channel, a video (frame buffer) interface, and eight MBytes of main memory. The real-time operating system VxWorks has been ported to the processor. The application code is written in C on a host SUN 4 UNIX workstation. The IRST is the result of a combined effort by physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists.

  8. Powerful infrared emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogan L. M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Powerful infrared LEDs with emission wavelength 805 ± 10, 870 ± 20 and 940 ± 10 nm developed at SPC OED "OPTEL" are presented in the article. The radiant intensity of beam diode is under 4 W/sr in the continuous mode and under 100 W/sr in the pulse mode. The radiation power of wide-angle LEDs reaches 1 W in continuous mode. The external quantum efficiency of emission IR diodes runs up to 30%. There also has been created infrared diode modules with a block of flat Fresnel lenses with radiant intensity under 70 W/sr.

  9. Extended mid-infrared emission from VV 114: Probing the birth of a ULIRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Laurent, O.; Mirabel, I. F.; Gallais, P.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Cesarsky, C.

    2002-08-01

    We present our 5-16 mu m spectro-imaging observations of VV 114, an infrared luminous early-stage merger of two galaxies VV 114E and VV 114W, taken with the ISOCAM camera on-board the Infrared Space Observatory. We find that only 40% of the mid-infrared (MIR) flux is associated with a compact nuclear region of VV 114E, while the rest of the emission originates from a rather diffuse component extended over several kpc in the regions between VV 114E and VV 114W. This is in stark contrast with the very compact MIR starbursts usually seen in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. A secondary peak of MIR emission is associated with an extra-nuclear star forming region of VV 114W which displays the largest Hα equivalent width in the whole system. Comparing our data with the distribution of the molecular gas and cold dust, as well as with radio observations, it becomes evident that the conversion of molecular gas into stars can be triggered over large areas at the very first stages of an interaction. This extended star formation along with the extreme nuclear starburst observed in VV 114E can easily lead to the heating of dust grains found in the tidally disturbed disks of the progenitor galaxies and subsequently traced via their MIR emission. The presence of a very strong continuum at the 5-6.5 mu m range in the spectrum of VV 114E indicates that an enshrouded active galactic nucleus (AGN) may contribute to ~ 40% of its MIR flux. We finally note that the relative variations in the UV to radio spectral properties between VV 114E and VV 114W provide evidence that the extinction-corrected star formation rate of similar objects at high z, such as those detected in optical deep surveys, cannot be accurately derived from their rest-frame UV properties. Based on observations with the ISO satellite, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation

  10. THE SPATIAL EXTENT OF (U)LIRGs IN THE MID-INFRARED. I. THE CONTINUUM EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIaz-Santos, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Petric, A. O.; Howell, J. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Haan, S.; Marshall, J. A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Veilleux, S.; Bothun, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Evans, A. S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended mid-infrared (MIR) emission of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey sample based on 5-15 μm low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. We calculate the fraction of extended emission (FEE) as a function of wavelength for the galaxies in the sample, FEE λ , defined as the fraction of the emission which originates outside of the unresolved component of a source at a given distance. We find that the FEE λ varies from one galaxy to another, but we can identify three general types of FEE λ : one where FEE λ is constant, one where features due to emission lines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear more extended than the continuum, and a third which is characteristic of sources with deep silicate absorption at 9.7 μm. More than 30% of the galaxies have a median FEE λ larger than 0.5, implying that at least half of their MIR emission is extended. Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) display a wide range of FEE in their warm dust continuum (0 ∼ 13.2 μ m ∼ 13.2 μ m that we find in many LIRGs suggest that the extended component of their MIR continuum emission originates in scales up to 10 kpc and may contribute as much as the nuclear region to their total MIR luminosity. The mean size of the LIRG cores at 13.2 μm is 2.6 kpc. However, once the IR luminosity of the systems reaches the threshold of L IR ∼ 10 11.8 L sun , slightly below the regime of Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), all sources become clearly more compact, with FEE 13.2 μ m ∼ IR ∼> 10 11.25 L sun strongly increases in those classified as mergers in their final stage of interaction. The FEE 13.2 μ m is also related to the contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the MIR emission. Galaxies which are more AGN dominated are less extended, independently of their L IR . We finally find that the extent of the MIR continuum emission is correlated with the far-IR IRAS log(f 60 μ m /f 100 μ m

  11. Spitzer Trigonometric Parallaxes of L, T, and Y Dwarfs: Complementing Gaia's Optically-selected Census of Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Smart, Richard; Marocco, Federico; Martin, Emily; Faherty, Jacqueline; Tinney, Christopher; Cushing, Michael; Beichman, Charles; Gelino, Christopher; Schneider, Adam; Wright, Edward; Lowrance, Patrick; Ingalls, James

    2018-05-01

    We now find ourselves at a moment in history where a parallax-selected census of nearby objects from the hottest A stars to the coldest Y dwarfs is almost a reality. With the release of Gaia DR2 in April of this year, we will be able to extract a volume-limited sample of stars out to 20 pc down to a spectral type of L5. Extending the census to colder types is much more difficult but nonetheless possible and essential. Ground-based astrometric monitoring of some of these colder dwarfs can be done with deep infrared detections on moderate to large (4+ meter) telescopes, but given the amount of time needed, only a portion of the colder objects believed to lie within 20 pc has been monitored. Our prior Spitzer observations have already enabled direct distance measures for T6 through Y dwarfs, but many 20-pc objects with spectral types between L5 and T5.5 have still not been astrometrically monitored, leaving a hole in our knowledge of this important all-sky sample. Spitzer Cycle 14 observations of modest time expenditure can rectify this problem by providing parallaxes for the 150+ objects remaining. Analysis of the brown dwarfs targeted by Spitzer is particularly important because it will provide insight into the low-mass cutoff of star formation, the shape of the mass function as inferred from the observed temperature distribution, the binary fraction of near-equal mass doubles, and the prevalence of extremely young (low-gravity) and extremely old (low metallicity) objects within the sample - all of which can be used to test and further refine model predictions of the underlying mass function.

  12. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation

  13. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  14. CALIBRATION OF THE MEARTH PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM: OPTICAL MAGNITUDES AND PHOTOMETRIC METALLICITY ESTIMATES FOR 1802 NEARBY M-DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation.

  15. The abundance properties of nearby late-type galaxies. II. The relation between abundance distributions and surface brightness profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness (OH–SB relation) in the infrared W1 band are examined for nearby late-type galaxies. The oxygen abundances were presented in Paper I. The photometric characteristics of the disks are inferred here using photometric maps from the literature through bulge-disk decomposition. We find evidence that the OH–SB relation is not unique but depends on the galactocentric distance r (taken as a fraction of the optical radius R 25 ) and on the properties of a galaxy: the disk scale length h and the morphological T-type. We suggest a general, four-dimensional OH–SB relation with the values r, h, and T as parameters. The parametric OH–SB relation reproduces the observed data better than a simple, one-parameter relation; the deviations resulting when using our parametric relation are smaller by a factor of ∼1.4 than that of the simple relation. The influence of the parameters on the OH–SB relation varies with galactocentric distance. The influence of the T-type on the OH–SB relation is negligible at the centers of galaxies and increases with galactocentric distance. In contrast, the influence of the disk scale length on the OH–SB relation is at a maximum at the centers of galaxies and decreases with galactocentric distance, disappearing at the optical edges of galaxies. Two-dimensional relations can be used to reproduce the observed data at the optical edges of the disks and at the centers of the disks. The disk scale length should be used as a second parameter in the OH–SB relation at the center of the disk while the morphological T-type should be used as a second parameter in the relation at optical edge of the disk. The relations between oxygen abundance and disk surface brightness in the optical B and infrared K bands at the center of the disk and at optical edge of the disk are also considered. The general properties of the abundance–surface brightness relations are similar for the three

  16. CONSTRAINING THE SPIN-DOWN OF THE NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STAR RX J0806.4-4123, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE POPULATION OF NEARBY NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The nearby isolated neutron stars (INSs) are a group of seven relatively slowly rotating neutron stars that show thermal X-ray spectra, most with broad absorption features. They are interesting both because they may allow one to determine fundamental neutron-star properties by modeling their spectra, and because they appear to be a large fraction of the overall neutron-star population. Here, we describe a series of XMM -Newton observations of the nearby INS RX J0806.4-4123, taken as part of larger program of timing studies. From these, we limit the spin-down rate to ν-dot=(-4.3±2.3)x10 -16 Hz s -1 . This constrains the dipole magnetic field to be 13 G at 2σ, significantly less than the field of ∼10 14 G implied by simple models for the X-ray absorption found at 0.45 keV. We confirm that the spectrum is thermal and stable (to within a few percent), but find that the 0.45 keV absorption feature is broader and more complex than previously thought. Considering the population of INSs, we find that magnetic field decay from an initial field of ∼ 14 G accounts most naturally for their timing and spectral properties, both qualitatively and in the context of the models for field decay of Pons and collaborators.

  17. The infrared retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    As infrared imaging systems have evolved from the first generation of linear devices to the second generation of small format staring arrays to the present 'third-gen' systems, there is an increased emphasis on large area focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multicolour operation and higher operating temperature. In this paper, we discuss how one needs to develop an increased functionality at the pixel level for these next generation FPAs. This functionality could manifest itself as spectral, polarization, phase or dynamic range signatures that could extract more information from a given scene. This leads to the concept of an infrared retina, which is an array that works similarly to the human eye that has a 'single' FPA but multiple cones, which are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that enable the perception of colour. These cones are then coupled with powerful signal processing techniques that allow us to process colour information from a scene, even with a limited basis of colour cones. Unlike present day multi or hyperspectral systems, which are bulky and expensive, the idea would be to build a poor man's 'infrared colour' camera. We use examples such as plasmonic tailoring of the resonance or bias dependent dynamic tuning based on quantum confined Stark effect or incorporation of avalanche gain to achieve embodiments of the infrared retina.

  18. Photographic infrared spectroscopy and near infrared photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swings, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics are tackled in this presentation: spectroscopy and photometry. The following definitions are chosen: photographic infrared spectroscopy (wavelengths Hα<=lambda<1.2 μ); near infrared photometry (wavebands: 1.6 μ<=lambda<=20 μ). Near infrared spectroscopy and photometry of classical and peculiar Be stars are discussed and some future developments in the field are outlined. (Auth.)

  19. To See the World in a Grain of Sand: Recognizing the Origin of Sand Specimens by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Multivariate Exploratory Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra of sand samples exhibit features reflecting their composition. Basic multivariate analysis (MVA) can be used to effectively sort subsets of homogeneous specimens collected from nearby locations, as well as pointing out similarities in composition among sands of different origins.…

  20. Infrared thermography of loose hangingwalls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This project is the continuation of GAP706 “Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hangingwall and impending falls of ground”. The main concept behind the infrared thermography method...

  1. Recent advances in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    A background survey is given of developments in infrared astronomy during the last decade. Advantages obtained in using infrared wavelengths to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and the detectors used for this work are considered. Infrared studies of, among other subjects, the stars, dust clouds, the centre of our galaxy and the 3k cosmic background radiation, are discussed. (UK)

  2. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  3. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  4. Infrared emission and extragalactic starbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the belief that recent star formation plays a significant role in determining many of the infrared properties of galaxies. Pertinent types of infrared observations and the infrared properties of starbursts are briefly summarized. Recently developed models which describe the evolution of starbursts are also considered. (U.K.)

  5. Dynamic response of the high flux isotope reactor structure caused by nearby heavy load drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shih-Jung.

    1995-01-01

    A heavy load of 50,000 lb is assumed to drop from 10 ft above the bottom of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pool at the loading station. The consequences of the dynamic impact to the bottom slab of the pool and to the nearby HFIR reactor vessel are analyzed by applying the ABAQUS computer code The results show that both the BM vessel structure and its supporting legs are subjected to elastic disturbances only and, therefore, will not be damaged. The bottom slab of the pool, however, will be damaged to about half of the slab thickness. The velocity response spectrum at the concrete floor next to the HFIR vessel as a result of the vibration caused by the impact is obtained. It is concluded, that the damage caused by heavy load drop at the loading station is controlled by the slab damage and the nearby HFIR vessel and the supporting legs will not be damaged

  6. Nearby CFTs in the operator formalism: the role of a connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, K.

    1993-01-01

    There are two methods to study families of conformal theories in the operator formalism. In the first method we begin with a theory and a family of deformed theories defined in the state space of the original theory. In the other there is a distinct state space for each theory in the family, with the collection of spaces forming a vector bundle. This paper establishes the equivalence of a deformed theory with that in a nearby state space in the bundle via a connection that defines maps between nearby state spaces. We find that an appropriate connection for establishing equivalence is one that arose in a recent paper by Kugo and Zwiebach. We discuss the affine geometry induced on the space of backgrounds by this connection. This geometry is the same as the one obtained from the Zamolodchikov metric. (orig.)

  7. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  8. Multiple Lightning Discharges in Wind Turbines Associated with Nearby Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Madsen, Søren Find

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of five events where simultaneous lightning currents were registered in different wind turbines of a wind farm with lightning monitoring equipment installed. Measurements from current monitoring devices installed at the wind turbines and observations from auto......-triggering video cameras were correlated with data from the U.S. National Lighting Detection Network. In all five events, the correlation showed that a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning stroke with high peak current struck the ground within 10 km of the affected turbines at the time of the currents in the wind...... by the nearby CG strokes, involving mechanisms that vary depending on the polarity of the associated CG stroke. The analysis also suggests that the event of upward lightning from wind turbines triggered by nearby lightning activity occurs very often and therefore it should be considered carefully...

