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Sample records for nearby rural residents

  1. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Thornton, John; Anderson-Mahoney, P.M.; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  2. Properly Interpreting the Epidemiologic Evidence about the Health Effects of Industrial Wind Turbines on Nearby Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that wind turbines cause serious health problems in nearby residents, usually stress-disorder-type diseases, at a nontrivial rate. The bulk of the evidence takes the form of thousands of adverse event reports. There is also a small amount of systematically gathered data. The adverse event reports provide compelling…

  3. Biomonitoring for creosote and pentachlorophenol in nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgren, J. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Schecter, A. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health, Dallas, TX (United States); Phillips, D.H.; Hewer, A. [Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Takhar, H. [Comprehensive Health Screening Services, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Paepke, O. [ERGO Lab., Hamburg (Germany); Warshaw, R. [Workers' Disease Detection Services, Inc. (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminated wood treatment sites can result in adverse health effects to nearby residents. Environmental exposure can be estimated by measuring concentrations of pollutants in air, water, food, or wipe tests. This environmental exposure value can be used as a surrogate to estimate individual exposure. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not pentachlorophenol (PCP) could be found in potentially exposed residents and if the dioxin levels are consistent with PCP exposure. A further objective of the study was to determine whether or not PAH-DNA adducts could be found in the potentially exposed residents. We present results of biomonitoring studies in residents living near a wood treatment plant that used coal-derived creosote and PCP to process and treat wood for over 100 years. The plant was built in 1904 and used creosote and PCP. Creosote is a complex mixture that contains numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCP is contaminated with polychlorinated dioxin and furans. The residents' exposure pathways include air, soil and surface water.

  4. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    . One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward telehealth use among residents in a Danish...... rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital...

  5. Does Rural Residence Affect Access to Prenatal Care in Oregon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Beth; Grant, Therese; Schiff, Melissa; Kasehagen, Laurin

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying how maternal residential location affects late initiation of prenatal care is important for policy planning and allocation of resources for intervention. Purpose: To determine how rural residence and other social and demographic characteristics affect late initiation of prenatal care, and how residence status is associated…

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Air Pollution from a Plastic Recycling Facility on the Health of Nearby Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated how exposure to airborne volatile organic compounds emitted from a plastic recycling facility affected nearby residents, in a cross-sectional study. Individuals>10 years old were randomly sampled from 50 households at five sites and given questionnaires to complete. We categorized the subjects by distance from the recycling facility and used this as a proxy measure for pollutant exposure. We sought to improve on a preceding study by generating new findings, improving methods for questionnaire distribution and collection, and refining site selection. We calculated the odds of residents living 500 or 900 m away from the facility reporting mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms using a reference group of residents 2,800 m away. Self-reported nasal congestion (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence interval=1.02-8.8), eczema (5.1, 1.1-22.9), and sore throat (3.9, 1.1-14.1) were significantly higher among residents 500 m from the facility. Those 900 m away were also considerably more likely to report experiencing eczema (4.6, 1.4-14.9). Air pollution was found responsible for significantly increased reports of mucocutaneous and respiratory symptoms among nearby residents. Our findings confirm the effects of pollutants emitted from recycling facilities on residents' health and clarify that study design differences did not affect the results.

  7. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  8. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53. Rwanda Journal Series F: Medicine and Health Sciences Vol. 2 No. 1, 2015. Malaria elimination practices in rural community residents in Rwanda: A cross sectional study ... is an entirely preventable and treatable disease, provided that effective .... The most way used for malaria prevention, control and elimination.

  9. Rural residents' perspectives on the rural 'good death': a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, Suzanne; MacLeod, Roderick D; Glasgow, Nicholas J; Wilson, Donna M; Phillips, Christine B; Wiles, Robert B

    2018-05-01

    The 'good death' is one objective of palliative care, with many 'good death' viewpoints and research findings reflecting the urban voice. Rural areas are distinct and need special consideration. This scoping review identified and charted current research knowledge on the 'good' rural death through the perspectives of rural residents, including rural patients with a life-limiting illness, to identify evidence and gaps in the literature for future studies. A comprehensive literature search of English language articles (no date filter applied) was conducted in 2016 (2 January to 14 February) using five library databases. Reference lists of included articles, recent issues of eight relevant journals and three grey literature databases were also hand-searched. Twenty articles (for 17 studies and one systematic review) were identified after a two-phase screening process by two reviewers, using pre-determined inclusion criteria. Data from each study were extracted and charted, analysed using a thematic analysis of the included articles' content, and with a quantitative analysis of the scoping review. These papers revealed data collected from rural patients with a life-limiting illness and family caregivers, rural healthcare providers, the wider rural community, rural community leaders and rural health administrators and policy makers. Rural locations were heterogeneous. Residents from developed and developing countries believe a 'good death' is one that is peaceful, free of pain and without suffering; however, this is subjective and priorities are based on personal, cultural, social and religious perspectives. Currently, there is insufficient data to generalise rural residents' perspectives and what it means for them to die well. Given the extreme importance of a 'good death', there is a need for further studies to elicit rural patient and family caregiver perspectives. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-25

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the (32)P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17+/-0.17 (SE) adducts/10(8) nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19+/-0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87+/-0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85+/-0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53+/-0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (pindustrial air pollution can experiment an excess of DNA adduct formation. The emissions from the MIE complex are the main source of air pollution in this area and can be the cause of such increment in the levels of DNA damage.

  11. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the 32 P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17 ± 0.17 (SE) adducts/10 8 nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19 ± 0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87 ± 0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85 ± 0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53 ± 0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (p < 0.05). In the groups of occupationally exposed workers, the highest levels of DNA adducts were found among the workers experiencing an occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. the steel factory and refinery workers. When we have evaluated if the levels of DNA adducts of the PAH exposed workers were different from those of the MIE residents, a statistical significantly difference was found (p < 0.05). Our present study indicates that people living near point sources of industrial air

  12. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  13. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 , Group 2 mite allergens ( Der p 2 and Der f 2 ), domestic feline ( Fel d 1 ), and canine ( Can f 1 ). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1 , 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1 , and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  14. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences.......The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences....

  15. The Role of Hopelessness in the Health of Low-Class Rural Chinese Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Wu, Lei; Cheng, Mingming

    2018-03-12

    It is well known that health inequality has been happening between rural and urban Chinese populations, however, the health differences among rural Chinese residents remain unclear. This study aims to assess the physical and mental health of rural Chinese residents in different social classes, and then to examine the mediating role of hopelessness between social class and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A stratified multi-stage sampling was used to recruit 2003 rural residents responding to the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The results showed that lower-class rural Chinese residents reported lower physical and mental health as well as a higher level of hopelessness. Furthermore, hopelessness could fully mediate the association between social class and physical and mental health. These findings will generate significant implications for identifying those at particular risk for lower quality of life and designing social work intervention programs in rural China's context.

  16. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in children living in city and rural residences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The present study aims to assess the biological uptake in children of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons measured as 1-hydroxypyrene in urine from children living in city and rural residences. METHODS: 103 children living in Copenhagen and 101 children living in rural residences of Denmark......, the children excreted on average 0.07 [95% CI: 0.01-0.41] micromol urinary 1-hydroxypyrene per mol creatinine. Children living in urban residences excreted 0.02 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05] micromol more 1-hydroxypyrene than children living in rural residences. This was confirmed in the multiple regression analysis...... living in urban residences are more exposed to PAH than children living in rural residences. Time spent outdoors increased the excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene, which was most evident among urban children. Higher concentrations of ambient air pollution in urban areas may explain this finding. No influence...

  17. Tourist Activity of Senior Citizens (60+ Residing in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelan Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of place of permanent residence (urban or rural on the tourist activity of senior citizens (60+ of different socioeconomic statuses. The study involved 380 senior citizens (305 female and 75 male aged 60 years and older who were permanent residents of the region of Warmia and Mazury, Poland. In this group, 244 subjects resided in urban areas and 136 participants were rural dwellers. The respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their socioeconomic status (place of permanent residence, age, gender, educational attainment, financial status, membership in senior organizations, marital status, and professional activity and tourist activity. A significance test of two structure coefficients (α=0.05 was applied. Factors such as gender, professional activity, and marital status were not related with the travel propensity of seniors from different groups (urban and rural, but were significant when rural residents were compared with urban dwellers. Seniors residing in urban areas of Warmia and Mazury, Poland, were significantly more likely to travel for leisure than those residing in rural areas. The tourist activity of seniors decreased significantly (p<0.05 with the age (60-74 years and financial status of rural residents. The travel propensity of elderly people increased significantly (p<0.05 with educational attainment and membership in senior organizations. The study revealed considerable differences in the socioeconomic status and social characteristics of seniors residing in rural and urban areas, and those variations significantly influenced their propensity for travel: urban residents traveled more frequently than rural residents. It can be concluded that place of residence was a crucial factor determining the tourist behavior of senior citizens, and urban dwellers were more likely to travel.