  9. AN ESTIMATE OF THE NEARBY INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD USING NEUTRAL ATOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The strength and orientation of the magnetic field in the nearby interstellar medium have remained elusive, despite continual improvements in observations and models. Data from NASA's Voyager mission and the Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) experiment on board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have placed observational constraints on the magnetic field, and the more recent Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) data appear to also bear an imprint of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). In this paper, we combine computational models of the heliosphere with data from Voyager, SOHO/SWAN, and IBEX to estimate both the strength and direction of the nearby ISMF. On the basis of our simulations, we find that a field strength of 2-3 μG pointing from ecliptic coordinates (220-224, 39-44), combined with an interstellar hydrogen density of ∼0.15 cm -3 , produces results most consistent with observations.

  10. Reproduction of nearby sound sources using higher-order ambisonics with practical loudspeaker arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    the impact of two existing and a new proposed regularization function on the reproduced sound fields and on the main auditory cue for nearby sound sources outside the median plane, i.e, low-frequencies interaural level differences (ILDs). The proposed regularization function led to a better reproduction......In order to reproduce nearby sound sources with distant loudspeakers to a single listener, the near field compensated (NFC) method for higher-order Ambisonics (HOA) has been previously proposed. In practical realization, this method requires the use of regularization functions. This study analyzes...... of point source sound fields compared to existing regularization functions for NFC-HOA. Measurements in realistic playback environments showed that, for very close sources, significant ILDs for frequencies above about 250 Hz can be reproduced with NFC-HOA and the proposed regularization function whereas...

  11. Underestimating nearby nature: affective forecasting errors obscure the happy path to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Elizabeth K; Zelenski, John M

    2011-09-01

    Modern lifestyles disconnect people from nature, and this may have adverse consequences for the well-being of both humans and the environment. In two experiments, we found that although outdoor walks in nearby nature made participants much happier than indoor walks did, participants made affective forecasting errors, such that they systematically underestimated nature's hedonic benefit. The pleasant moods experienced on outdoor nature walks facilitated a subjective sense of connection with nature, a construct strongly linked with concern for the environment and environmentally sustainable behavior. To the extent that affective forecasts determine choices, our findings suggest that people fail to maximize their time in nearby nature and thus miss opportunities to increase their happiness and relatedness to nature. Our findings suggest a happy path to sustainability, whereby contact with nature fosters individual happiness and environmentally responsible behavior.

  12. Dependence of the velocity ellipsoid for nearby stars upon metallicity and spectral type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchkov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    For nearby dwarf stars the ratios of the dispersions in the velocity components along the axes of a rectangular galactic coordinate system depend on spectral type and chemical composition (metal abundance). Relationships are established which could provide clues to such problems as whether the component populations of the Galaxy are relaxing to a steady state and how stars come to be formed with differing mass at different times

  13. The phase-space structure of nearby dark matter as constrained by the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Percival, Will; Jasche, Jens; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies using numerical simulations have demonstrated that the shape of the cosmic web can be described by studying the Lagrangian displacement field. We extend these analyses, showing that it is now possible to perform a Lagrangian description of cosmic structure in the nearby Universe based on large-scale structure observations. Building upon recent Bayesian large-scale inference of initial conditions, we present a cosmographic analysis of the dark matter distribution and its evolution, referred to as the dark matter phase-space sheet, in the nearby universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. We consider its stretchings and foldings using a tetrahedral tessellation of the Lagrangian lattice. The method provides extremely accurate estimates of nearby density and velocity fields, even in regions of low galaxy density. It also measures the number of matter streams, and the deformation and parity reversals of fluid elements, which were previously thought inaccessible using observations. We illustrate the approach by showing the phase-space structure of known objects of the nearby Universe such as the Sloan Great Wall, the Coma cluster and the Boötes void. We dissect cosmic structures into four distinct components (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters), using the Lagrangian classifiers DIVA, ORIGAMI, and a new scheme which we introduce and call LICH. Because these classifiers use information other than the sheer local density, identified structures explicitly carry physical information about their formation history. Accessing the phase-space structure of dark matter in galaxy surveys opens the way for new confrontations of observational data and theoretical models. We have made our data products publicly available.

  14. The Eating Habits of Giants and Dwarfs: Chemo-dynamics of Halo Assembly in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; SAGES Team

    2012-01-01

    I will present novel results on the halo assembly of nearby galaxies, from dwarfs to the most massive ellipticals, using Subaru imaging and Keck spectroscopy. Field stars, globular clusters, and planetary nebulae are used as wide-field chemo-dynamical tracers, mapping out halo substructures that were previously known and unknown. Comparisons are made with simulations of galaxy formation. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-0808099, AST-0909237, and AST-1109878.

  15. Imprecision in waggle dances of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) for nearby food sources : error or adaptation?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenmüller, Anja; Seeley, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    A curious feature of the honeybee's waggle dance is the imprecision in the direction indication for nearby food sources. One hypothesis for the function of this imprecision is that it serves to spread recruits over a certain area and thus is an adaptation to the typical spatial configuration of the bees' food sources, i.e., flowers in sizable patches. We report an experiment that tests this tuned-error hypothesis. We measured the precision of direction indication in waggle dances advertising ...

  16. Nearby galaxies as pointers to a better theory of cosmic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J E; Nusser, Adi

    2010-06-03

    The great advances in the network of cosmological tests show that the relativistic Big Bang theory is a good description of our expanding Universe. However, the properties of nearby galaxies that can be observed in greatest detail suggest that a better theory would describe a mechanism by which matter is more rapidly gathered into galaxies and groups of galaxies. This more rapid growth occurs in some theoretical ideas now under discussion.

  17. What influences community positions towards nearby mining projects : eight cases from Brazil and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks at the influences and dynamics of community positions towards nearby mining projects in Brazil and Chile from an affected communities perspective. This subject is important because even after many initiatives and guidance aimed at helping companies to obtain good community relations, also known as a social license to operate (SLO), conflict in many mining community contexts is still prevalent today. In considering this, the thesis draws from Stakeholder, Resou...

  18. The phase-space structure of nearby dark matter as constrained by the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Florent; Percival, Will [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG), University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Jasche, Jens [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin, E-mail: florent.leclercq@polytechnique.org, E-mail: lavaux@iap.fr, E-mail: jasche@iap.fr, E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr, E-mail: will.percival@port.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (IAP), UMR 7095, CNRS – UPMC Université Paris 6, Sorbonne Universités, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies using numerical simulations have demonstrated that the shape of the cosmic web can be described by studying the Lagrangian displacement field. We extend these analyses, showing that it is now possible to perform a Lagrangian description of cosmic structure in the nearby Universe based on large-scale structure observations. Building upon recent Bayesian large-scale inference of initial conditions, we present a cosmographic analysis of the dark matter distribution and its evolution, referred to as the dark matter phase-space sheet, in the nearby universe as probed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey main galaxy sample. We consider its stretchings and foldings using a tetrahedral tessellation of the Lagrangian lattice. The method provides extremely accurate estimates of nearby density and velocity fields, even in regions of low galaxy density. It also measures the number of matter streams, and the deformation and parity reversals of fluid elements, which were previously thought inaccessible using observations. We illustrate the approach by showing the phase-space structure of known objects of the nearby Universe such as the Sloan Great Wall, the Coma cluster and the Boötes void. We dissect cosmic structures into four distinct components (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters), using the Lagrangian classifiers DIVA, ORIGAMI, and a new scheme which we introduce and call LICH. Because these classifiers use information other than the sheer local density, identified structures explicitly carry physical information about their formation history. Accessing the phase-space structure of dark matter in galaxy surveys opens the way for new confrontations of observational data and theoretical models. We have made our data products publicly available.

  19. VIRAC: the VVV Infrared Astrometric Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Kurtev, R.; Smart, R.; Minniti, D.; Borissova, J.; Jones, H. R. A.; Zhang, Z. H.; Marocco, F.; Contreras Peña, C.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.; Drew, J. E.; Pinfield, D. J.; Bedin, L. R.

    2018-02-01

    We present VIRAC version 1, a near-infrared proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey for 312 587 642 unique sources averaged across all overlapping pawprint and tile images covering 560 deg2 of the bulge of the Milky Way and southern disc. The catalogue includes 119 million high-quality proper motion measurements, of which 47 million have statistical uncertainties below 1 mas yr-1. In the 11 stars and brown dwarfs, subdwarfs, white dwarfs) and kinematic distance measurements of young stellar objects. Nearby objects discovered include LTT 7251 B, an L7 benchmark companion to a G dwarf with over 20 published elemental abundances, a bright L subdwarf, VVV 1256-6202, with extremely blue colours and nine new members of the 25 pc sample. We also demonstrate why this catalogue remains useful in the era of Gaia. Future versions will be based on profile fitting photometry, use the Gaia absolute reference frame and incorporate the longer time baseline of the VVV extended survey.

  20. ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND REDUCTION IN IRON-RICH SOILS NEARBY LANDFILLS IN NORTHWEST FLORIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Florida, soils are mainly composed of Myakka, an acid soil characterized by a subsurface accumulation of humus and Al(III and Fe(III oxides. Downgradient of the landfills in Northwest Florida, elevated levels of iron and arsenic observations had been made in the groundwater from monitoring wells, which was attributed to the geomicrobial iron and arsenic reduction. There is thus an immediate research need for a better understanding of the reduction reactions that are responsible for the mobilization of iron and arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills. Owing to the high Fe(III oxide content, As(V adsorption reactions with Fe(III oxide surfaces are particularly important, which may control As(V reduction. This research focused on the investigation of the biogeochemical processes of the subsurface soil nearby landfills of Northwest Florida. Arsenic and iron reduction was studied in batch reactors and quantified based on Monod-type microbial kinetic growth simulations. As(V adsorption in iron-rich Northwest Floridian soils was further investigated to explain the reduction observations. It was demonstrated in this research that solubilization of arsenic in the subsurface soil nearby landfills in Northwest Florida would likely occur under conditions favoring Fe(III dissimilatory reduction.

  1. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  2. Wireless infrared computer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, George C.; He, Xiaofei

    2004-04-01

    Wireless mouse is not restricted by cable"s length and has advantage over its wired counterpart. However, all the mice available in the market have detection range less than 2 meters and angular coverage less than 180 degrees. Furthermore, commercial infrared mice are based on track ball and rollers to detect movements. This restricts them to be used in those occasions where users want to have dynamic movement, such as presentations and meetings etc. This paper presents our newly developed infrared wireless mouse, which has a detection range of 6 meters and angular coverage of 180 degrees. This new mouse uses buttons instead of traditional track ball and is developed to be a hand-held device like remote controller. It enables users to control cursor with a distance closed to computer and the mouse to be free from computer operation.

  3. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  4. Far infrared photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leotin, J.; Meny, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the development of far infrared photoconductors for the focal plane of a spaceborne instrument named SAFIRE. SAFIRE (Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission) belongs to the EOS program (Earth Observing System) and is now in the definition phase. It is a joint effort by scientists from the United States, Great Britain, Italy and France for a new generation of atmosphere sensor. The overall goal of the SAFIRE experiment is to improve the understanding of the ozone distribution in the middle atmosphere by conducting global scale measurements of the important chemical, radiative and dynamical processes which influence its changes. This will be accomplished by the measurement of the far infrared thermal limb emission in seven spectral channels covering the range 80 to 400 cm -1 with a maximum resolution of 0.004 cm -1 . For example key gases like OH, O, HO 2 , N 2 O 5 will be probed for the first time. Achievement of the required detector sensitivity in the far-infrared imposes the choice of photoconductive detectors operating at liquid helium temperatures. Germanium doped with gallium is selected for six channels whereas germanium doped with beryllium is suitable for the N 2 O 5 channel. Both photoconductors Ge:Ga and Ge:Be benefit from a well established material technology. A better wavelength coverage of channel 1 is achieved by applying a small uniaxial stress of the order of 0.1 GPa on the Ge:Ga photoconductors. The channel 6B wavelength coverage could be improved by using zinc-doped-germanium (Ge:Zn) or, much better, by using a Blocked Impurity band silicon detector doped with antimony (BIB Si:Sb). The later is developed as an optional basis

  5. Infrared thermal annealing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladys, M.J.; Clarke, I.; O'Connor, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    A device for annealing samples within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy system was designed, constructed, and tested. The device is based on illuminating the sample with infrared radiation from outside the UHV chamber with a tungsten projector bulb. The apparatus uses an elliptical mirror to focus the beam through a sapphire viewport for low absorption. Experiments were conducted on clean Pd(100) and annealing temperatures in excess of 1000 K were easily reached

  6. Ultrafast infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fayer, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    The past ten years or so have seen the introduction of multidimensional methods into infrared and optical spectroscopy. The technology of multidimensional spectroscopy is developing rapidly and its applications are spreading to biology and materials science. Edited by a recognized leader in the field and with contributions from top researchers, including experimentalists and theoreticians, this book presents the latest research methods and results and will serve as an excellent resource for other researchers.

  7. Infrared Astronomy and Star Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is a natural tool to use in studying star formation because infrared light penetrates the surrounding dust and because protostars are expected to emit infrared light. Infrared mapping and photometry have revealed many compact sources, often embedded in more extensive warm dust associated with a molecular cloud core. More detailed study of these objects is now beginning, and traditional interpretations are being questioned. Some compact sources are now thought to be density enhancements which are not self-luminous. Infrared excesses around young stars may not always be caused by circumstellar dust; speckle measurements have shown that at least some of the excess toward T Tauri is caused by an infrared companion. Spectroscopic studies of the dense, star-forming cores and of the compact objects themselves have uncovered a wealth of new phenomena, including the widespread occurence of energetic outflows. New discoveries with IRAS and with other planned infrared telescopes will continue to advance this field. (author)

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE MID-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SKY WITH WISE AND SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lin; Donoso, E.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, R.; Jarrett, T.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Blain, A. W.; Stanford, S. A.; Wright, E.; Bridge, C.; Riechers, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has completed its all-sky survey in four channels at 3.4-22 μm, detecting hundreds of millions of objects. We merge the WISE mid-infrared data with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and provide a phenomenological characterization of WISE extragalactic sources. WISE is most sensitive at 3.4 μm (W1) and least sensitive at 22 μm (W4). The W1 band probes massive early-type galaxies out to z ∼> 1. This is more distant than SDSS identified early-type galaxies, consistent with the fact that 28% of 3.4 μm sources have faint or no r-band counterparts (r > 22.2). In contrast, 92%-95% of 12 μm and 22 μm sources have SDSS optical counterparts with r ≤ 22.2. WISE 3.4 μm detects 89.8% of the entire SDSS QSO catalog at S/N W1 >7σ, but only 18.9% at 22 μm with S/N W4 > 5σ. We show that WISE colors alone are effective in isolating stars (or local early-type galaxies), star-forming galaxies, and strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs)/QSOs at z ∼ 0.8 and W2 –2 . (2) Selection of dust-obscured, type-2 AGN/QSO candidates. We show that WISE W1 – W2 > 0.8, W2 6 (Vega) colors can be used to identify type-2 AGN candidates. The fraction of these type-2 AGN candidates is one-third of all WISE color-selected AGNs. (3) Selection of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2 with extremely red colors, r – W4 > 14 or well-detected 22 μm sources lacking detections in the 3.4 and 4.6 μm bands. The surface density of z ∼ 2 ULIRG candidates selected with r – W4 > 14 is 0.9 ± 0.07 deg –2 at S/N W4 ≥ 5 (the corresponding, lowest flux density of 2.5 mJy), which is consistent with that inferred from smaller area Spitzer surveys. Optical spectroscopy of a small number of these high-redshift ULIRG candidates confirms our selection, and reveals a possible trend that optically fainter or r – W4 redder candidates are at higher redshifts.

  9. UCAC4 Nearby Star Survey: A Search for Our Stellar Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    AAVSO) Photometric All Sky Survey (APASS) and infrared photometry from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ). With the addition of the APASS...110 million have 2MASS JHKs. We used a 3 arcsecond match radius in the development of the UCAC4 catalog for inclusion of the 2MASS and APASS...a new set of 16 photometric color–MKs relations using (a) BVgri optical photometry from APASS, (b) JHKs near-infrared photometry from 2MASS , (c

  10. GHASP: an Hα kinematical survey of spiral galaxies - XI. Distribution of luminous and dark matter in spiral and irregular nearby galaxies using WISE photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsaga, M.; Carignan, C.; Amram, P.; Epinat, B.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2018-04-01

    We present the mass distribution of a sample of 121 nearby galaxies with high quality optical velocity fields and available infra-red WISE 3.4 μm data. Contrary to previous studies, this sample covers all morphological types and is not biased toward late-type galaxies. These galaxies are part of the Fabry-Perot kinematical GHASP survey of spirals and irregular nearby galaxies. Combining the kinematical data to the WISE surface brightness data probing the emission from the old stellar population, we derive mass models allowing us to compare the luminous to the dark matter halo mass distribution in the optical regions of those galaxies. Dark matter (DM) models are constructed using the isothermal core profile and the Navarro-Frenk-White cuspy profile. We allow the M/L of the baryonic disc to vary or we keep it fixed, constrained by stellar evolutionary models (WISE W1-W2 color) and we carry out best fit (BFM) and pseudo-isothermal maximum disc (MDM) models. We found that the MDM provides M/L values four times higher than the BFM, suggesting that disc components, on average, tend to be maximal. The main results are: (i) the rotation curves of most galaxies are better fitted with core rather than cuspy profiles; (ii) the relation between the parameters of the DM and of the luminous matter components mostly depends on morphological types. More precisely, the distribution of the DM inside galaxies depends on whether or not the galaxy has a bulge.

  11. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  12. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  13. Comparison of stellar population model predictions using optical and infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, C.; McDermid, R. M.; Kuntschner, H.; Maraston, C.; Conroy, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present Gemini/GNIRS cross-dispersed near-infrared spectra of 12 nearby early-type galaxies, with the aim of testing commonly used stellar population synthesis models. We select a subset of galaxies from the ATLAS3D sample which span a wide range of ages (single stellar population equivalent ages of 1-15 Gyr) at approximately solar metallicity. We derive star formation histories using four different stellar population synthesis models, namely those of Bruzual & Charlot, Conroy, Gunn & White, Maraston & Strömbäck and Vazdekis et al. We compare star formation histories derived from near-infrared spectra with those derived from optical spectra using the same models. We find that while all models agree in the optical, the derived star formation histories vary dramatically from model to model in the near-infrared. We find that this variation is largely driven by the choice of stellar spectral library, such that models including high-quality spectral libraries provide the best fits to the data, and are the most self-consistent when comparing optically derived properties with near-infrared ones. We also find the impact of age variation in the near-infrared to be subtle, and largely encoded in the shape of the continuum, meaning that the common approach of removing continuum information with a high-order polynomial greatly reduces our ability to constrain ages in the near-infrared.

  14. TRACING COLD H I GAS IN NEARBY, LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Ott, Jürgen; Walter, Fabian; Petersen, Eric A.; Koribalski, Bärbel; West, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (H I) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array—ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T ∼ –1 . Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total H I mass and nine magnitudes in M B . We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low-dispersion ( –1 ) component of the spectrum. Most H I spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km s –1 . Cold H I is found in 23 of 27 (∼85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality-control cuts. The cold H I contributes ∼20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm H I. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold H I emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions of –1 ), are found primarily beyond the optical radius of the host galaxy. The cold H I is typically found in localized regions and is generally not coincident with the very highest surface density peaks of the global H I distribution (which are usually areas of recent star formation). We find a lower limit for the mass fraction of cold-to-total H I gas of only a few percent in each galaxy.

  15. State-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, Marie-Lou; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Nearby galaxy groups and clusters are crucial to our understanding of the impact of nuclear outbursts on the intracluster medium as their proximity allows us to study in detail the processes of feedback from active galactic nuclei in these systems. In this talk, I will present state-of-the-art multi-wavelength observations signatures of this mechanism.I will first show results on multi-configuration 230-470 MHz observations of the Perseus cluster from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows. These observations reveal a multitude of new structures associated with the “mini-halo” and illustrate the high-quality images that can be obtained with the new JVLA at low radio-frequencies.Second, I will present new observations with the optical imaging Fourier transform spectrometer SITELLE (CFHT) of NGC 1275, the Perseus cluster's brightest galaxy. With its wide field of view, it is the only integral field unit spectroscopy instrument able to cover the large emission-line filamentary nebula in NGC 1275. I will present the first detailed velocity map of this nebula in its entirety and tackle the question of its origin (residual cooling flow or dragged gas).Finally, I will present deep Chandra observations of the nearby early-type massive elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, the most optically luminous galaxy in the local Universe, lying on the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. Enhanced X-ray rims around the radio lobes are detected and interpreted as gas uplifted from the core by the buoyant rise of the radio bubbles. We estimate the energy required to lift the gas to constitute a significant fraction of the total outburst energy.I will thus show how these high-fidelity observations of nearby brightest group/cluster galaxies are improving our understanding of the AGN feedback mechanism taking place in galaxy groups and clusters.

  16. Binary Star Orbits. V. The Nearby White Dwarf/Red Dwarf Pair 40 Eri BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Miles, Korie N.

    2017-11-01

    A new relative orbit solution with new dynamical masses is determined for the nearby white dwarf-red dwarf pair 40 Eri BC. The period is 230.09 ± 0.68 years. It is predicted to close slowly over the next half-century, getting as close as 1.″32 in early 2066. We determine masses of 0.575 ± 0.018 {{ M }}⊙ for the white dwarf and 0.2041 ± 0.0064 {{ M }}⊙ for the red dwarf companion. The inconsistency of the masses determined by gravitational redshift and dynamical techniques, due to a premature orbit calculation, no longer exists.

  17. Inductive coupling between overhead power lines and nearby metallic pipelines. A neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Czumbil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents an artificial intelligence based technique applied in the investigation of electromagnetic interference problems between high voltage power lines (HVPL and nearby underground metallic pipelines (MP. An artificial neural network (NN solution has been implemented by the authors to evaluate the inductive coupling between HVPL and MP for different constructive geometries of an electromagnetic interference problem considering a multi-layer soil structure. Obtained results are compared to solutions provided by a finite element method (FEM based analysis and considered as reference. The advantage of the proposed method yields in a simplified computation model compared to FEM, and implicitly a lower computational time.

  18. The structure of nearby clusters of galaxies Hierarchical clustering and an application to the Leo region

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1978-01-01

    A new method of classifying groups of galaxies, called hierarchical clustering, is presented as a tool for the investigation of nearby groups of galaxies. The method is free from model assumptions about the groups. The scaling of the different coordinates is necessary, and the level from which one accepts the groups as real has to be determined. Hierarchical clustering is applied to an unbiased sample of galaxies in the Leo region. Five distinct groups result which have reasonable physical properties, such as low crossing times and conservative mass-to-light ratios, and which follow a radial velocity- luminosity relation. Only 4 out of 39 galaxies were adopted as field galaxies. (27 refs).

  19. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  20. HII regions in IC 1613: The ISM in a nearby dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Mason, Stephen F.; Gullixson, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    IC 1613, a nearby (725 kpc distant) dwarf irregular galaxy, has always been known to contain large, ring-shaped HII regions in its northeast corner. A new H alpha image has been obtained using the Bell Labs Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, an RCA 320 X 512 pixel-thinned, back-illuminated CCD, an H alpha filter of central wavelength 6562 A and width (full width half maximum) of 30 A, and the 42 inch telescope at Lowell Observatory. The low resolution images exhibit many new, faint features.

  1. Hello Darkness My Old Friend: The Fading of the Nearby TDE ASASSN-14ae

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Holoien, T. W. -S; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present late-time optical spectroscopy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph, an improved ASAS-SN pre-discovery non-detection, and late-time SWIFT observations of the nearby ($d=193$ Mpc, $z=0.0436$) tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-14ae. Our observations span from $\\sim$20 days before to $\\sim$750 days after discovery. The proximity of ASASSN-14ae allows us to study the optical evolution of the flare and the transition to a host dominated state wit...

  2. Observational tests for the evolution of massive stars in nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitherer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Population synthesis calculations applicable to the massive stellar content in nearby galaxies are presented. Stellar evolution calculations are combined with mass loss, model atmospheres with line blanketing, and a spectral type calibration to compute observable parameters of massive stars as a function of the star formation rate and the initial mass function slope. The number of O stars of given spectral types, the number of W-R stars, supernova rates, and fluxes of ionizing photons are predicted. Important constraints for the theories of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution can be derived from observations if stellar number counts and ionizing flux data are available. 94 refs

  3. New nearby white dwarfs from Gaia DR1 TGAS and UCAC5/URAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, R.-D.; Meusinger, H.; Jahreiß, H.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Using an accurate Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) 25 pc sample that is nearly complete for GK stars and selecting common proper motion (CPM) candidates from the 5th United States Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC5), we search for new white dwarf (WD) companions around nearby stars with relatively small proper motions. Methods: To investigate known CPM systems in TGAS and to select CPM candidates in TGAS+UCAC5, we took into account the expected effect of orbital motion on the proper motion and proper motion catalogue errors. Colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) MJ /J - Ks and MG /G - J were used to verify CPM candidates from UCAC5. Assuming their common distance with a given TGAS star, we searched for candidates that occupied similar regions in the CMDs as the few known nearby WDs (four in TGAS) and WD companions (three in TGAS+UCAC5). The CPM candidates with colours and absolute magnitudes corresponding neither to the main sequence nor to the WD sequence were considered as doubtful or subdwarf candidates. Results: With a minimum proper motion of 60 mas yr-1, we selected three WD companion candidates; two of which are also confirmed by their significant parallaxes measured in URAT data, whereas the third may also be a chance alignment of a distant halo star with a nearby TGAS star that has an angular separation of about 465 arcsec. One additional nearby WD candidate was found from its URAT parallax and GJKs photometry. With HD 166435 B orbiting a well-known G1 star at ≈24.6 pc with a projected physical separation of ≈700 AU, we discovered one of the hottest WDs, classified by us as DA2.0 ± 0.2, in the solar neighbourhood. We also found TYC 3980-1081-1 B, a strong cool WD companion candidate around a recently identified new solar neighbour with a TGAS parallax corresponding to a distance of ≈8.3 pc and our photometric classification as ≈M2 dwarf. This raises the question of whether previous assumptions on the completeness of the WD

  4. Demonstration of a Fast, Precise Propane Measurement Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahniser, M. S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Nelson, D. D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Propane is one of the primary components of emissions from natural gas extraction and processing activities. In addition to being an air pollutant, its ratio to other hydrocarbons such as methane and ethane can serve as a "fingerprint" of a particular facility or process, aiding in identifying emission sources. Quantifying propane has typically required laboratory analysis of flask samples, resulting in low temporal resolution and making plume-based measurements infeasible. Here we demonstrate fast (1-second), high precision (infrared spectroscopy at 2967 wavenumbers. In addition, we explore the impact of nearby water and ethane absorption lines on the accuracy and precision of the propane measurement. Finally, we discuss development of a dual-laser instrument capable of simultaneous measurements of methane, ethane, and propane (the C1-C3 compounds), all within a small spatial package that can be easily deployed aboard a mobile platform.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Acres of crops that have no nearby pollinator habitat for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is a summary of crop acres without nearby pollinator habitat. Pollination habitat here is defined as trees (fruit, nut, deciduous, and evergreen). Crops...