  18. Impact of rural residence and health system structure on quality of liver care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Rongey

    Full Text Available Specialist physician concentration in urban areas can affect access and quality of care for rural patients. As effective drug treatment for hepatitis C (HCV becomes increasingly available, the extent to which rural patients needing HCV specialists face access or quality deficits is unknown. We sought to determine the influence of rural residency on access to HCV specialists and quality of liver care.The study used a national cohort of 151,965 Veterans Health Administration (VHA patients with HCV starting in 2005 and followed to 2009. The VHA's constant national benefit structure reduces the impact of insurance as an explanation for observed disparities. Multivariate cox proportion regression models for each quality indicator were performed.Thirty percent of VHA patients with HCV reside in rural and highly rural areas. Compared to urban residents, highly rural (HR 0.70, CI 0.65-0.75 and rural (HR 0.96, CI 0.94-0.97 residents were significantly less likely to access HCV specialty care. The quality indicators were more mixed. While rural residents were less likely to receive HIV screening, there were no significant differences in hepatitis vaccinations, endoscopic variceal and hepatocellular carcinoma screening between the geographic subgroups. Of note, highly rural (HR 1.31, CI 1.14-1.50 and rural residents (HR 1.06, CI 1.02-1.10 were more likely to receive HCV therapy. Of those treated for HCV, a third received therapy from a non-specialist provider.Rural patients have less access to HCV specialists, but this does not necessarily translate to quality deficits. The VHA's efforts to improve specialty care access, rural patient behavior and decentralization of HCV therapy beyond specialty providers may explain this contradiction. Lessons learned within the VHA are critical for US healthcare systems restructuring into accountable care organizations that acquire features of integrated systems.

  19. The Influence of Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy on the Rural Residents' Consumptionâ «

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinzhi; Li, Lu; Liu, Yusong

    2014-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of influence of fiscal expenditure supporting agriculture monetary supply on rural residents’s consumption by adopting a vector auto-regression model, based on the data from 1978 to 2011. The study indicated that: in the short term, fiscal policy is the Granger reason of rural residents’ consumption, monetary policy is not the Granger reason of rural residents’ consumption; in the long term, the comprehensive function of fiscal policy and moneta...

  20. Study on indoor thermal environment in winter for rural residences in Yulin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Li; Weixiao, Han

    2018-02-01

    Yulin region is located in the northern part of Shaanxi Province, China. The winter here is very cold and it has a long duration. In this paper, a rural residence which was located in Yulin region was taken as a study object. Indoor thermal environment of the rural residence were tested, including indoor air temperature and air relative humidity. Then, test data were analyzed. It was summarized that indoor thermal environment of test room can not fully meet human thermal comfort needs, and some tactics of regulation building thermal environment were proposed. This research contributes to improvement of indoor thermal environment for local rural residences and it provides reference for rural residences in other cold regions.

  1. The combination of environmental quality with increasingly rural residence and associations with adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental quality differs across levels of urbanicity, and both urban and rural residence having been previously associated with better health. To explore these relationships, we constructed an environmental quality index (EQI) with data representing five domains (air, water,...

  2. Seasonal rural residence of Icelandic children Sendur í sveit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research that focuses on children who migrate without a parent or legal guardian is most often carried out in low-income countries. Such migration is increasingly associated with child trafficking. In this article the Icelandic custom to send children to the country during the summer months in the last century will be examined. It is based on secondary documents such as journals, magazines, documents and reports from child protection authorities. The Icelandic population shared the opinion that seasonal rural residence for urban children was beneficial for the nation, the family and the child. In the country, the children would enjoy unspoiled nature, clean mountain air and nutritious food. In addition, they would learn to attend animals and proper work. Individuals, associations, charities and child protection authorities collaborated in an effort to organise rural residence for children during the summer months, either at farms or particular summer camps. Rural residence was considered to be particularly important for delinquent children, but also those who suffered from poverty, irresponsible parental behaviour and poor health. Data is lacking on the number of children sent to the country and their experiences however it is known to have varied greatly. Likewise, little is known about the considerations of the farmers who hosted the children and the children’s parents. This custom is typically per definition child migration without a parent or legal guardian. Care should be taken not to classify such customs routinely as child trafficking wherever they are practiced.Rannsóknir á búferlaflutningi barna til lengri eða skemmri tíma án samfylgdar foreldris eða löggilds forráðamanns beinast oftast að börnum sem flytja úr einum stað í annan innan eða milli lágtekjulanda. Slíkur flutningur er oft bendlaður við mansal. Hér er skoðaður siðurinn að senda íslensk börn í sveit þar sem þau dvöldu að sumri til hjá venslaf

  3. Physical activity of rurally residing children with a disability: A survey of parents and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakely, Luke; Langham, Jessica; Johnston, Catherine; Rae, Kym

    2018-01-01

    Children residing in rural areas face unique barriers to physical activity participation. Further, while children with a disability who reside in metropolitan areas face barriers hindering physical activity, rurally residing children with a disability may face the augmented combination of these barriers that could have negative health implications. Parents are often the key advocates for children with disabilities and are likely to have valuable insight into the opportunities and barriers to physical activity for their child. The aim of this study was to investigate parents' perceptions of physical activity opportunities for their child with a disability in a rural area. A mixed method survey examining parent's perceptions of their child's physical activity and possible barriers to participation was mailed to rurally residing parents of children with a disability. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and proportions. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. There were 34 completed surveys, a response rate of 37%. Participants' responses indicated 74% of children were not meeting daily recommendations of physical activity. Participation barriers including emotional, physical and environmental issues. Three main themes emerged from qualitative data; segregation, access to facilities and resources and barriers specific to the child. The children in this study were from rural areas and face similar barriers to children in metropolitan areas. However, they are also confronted with the same barriers children without a disability in rural areas face, participating in physical activity. This may have detrimental effects on their health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV/AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among rural residents in China: potential role of rural-to-urban migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas. PMID:17967110

  5. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  6. Increased risk of thyroid cancer in female residents nearby nuclear power plants in Korea: was it due to detection bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Paek, Do-Myung; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ha, Mi-Na; Ju, Young-Su

    2018-01-01

    The Korea Radiation Effect & Epidemiology Cohort - The resident cohort (KREEC-R) study concluded that there is no epidemiological or causal evidence supporting any increase in cancer risks resulting from radiation from Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). But the risks of thyroid cancer in women were significantly higher in residents living near NPPs than control. Debate about the cause of the pattern of thyroid cancer incidence in women is ongoing and some researchers argue that detection bias influenced the result of KREEC-R study. Therefore there was a need to investigate whether residents living near NPPs who were assessed in the KREEC-R were actually tested more often for thyroid cancer. We evaluated the possibility of detection bias in the finding of the KREEC-R study based on materials available at this time. Using the KREEC-R raw data, we calculated age standardized rates (ASRs) of female thyroid cancer and re-analyzed the results of survey on the use of medical services. We also marked the administrative districts of residents who received the Radiation Health Research Institute (RHRI) health examinations and those in which thyroid cancer case occurred as per the Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) final report on maps where the locations of NPPs and 5 km-radii around them were also indicated. And we compared the incidence rates of Radiation-induced cancer measured between the first period when RHRI health examinations were not yet implemented, and the second period when the RHRI health examinations were implemented. The ASR for the far-distance group, which comprised residents living in areas outside the 30 km radius of the NPPs, increased rapidly after 2000; however, that of the exposed group, which comprised residents living within a 5 km radius of the NPPs, started to increase rapidly even before 1995. The frequencies of the use of medical services were significantly higher in the intermediate proximate group

  7. Nonlinear Differential Equations and Feedback Control Design for the Urban-Rural Resident Pension Insurance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Facing many problems of the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in China, one should firstly make sure that this system can be optimized. This paper, based on the modern control theory, sets up differential equations as models to describe the urban-rural resident pension insurance system, and discusses the globally asymptotic stability in the sense of Liapunov for the urban-rural resident pension insurance system in the new equilibrium point. This research sets the stage for our further discussion, and it is theoretically important and convenient for optimizing the urban-rural resident pension insurance system.