  6. Thermography by Infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.; Allouch, Y.; Altahan, A.

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the principle’s explanation of metallic components and structures testing by thermography method using infrared waves. The study confirmed that, thermal waves testing technique as one of the most important method among the modern non-destructive testing methods. It is characterized by its economy, easy to apply and timely testing of components and metallic structures. This method is applicable to a wide variety of components such as testing pieces of planes, power plants, electric transmission lines and aerospace components, in order to verify their structures and fabrication quality and their comformance to the international standards.Testing the components by thermography using infrared radiation is easy and rapid if compared to other NDT methods. The study included an introduction to the thermography testing method, its equipements, components and the applied technique. Finally, two practical applications are given in order to show the importance of this method in industry concerned with determining the liquid level in a tank and testing the stability of the control box of electrical supply.(author)

  7. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  8. Infrared emission from supernova condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwek, E.; Werner, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    We examine the possibility of detecting grains formed in supernovae by observations of their emission in the infrared. The basic processes determining the temperature and infrared radiation of grains in supernovae environments are analyzed, and the results are used to estimate the infrared emission from the highly metal enriched ''fast moving knots'' in Cas A. The predicted fluxes lie within the reach of current ground-based facilities at 10 μm, and their emission should be detectable throughout the infrared band with cryogenic space telescopes

  9. Infrared photometry of galaxies in the Butcher-Oemler cluster 0024+1654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, S.J.; Gunn, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared photometry is presented for 21 galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed members of the Butcher-Oemler cluster C10024+1654 at z=0.39. These data are combined with optical CCD photometry and transformed to produce rest-frame UBVK colours. The distribution of colours in the (U-V)/(V-K) plane is analysed. The 11 'red' galaxies have colours that are broadly similar to those of nearby elliptical galaxies. All but one of the 10 'blue' galaxies have the colours of nearby spiral galaxies, including one Im-type galaxy, and other interpretations, e.g. a young age, may be discounted. The (V-K) colour of the remaining 'blue' galaxy, however, suggests the presence of a substantial intermediate age (approx. 1 Gyr) stellar population. (author)

  10. Heat loads to divertor nearby components from secondary radiation evolved during plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V., E-mail: vsizyuk@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.

  11. Mapping Nearby Terrain in 3D by Use of a Grid of Laser Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Curtis; Liebe, Carl; Chang, Johnny; Brown, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic system, to be mounted aboard an exploratory robotic vehicle, would be used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) map of nearby terrain and obstacles for purposes of navigating the vehicle across the terrain and avoiding the obstacles. The difference between this system and the other systems would lie in the details of implementation. In this system, the illumination would be provided by a laser. The beam from the laser would pass through a two-dimensional diffraction grating, which would divide the beam into multiple beams propagating in different, fixed, known directions. These beams would form a grid of bright spots on the nearby terrain and obstacles. The centroid of each bright spot in the image would be computed. For each such spot, the combination of (1) the centroid, (2) the known direction of the light beam that produced the spot, and (3) the known baseline would constitute sufficient information for calculating the 3D position of the spot.

  12. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  13. Absolute Distances to Nearby Type Ia Supernovae via Light Curve Fitting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkó, J.; Ordasi, A.; Szalai, T.; Sárneczky, K.; Bányai, E.; Bíró, I. B.; Borkovits, T.; Hegedüs, T.; Hodosán, G.; Kelemen, J.; Klagyivik, P.; Kriskovics, L.; Kun, E.; Marion, G. H.; Marschalkó, G.; Molnár, L.; Nagy, A. P.; Pál, A.; Silverman, J. M.; Szakáts, R.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Székely, P.; Szing, A.; Vida, K.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present a comparative study of absolute distances to a sample of very nearby, bright Type Ia supernovae (SNe) derived from high cadence, high signal-to-noise, multi-band photometric data. Our sample consists of four SNe: 2012cg, 2012ht, 2013dy and 2014J. We present new homogeneous, high-cadence photometric data in Johnson–Cousins BVRI and Sloan g‧r‧i‧z‧ bands taken from two sites (Piszkesteto and Baja, Hungary), and the light curves are analyzed with publicly available light curve fitters (MLCS2k2, SNooPy2 and SALT2.4). When comparing the best-fit parameters provided by the different codes, it is found that the distance moduli of moderately reddened SNe Ia agree within ≲0.2 mag, and the agreement is even better (≲0.1 mag) for the highest signal-to-noise BVRI data. For the highly reddened SN 2014J the dispersion of the inferred distance moduli is slightly higher. These SN-based distances are in good agreement with the Cepheid distances to their host galaxies. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art light curve fitters for Type Ia SNe can provide consistent absolute distance moduli having less than ∼0.1–0.2 mag uncertainty for nearby SNe. Still, there is room for future improvements to reach the desired ∼0.05 mag accuracy in the absolute distance modulus.

  14. Interaction dynamics of two diffusing particles: contact times and influence of nearby surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkle, B; Ruh, D; Rohrbach, A

    2016-03-14

    Interactions of diffusing particles are governed by hydrodynamics on different length and timescales. The local hydrodynamics can be influenced substantially by simple interfaces. Here, we investigate the interaction dynamics of two micron-sized spheres close to plane interfaces to mimic more complex biological systems or microfluidic environments. Using scanned line optical tweezers and fast 3D interferometric particle tracking, we are able to track the motion of each bead with precisions of a few nanometers and at a rate of 10 kilohertz. From the recorded trajectories, all spatial and temporal information is accessible. This way, we measure diffusion coefficients for two coupling particles at varying distances h to one or two glass interfaces. We analyze their coupling strength and length by cross-correlation analysis relative to h and find a significant decrease in the coupling length when a second particle diffuses nearby. By analysing the times the particles are in close contact, we find that the influence of nearby surfaces and interaction potentials reduce the diffusivity strongly, although we found that the diffusivity hardly affects the contact times and the binding probability between the particles. All experimental results are compared to a theoretical model, which is based on the number of possible diffusion paths following the Catalan numbers and a diffusion probability, which is biased by the spheres' surface potential. The theoretical and experimental results agree very well and therefore enable a better understanding of hydrodynamically coupled interaction processes.

  15. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  16. More Than Filaments and Cores: Statistical Study of Structure Formation and Dynamics in Nearby Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Huan; Goodman, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, multiple attempts at understanding the connection between filaments and star forming cores have been made using observations across the entire epectrum. However, the filaments and the cores are usually treated as predefined--and well-defined--entities, instead of structures that often come at different sizes, shapes, with substantially different dynamics, and inter-connected at different scales. In my dissertation, I present an array of studies using different statistical methods, including the dendrogram and the probability distribution function (PDF), of structures at different size scales within nearby molecular clouds. These structures are identified using observations of different density tracers, and where possible, in the multi-dimensional parameter space of key dynamic properties--the LSR velocity, the velocity dispersion, and the column density. The goal is to give an overview of structure formation in nearby star-forming clouds, as well as of the dynamics in these structures. I find that the overall statistical properties of a larger structure is often the summation/superposition of sub-structures within, and that there could be significant variations due to local physical processes. I also find that the star formation process within molecular clouds could in fact take place in a non-monolithic manner, connecting potentially merging and/or transient structures, at different scales.

  17. Hunting for Supermassive Black Holes in Nearby Galaxies With the Hobby-Eberly Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; Yıldırım, Akin; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2015-05-01

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns.

  18. HUNTING FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH THE HOBBY–EBERLY TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Remco C. E. van den; Yıldırım, Akin; Gebhardt, Karl; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Gültekin, Kayhan

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted an optical long-slit spectroscopic survey of 1022 galaxies using the 10 m Hobby–Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The main goal of the HET Massive Galaxy Survey (HETMGS) is to find nearby galaxies that are suitable for black hole mass measurements. In order to measure accurately the black hole mass, one should kinematically resolve the region where the black hole dominates the gravitational potential. For most galaxies, this region is much less than an arcsecond. Thus, black hole masses are best measured in nearby galaxies with telescopes that obtain high spatial resolution. The HETMGS focuses on those galaxies predicted to have the largest sphere-of-influence, based on published stellar velocity dispersions or the galaxy fundamental plane. To ensure coverage over galaxy types, the survey targets those galaxies across a face-on projection of the fundamental plane. We present the sample selection and resulting data products from the long-slit observations, including central stellar kinematics and emission line ratios. The full data set, including spectra and resolved kinematics, is available online. Additionally, we show that the current crop of black hole masses are highly biased toward dense galaxies and that especially large disks and low dispersion galaxies are under-represented. This survey provides the necessary groundwork for future systematic black hole mass measurement campaigns

  19. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  20. Testing the Presence of Multiple Photometric Components in Nearby Early-type Galaxies Using SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Semyeong; Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lackner, Claire N., E-mail: semyeong@astro.princeton.edu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate two-dimensional image decomposition of nearby, morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs). We are motivated by recent observational evidence of significant size growth of quiescent galaxies and theoretical development advocating a two-phase formation scenario for ETGs. We find that a significant fraction of nearby ETGs show changes in isophotal shape that require multi-component models. The characteristic sizes of the inner and outer component are ∼3 and ∼15 kpc. The inner component lies on the mass–size relation of ETGs at z ∼ 0.25–0.75, while the outer component tends to be more elliptical and hints at a stochastic buildup process. We find real physical differences between single- and double-component ETGs, with double-component galaxies being younger and more metal-rich. The fraction of double-component ETGs increases with increasing σ and decreases in denser environments. We hypothesize that double-component systems were able to accrete gas and small galaxies until later times, boosting their central densities, building up their outer parts, and lowering their typical central ages. In contrast, the oldest galaxies, perhaps due to residing in richer environments, have no remaining hints of their last accretion episode.

  1. INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ≅ 1.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Lai, K.; Younger, J. D.; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D.; Daddi, E.; Laird, E. S.; Omont, A.; Wu, Y.; Bundy, K.; Cattaneo, A.; Chapman, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; Dickinson, M.; Egami, E.; Im, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Papovich, C.; Rigopoulou, D.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a sample of galaxies chosen to have F 24μm > 0.5 mJy and satisfy a certain IRAC color criterion. Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra yield redshifts, spectral types, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) luminosities, to which we add broadband photometry from optical through IRAC wavelengths, MIPS from 24-160 μm, 1.1 mm, and radio at 1.4 GHz. Stellar population modeling and IRS spectra together demonstrate that the double criteria used to select this sample have efficiently isolated massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.9. This is the first starburst (SB)-dominated ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG) sample at high redshift with total infrared luminosity measured directly from FIR and millimeter photometry, and as such gives us the first accurate view of broadband spectral energy distributions for SB galaxies at extremely high luminosity and at all wavelengths. Similar broadband data are assembled for three other galaxy samples-local SB galaxies, local active galactic nucleus (AGN)/ULIRGs, and a second 24 μm-luminous z ∼ 2 sample dominated by AGN. L PAH /L IR for the new z ∼ 2 SB sample is the highest ever seen, some three times higher than in local SBs, whereas in AGNs this ratio is depressed below the SB trend, often severely. Several pieces of evidence imply that AGNs exist in this SB-dominated sample, except two of which even host very strong AGN, while they still have very strong PAH emission. The Advanced Camera for Surveys images show that most objects have very extended morphologies in the rest-frame ultraviolet band, thus extended distribution of PAH molecules. Such an extended distribution prevents further destruction PAH molecules by central AGNs. We conclude that objects in this sample are ULIRGs powered mainly by SB; and the total infrared luminosity density contributed by this type of objects is 0.9-2.6 x 10 7 L sun Mpc -3 .

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NEARBY L/T BINARY BROWN DWARF WISE J104915.57–531906.1 AT 2 pc FROM THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Vaisanen, P.; Potter, S. B.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Mužić, K.; Mehner, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Melo, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Girard, J.; Mawet, D.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Kurtev, R.; Borissova, J.; Huelamo, N.; Minniti, D.; Ishibashi, K.; Beletsky, Y.; Buckley, D. A. H.

    2013-01-01

    WISE J104915.57–531906.1 is a L/T brown dwarf binary located 2 pc from the Sun. The pair contains the closest known brown dwarfs and is the third closest known system, stellar or sub-stellar. We report comprehensive follow-up observations of this newly uncovered system. We have determined the spectral types of both components (L8 ± 1, for the primary, agreeing with the discovery paper; T1.5 ± 2 for the secondary, which was lacking spectroscopic type determination in the discovery paper) and, for the first time, their radial velocities (V rad ∼ 23.1, 19.5 km s –1 ) using optical spectra obtained at the Southern African Large Telescope and other facilities located at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The relative radial velocity of the two components is smaller than the range of orbital velocities for theoretically predicted masses, implying that they form a gravitationally bound system. We report resolved near-infrared JHK S photometry from the Infrared Survey Facility telescope at the SAAO which yields colors consistent with the spectroscopically derived spectral types. The available kinematic and photometric information excludes the possibility that the object belongs to any of the known nearby young moving groups or associations. Simultaneous optical polarimetry observations taken at the SAAO 1.9 m give a non-detection with an upper limit of 0.07%. For the given spectral types and absolute magnitudes, 1 Gyr theoretical models predict masses of 0.04-0.05 M ☉ for the primary, and 0.03-0.05 M ☉ for the secondary.

  3. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  4. Infrared Quenched Photoinduced Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, J. F.; Chew, D.; Guttierez-Solana, J.; Molina, G.; Savin, W.; Wilber, W.

    1996-03-01

    Persistant photoconductivity (PPC) and photoinduced superconductivity (PISC) in oxygen deficient YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x have received recent attention. It has been suggested that oxygen vacancy defects play an important role in the PISC/PPC mechanism.(J. F. Federici, D. Chew, B. Welker, W. Savin, J. Gutierrez-Solana, and T. Fink, Phys. Rev. B), December 1995 Supported by National Science Foundation In this model, defects trap photogenerated electrons so that electron-hole recombination can not occur thereby allowing photogenerated holes to contribute to the carrier density. Nominally, the photoinduced state is long-lived, persisting for days at low temperature. Experiment results will be presented demonstrating that the photoinduced superconductivity state can be quenched using infrared radiation. Implications for the validity of the PISC/PCC defect model will be discussed.

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  6. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  7. Infrared laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Carbone, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared laser system and method for isotope separation may comprise a molecular gas laser oscillator to produce a laser beam at a first wavelength, Raman spin flip means for shifting the laser to a second wavelength, a molecular gas laser amplifier to amplify said second wavelength laser beam to high power, and optical means for directing the second wavelength, high power laser beam against a desired isotope for selective excitation thereof in a mixture with other isotopes. The optical means may include a medium which shifts the second wavelength high power laser beam to a third wavelength, high power laser beam at a wavelength coincidental with a corresponding vibrational state of said isotope and which is different from vibrational states of other isotopes in the gas mixture

  8. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  9. Deepest Infrared View of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    years old. The nature of the galaxies Two conclusions drawn so far about the nature of these galaxies are therefore all the more important in the context of formation and evolution of galaxies. One is that a few of them are clearly rather large and show spiral structure similar to that seen in very nearby galaxies, cf. PR Photo 28d/02. It is not obvious that current theoretical models can easily account for such galaxies having evolved to this stage so early in the life of the Universe. Another conclusion is that, in contrast to the galaxies at similar redshifts (and hence, at this early epoch) found most commonly in surveys at optical wavelengths, most of the 'infrared-selected' galaxies show relatively little visible star-forming activity. They appear in fact to have already formed most of their stars and in quantities sufficient to account for at least half the total luminous mass of the Universe at that time. Given the time to reach this state they must clearly have formed even earlier in the life of the Universe and are thus probably amongst the "oldest" galaxies now known. Rather than being randomly distributed in space, these red galaxies are also found to prefer company, i.e., they tend to cluster close to each other. In general terms this can be taken as support for the latest theoretical models in which galaxies, which consist of "normal" matter, form in the highest-density regions of the much more pervasive "dark" matter. Although the latter accounts for most of the mass of the universe, its origin so far is completely unknown. These new observations may, therefore, also add new insight into one of the biggest mysteries currently confronting cosmologists. Marijn Franx agrees, but also cautions against drawing firm conclusions on this aspect too quickly: "We now need similar images of a considerably larger region of the sky. We will soon follow-up these first, tantalizing results with more observations of other sky fields." More information The information

  10. Infrared observation of the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    The rocket observation of the near-infrared extragalactic background radiation and its influence on the cosmology are described. The furute plans to observe the near-infrared and far-infrared backgrounds are also presented. (author)

  11. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS.

  12. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  13. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P A; Fox, D W; Kulkarni, S R; Peterson, B A; Schmidt, B P; Soderberg, A M; Yost, S A; Berger, E; Djorgovski, S G; Frail, D A; Harrison, F A; Sari, R; Blain, A W; Chapman, S C

    2003-06-19

    Past studies of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been hampered by their extreme distances, resulting in faint afterglows. A nearby GRB could potentially shed much light on the origin of these events, but GRBs with a redshift z burst of 29 March 2003 (GRB030329; ref. 2). The brightness of the afterglow and the prompt report of its position resulted in extensive follow-up observations at many wavelengths, along with the measurement of the redshift, z = 0.169 (ref. 4). The gamma-ray and afterglow properties of GRB030329 are similar to those of GRBs at cosmological redshifts. Observations have already identified the progenitor as a massive star that exploded as a supernova.

  14. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    We present an ad-hoc 'nearby' storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  15. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (U)LIRGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Sara, E-mail: sara@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (U)LIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback) being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback). In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (U)LIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  16. Relativistic deflection of background starlight measures the mass of a nearby white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kailash C; Anderson, Jay; Casertano, Stefano; Bond, Howard E; Bergeron, Pierre; Nelan, Edmund P; Pueyo, Laurent; Brown, Thomas M; Bellini, Andrea; Levay, Zoltan G; Sokol, Joshua; Dominik, Martin; Calamida, Annalisa; Kains, Noé; Livio, Mario

    2017-06-09

    Gravitational deflection of starlight around the Sun during the 1919 total solar eclipse provided measurements that confirmed Einstein's general theory of relativity. We have used the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the analogous process of astrometric microlensing caused by a nearby star, the white dwarf Stein 2051 B. As Stein 2051 B passed closely in front of a background star, the background star's position was deflected. Measurement of this deflection at multiple epochs allowed us to determine the mass of Stein 2051 B-the sixth-nearest white dwarf to the Sun-as 0.675 ± 0.051 solar masses. This mass determination provides confirmation of the physics of degenerate matter and lends support to white dwarf evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Hole Defects Affect the Dynamic Fracture Behavior of Nearby Running Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of defects on the dynamic fracture behavior of engineering materials cannot be neglected. Using the experimental system of digital laser dynamic caustics, the effects of defects on the dynamic fracture behavior of nearby running cracks are studied. When running cracks propagate near to defects, the crack path deflects toward the defect; the degree of deflection is greater for larger defect diameters. When the running crack propagates away from the defect, the degree of deflection gradually reduces and the original crack path is restored. The intersection between the caustic spot and the defect is the direct cause of the running crack deflection; the intersection area determines the degree of deflection. In addition, the defect locally inhibits the dynamic stress intensity factor of running cracks when they propagate toward the defect and locally promotes the dynamic stress intensity factor of running cracks when they propagate away from the defect.

  18. KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD: A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF NEARBY WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P. [Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (United States); Dufour, P., E-mail: noemi.giammichele@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: pierre.bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: patrick.dufour@astro.umontreal.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  19. A DEEP, WIDE-FIELD Hα SURVEY OF NEARBY CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Shoko; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Moss, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field Hα imaging survey of eight nearby (z = 0.02-0.03) Abell clusters. We have measured Hα fluxes and equivalent widths for 465 galaxies, of which 360 are new detections. The survey was designed to obtain complete emission-line-selected inventories of star-forming galaxies in the inner regions of these clusters, extending to star formation rates below 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 . This paper describes the observations, data processing, and source identification procedures, and presents an Hα and R-band catalog of detected cluster members and other candidates. Future papers in the series will use these data to study the completeness of spectroscopically based star formation surveys, and to quantify the effects of cluster environment on the present-day populations of star-forming galaxies. The data will also provide a valuable foundation for imaging surveys of redshifted Hα emission in more distant clusters.

  20. Local ISM 3D Distribution and Soft X-ray Background Inferences for Nearby Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Vergely, J.-L.; Snowden, S.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interstellar medium (ISM) maps can be used to locate not only interstellar (IS) clouds, but also IS bubbles between the clouds that are blown by stellar winds and supernovae, and are filled by hot gas. To demonstrate this, and to derive a clearer picture of the local ISM, we compare our recent 3D IS dust distribution maps to the ROSAT diffuse Xray background maps after removal of heliospheric emission. In the Galactic plane, there is a good correspondence between the locations and extents of the mapped nearby cavities and the soft (0.25 keV) background emission distribution, showing that most of these nearby cavities contribute to this soft X-ray emission. Assuming a constant dust to gas ratio and homogeneous 106 K hot gas filling the cavities, we modeled in a simple way the 0.25 keV surface brightness along the Galactic plane as seen from the Sun, taking into account the absorption by the mapped clouds. The data-model comparison favors the existence of hot gas in the solar neighborhood, the so-called Local Bubble (LB). The inferred mean pressure in the local cavities is found to be approx.9,400/cu cm K, in agreement with previous studies, providing a validation test for the method. On the other hand, the model overestimates the emission from the huge cavities located in the third quadrant. Using CaII absorption data, we show that the dust to CaII ratio is very small in those regions, implying the presence of a large quantity of lower temperature (non-X-ray emitting) ionized gas and as a consequence a reduction of the volume filled by hot gas, explaining at least part of the discrepancy. In the meridian plane, the two main brightness enhancements coincide well with the LB's most elongated parts and chimneys connecting the LB to the halo, but no particular nearby cavity is found towards the enhancement in the direction of the bright North Polar Spur (NPS) at high latitude. We searched in the 3D maps for the source regions of the higher energy

  1. Concentration of 210Po in local foodstuffs grown nearby High Background Areas (HBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishna, K.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is the decay product of natural radionuclide of 238 U series. The presence of a radionuclide migrates from soil > plant > food and ingested by the humans residing in the areas of syentite rocks nearby the High Background Radiation Area's (HBRA). The food samples were studied by Market Basket Study (MBS). The average concentration of 210 Po in foodstuffs like green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, roots and tubers; fruits, fish, other flesh foods, milk and cereals were 1671 ± 163.3, 28.2 ± 7.3, 320 ± 99, 53 ± 17.5, 251.5 ± 54.5, 37 ± 14.5, 16 ± 6 and 230 ± 75 mBq. Kg -1 fresh weight. (author)

  2. [Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints and the academic thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-li; Jin, Xiao-qing

    2014-11-01

    Sheng's acupuncture manipulation at bone-nearby acupoints is a set of needling manipulation of the chief physician of TCM, SHENG Xie-sun, summarized through his over 50 years clinical experiences and on the basis of Internal Classic. Regarding this manipulation, on the premise of acupoint selection based on syndrome differentiation, the acupoints close to bone are possibly selected and punctured, with the needle tip toward bone edge, and followed by the technique to achieve reducing purpose. Clinically, the significant immediate analgesia can be achieved in pain disorders such as headache and toothache. Professor Sheng thought, corresponding to the location of needle insertion and needling depth, the tissue layers of needle tip passing through should be considered specially. The site of needle insertion should be changeable so as to ensure the needle tip reaching the bone. This manipulation for analgesia provides a certain guide for acupuncture study, especially for the mechanism study on acupuncture analgesia.

  3. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data

  4. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrati, R., E-mail: rafik.sedrati@univ-annaba.org; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  5. HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE CORRELATED WITH HOST GALAXY MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Hicken, Malcolm; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u'g'r'i'z' imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia, 0.015 10.8 M sun in a cosmology fit yields 1 + w = 0.22 +0.152 -0.108 , while a combination where the 30 nearby SNe instead have host masses greater than 10 10.8 M sun yields 1 + w = -0.03 +0.217 -0.143 . Progenitor metallicity, stellar population age, and dust extinction correlate with galaxy mass and may be responsible for these systematic effects. Host galaxy measurements will yield improved distances to SNe Ia.

  6. Forming an ad-hoc nearby storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Christos; Cotronis, Yiannis; Markou, Christos

    2014-06-01

    We present an ad-hoc "nearby" storage, based on IKAROS and social networking services, such as Facebook. By design, IKAROS is capable to increase or decrease the number of nodes of the I/O system instance on the fly, without bringing everything down or losing data. IKAROS is capable to decide the file partition distribution schema, by taking on account requests from the user or an application, as well as a domain or a Virtual Organization policy. In this way, it is possible to form multiple instances of smaller capacity higher bandwidth storage utilities capable to respond in an ad-hoc manner. This approach, focusing on flexibility, can scale both up and down and so can provide more cost effective infrastructures for both large scale and smaller size systems. A set of experiments is performed comparing IKAROS with PVFS2 by using multiple clients requests under HPC IOR benchmark and MPICH2.

  7. First results from the BOXING (Birmingham-OCIW XMM and IMACS Nearby Groups) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, T. A.; Raychaudhury, S.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    We present the first results from the BOXING (Birmingham-OCIW XMM and IMACS Nearby Groups) project, a collaboration between the Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington (OCIW) and the University of Birmingham U.K. to study a sample of 25 galaxy groups (z ˜ 0.06) by means of optical photometry and spectroscopy (du Pont 2.5m; IMACS/Magellan) combined with x-ray observations (XMM). The combination of x-ray with optical data allows us to study the nature of the relationship between the properties of the groups and the galaxies that they contain. In this preliminary study, we present optical luminosity functions, which shows bimodal behavior in the poorer systems, interpreted as result of rapid merging. We also examine the dependence of galaxy morphology on local environment. Once spectroscopic observations are completed, we will be able to study velocity dispersions, star formation and nuclear activity in individual galaxies.

  8. THE NATURE OF STARBURSTS. I. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EIGHTEEN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Stark, David; Weisz, Daniel; Cannon, John M.; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Dolphin, Andrew; Hidalgo-RodrIguez, Sebastian; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    We use archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of resolved stellar populations to derive the star formation histories (SFHs) of 18 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies. In this first paper, we present the observations, color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), and the SFHs of the 18 starburst galaxies, based on a homogeneous approach to the data reduction, differential extinction, and treatment of photometric completeness. We adopt a star formation rate (SFR) threshold normalized to the average SFR of the individual system as a metric for classifying starbursts in SFHs derived from resolved stellar populations. This choice facilitates finding not only the currently bursting galaxies but also 'fossil' bursts increasing the sample size of starburst galaxies in the nearby (D 100 Myr temporal baseline is thus fundamental to any starburst definition or identification method. The longer lived bursts rule out rapid 'self-quenching' of starbursts on global scales. The bursting galaxies' gas consumption timescales are shorter than the Hubble time for all but one galaxy confirming the short-lived nature of starbursts based on fuel limitations. Additionally, we find that the strength of the Hα emission usually correlates with the CMD-based SFR during the last 4-10 Myr. However, in four cases, the Hα emission is significantly less than what is expected for models of starbursts; the discrepancy is due to the SFR changing on timescales of a few Myr. The inherently short timescale of the Hα emission limits identifying galaxies as starbursts based on the current characteristics which may or may not be representative of the recent SFH of a galaxy.