  8. RURAL/URBAN RESIDENCE, ACCESS, AND PERCEIVED NEED FOR TREATMENT AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COCAINE USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603

  9. Health behaviours of young, rural residents: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John; Lukaitis, Fiona

    2009-04-01

    To analyse self-reported health behaviours of young people from a rural community and the factors influencing their behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 19 young people, 11 parents and 10 key informants from a small rural Victorian community, asking about teenage health behaviours and the factors influencing these behaviours. Young people ate both healthy and unhealthy foods, most participated in physical activity, few smoked and most drank alcohol. The study found that community level factors, including community norms, peers, access issues and geographic isolation, were particularly powerful in shaping health behaviours, especially alcohol consumption. Smoking was influenced by social participation in the community and national media health campaigns. Diet and exercise behaviour were influenced by access and availability, convenience, family, peers and local and non-local cultural influences. The rural context, including less access to and choice of facilities and services, lower incomes, lack of transport and local social patterns (including community norms and acceptance), impact significantly on young people's health behaviours. Although national health promotion campaigns are useful aspects of behaviour modification, much greater focus on the role and importance of the local contexts in shaping health decisions of young rural people is required.

  10. Cognitive impairment in agricultural workers and nearby residents exposed to pesticides in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sebastián A; de Angel, Valeria; Salas, Natalia; Zúñiga-Venegas, Liliana; Gaspar, Pablo A; Pancetti, Floria

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i.e. environmentally) exposed to pesticides (n=32), and an unexposed control group (n=38). The assessed cognitive processes included memory, executive functions, attention, language praxis, and visuoconstruction. The direct exposure group performed significantly lower in executive function, verbal fluency, and visual and auditory memory tests than the indirect exposure group, which, in turn, performed worse than the unexposed group. Even after adjusting for age, gender, and educational level, both exposure groups showed higher rates of cognitive deficit than control individuals. In conclusion, both direct and indirect chronic exposure to pesticides affects cognitive functioning in adults and, consequently, actions should be taken to protect the health of not only agricultural workers, but also of residents in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Every rural resident knows that the geosciences matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    For thirty years we have been working in the forests and soils of rural South Caroilna. Perhaps the most important thing we do is keep long-running field experiments alive (experiments that long pre-date us). We also pay a lot of attention to environmental history. We've watched the local kids grow up as we've also gotten to know many people in the local communities of European and African origin. While we certainly need to attend more church gatherings, we have attended a few, and while some profess that we must be digging for gold, nearly all have grown to respect us. Probably this is in part because we don't go away, and we so doggedly believe in place-base research. After all, we study what rural people depend on - the land, soil, water, trees, crops, and air. We've given data of soil chemistry to cooperative farmers, historic maps as Christmas presents, books as gifts for letting us drill deep groundwater wells into the underlying granite (because the USFS would take years for NEPA to approve our proposed well), and flowers to simply generous neighbors. We've also accepted garden produced okra, corn, and potatoes. After 30 years, I may be naive, but if you respect the land as any critical zonist (Earth scientist) must, we need place-based geological research like critical zone observatories and rural folks not only need to become part of the research, they are willing to do so.

  12. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia T; Moser, Debra K

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is greater among adults living in rural compared to urban areas of the USA. Greater obesity risk among rural adults persists after adjusting for obesity-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors. With the rural-urban obesity disparity greatest among younger adults, it is important to examine the complexity of factors that may increase the risk for excess body weight in this population so that effective preventive interventions can be implemented. College students residing in economically deprived rural areas such as rural Appalachia may be particularly at risk for excess body weight from exposure to both rural and college obesogenic environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight among college students. College students aged 18-25 years who were lifetime residents of either rural Eastern Appalachian Kentucky (n=55) or urban Central Kentucky (n=54) participated in this cross-sectional study. Students completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors including smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. Height and weight were obtained during a brief health examination to calculate body-mass index (BMI). Excess body weight was defined as being overweight or obese with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. Binary logistic regression was used to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia was independently associated with excess body weight. The prevalence of excess body weight was higher in the rural Appalachian group than the urban group (50% vs 24%, p0.001). Depressive symptom scores and smoking prevalence were also greater in the rural Appalachian group. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable intake and vigorous physical activity between the groups. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia was associated with more than a six

  13. Antidepressant treatment of depression in rural nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen

    2008-09-01

    Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.

  14. Estimation of impact from natural sources of radiation sources in two non nuclear plant workers and nearby residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Wanderson de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials, often referred to as NORM, are and always have been a part of our world. Our planet 'Earth' and its atmosphere contain many different types of naturally occurring radioactive species , mainly minerals containing radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series. Human activities for e x p l o i t a t i o n of mineral resources as mining, necessarily, do not enhance the concentration of NORM in products , by-products or residues, but can be a concern, simply due to the increased potential for human exposure. The goal of this work is to assess the impact of the presence of two non-nuclear plants (coal mining and monazite extraction plant) to workers and general population living in the vicinities of plants, by calculating their internal exposure to natural radionuclides . Excreta samples (urine and feces) were collected from workers and inhabitants of the two small towns where workers reside. The activities of 238 U, 234 U ( o n l y in feces), 226 Ra , 210 Pb and 210 Po (only in urine),- present in the samples were determined. The results of daily excretion in urine and feces of the groups, indicate that workers from coal mining, are exposed to natural radionuclides by inhalation and ingestion. The intake of some radionuclides ( 238 U and 210 Po ) are influenced by the professional activity . The results also indicate a chronic intake of 226 Ra by workers of the coal mining and their neighbors. Workers from the monazite extraction plant and inhabitants of the vicinity of the plant are exposed, mainly by ingestion. The intake through diet is the major source of incorporation of natural radionuclides. (author)

  15. Differences in knowledge about birds and their conservation between rural and urban residents of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar O. Vazquez-Plass; Joseph M. Wunderle

    2010-01-01

    People’s knowledge of birds and the opinions and perceptions about specific issues related to the conservation of birds were quantified in rural and urban communities in northeastern Puerto Rico. Data were collected using questionnaires in interviews with 131 citizens haphazardly selected within the study site. Our results indicate that urban residents had a...

  16. Propensity Analysis on Consumption Expenditure of Rural Residents in Hebei Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meng; Wang, Guirong; Wang, Huijun

    2009-01-01

    Consumption expenditure of rural residents can be divided into eight types of indices, such as food consumption expenditure, clothing consumption expenditure, household equipment and service consumption expenditure, health care consumption expenditure, transportation and communication consumption expenditure, cultural and educational entertainment and service consumption expenditure, housing consumption expenditure, and other goods and services consumption expenditure. Changes in structures o...

  17. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  18. Health financing and integration of urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Zhang, Luying; Yuan, Shasha; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zhiruo

    2017-11-07

    China is in the process of integrating the new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) and the urban residents' basic medical insurance system (URBMI) into the urban and rural residents' basic medical insurance system (URRBMI). However, how to integrate the financing policies of NCMS and URBMI has not been described in detail. This paper attempts to illustrate the differences between the financing mechanisms of NCMS and URBMI, to analyze financing inequity between urban and rural residents and to identify financing mechanisms for integrating urban and rural residents' medical insurance systems. Financing data for NCMS and URBMI (from 2008 to 2015) was collected from the China health statistics yearbook, the China health and family planning statistics yearbook, the National Handbook of NCMS Information, the China human resources and social security statistics yearbook, and the China social security yearbook. "Ability to pay" was introduced to measure inequity in health financing. Individual contributions to NCMS and URBMI as a function of per capita disposable income was used to analyze equity in health financing between rural and urban residents. URBMI had a financing mechanism that was similar to that used by NCMS in that public finance accounted for more than three quarters of the pooling funds. The scale of financing for NCMS was less than 5% of the per capita net income of rural residents and less than 2% of the per capita disposable income of urban residents for URBMI. Individual contributions to the NCMS and URBMI funds were less than 1% of their disposable and net incomes. Inequity in health financing between urban and rural residents in China was not improved as expected with the introduction of NCMS and URBMI. The role of the central government and local governments in financing NCMS and URBMI was oscillating in the past decade. The scale of financing for URRBMI is insufficient for the increasing demands for medical services from the insured. The pooling fund

  19. Living in a continuous traumatic reality: Impact on elderly persons residing in urban and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Irit; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2016-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the contribution of exposure to the continuous threat of Qassam rocket attacks to PTSD among elderly residents of urban and rural communities. Specifically, we examined the contribution of sociodemographic variables, psychological resources, and perceived social support to PTSD, and whether this relationship is mediated by cognitive appraisals. The sample consisted of 298 residents of 2 different communities: urban (n = 190), and rural (n = 108). We examined the main research question by calculating the correlations of the sociodemographic variables, the psychological resource (self-esteem), social support, and cognitive appraisals with the dependent variable (PTSD). Our model explained the variance in PTSD (53% for urban residents, and 56% for rural residents). Higher levels of PTSD were found among the urban residents. Most of the predictors contributed to PTSD, but differences were found between each type of community with regard to the combination of components. Results indicated that the type of community is related degree of protection against stress-related triggers such as Qassam rockets. The psychological resource (self-esteem) and cognitive appraisal variables were found to be important for older people facing a continuous threat, and can serve as a basis for professional intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Functional independence of residents in urban and rural long-term care facilities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Hsiung, Chia-Ling; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Kuo, Mei-Ying

    2004-02-04

    To compare the score of functional independence measure (FIM) between urban and rural residents living in long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects in 112 licensed LTCF in Taiwan were randomly selected by stratification strategy. Physical therapists interviewed the subjects in nursing homes (NH) and intermediate care facilities (ICF) to obtain the basic data, and the FIM score. (1) There was no significant difference in basic demographic data between urban and rural LTC subjects. (2) Most of the subjects in urban and rural LTCF were males, less than 80 years old, single/widowed, having multiple diseases, using more than one assistive devices, and having social welfare financial support. (3) Motor abilities (eating, grooming, and transfer) and cognition (comprehension, social interaction and problem solving) in rural LTCF subjects were significantly (p institutions is better than those in urban areas. Our results may provide guidelines for the manpower and equipment supply estimation.

  1. Relationships among sense of coherence, resources, and mental health in urban and rural residents in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuno Yoko Sumikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salutogenic model states that coping resources are defined within sociocultural and historical contexts and that various social and historical factors influence the availability of such resources. Though previous studies have suggested the need for an interregional comparison of psychological and social resources, few studies have undertaken such an investigation. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations among coping resources, sense of coherence (SOC, and health status in a comparison of urban and rural residents. Methods General residents (aged 30–69 years in two areas were targeted for the current study. Through a random sampling selection, 1,000 residents from each area were picked, and an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to each resident. Ultimately, 269 and 363 valid responses from the urban and rural areas, respectively, were analyzed. SOC, both social and psychological resources, and mental health were assessed. To examine relationships between SOC and resources associated with mental health, mental health was defined as a dependent variable. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted with variables entered from sociodemographic characteristics, social and psychological resources, and SOC. Results Regarding regional characteristics, social capital and participation in community activities were significantly greater in the rural area than in the urban area. Urban residents reported significantly higher self-esteem and optimism than rural residents. SOC showed the most significant association with mental health in both areas. Mental health was significantly associated with physical activity limitations and life stressors in both areas. However, the associations were weakened when social and psychological resources and SOC were added, which demonstrated their buffering effect on the negative influence of life stressors on health. When SOC was added, the association of self-esteem with mental

  2. County-level heat vulnerability of urban and rural residents in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Woodward, Alistair; Cirendunzhu; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-12

    Tibet is especially vulnerable to climate change due to the relatively rapid rise of temperature over past decades. The effects on mortality and morbidity of extreme heat in Tibet have been examined in previous studies; no heat adaptation initiatives have yet been implemented. We estimated heat vulnerability of urban and rural populations in 73 Tibetan counties and identified potential areas for public health intervention and further research. According to data availability and vulnerability factors identified previously in Tibet and elsewhere, we selected 10 variables related to advanced age, low income, illiteracy, physical and mental disability, small living spaces and living alone. We separately created and mapped county-level cumulative heat vulnerability indices for urban and rural residents by summing up factor scores produced by a principal components analysis (PCA). For both study populations, PCA yielded four factors with similar structure. The components for rural and urban residents explained 76.5 % and 77.7 % respectively of the variability in the original vulnerability variables. We found spatial variability of heat vulnerability across counties, with generally higher vulnerability in high-altitude counties. Although we observed similar median values and ranges of the cumulative heat vulnerability index values among urban and rural residents overall, the pattern varied strongly from one county to another. We have developed a measure of population vulnerability to high temperatures in Tibet. These are preliminary findings, but they may assist targeted adaptation plans in response to future rapid warming in Tibet.

  3. Development of a New South Dakota Rural Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Jean; Huber, Thomas; Huntington, Mark K

    2017-11-01

    The healthcare workforce is a priority in South Dakota. It has been estimated that 8,000 additional healthcare workers beyond those in practice in 2010 will be needed by 2020. In 2016, the South Dakota Department of Health included in its budget funds for the development of a new Rural Family Medicine Residency Training Program as one of the steps toward addressing the physician component of these workforce needs. This new program has just received its accreditation and is recruiting the inaugural class of resident physicians for the spring of 2018. This article provides a concise overview of the program's initial development. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  4. Subdividing the digital divide: differences in internet access and use among rural residents with medical limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Bennett, Kevin; Probst, Janice

    2011-03-03

    Access to health care is often contingent upon an individual's ability to travel for services. Certain groups, such as those with physical limitations and rural residents, have more travel barriers than other groups, reducing their access to services. The use of the Internet may be a way for these groups to seek care or information to support their health care needs. The purpose of this study was to examine Internet use among those whose are, for medical reasons, limited in their ability to travel. We also examined disparities in Internet use by race/ethnicity and rural residence, particularly among persons with medical conditions. We used data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), a nationally representative sample of US households, to examine Internet use among individuals with medical conditions, rural residents, and minority populations. Internet use was defined as any use within the past 6 months; among users, frequency of use and location of use were explored. Control variables included sociodemographics, family life cycle, employment status, region, and job density in the community. All analyses were weighted to reflect the complex NHTS sampling frame. Individuals with medical conditions were far less likely to report Internet use than those without medical conditions (32.6% vs 70.3%, P digital divide between urban and rural residents. Internet use and frequency was also lower among those reporting a medical condition than among those without a condition. After we controlled for many factors, however, African Americans and Hispanics were still less likely to use the Internet, and to use it less often, than whites. Policy makers should look for ways to improve the access to, and use of, the Internet among these populations.

  5. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  6. Preventive Dental Checkups and Their Association With Access to Usual Source of Care Among Rural and Urban Adult Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aishah; Thapa, Janani R; Zhang, Donglan

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between rural or urban residence and having a usual source of care (USC), and the utilization of preventive dental checkups among adults. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2012. We performed a logit regression on the relationship between rural and urban residence, having a USC, and having at least 1 dental checkup in the past year, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health status. After controlling for covariates, rural adult residents had significantly lower odds of having at least 1 dental checkup per year compared to their urban counterparts (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.86, P rural and urban residents, having a USC was significantly associated with an 11% (95% CI = 9%-13%) increase in the probability of having a preventive dental checkup within a year. Individuals with a USC were more likely to obtain a preventive dental visit, with similar effects in rural and urban settings. We attributed the lower odds of having a checkup in rural regions to the lower density of oral health care providers in these areas. Integration of rural oral health care into primary care may help mitigate the challenges due to a shortage of oral health care providers in rural areas. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Perception, Knowledge and Behaviors Related to Typhoon: A Cross Sectional Study among Rural Residents in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenchao; Wang, Wei; Lin, Junfen; Zhang, Ying; Shang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xin; Huang, Meilin; Liu, Shike; Ma, Wei

    2017-01-01

    (1) The objective of this study was to assess the risk perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related to typhoon among rural residents in Zhejiang province of China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among rural residents in Zhejiang province, China. Information was collected from 659 participants using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and multivariable analysis were used to analyze the data. Participants were most concerned about property damage, followed by thei...

  8. A Study on the Rural Residence in the Northern Area of Zhejiang Province from the Perspective of Green Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Gao, W. J.; Wang, C.

    2018-05-01

    At present, owing to the rapid development of rural construction, it lacks corresponding theories and practices and damages to the features of rural area, ignoring the geography, suitability and green living environment factors. The research selects rural residence as the object, defining “courtyard” as the basic unit for rural residence. It utilizes the principle of topology as the expanding media, by the method of principle of cellular structure and green living environment design strategy. The essay establishes the design and construction system of “rural basic unit”, combining functions and structures, prototype menu, chamber space and compound interface, from the perspective of green living environment. It aims to guide rural construction and protect the ruralliving environment.

  9. Disparity in Breast Cancer Late Stage at Diagnosis in Missouri: Does Rural Versus Urban Residence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Faustine; Thompson, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that black women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to white women, black women experience higher death rates than any other group. We examined the stage of breast cancer presentation by race and geographic region using population-based breast cancer incidence in all 115 counties in the state of Missouri. We used 2003-2008 breast cancer incidence data from Missouri Cancer Registry and Research Center. County of residence was categorized as urban or rural using the rural-urban continuum code. We computed the conditional proportion of stage at diagnosis by race and metropolitan status and also used Pearson's chi-squared test with Yates' continuity correction to determine statistical significance of association. Results of the study indicate that a greater proportion of black women (38.8 %) compared to white women (30.2 %) were diagnosed with more advanced breast metastasis. Our results further suggest that stage at diagnosis depended on county of residence or metropolitan status (p = .04). Women living in non-metropolitan counties were slightly more likely to have late-stage breast cancer than their metropolitan counterparts (32.0 vs 30.7 %). Overall, black women had 1.5-fold increased odds of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis compared to their white counterparts (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI, 1.39, 1.63; p diagnosis among women living in non-metropolitan or rural counties was over 11 % higher compared with their metropolitan or urban counterpart. The current study corroborates previous findings that the risk of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis was higher among women residing in non-metropolitan rural counties.