  9. The Leoncino Dwarf: The Lowest Metallicity Star-Forming Galaxy in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2017-08-01

    Extremely metal-poor (XMP) galaxies are dwarf irregular galaxies with very low metallicities, traced by their gas-phase oxygen abundance. Galaxy evolution scenarios suggest three pathways to form an XMP: (1) secular evolution at low galaxy masses, (2) slow evolution in voids, or (3) dilution of measured abundances from infall of pristine gas. These scenarios have proven challenging to test because, despite concerted efforts, XMP galaxies in the nearby universe have proven hard to find. A notable exception is the recently discovered dwarf galaxy Leoncino. Leoncino has the lowest gas-phase oxygen abundance ever measured in a galaxy in the local Universe. From optical spectroscopy, the oxygen abundance is 12+log(O/H)=7.02+/-0.03, more than 40% lower than the iconic low-metallicity galaxy I Zw 18 and less than 2% Z_sun. Despite a precision oxygen abundance measurement, the evolutionary context of Leoncino remains uncertain without a secure distance. We propose HST WFC3 high-resolution optical imaging of Leoncino to accurately measure the distance to the galaxy using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. The distance will determine whether Leoncino is located in a typical field environment or in a void, and whether the galaxy is consistent with the luminosity-metallicity relation at low galaxy masses. The detailed study of Leoncino will provide benchmark results for future XMP discoveries in the nearby Universe, and an exceptionally timely comparison for studies of chemically primitive, high-redshift galaxies that will be observable in the JWST era.

  10. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f R0 above 5 × 10 –7 are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  11. Extinction Maps and Dust-to-gas Ratios in Nearby Galaxies with LEGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, L.; Walterbos, R. A.; Kim, H.; Thilker, D.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Aloisi, A.; Cignoni, M.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Sacchi, E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Adamo, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Ashworth, G.; Bright, S. N.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Evans, A. S.; Herrero, A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Messa, M.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Schaerer, D.; Shabani, F.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a study of the dust-to-gas ratios in five nearby galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 6503, NGC 7793, UGC 5139 (Holmberg I), and UGC 4305 (Holmberg II). Using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury program Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) combined with archival HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys data, we correct thousands of individual stars for extinction across these five galaxies using an isochrone-matching (reddening-free Q) method. We generate extinction maps for each galaxy from the individual stellar extinctions using both adaptive and fixed resolution techniques and correlate these maps with neutral H I and CO gas maps from the literature, including the H I Nearby Galaxy Survey and the HERA CO-Line Extragalactic Survey. We calculate dust-to-gas ratios and investigate variations in the dust-to-gas ratio with galaxy metallicity. We find a power-law relationship between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity, consistent with other studies of dust-to-gas ratio compared to metallicity. We find a change in the relation when H2 is not included. This implies that underestimation of {N}{{{H}}2} in low-metallicity dwarfs from a too-low CO-to-H2 conversion factor X CO could have produced too low a slope in the derived relationship between dust-to-gas ratio and metallicity. We also compare our extinctions to those derived from fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) using the Bayesian Extinction and Stellar Tool for NGC 7793 and find systematically lower extinctions from SED fitting as compared to isochrone matching.

  12. Emission-line diagnostics of nearby H II regions including interacting binary populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2018-06-01

    We present numerical models of the nebular emission from H II regions around young stellar populations over a range of compositions and ages. The synthetic stellar populations include both single stars and interacting binary stars. We compare these models to the observed emission lines of 254 H II regions of 13 nearby spiral galaxies and 21 dwarf galaxies drawn from archival data. The models are created using the combination of the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code with the photoionization code CLOUDY to study the differences caused by the inclusion of interacting binary stars in the stellar population. We obtain agreement with the observed emission line ratios from the nearby star-forming regions and discuss the effect of binary-star evolution pathways on the nebular ionization of H II regions. We find that at population ages above 10 Myr, single-star models rapidly decrease in flux and ionization strength, while binary-star models still produce strong flux and high [O III]/H β ratios. Our models can reproduce the metallicity of H II regions from spiral galaxies, but we find higher metallicities than previously estimated for the H II regions from dwarf galaxies. Comparing the equivalent width of H β emission between models and observations, we find that accounting for ionizing photon leakage can affect age estimates for H II regions. When it is included, the typical age derived for H II regions is 5 Myr from single-star models, and up to 10 Myr with binary-star models. This is due to the existence of binary-star evolution pathways, which produce more hot Wolf-Rayet and helium stars at older ages. For future reference, we calculate new BPASS binary maximal starburst lines as a function of metallicity, and for the total model population, and present these in Appendix A.

  13. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sakstein, Jeremy [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 × 10{sup –7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  14. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  15. Ultrahigh energy neutrino afterglows of nearby long duration gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jessymol K.; Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur

    2017-11-01

    Detection of ultrahigh energy (UHE, ≳1 PeV ) neutrinos from astrophysical sources will be a major advancement in identifying and understanding the sources of UHE cosmic rays (CRs) in nature. Long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) blast waves have been considered as potential acceleration sites of UHECRs. These CRs are expected to interact with GRB afterglow photons, which are synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons coaccelerated with CRs in the blast wave, and naturally produce UHE neutrinos. Fluxes of these neutrinos are uncertain, however, and crucially depend on the observed afterglow modeling. We have selected a sample of 23 long duration GRBs within redshift 0.5 for which adequate electromagnetic afterglow data are available and which could produce high flux of UHE afterglow neutrinos, being nearby. We fit optical, x-ray, and γ -ray afterglow data with an adiabatic blast wave model in a constant density interstellar medium and in a wind environment where the density of the wind decreases as the inverse square of the radius from the center of the GRB. The blast wave model parameters extracted from these fits are then used for calculating UHECR acceleration and p γ interactions to produce UHE neutrino fluxes from these GRBs. We have also explored the detectability of these neutrinos by currently running and upcoming large area neutrino detectors, such as the Pierre Auger Observatory, IceCube Gen-2, and KM3NeT observatories. We find that our realistic flux models from nearby GRBs will be unconstrained in the foreseeable future.

  16. Constraints on the Equation-of-State of neutron stars from nearby neutron star observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhäuser, R; Hambaryan, V V; Hohle, M M; Eisenbeiss, T

    2012-01-01

    We try to constrain the Equation-of-State (EoS) of supra-nuclear-density matter in neutron stars (NSs) by observations of nearby NSs. There are seven thermally emitting NSs known from X-ray and optical observations, the so-called Magnificent Seven (M7), which are young (up to few Myrs), nearby (within a few hundred pc), and radio-quiet with blackbody-like X-ray spectra, so that we can observe their surfaces. As bright X-ray sources, we can determine their rotational (pulse) period and their period derivative from X-ray timing. From XMM and/or Chandra X-ray spectra, we can determine their temperature. With precise astrometric observations using the Hubble Space Telescope, we can determine their parallax (i.e. distance) and optical flux. From flux, distance, and temperature, one can derive the emitting area - with assumptions about the atmosphere and/or temperature distribution on the surface. This was recently done by us for the two brightest M7 NSs RXJ1856 and RXJ0720. Then, from identifying absorption lines in X-ray spectra, one can also try to determine gravitational redshift. Also, from rotational phase-resolved spectroscopy, we have for the first time determined the compactness (mass/radius) of the M7 NS RBS1223. If also applied to RXJ1856, radius (from luminosity and temperature) and compactness (from X-ray data) will yield the mass and radius - for the first time for an isolated single neutron star. We will present our observations and recent results.

  17. Development of smartphone application that aids stroke screening and identifying nearby acute stroke care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo Suk; Heo, JoonNyung; Kim, Jinkwon; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae Jin; Park, Eunjeong; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of thrombolytic treatment are time-dependent. We developed a smartphone application that aids stroke patient self-screening and hospital selection, and may also decrease hospital arrival time. The application was developed for iPhone and Android smartphones. Map data for the application were adopted from the open map. For hospital registration, a web page (http://stroke119.org) was developed using PHP and MySQL. The Stroke 119 application includes a stroke screening tool and real-time information on nearby hospitals that provide thrombolytic treatment. It also provides information on stroke symptoms, thrombolytic treatment, and prescribed actions when stroke is suspected. The stroke screening tool was adopted from the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale and is displayed in a cartoon format. If the user taps a cartoon image that represents abnormal findings, a pop-up window shows that the user may be having a stroke, informs the user what to do, and directs the user to call emergency services. Information on nearby hospitals is provided in map and list views, incorporating proximity to the user's location using a Global Positioning System (a built-in function of smartphones). Users can search for a hospital according to specialty and treatment levels. We also developed a web page for hospitals to register in the system. Neurology training hospitals and hospitals that provide acute stroke care in Korea were invited to register. Seventy-seven hospitals had completed registration. This application may be useful for reducing hospital arrival times for thrombolytic candidates.

  18. Astrophysical Implications of a New Dynamical Mass for the Nearby White Dwarf 40 Eridani B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Bergeron, P.; Bédard, A.

    2017-10-01

    The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD’s mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M ⊙. In this paper, we use model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then compare these results with WD interior models. Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass-radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star’s location in the mass-radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a “thin” outer hydrogen layer, with q H = M H/M WD ≃ 10-10. We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of the expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of “thick” H layers with q H ≃ 10-4. The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ˜122 Myr, and its total age is ˜1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observations is excellent in all cases.

  19. The solar neighborhood. XXXIV. A search for planets orbiting nearby M dwarfs using astrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurie, John C.; Henry, Todd J.; Ianna, Philip A.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Quinn, Samuel N.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Koerner, David W.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Astrometric measurements are presented for seven nearby stars with previously detected planets: six M dwarfs (GJ 317, GJ 667C, GJ 581, GJ 849, GJ 876, and GJ 1214) and one K dwarf (BD-10 -3166). Measurements are also presented for six additional nearby M dwarfs without known planets, but which are more favorable to astrometric detections of low mass companions, as well as three binary systems for which we provide astrometric orbit solutions. Observations have baselines of 3 to 13 years, and were made as part of the RECONS long-term astrometry and photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9 m telescope. We provide trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for all 16 systems, and perform an extensive analysis of the astrometric residuals to determine the minimum detectable companion mass for the 12 M dwarfs not having close stellar secondaries. For the six M dwarfs with known planets, we are not sensitive to planets, but can rule out the presence of all but the least massive brown dwarfs at periods of 2–12 years. For the six more astrometrically favorable M dwarfs, we conclude that none have brown dwarf companions, and are sensitive to companions with masses as low as 1 M Jup for periods longer than two years. In particular, we conclude that Proxima Centauri has no Jovian companions at orbital periods of 2–12 years. These results complement previously published M dwarf planet occurrence rates by providing astrometrically determined upper mass limits on potential super-Jupiter companions at orbits of two years and longer. As part of a continuing survey, these results are consistent with the paucity of super-Jupiter and brown dwarf companions we find among the over 250 red dwarfs within 25 pc observed longer than five years in our astrometric program.

  20. The solar neighborhood. XXXIV. A search for planets orbiting nearby M dwarfs using astrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, John C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Henry, Todd J.; Ianna, Philip A. [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA 17201 (United States); Jao, Wei-Chun; Quinn, Samuel N.; Winters, Jennifer G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Koerner, David W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10034 (United States); Subasavage, John P., E-mail: lurie@uw.edu [United States Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Astrometric measurements are presented for seven nearby stars with previously detected planets: six M dwarfs (GJ 317, GJ 667C, GJ 581, GJ 849, GJ 876, and GJ 1214) and one K dwarf (BD-10 -3166). Measurements are also presented for six additional nearby M dwarfs without known planets, but which are more favorable to astrometric detections of low mass companions, as well as three binary systems for which we provide astrometric orbit solutions. Observations have baselines of 3 to 13 years, and were made as part of the RECONS long-term astrometry and photometry program at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9 m telescope. We provide trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for all 16 systems, and perform an extensive analysis of the astrometric residuals to determine the minimum detectable companion mass for the 12 M dwarfs not having close stellar secondaries. For the six M dwarfs with known planets, we are not sensitive to planets, but can rule out the presence of all but the least massive brown dwarfs at periods of 2–12 years. For the six more astrometrically favorable M dwarfs, we conclude that none have brown dwarf companions, and are sensitive to companions with masses as low as 1 M{sub Jup} for periods longer than two years. In particular, we conclude that Proxima Centauri has no Jovian companions at orbital periods of 2–12 years. These results complement previously published M dwarf planet occurrence rates by providing astrometrically determined upper mass limits on potential super-Jupiter companions at orbits of two years and longer. As part of a continuing survey, these results are consistent with the paucity of super-Jupiter and brown dwarf companions we find among the over 250 red dwarfs within 25 pc observed longer than five years in our astrometric program.

  1. Astrophysical Implications of a New Dynamical Mass for the Nearby White Dwarf 40 Eridani B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bergeron, P.; Bédard, A., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2017-10-10

    The bright, nearby DA-type white dwarf (WD) 40 Eridani B is orbited by the M dwarf 40 Eri C, allowing determination of the WD’s mass. Until recently, however, the mass depended on orbital elements determined four decades ago, and that mass was so low that it created several astrophysical puzzles. Using new astrometric measurements, the binary-star group at the U.S. Naval Observatory has revised the dynamical mass upward, to 0.573 ± 0.018 M {sub ☉}. In this paper, we use model-atmosphere analysis to update other parameters of the WD, including effective temperature, surface gravity, radius, and luminosity. We then compare these results with WD interior models. Within the observational uncertainties, theoretical cooling tracks for CO-core WDs of its measured mass are consistent with the position of 40 Eri B in the H-R diagram; equivalently, the theoretical mass–radius relation (MRR) is consistent with the star’s location in the mass–radius plane. This consistency is, however, achieved only if we assume a “thin” outer hydrogen layer, with q {sub H} = M {sub H}/ M {sub WD} ≃ 10{sup −10}. We discuss other evidence that a significant fraction of DA WDs have such thin H layers, in spite of the expectation from canonical stellar-evolution theory of “thick” H layers with q {sub H} ≃ 10{sup −4}. The cooling age of 40 Eri B is ∼122 Myr, and its total age is ∼1.8 Gyr. We present the MRRs for 40 Eri B and three other nearby WDs in visual binaries with precise mass determinations, and show that the agreement of current theory with observations is excellent in all cases.