  10. Children--The Effect of Rural Residence on Dental Unmet Need for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Mayer, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unmet need for dental care is the most prevalent unmet health care need among children with special health care needs (CSHCN), even though these children are at a greater risk for dental problems. The combination of rural residence and special health care needs may leave rural CSHCN particularly vulnerable to high levels of unmet…

  11. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  12. Self-Esteem among Jamaican Children: Exploring the Impact of Skin Color and Rural/Urban Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M. (Anderson); Cramer, Phebe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which two different models predict the relation of self-esteem to skin color and rural/urban residence among Jamaican children. To explain this relation, Crocker and Major's Self-protective hypothesis and Harter's Additive model were examined among 200 African-Caribbean children from rural (n=85) and urban…

  13. The price of 'free'. Quantifying the costs incurred by rural residents attending publically funded outpatient clinics in rural and base hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, David; Kerse, Ngaire; Nixon, Garry

    2016-09-01

    INTRODUCTION Rural living is associated with increased costs in many areas, including health care. However, there is very little local data to quantify these costs, and their unknown quantity means that costs are not always taken into account in health service planning and delivery. AIM The aim of this study was to calculate the average time and travel costs of attending rural and base hospital outpatient clinics for rural Central Otago residents. METHODS A survey of 51 people attending rural hospital outpatient clinics. Individual costs in terms of travel and time were quantified and an average cost of both rural and base hospital attendance was calculated. RESULTS The average travel and lost time cost of attending a rural outpatient clinic was NZ$182 and 61% of respondents reported this cost had a significant effect on their weekly budget. The average cost incurred by residents associated with a base hospital attendance in Dunedin was NZ$732. DISCUSSION This study data show that costs are substantial and probably higher than most people might expect for both rural and base hospital attendances. It seems likely that these costs are a potential barrier to service access. However, the full implications of the personal costs incurred by rural residents in accessing health services are largely unstudied and therefore remain unknown in New Zealand.

  14. Benefits of a telepsychiatry consultation service for rural nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Terry; Murphy, Katharine M; Amour, Judith L; Ricci, Michael A; Caputo, Michael P; Newhouse, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric care for nursing home residents is difficult to obtain, especially in rural areas, and this deficiency may lead to significant morbidity or death. Providing this service by videoconference may be a helpful, cost-effective, and acceptable alternative to face-to-face treatment. We analyzed data for 278 telepsychiatry encounters for 106 nursing home residents to estimate potential cost and time savings associated with this modality compared to in-person care. A total of 843.5 hours (105.4 8-hour work days) of travel time was saved compared to in-person consultation for each of the 278 encounters if they had occurred separately. If four resident visits were possible for each trip, the time saved would decrease to 26.4 workdays. Travel distance saved was 43,000 miles; 10,750 miles if four visits per trip occurred. More than $3,700 would be spent on gasoline for 278 separate encounters; decreased to $925 for four visits per roundtrip. Personnel cost savings estimates ranged from $33,739 to $67,477. Physician costs associated with additional travel time ranged from $84,347 to $253,040 for 278 encounters, or from $21,087 to $63,260 for four encounters per visit. The telepsychiatry approach was enthusiastically accepted by virtually all residents, family members, and nursing home personnel, and led to successful patient management. Providing psychiatric care to rural nursing home residents by videoconference is cost effective and appears to be a medically acceptable alternative to face-to-face care. In addition, this approach will allow many nursing homes to provide essential care that would not otherwise be available.

  15. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural residents in a typical northern city in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Wang, B; Zhao, X; Shen, G; Xia, Z; Huang, N; Jiang, Q; Lu, B; Xu, D; Fang, J; Tao, S

    2014-10-01

    Personal inhalation exposure samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 126 selected volunteers during heating and non-heating seasons in a typical northern Chinese city, Taiyuan. Measured personal PAH exposure levels for the urban residents in the heating and non-heating seasons were 690 (540-1051) and 404 (266-544) ng/m(3) , respectively, while, for the rural residents, they were 770 (504-1071) and 312 (201-412) ng/m(3) , respectively. Thus, rural residents are exposed to lower PAH contamination in comparison with the urban residents in the non-heating seasons. In the heating season, personal PAH inhalation exposure levels were comparable between the urban and rural residents, in part owing to the large rate of residential solid fuel consumption in the rural area for household cooking and heating. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) due to PAH exposure in Taiyuan were 3.36 × 10(-5) and 2.39 × 10(-5) for the rural and urban residents, respectively, significantly higher than the literature-reported national average level, suggesting an urgent need of PAH pollution control to protect human health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Effects of Saffron Economic Stability of Rural Residents in the Darbeghazi District City of Nishabur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amir Mohamad Alavizade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sustainability is undoubtedly one of the most important parts of sustainable development. The main source of income for the residents of villages of the Khorasan Razavi province is based on agricultural and horticultural products especially sale of saffron. In this regard the turquoise shades of the flowers of this plant encompass all of the fields in Nishabur and they have been much welcomed by farmers in this city. In this study, the cultivation of saffron in creating economic stability of the rural district Derbghazi in the central part of the city of Nishabur city will be examined. The research method in this paper is based on library, documentary, field and analytical – descriptive studies. In this context and in order to determine the economic stability of rural areas, the Morris Davis model has been used. This model contains three matrices that separately calculate and analyze the economic indicators. The statistical population under study consists of more than one hundred households from the rural villages in the Derbghazi rural district and the sample population studied consists of 308 households based on the Cochran formula. The results of the Morris Davis model indicate that among ten villages that were studied, Behroudi, Jilo, Khojan and Norouazabad have low economic stability, and Rouhabad, Haghiye, Shadmiyane, Karizak plus the villages of Jafarabad garden and Karizak Sabbah have average economic stability. In the end and based on the results of the research study some recommendations are presented in order to maintain employment in the region and support the farmers who are cultivating saffron to encourage the till of saffron and help the economic stability of the residents of the villages that were studied.

  17. Personal inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro-derivatives in rural residents in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakij, Walaiporn; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Kaganoi, Yuichi; Uozaki, Waka; Homma, Chiharu; Boongla, Yaowatat; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-18

    A personal inhalation exposure and cancer risk assessment of rural residents in Lampang, Thailand, was conducted for the first time. This highlighted important factors that may be associated with the highest areal incidence of lung cancer. Personal exposure of rural residents to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs) through inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was investigated in addition to stationary air sampling in an urban area. The personal exposure of the subjects to PM 2.5 ranged from 44.4 to 316 μg/m 3 , and the concentrations of PAHs (4.2-224 ng/m 3 ) and NPAHs (120-1449 pg/m 3 ) were higher than those at the urban site, indicating that personal exposure was affected by microenvironments through individual activities. The smoking behaviors of the rural residents barely affected their exposure to PAHs and NPAHs compared to other sources. The most important factor concerning the exposure of rural populations to PAHs was cooking activity, especially the use of charcoal open fires. The emission sources for rural residents and urban air were evaluated using diagnostic ratios, 1-nitropyrene/pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene/benzo[ghi]perylene. Their analyses showed a significant contribution to emission from residents' personal activities in addition to the atmospheric environment. Furthermore, the personal inhalation cancer risks for all rural subjects exceeded the USEPA guideline value, suggesting that the residents have a potentially increased cancer risk. The use of open fires showed the highest cancer risk. A reduction in exposure to air pollutants for the residents could potentially be achieved by using clean fuel such as liquid petroleum gas or electricity for daily cooking.