  2. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  3. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (∼70 K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described

  4. Infrared monitoring of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, S.C.; Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Solomon, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for combustion monitoring is described. A combination of emission, transmission, and reflection FT-IR spectroscopy yields data on the temperature and composition of the gases, surfaces and suspended particles in the combustion environment. Detection sensitivity of such trace exhaust gases as CO, CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , and unburned hydrocarbons is at the ppm level. Tomographic reconstruction converts line-of-sight measurements into spatially resolved temperature and concentration data. Examples from various combustion processes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the technique. Industrial measurements are described that have been performed directly in the combustion zone and in the exhaust duct of a large chemical recovery boiler. Other measurements of hot slag show how FT-IR spectroscopy can determine the temperature and optical properties of surfaces. In addition, experiments with water droplets show that transmission FT-IR data yield spectra that characterize particle size and number density

  5. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  6. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  7. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  8. A 3D Search for Companions to 12 Nearby M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    mid M-dwarf binaries9 within the distance and declination range of this sample are listed in Table 2. Also listed are 2MASS coordinates, parallaxes...spectral types, absolute V magnitudes, V, R, I apparent magnitudes, near-infrared photometry from 2MASS (J, H, Ks apparent magnitudes), and the...from the 2MASS All Sky Catalog of point sources from Skrutskie et al. (2006). d vsini references: (1) Mohanty & Basri (2003), (2) Browning et al

  9. Retinex enhancement of infrared images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; He, Renjie; Xu, Guizhi; Hou, Changzhi; Sun, Yunyan; Guo, Lei; Rao, Liyun; Yan, Weili

    2008-01-01

    With the ability of imaging the temperature distribution of body, infrared imaging is promising in diagnostication and prognostication of diseases. However the poor quality of the raw original infrared images prevented applications and one of the essential problems is the low contrast appearance of the imagined object. In this paper, the image enhancement technique based on the Retinex theory is studied, which is a process that automatically retrieve the visual realism to images. The algorithms, including Frackle-McCann algorithm, McCann99 algorithm, single-scale Retinex algorithm, multi-scale Retinex algorithm and multi-scale Retinex algorithm with color restoration, are experienced to the enhancement of infrared images. The entropy measurements along with the visual inspection were compared and results shown the algorithms based on Retinex theory have the ability in enhancing the infrared image. Out of the algorithms compared, MSRCR demonstrated the best performance.

  10. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  11. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  12. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  13. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Seth, Anil C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M F814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 M sun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  14. SPITZER SAGE INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 μm in the UBVIJHK s +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among ∼900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L sun ≥ 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.

  15. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C.; Rosário Filho, Nelson A.; Grassi, Marco T.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO 2 ; SO 2 ; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at

  16. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosário Filho, Nelson A. [Department of Pediatric, Div. of Allergy and Pneumol, Federal University of Paran Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Grassi, Marco T. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Department of Chemistry Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO{sub 2}; SO{sub 2}; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of

  17. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  18. Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Roger W.; McClelland, John F.

    1989-12-01

    Transient Infrared Emission Spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new technique that reduces the occurrence of self-absorption in optically thick solid samples so that analytically useful emission spectra may be observed. Conventional emission spectroscopy, in which the sample is held at an elevated, uniform temperature, is practical only for optically thin samples. In thick samples the emission from deep layers of the material is partially absorbed by overlying layers.1 This self-absorption results in emission spectra from most optically thick samples that closely resemble black-body spectra. The characteristic discrete emission bands are severely truncated and altered in shape. TIRES bypasses this difficulty by using a laser to heat only an optically thin surface layer. The increased temperature of the layer is transient since the layer will rapidly cool and thicken by thermal diffusion; hence the emission collection must be correlated with the laser heating. TIRES may be done with both pulsed and cw lasers.2,3 When a pulsed laser is used, the spectrometer sampling must be synchronized with the laser pulsing so that only emission during and immediately after each laser pulse is observed.3 If a cw laser is used, the sample must move rapidly through the beam. The hot, transient layer is then in the beam track on the sample at and immediately behind the beam position, so the spectrometer field of view must be limited to this region near the beam position.2 How much self-absorption the observed emission suffers depends on how thick the heated layer has grown by thermal diffusion when the spectrometer samples the emission. Use of a pulsed laser synchronized with the spectrometer sampling readily permits reduction of the time available for heat diffusion to about 100 acs .3 When a cw laser is used, the heat-diffusion time is controlled by how small the spectrometer field of view is and by how rapidly the sample moves past within this field. Both a very small field of view and a

  19. A Micromachined Infrared Senor for an Infrared Focal Plane Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong M. Cho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A micromachined infrared sensor for an infrared focal plane array has been designed and fabricated. Amorphous silicon was used as a sensing material, and silicon nitride was used as a membrane material. To get a good absorption in infrared range, the sensor structure was designed as a l/4 cavity structure. A Ni-Cr film was selected as an electrode material and mixed etching scheme was applied in the patterning process of the Ni-Cr electrode. All the processes were made in 0.5 μm iMEMS fabricated in the Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI. The processed MEMS sensor had a small membrane deflection less than 0.15 μm. This small deflection can be attributed to the rigorous balancing of the stresses of individual layers. The efficiency of infrared absorption was more than 75% in the wavelength range of 8 ~ 14 μm. The processed infrared sensor showed high responsivity of ~230 kV/W at 1.0V bias and 2 Hz operation condition. The time constant of the sensor was 8.6 msec, which means that the sensor is suitable to be operated in 30 Hz frame rate.

  20. Infrared radiation from dark globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.; Leung, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models are constructed by which to study the infrared emission from dark globules heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). The effects of cloud parameters (grain type, optical depth, and density inhomogeneity) on the emergent spectrum and infrared surface brightnesses are studied. Compared with clouds which have internal heat sources, the emergent flux for globules is found to be at least a factor of 10 smaller and to peak at wavelengths 100 μm< or =lambda< or =130 μm for graphite clouds and 310 μm< or =lambda< or =550 μm for silicate clouds. Either limb brightening or limb darkening in the infrared can occur, which depends sensitively on the optical depth. For globules of moderate extinction (greater than approx.10 in the visible), significant infrared limb brightening occurs at wavelengths of grain emission (20 μm< or =lambda< or =600 μm). A physical interpretation of these results is presented. To help remove ambiguities from interpretations of future observations, the observable effects of a grain mixture, variation of the ISRF, as well as beam dilution are examined in detail. The presence of a second grain component alters the emergent spectrum significantly. For a variation of the ISRF within wide limits, the ratio of surface to central temperature (T/sub s//T/sub c/) of an optically thick cloud remains fairly constant (3< or approx. =T/sub s//T/sub c/< or approx. =4). Infrared limb brightening may be smoothed out by beam dilution as well as by density inhomogeneities. Finally, the expected flux densities in the infrared of a typical globule are presented for different beam sizes. The predicted fluxes are within the detection threshold of currently available infrared detectors, using either ground-based or balloon-borne telescopes

  1. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  2. Tiny intraplate earthquakes triggered by nearby episodic tremor and slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J.E.; Hotovec, A.J.; Ghosh, A.; Creager, K.C.; Gomberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been observed in many subduction zones, but its mechanical underpinnings as well as its potential for triggering damaging earthquakes have proven difficult to assess. Here we use a seismic array in Cascadia of unprecedented density to monitor seismicity around a moderate 16 day ETS episode. In the 4 months of data we examine, we observe five tiny earthquakes within the subducting slab during the episode and only one more in the same area, which was just before and nearby the next ETS burst. These earthquakes concentrate along the sides and updip edge of the ETS region, consistent with greater stress concentration there than near the middle and downdip edge of the tremor area. Most of the seismicity is below the megathrust, with a similar depth extent to the background intraslab seismicity. The pattern of earthquakes that we find suggests slow slip has a more continuous temporal and spatial pattern than the tremor loci, which notoriously appear in bursts, jumps, and streaks. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Testing modified gravity at large distances with the HI Nearby Galaxy Survey's rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastache, Jorge; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; de la Macorra, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Recently a new—quantum motivated—theory of gravity has been proposed that modifies the standard Newtonian potential at large distances when spherical symmetry is considered. Accordingly, Newtonian gravity is altered by adding an extra Rindler acceleration term that has to be phenomenologically determined. Here we consider a standard and a power-law generalization of the Rindler modified Newtonian potential. The new terms in the gravitational potential are hypothesized to play the role of dark matter in galaxies. Our galactic model includes the mass of the integrated gas, and stars for which we consider three stellar mass functions (Kroupa, diet-Salpeter, and free mass model). We test this idea by fitting rotation curves of seventeen low surface brightness galaxies from the HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). We find that the Rindler parameters do not perform a suitable fit to the rotation curves in comparison to standard dark matter profiles (Navarro-Frenk-White and Burkert) and, in addition, the computed parameters of the Rindler gravity show a high spread, posing the model as a nonacceptable alternative to dark matter.

  4. Simultaneous, multi-wavelength flare observations of nearby low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Beverly; Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Villadsen, Jacqueline; Wofford, Alia; Schlieder, Joshua; Boyd, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Low-mass stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy and have been targeted in the tens-of-thousands by K2, the re-purposed Kepler mission, as they are prime targets to search for and characterize small, Earth-like planets. Understanding how these fully convective stars drive magnetic activity that manifests as stochastic, short-term brightenings, or flares, provides insight into the prospects of planetary habitability. High energy radiation and energetic particle emission associated with these stars can erode atmospheres, and impact habitability. An innovative campaign to study low mass stars through simultaneous multi-wavelength observations is currently underway with observations ongoing in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio. I will present early results of our pilot study of the nearby M-Dwarf star Wolf 359 (CN Leo) using K2, SWIFT, and ground based radio observatories, forming a comprehensive picture of flare activity from an M-Dwarf, and discuss the potential impact of these results on exoplanets. "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1322106. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."

  5. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, Anelise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); College de France, Paris (France); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Salomé, Philippe, E-mail: anelise.audibert@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2017-12-12

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  6. Measurement of 65Zn in 5-yen coin present in the houses nearby JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Masuchika; Koizumi, Yoshinobu

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, a critical accident occurred in Calder-Hall type power reactor of JCO for the first in Japan. This study aimed to estimate γ exposure dose utilizing a five-yen coin present in the houses nearby JCO at the time of accident. The coin, which is composed of Cu-Zn alloy is present every houses and its quality is well controlled by Ministry of Finance. In addition, Zn isotope ( 65 Zn) produced by neutron exposure has a long half-life (244.1 days) and emits γ ray with high energy of 1115.5 keV, which allows measurement at a low level radiation. So, five-yen coin was used as the subject. The exposure dose of inhabitant was estimated based on the activity on 5-yen coins collected from the houses at 13 points at different distances from JCO, which was determined by a low-level measurement system equipped with a pure-Ge semiconductor. The relationship between dose equivalent (mSv) and the distance from JCO was presented. At the time of JCO accident, the evacuation order was given to the inhabitants living within 300 m from the company. However, the present study indicated that the exposure dose was as high as 220 mSv at the site 100 m apart from JCO. Therefore, it is concluded that the inhabitants living in the area more than 350 m from JCO should also have taken refuge. (M.N.)

  7. Urban Imperviousness Effects on Summer Surface Temperatures Nearby Residential Buildings in Different Urban Zones of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and unplanned urban growth is responsible for the continuous conversion of green or generally natural spaces into artificial surfaces. The high degree of imperviousness modifies the urban microclimate and no studies have quantified its influence on the surface temperature (ST nearby residential building. This topic represents the aim of this study carried out during summer in different urban zones (densely urbanized or park/rural areas of Parma (Northern Italy. Daytime and nighttime ASTER images, the local urban cartography and the Italian imperviousness databases were used. A reproducible/replicable framework was implemented named “Building Thermal Functional Area” (BTFA useful to lead building-proxy thermal analyses by using remote sensing data. For each residential building (n = 8898, the BTFA was assessed and the correspondent ASTER-LST value (ST_BTFA and the imperviousness density were calculated. Both daytime and nighttime ST_BTFA significantly (p < 0.001 increased when high levels of imperviousness density surrounded the residential buildings. These relationships were mostly consistent during daytime and in densely urbanized areas. ST_BTFA differences between urban and park/rural areas were higher during nighttime (above 1 °C than daytime (about 0.5 °C. These results could help to identify “urban thermal Hot-Spots” that would benefit most from mitigation actions.

  8. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenkkoenen, H.

    2012-04-01

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  9. Hello darkness my old friend: the fading of the nearby TDE ASASSN-14ae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present late-time optical spectroscopy taken with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph, an improved All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae pre-discovery non-detection, and late-time Swift observations of the nearby (d = 193 Mpc, z = 0.0436) tidal disruption event (TDE) ASASSN-14ae. Our observations span from ˜20 d before to ˜750 d after discovery. The proximity of ASASSN-14ae allows us to study the optical evolution of the flare and the transition to a host-dominated state with exceptionally high precision. We measure very weak Hα emission 300 d after discovery (LH α ≃ 4 × 1039 erg s-1) and the most stringent upper limit to date on the Hα luminosity ˜750 d after discovery (LH α ≲ 1039 erg s-1), suggesting that the optical emission arising from a TDE can vanish on a time-scale as short as 1 yr. Our results have important implications for both spectroscopic detection of TDE candidates at late times, as well as the nature of TDE host galaxies themselves.