  18. Accessing doctors at times of need-measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling; Ward, Bernadette

    2015-05-29

    Poor access to doctors at times of need remains a significant impediment to achieving good health for many rural residents. The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged as a key tool for measuring healthcare access in rural areas. However, the choice of catchment size, a key component of the 2SFCA method, is problematic because little is known about the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel. Our study sought new evidence to test the hypothesis that residents of sparsely settled rural areas are prepared to travel further than residents of closely settled rural areas when accessing primary health care at times of need. A questionnaire survey of residents in five small rural communities of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia was used. The two outcome measures were current travel time to visit their usual doctor and maximum time prepared to travel to visit a doctor, both for non-emergency care. Kaplan-Meier charts were used to compare the association between increased distance and decreased travel propensity for closely-settled and sparsely-settled areas, and ordinal multivariate regression models tested significance after controlling for health-related travel moderating factors and town clustering. A total of 1079 questionnaires were completed with 363 from residents in closely-settled locations and 716 from residents in sparsely-settled areas. Residents of sparsely-settled communities travel, on average, 10 min further than residents of closely-settled communities (26.3 vs 16.9 min, p time prepared to travel (54.1 vs 31.9 min, p time remained significant after controlling for demographic and other constraints to access, such as transport availability or difficulties getting doctor appointments, as well as after controlling for town clustering and current travel times. Improved geographical access remains a key issue underpinning health policies designed to improve the provision of rural primary health care

  19. Place of residence and primary treatment of prostate cancer: examining trends in rural and nonrural areas in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetnar, Jeremy P; Hampton, John M; Williamson, Amy A; Downs, Tracy; Wang, Dian; Owen, Jean B; Crouse, Byron; Jones, Nathan; Wilson, J Frank; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether rural residents were at a disadvantage compared with urban residents with regard to the receipt of curative therapy for prostate cancer. Using the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study II, patients with prostate cancer who were diagnosed in 2004 were identified. Registrars reviewed the medical records of randomly selected patients with incident prostate cancer (n = 1906). The patients' residential address was geocoded and linked to the census tract from the 2000 U.S. Census. The place of residence was defined as rural or nonrural according to the census tract and rural-urban commuting area categorization. The distance from the residence to the nearest radiation oncology facility was calculated. The odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals associated with receipt of noncurative treatment was calculated from logistic regression models and adjusted for several potential confounders. Of the incident patients, 39.1% lived in urban census tracts, 41.5% lived in mixed tracts, and 19.4% lived in rural tracts. Hormone-only or active surveillance was received by 15.4% of the patients. Relative to the urban patients, the odds ratio for noncurative treatment was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.59-1.74) for those living in mixed tracts and 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.52-1.77) for those living in rural tracts. No association was found for noncurative treatment according to the Rural-Urban Commuting Area categorization. The linear trend was null between noncurative treatment and the distance to nearest radiation oncology facility (P = .92). The choice of curative treatment did not significantly depend on the patient's place of residence, suggesting a lack of geographic disparity for the primary treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  1. Commentary: Rehabilitation for Rural and Remote Residents Following a Traumatic Hand Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Kingston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A traumatic hand injury can involve damage to a number of structures including skin, nerves, tendons, muscle bone, and soft tissue. Impairments such as pain or stiffness and loss of range of motion can last for many years and result in a moderate to extreme impact on a person’s day-to-day life. Work, leisure, financial security, and emotional well-being often most affected. This commentary provides an analysis of those factors that inhibit (barriers and support (enablers the provision of hand therapy rehabilitation in rural and remote areas. Providing a collaborative and flexible rehabilitation programme to rural and remote residents following a traumatic hand injury can be seen as a challenge due to issues such as a limited access to health care services. Established protocols that work in regional or metropolitan locations are unlikely to be effective and innovative and pragmatic strategies are required. The provision of a collaborative and flexible rehabilitation programme regardless of residential location is an important part of the therapist’s intervention plan.

  2. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  3. Inequalities in health status among rural residents: EQ-5D findings from household survey China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Ma, Aixia; Chung, Roger Y

    2014-05-19

    This study analyzed inequalities in health status among different socioeconomic and demographic rural residents covered by the New Rural Cooperative Medical System in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lian Yungang City, China. A total of 337 respondents, who were selected by using a multistage stratified systematic random sampling method, completed the surveys. A questionnaire consisting of EQ-5D and demographic and socioeconomic information was adopted for data collection, and was administered by face-to-face interviews. Multiple regression models were employed to examine the differences in the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and the EQ-5D dimensions. Compared with those with lower education attainment, the respondents with higher education levels tended to report a higher VAS score (β = 2.666, 95% CI: 0.978 to 6.310), and were less likely to suffer from pain/discomfort (OR = 3.968; 95% CI: 1.447 to 10.880). The singles were more likely than the married to report moderate or extreme problems in usual activities (OR = 4.583; 95% CI: 1.188 to 17.676) and mobility (OR = 10.666; 95% CI: 2.464 to 6.171). However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the respondents with different income levels in the VAS score and EQ-5D dimensions. This study suggests that the singles and the people with lower education levels are high-risk groups for poorer health status in the Chinese rural population. The findings from this study warrant further investigation.

  4. Concurrent alcohol and medication poisoning hospital admissions among older rural and urban residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Smith, Rachel; Slavova, Svetla; Charnigo, Richard; Schoenberg, Nancy; Martin, Catherine; Clayton, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol and medication interactions are projected to increase due to the growth of older adults that are unsafely consuming alcohol and medications. Plus, aging adults who reside in rural areas are at the highest risk of experiencing medication interactions. Estimate concurrent alcohol and medication (alcohol/medication) hospitalizations in adults 50+ years, comparing age groups and rural/urban regions. Kentucky nonfederal, acute care inpatient hospital discharge electronic records for individuals aged 50+ years from 2001 to 2012 were examined. Rate differences were estimated across age and regional strata. Differences in the underlying principal diagnosis, intent, and medications were also examined. There were 2168 concurrent alcohol/medication hospitalizations among 50+ year olds identified. There was a 187% increase in alcohol/medication hospitalizations from 2001 (n = 104) to 2012 (n = 299). The per capita alcohol/medication hospitalization rate increased from 8.91 (per 100,000) in 2001 to 19.98 (per 100,000) in 2012, a 124% increase. The characteristics of the hospitalizations included 75% principal diagnosis as medication poisoning, self-harm as the primary intent (55%) in 50-64-year olds, and unintentional intent (41%) in 65+ adults. Benzodiazepines were most often involved in the poisonings (36.5%). Concurrent alcohol/medication hospitalizations in Kentucky are increasing among aging adults. Greater increases in rural areas and the 65+ aged adults were seen, although there were also higher alcohol/medication hospitalizations in urban and 50-64 aged adults. These findings indicate the need for public-health prevention and clinical intervention to better educate and manage alcohol consuming older adults on safe medication and alcohol practices.

  5. Risk aversion and willingness to pay for water quality: The case of non-farm rural residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Bruno; West, Gale E; Singbo, Alphonse; Tamini, Lota Dabio

    2017-07-15

    Stated choice experiments are used to investigate the economic valuation of rural residents living in the province of Quebec for water quality improvements. In Quebec, rural residents played an important role in the setting of stricter environmental regulations. Unlike most stated choice experiments about the valuation of improvements in water quality, this study explicitly accounts for risk in the design and analysis of choice experiments. Risk in phosphorus and coliform reductions is introduced through a three-point uniform distribution in the choice sets. The results show greater support for constant absolute risk aversion preferences than for constant relative risk aversion. Rural residents value coliform and phosphorus reductions and the more educated ones are particularly willing to see the government tax farmers and taxpayers to secure such reductions. As the science improves and risk in water quality outcomes decrease and as the political weight of non-farm rural residents increase, it should be easier for governments to replace voluntary cost-share programs by polluter-payer programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents' Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chuanhui; Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-04-11

    Currently, villages "besieged with garbage" have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents' separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents' separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies.

  7. Super Network on the Prairie The Discursive Framing of Broadband Connectivity by Policy Planners and Rural Residents in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bakardjieva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of the SuperNet, an infrastructure project designed and sponsored by the provincial government of Alberta, Canada with the objective of providing broadband connectivity to public facilities, businesses and residences in rural communities. The data were collected through individual interviews, focus groups, and town hall meetings in the course of a collaborative research initiative (The SuperNet Research Alliance that investigated the social construction of the broadband network from multiple perspectives. The objective of the paper is to examine in parallel the discourses in which the concept of broadband connectivity acquired meaning and substance at the levels of 1 provincial government and industry policy planners and 2 the residents of the rural communities who were the intended beneficiaries of the SuperNet. Using actor-network theory as a departure point, this analysis takes stock of the framing devices employed in the two sets of discourses and of the distinctive worldviews that generated them. It looks for the meeting points and the disjunctions between the grand visions and the grounded projections underlying the positions taken by the two respective categories of actors. Differences in the interpretation and appropriation of broadband among rural Albertans themselves are discerned and related to social factors characterizing different situations within rural areas. Rural broadband connectivity thus emerges not so much as a one-dimensional access equalizer for rural people, but as a complex mediator of opportunity, participation and identity.

  8. Stress and alcohol use in rural Chinese residents: A moderated mediation model examining the roles of resilience and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-10-01

    Little research has been done on alcohol use and dependence among rural residents in China, a sub-population that might be under increased stress due to the rapid modernization and urbanization processes. We aimed to assess rural residents' levels of stress, negative emotions, resilience, alcohol use/dependence and the complex relationships among them. Survey data from a large random sample (n=1145, mean age=35.9, SD=7.7, 50.7% male) of rural residents in Wuhan, China were collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. The sample had high prevalence of frequently perceived stress (47%) and high prevalence of ever (54.4%), past 30-day (40.4%), and binge drinking (13.8%). Approximately 11% met the criterion for intermediate to severe alcohol dependence. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between perceived stress (predictor) and alcohol dependence (outcome) was fully mediated by anxiety (indirect effect=.203, pstress and two negative emotions (mediators) was significantly modified by resilience (moderator); an integrative moderated mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect from stress to alcohol dependence through negative emotions was also moderated by resilience. Negative emotions play a key role in bridging stress and alcohol dependence, while resilience significantly buffers the impact of stress on depression, reducing the risk of alcohol dependence. Resilience training may be an effective component for alcohol intervention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resident Support for Tourism Development in Rural Midwestern (USA Communities: Perceived Tourism Impacts and Community Quality of Life Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pin Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Local residents play an important role in the process of sustainable development in tourism. Resident support for tourism development contributes to the health of tourism industry and successful community development. Therefore, it is in the best interest of local residents, the tourism industry, and tourists, that residents have a positive outlook on and positive experiences with tourism development. In order to understand resident support for tourism development from tourism impacts and community quality of life perspective within the rural communities of Orange County, Indiana, USA, this study has examined a proposed structural model which incorporates eight latent variables: (a six types of positive and negative tourism impacts serve as exogenous latent variables; (b tourism-related community quality of life (TCQOL is proposed as the mediating variable; and (c resident support for tourism development is the ultimate dependent variable. The results show that both sociocultural and environmental benefits contribute to the host community’s living experience. Economic and sociocultural benefits, negative sociocultural and environmental impacts, and TCQOL influence resident support for tourism development. This study identified specific tourism impacts that affect TCQOL and resident support for local tourism development. This study affirms that community quality of life (QOL serves an effective predictor of support for tourism development.

  10. Burden and correlates of non-communicable-diseases among rural residents: a cross-sectional study in Hebei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junjun; Yu, Wenya; Zhou, Qiang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Li, Yiqiu; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Lei; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Yan, Yuying; Tang, Weiming

    2015-06-20

    Burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing rapidly in most of the developing countries including China, even in rural areas. Dearth of representative data called for an investigation to estimate the burden and identify the correlates of NCDs in rural China. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a representative sample of 6003 consenting randomly selected rural residents aged 15 years or more, from 36 villages of Shijiazhuang in Hebei province of China between July 2010 and June 2011. Information on demographics and behavior were collected, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were measured and blood samples were tested to diagnose diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Majority participants were aged problems (12.1%) and gastrointestinal NCDs (7.8%) were identified among the participants, while proportion of subjects with one, two and three or more NCDs were 43%, 14.4% and 5.5% respectively. Higher odds of having more NCDs were associated with higher BMI (Kg/M(2)), family history of NCDs, daily and past history of smoking and drinking, passive smoking, lack of exercise, skipping breakfast and psychological disturbances. Despite limitations associated with cross-sectional design and self-reporting, observation in this large sample of rural residents could develop important insights regarding high burden of NCDs in this population. Based on the identified correlates, targeted intervention strategies seem to be required urgently to control NCDs in rural China.

  11. Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christal N; Natta, Shanaliz S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-11-01

    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period. We also assessed whether the G × E interaction would be moderated by sex, and whether family socioeconomic status (SES; income and parental education) may mediate the G × E interaction. Findings showed the expected interaction among females, with a weaker contribution of genes (2 vs. 44%) and greater contribution of shared environment (62 vs. 29%) to variation in alcohol involvement among rural as compared to urban residents. The G × E interaction was not observed among males, and operated independently from differences in family SES among rural and urban adolescents. This study represents a partial replication in a novel setting of the moderation of the genetic contribution to alcohol use by rural/urban residency, and suggests that SES differences may not explain this effect.

  12. Identifying the Risk Factors for Typhoid Fever among the Residents of Rural Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.; Bashir, F.; Abbasi, S.; Tahir, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: During August 2015, unusually high typhoid fever cases were reported from rural Islamabad at Federal General Hospital (FGH), Islamabad. Objectives: To determine the risk factors for typhoid fever outbreak and recommend preventive measures. Study design, settings and duration: Outbreak investigation study conducted in Union Councils 19 and 22 of rural Islamabad in the catchment area for Federal General Hospital, from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire was used to identify risk factors of typhoid fever. A case was defined as any resident of the rural Islamabad within the mauza Chatta Bakhtawar and Terlai Kalan presenting with high grade fever (>101 F) with one of the following signs/symptoms; headache, abdominal pain and vomiting with positive typhidot test from 7 th July-30 th August 2015. Two age and sex matched controls for each case was selected from the neighborhood. Epi Info 7 was used for analysis. Results: Total of 50 cases and 100 controls were enrolled. Among cases 30 (61 percent) were females and 20 (39 percent) males with M;F ratio of 1:1.5. Mean age was 23.0 years (9.9 +- SD). The most affected age group was 15-25 years (AR 0.19 percent, n=21). Only one case died (CFR 2percent). Use of untreated public water after rains (OR 3.7 CI 1.6-9.7 p< 0.0002), reconstruction areas and bursting/leaking of water pipes (OR 4.017 CI 1.6-9.7 p < 0.001) and presence of confirmed typhoid cases at home/close contacts (OR 5.7 CI 2.019-16.18 p < 0.0003) were the significant risk factors found associated with the disease. Whereas using well/private bore (OR 0.29 CI 0.329-0.653 p < 0.001) and hand washing practices (OR 0.7 CI 0.297-1.9 < 0.5) had a protective effect. Multivariate analysis showed that use of untreated public water (OR: 3.34, CI: 1.52-7.29, p < 0.002), bursting/leaking pipes (OR 2.86, CI 0.96-8.48, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with typhoid disease. Conclusion: Contamination of drinking water with sewage

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  14. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  15. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-Free Policy Support Among Public Housing Authority Residents in Rural and Tribal Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.

  16. Research on differences in the factors influencing the energy-saving behavior of urban and rural residents in China–A case study of Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Guangqiang; Liu, Zhenhua; Long, Ruyin

    2017-01-01

    As environmental problems grow increasingly prominent, energy-saving behavior research has gradually captured the attention of scholars throughout the world. This paper conducts a study of energy-saving behavior and the influencing factors using correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and other research methods; it focuses first on urban and rural residents in Jiangsu Province and then regionally on North Jiangsu, Middle Jiangsu and South Jiangsu. The results show that (1) urban residents in Jiangsu Province tend to engage in more energy-saving activities than rural residents; regionally, the energy-saving tendencies of residents from the area can be ranked as follows: Middle Jiangsu residents > North Jiangsu residents > South Jiangsu residents. (2) Urban-rural differences and regional differences also exist in Jiangsu Province in terms of both buying choice behavior and daily use behavior. With regard to regional differences in the factors influencing buying choice behavior and daily use behavior to support energy saving, North Jiangsu residents are most influenced by a sense of responsibility for the environment, Middle Jiangsu residents by policies and regulations and energy-saving knowledge, and South Jiangsu residents by low-carbon energy-saving willingness and energy-saving knowledge. This paper offers differentiated guidance regarding policies based on its research conclusions. - Highlights: • The paper separates energy consumption behavior into buying choice and daily use behavior. • Urban-rural and regional differences exist in residents’ energy consumption behavior. • Urban residents show a greater tendency toward energy-saving behavior than rural residents. • Middle Jiangsu residents’ energy-saving behavior is higher than that of residents of North and South Jiangsu.