  10. Twitter location (sometimes matters: Exploring the relationship between georeferenced tweet content and nearby feature classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hahmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether microblogging texts (tweets produced on mobile devices are related to the geographical locations where they were posted. For this purpose, we correlate tweet topics to areas. In doing so, classified points of interest from OpenStreetMap serve as validation points. We adopted the classification and geolocation of these points to correlate with tweet content by means of manual, supervised, and unsupervised machine learning approaches. Evaluation showed the manual classification approach to be highest quality, followed by the supervised method, and that the unsupervised classification was of low quality. We found that the degree to which tweet content is related to nearby points of interest depends upon topic (that is, upon the OpenStreetMap category. A more general synthesis with prior research leads to the conclusion that the strength of the relationship of tweets and their geographic origin also depends upon geographic scale (where smaller scale correlations are more significant than those of larger scale.

  11. Exploring the physics of the accretion and jet in nearby narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Su; Qiao, Erlin; Wu, Xue-Bing; You, B.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we explore the physics of the accretion and jet in narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy. Specifically, we compile a sample composed of 16 nearby NLS1 with Lbol/LEdd ≳ 0.1. We investigate the mutual correlation between their radio luminosity LR, X-ray luminosity LX, optical luminosity L5100, and black hole mass MBH. By adopting partial correlation analysis, we find (1) a positive correlation between LX and MBH and (2) a weak positive correlation between LR and L5100. However, we don't find significant correlations between LR and LX or between LX and L5100 after considering the effect of the black hole mass, which leads to a finding that LX/LEdd is independent of L5100/LEdd. Interestingly, the findings that LX is correlated with MBH and LX/LEdd is not correlated with L5100/LEdd support that the X-ray emission is saturated with increasing \\dot{M} for Lbol/LEdd ≳ 0.1 in NLS1, which may be understood in the framework of slim disc scenario. Finally, we suggest that a larger NLS1 sample with high-quality radio and X-ray data is needed to further confirm this result in the future.

  12. Biomonitoring for creosote and pentachlorophenol in nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, J. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, TX (United States); Phillips, D.H.; Hewer, A. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Takhar, H. [Comprehensive Health Screening Services, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Warshaw, R. [Workers' Disease Detection Services, Inc. (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminated wood treatment sites can result in adverse health effects to nearby residents. Environmental exposure can be estimated by measuring concentrations of pollutants in air, water, food, or wipe tests. This environmental exposure value can be used as a surrogate to estimate individual exposure. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not pentachlorophenol (PCP) could be found in potentially exposed residents and if the dioxin levels are consistent with PCP exposure. A further objective of the study was to determine whether or not PAH-DNA adducts could be found in the potentially exposed residents. We present results of biomonitoring studies in residents living near a wood treatment plant that used coal-derived creosote and PCP to process and treat wood for over 100 years. The plant was built in 1904 and used creosote and PCP. Creosote is a complex mixture that contains numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCP is contaminated with polychlorinated dioxin and furans. The residents' exposure pathways include air, soil and surface water.

  13. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: annanusca@gmail.com, E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  14. Observations of EMIC Waves in the Exterior Cusp Region and in the Nearby Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C. P.; Santolik, O.; Lavraud, B.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the early years (2000-2004) of the mission, Cluster crossed the most distant part of the polar cusps. On 05/01/2002, Cluster enters the distant cusp region on the duskside of the southern hemisphere (inbound). The spacecraft are successively crossing the magnetopause between 19:50 UT (SC4) and 20:15 UT (SC3). The interplanetary conditions during the crossing were stable with a dominant negative By. The magnetometer (FGM) data indicates that the entry into the cusp takes place in a region where the magnetic field lines in the magnetosheath are anti-parallel with the field lines in the magnetosphere. Despite this clear picture, the global encounter is rather complex: one can notice partial magnetopause crossings, magnetic null points, and intense monochromatic waves on both sides of the magnetopause.We investigate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed in the cusp and in the nearby magnetosheath, just before the magnetopause crossing by the spacecraft. Left-handed monochromatic waves observed in the cusp display different duration and frequency (below and above the local proton gyrofrequency) on each spacecraft. Both the Poynting flux of these emissions and the simultaneously recorded ion flows propagate in the same direction - toward the Earth. The wavenumber are determined in two ways: considering the Doppler shift and from direct measurements of the refractive index. We analyze these wave parameters and the local plasma conditions to explain the wave generation process on each side of the magnetopause.

  15. Swift UVOT Grism Observations of Nearby Type Ia Supernovae - I. Observations and Data Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kuin, N. P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are useful tools for understanding progenitor systems and explosion physics. In particular, UV spectra of SNe Ia, which probe the outermost layers, are strongly affected by the progenitor metallicity. In this work, we present 120 Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory UV spectra of 39 nearby SNe Ia. This sample is the largest UV (λ Ia to date, doubling the number of UV spectra and tripling the number of SNe with UV spectra. The sample spans nearly the full range of SN Ia light-curve shapes (Δm15(B) ≈ 0.6-1.8 mag). The fast turnaround of Swift allows us to obtain UV spectra at very early times, with 13 out of 39 SNe having their first spectra observed ≳ 1 week before peak brightness and the earliest epoch being 16.5 days before peak brightness. The slitless design of the Swift UV grism complicates the data reduction, which requires separating SN light from underlying host-galaxy light and occasional overlapping stellar light. We present a new data-reduction procedure to mitigate these issues, producing spectra that are significantly improved over those of standard methods. For a subset of the spectra we have nearly simultaneous Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra; the Swift spectra are consistent with these comparison data.

  16. Ionization of Local Interstellar Gas Based on STIS and FUSE spectra of Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Seth; Linsky, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet contains many resonance line transitions that are sensitive to a range of ionization stages of ions present in the local interstellar medium (LISM). We couple observations of high resolution ultraviolet spectrographs, STIS and GHRS on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) in order to make a comprehensive survey of the ionization structure of the local interstellar medium. In particular, we focus on the sight line toward G191-B2B, a nearby (69 pc) white dwarf. We present interstellar detections of highly ionized elements (e.g., SiIII, CIII, CIV, etc) and compare them directly to neutral or singly ionized LISM detections (e.g., SiII, CII, etc). The extensive observations of G191-B2B provides an opportunity for a broad study of ionization stages of several elements, while a survey of several sight lines provides a comprehensive look at the ionization structure of the LISM. We acknowledge support for this project through NASA FUSE Grant NNX06AD33G.

  17. Models of bedrock surface and overburden thickness over Olkiluoto island and nearby sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenkkoenen, H. [WSP Finland Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    In this report, a model of bedrock surface and a model of overburden thickness over the Olkiluoto Island and the nearby sea area are presented. Also in purpose to produce material for biosphere and radionuclide transport modelling, stratigraphy models of different sediment layers were created at two priority areas north and south of the Olkiluoto Island. The work concentrated on the collection and description of available data of bedrock surface and overburden thickness. Because the information on the bedrock surface and overburden is collected from different sources and is based on a number of types of data the quality and applicability of data sets varies. Consequently also the reliability in different parts of the models varies. Input data for the bedrock surface and overburden thickness models include 2928 single points and additional outcrops observations (611 polygons) in the modelled area. In addition, the input data include 173 seismic refraction lines (6534 points) and acousticseismic sounding lines (26655 points from which 13721 points are located in model area) in the Olkiluoto offshore area. The average elevation of bedrock surface in area is 2.1 metres above the sea level. The average thickness of overburden is 2.5 metres varying typically between 2 - 4 metres. Thickest overburden covers (approximately 16 metres) of terrestrial area are located at the western end of the Olkiluoto Island and in sea basin south of the island. (orig.)

  18. Tracing the Baryon Cycle within Nearby Galaxies with a next-generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam; Murphy, Eric J.; ngVLA Baryon Cycle Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies over cosmic time is shaped by the cycling of baryons through these systems, namely the inflow of atomic gas, the formation of molecular structures, the birth of stars, and the expulsion of gas due to associated feedback processes. The best way to study this cycle in detail are observations of nearby galaxies. These systems provide a complete picture of baryon cycling over a wide range of astrophysical conditions. In the next decade, higher resolution/sensitivity observations of such galaxies will fundamentally improve our knowledge of galaxy formation and evolution, allowing us to better interpret higher redshift observations of sources that were rapidly evolving at epochs soon after the Big Bang. In particular, the centimeter-to-millimeter part of the spectrum provides critical diagnostics for each of the key baryon cycling processes and access to almost all phases of gas in galaxies: cool and cold gas (via emission and absorption lines), ionized gas (via free-free continuum and recombination lines), cosmic rays and hot gas (via synchrotron emission and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect). This poster highlights a number of key science problems in this area whose solutions require a next-generation radio-mm interferometer such as the next-generation VLA.

  19. Can nearby eutrophic reservoirs sustain a differentiated biodiversity of planktonic microcrustaceans in a tropical semiarid basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Leidiane P; Melo-Júnior, Mauro DE

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to compare alpha and beta diversities of planktonic microcrustaceans from three reservoirs located nearby in a tropical semiarid basin. Our hypothesis was that alpha and beta diversities of the community are different, although the ecosystems are located close to each other. We carried out two sampling campaigns: dry and rainy seasons. The sampling of microcrustaceans and environmental variables (dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a and nutrient) was performed at twelve stations and were distributed throughout the three zones (river, transition, and lacustrine), using a plankton net (45 µm). The reservoirs showed different uses and types of nitrogen predominance: Cachoeira (supply/nitrate), Borborema (sewage/ammonia) and Saco (aquaculture/ammonia). Seventeen species were recorded whose richness was assessed as particularly specific to each one of the studied reservoirs. Seasonally, both reservoirs with high anthropogenic alteration showed greater richness in the dry season. The three reservoirs located in a same basin showed different richness and composition, but the diversity did not differ between the zones of the reservoirs. Although communities are close to each other, their composition and richness were found to be distinct for each reservoir. This may be in response to the peculiar particularities, such as nitrogen sources and the different uses.

  20. How complementary are epibenthic assemblages in artificial and nearby natural rocky reefs?

    KAUST Repository

    Carvalho, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The present study analyses the composition, structure and trophic function of epibenthic assemblages in two artificial reefs (ARs) 16 years after deployment and in nearby natural reefs (NRs), aiming at providing insights on the complementarity between both habitats. Current findings suggest that after 16 years the ARs (concrete blocks), located in southern Portugal, do not act as surrogates for NRs, as epibenthic assemblages differed between reef types in composition, structure and trophic function. NRs showed higher diversity and complementarity (i.e. beta-diversity) than ARs, evidencing higher redundancy. Higher heterogeneity within NRs was also evidenced by the multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on abundance, biomass and trophic composition. NRs presented higher abundance of molluscs and biomass of sponges, resulting in differences in the trophic function: suspension-feeding dominated the NRs, while within ARs there was an ascendency of carnivory. Although not acting as surrogates for NRs and provided that no adverse effects (e.g. establishment of non-native species) were detected, ARs may have a significant contribution for the increase of regional diversity, as evidenced by the highest complementarity levels observed between assemblages in both reefs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. DIRECTED SEARCHES FOR BROADBAND EXTENDED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EMISSION IN NEARBY ENERGETIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M., E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr [Room 614, Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are factories of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. SNe Ib/c stand out as potentially originating in relatively compact stellar binaries and they have a branching ratio of about 1% into long gamma-ray bursts. The most energetic events probably derive from central engines harboring rapidly rotating black holes, wherein the accretion of fall-back matter down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) offers a window into broadband extended gravitational wave emission (BEGE). To search for BEGE, we introduce a butterfly filter in time–frequency space by time-sliced matched filtering. To analyze long epochs of data, we propose using coarse-grained searches followed by high-resolution searches on events of interest. We illustrate our proposed coarse-grained search on two weeks of LIGO S6 data prior to SN 2010br (z = 0.002339) using a bank of up to 64,000 templates of one-second duration covering a broad range in chirp frequencies and bandwidth. Correlating events with signal-to-noise ratios > 6 from the LIGO L1 and H1 detectors reduces the total to a few events of interest. Lacking any further properties reflecting a common excitation by broadband gravitational radiation, we disregarded these as spurious. This new pipeline may be used to systematically search for long-duration chirps in nearby CC-SNe from robotic optical transient surveys using embarrassingly parallel computing.

  2. Hybrid 3D model for the interaction of plasma thruster plumes with nearby objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Filippo; Domínguez-Vázquez, Adrián; Merino, Mario; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) fluid approach to model the interaction of a plasma plume with a spacecraft and/or any nearby object. Ions and neutrals are modeled with a PIC approach, while electrons are treated as a fluid. After a first iteration of the code, the domain is split into quasineutral and non-neutral regions, based on non-neutrality criteria, such as the relative charge density and the Debye length-to-cell size ratio. At the material boundaries of the former quasineutral region, a dedicated algorithm ensures that the Bohm condition is met. In the latter non-neutral regions, the electron density and electric potential are obtained by solving the coupled electron momentum balance and Poisson equations. Boundary conditions for both the electric current and potential are finally obtained with a plasma sheath sub-code and an equivalent circuit model. The hybrid code is validated by applying it to a typical plasma plume-spacecraft interaction scenario, and the physics and capabilities of the model are finally discussed.

  3. The Study of Nebular Emission on Nearby Spiral Galaxies in the IFU Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fabián Rosales-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of wide-field emission-line surveys based on integral field units (IFU is allowing us to obtain spatially resolved information of the gas-phase emission in nearby late-type galaxies, based on large samples of HII regions and full two-dimensional coverage. These observations are allowing us to discover and characterise abundance differentials between galactic substructures and new scaling relations with global physical properties. Here I review some highlights of our current studies employing this technique: (1 the case study of NGC 628, the largest galaxy ever sampled with an IFU; (2 a statistical approach to the abundance gradients of spiral galaxies, which indicates a universal radial gradient for oxygen abundance; and (3 the discovery of a new scaling relation of HII regions in spiral galaxies, the local mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies. The observational properties and constrains found in local galaxies using this new technique will allow us to interpret the gas-phase abundance of analogue high-z systems.

  4. New prospects for detecting high-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohta

    2018-04-01

    Neutrinos from supernovae (SNe