  17. Factors associated with influenza vaccination status of residents of a rural community in Japan

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    Watanabe Isao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of influenza vaccination in Japan has declined over the past several decades. It is essential to identify community-specific factors that affect attitudes toward vaccination, but such parameters have not yet been fully determined in Japan. The present study used the Health Belief Model (HBM to identify perceptions of influenza vaccination in a rural Japanese community. Methods All subjects were residents of a rural town in the southern part of Kyoto, Japan. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 846 randomly chosen households (containing 2,665 subjects. The survey explored gender, age, history of influenza, and factors associated with obtaining influenza vaccination, based on the HBM. Results A total of 1,182 valid responses (response rate, 44.4% were received. Sources of information that were associated with vaccination decisions were medical facilities for children (OR = 4.21; 95% CI: 1.17-15.1, workplaces for adults (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.22-4.75, medical facilities, town office and family for elderly subjects (OR = 6.18; 95% CI: 2.42-15.7, OR = 5.59; 95% CI: 2.26-13.8 and OR = 3.29; 95%CI: 1.01-10.6. Subjects, in all age groups, who strongly agreed that the vaccine was effective were significantly more likely to be vaccinated (OR = 10.5; 95%CI: 2.68-41.7 for children; OR = 8.85; 95%CI: 4.61-16.9 for adults; OR = 19.9; 95%CI: 8.28-48.0 for the elderly. The vaccination rate of elderly subjects who expressed concerns regarding adverse vaccine effects (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.78 or who were worried about practical barriers to the vaccination process (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.05-0.31 was significantly lower than in other populations. Conclusions Our results indicate that vaccination coverage can be increased if accurate information on personal risk, severity of influenza illness, and efficacy of vaccination are provided by responsible information sources that are easily accessible. Such sources

  18. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  19. Desirability for a typhoid fever vaccine among rural residents, Pemba Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John; Ali, Said M

    2013-06-24

    Surveillance data indicate that Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. With limited anticipated short-term improvements in sanitation and water infrastructure, targeted vaccination campaigns may be an important prevention tool for typhoid fever. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 435 randomly selected households in four rural villages on Pemba Island, Tanzania. A dichotomous 'readiness to pay' variable was created to assess vaccine desirability. Data analyses included univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Bivariate outcomes (ANOVA, t-tests, and chi-square) and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals are reported. A total of 66% respondents stated that they would pay for a typhoid fever vaccine in the future. Readiness to pay was not significantly associated with household expenditures. Readiness to pay was associated with use of local Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) compared to use of cottage or district hospitals (OR 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.7]: p=.007) and with knowledge of someone being sick from typhoid fever (OR 2.2 [95% CI, 1.0-4.5]: p=.039). Respondents perceiving prevention measures as more effective (OR 1.0 [95% CI, 1.0-1.2]: p=.009) were also more likely ready to pay. Preferred methods of communication of information about a typhoid fever vaccine included broadcasting via microphone ('miking'), radio, and door-to-door visits. With rapid increase in numbers of licensed and promising vaccines, policy makers and health administrators are faced with decisions regarding allocation of scarce health resources for competing interventions. Community residents need to be informed about diseases which may not be readily recognized, diagnosed, and treated. Perceived vulnerability to the disease may increase likelihood of vaccine desirability. A better local understanding of typhoid fever is needed for general prevention measures, increasing treatment

  20. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyo, George W; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Okui, Olico; Rahman, Mohammed Hafizur; Peterson, Stefan; Bishai, David M; Lucas, Henry; Peters, David H

    2009-11-12

    Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94). The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67). The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP) were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP) in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92), and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48). The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy makers should consider targeting subsidies to the poor and

  1. Changes in utilization of health services among poor and rural residents in Uganda: are reforms benefitting the poor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishai David M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda implemented health sector reforms to make services more accessible to the population. An assessment of the likely impact of these reforms is important for informing policy. This paper describes the changes in utilization of health services that occurred among the poor and those in rural areas between 2002/3 and 2005/6 and associated factors. Methods Secondary data analysis was done using the socio-economic component of the Uganda National Household Surveys 2002/03 and 2005/06. The poor were identified from wealth quintiles constructed using an asset based index derived from Principal Components Analysis (PCA. The probability of choice of health care provider was assessed using multinomial logistic regression and multi-level statistical models. Results The odds of not seeking care in 2005/6 were 1.79 times higher than in 2002/3 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.65 - 1.94. The rural population experienced a 43% reduction in the risk of not seeking care because of poor geographical access (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.48 - 0.67. The risk of not seeking care due to high costs did not change significantly. Private for profit providers (PFP were the major providers of services in 2002/3 and 2005/6. Using PFP as base category, respondents were more likely to have used private not for profit (PNFP in 2005/6 than in 2002/3 (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.58 - 2.92, and also more likely to use public facilities in 2005/6 than 2002/3 (OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.15 - 1.48. The most poor, females, rural residents, and those from elderly headed households were more likely to use public facilities relative to PFP. Conclusion Although overall utilization of public and PNFP services by rural and poor populations had increased, PFP remained the major source of care. The odds of not seeking care due to distance decreased in rural areas but cost continued to be an important barrier to seeking health services for residents from poor, rural, and elderly headed households. Policy

  2. Chinese Gini Coefficient from 2005 to 2012, Based on 20 Grouped Income Data Sets of Urban and Rural Residents

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    Jiandong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data insufficiency has become the primary factor affecting research on income disparity in China. To resolve this issue, this paper explores Chinese income distribution and income inequality using distribution functions. First, it examines 20 sets of grouped data on family income between 2005 and 2012 by the China Yearbook of Household Surveys, 2013, and compares the fitting effects of eight distribution functions. The results show that the generalized beta distribution of the second kind has a high fitting to the income distribution of urban and rural residents in China. Next, these results are used to calculate the Chinese Gini ratio, which is then compared with the findings of relevant studies. Finally, this paper discusses the influence of urbanization on income inequality in China and suggests that accelerating urbanization can play an important role in narrowing the income gap of Chinese residents.

  3. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

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    Bleich Stefan

    2011-02-01

    adolescents of German descent (23.6% vs. 57.4%. However, in those adolescents who consumed alcohol in the last 4 weeks, binge drinking is very prominent across the cultural backgrounds. Conclusions Binge drinking is a common problem behavior in German adolescents. Obviously adolescents with rural residence have fewer alternatives for engaging in interesting leisure activities than adolescents living in cities. This might be one reason for the more problematic consumption patterns there. Common expectations concerning drinking behavior of adolescents of certain cultural backgrounds ('migrants with Russian background drink more'/'migrants from Arabic respectively Oriental-Islamic countries drink less' are only partly affirmed. Possibly, the degree of acculturation to the permissive German alcohol culture plays a role here.

  4. Engaging Stakeholders in the Development of an eHealth Intervention for Cancer Symptom Management for Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson-White, Stephanie; Yeung, Chi W; Saeidzadeh, Seyedehtanaz; Tykol, Hannah; Vikas, Praveen; Cannon, Ashley

    2018-04-25

    Late-stage cancer diagnoses disproportionately occur in rural residents, frequently resulting in increased need for symptom management support with minimal access to these services. Oncology Associated Symptoms and Individualized Strategies (OASIS) is an eHealth symptom self-management intervention that was developed to provide cancer symptom self-management support and address this disparity. To engage stakeholders about the symptom management needs and concerns of patients with advanced cancer living in rural areas. A 3-phased, mixed-methods design was used to (1) assess stakeholder needs and opinions; (2) develop a symptom self-management website; and (3) obtain usability feedback from potential users. Interviews with stakeholders (patients and clinic staff) from rural areas using a descriptive qualitative approach were analyzed; cross-cutting themes were identified; a symptom management web application was developed; and stakeholders completed a 12-item usability survey about the web application. Patients (n = 16) and clinical staff (n = 10) participated in phase 1. Three major themes were identified: "symptom experience," "symptom management," and "technology." Through an iterative process using these results and evidence from the literature, the OASIS web application was developed. Usability testing with N = 126 stakeholders demonstrated that the web application is easy to use, contains relevant content, and has pleasing graphics. No differences were found among patients, family/friends, and staff. Both frequent and infrequent internet users positively evaluated the web application.  CONCLUSIONS: Rural stakeholders report significant symptom management needs, are interested in eHealth technologies, and perceived OASIS positively. Future research is needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of OASIS. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Distinct risk profiles for human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus among rural and urban residents: Zhejiang Province, China, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors and source of infection leading to human infections with the Influenza A(H7N9 virus in urban and rural areas. METHODS: We conducted a case-control investigation to identify potential exposures and risk factors. Controls were randomly selected from the same community as the cases using random digit dialing. We used exact conditional logistic regression to evaluate the exposures and risk factors, stratified by urban and rural residence. RESULTS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market was significantly associated with illness onset among both urban [48% of 25 case-patients and 12% of 125 control-persons, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 19, 95% CI: 2.3-929] and rural (33% of 18 case-patients and 8.9% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 13, 95% CI:1.5-∞ residents. In rural area, tending to home-raised poultry (56% of 18 case-patients and 10% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 57, 95% CI: 7.5-∞ and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence (28% of 18 case-patients and 5.6% of 90 control-persons, AOR = 37, 95% CI: 3.8-∞ were also significantly associated with disease onset. Presence of underlying medical conditions was a significant risk factor for urban residents (76% of 25 case-patients and 13% of 125 control-persons, AOR = 49, 95% CI: 7.1-2132. CONCLUSIONS: Buying live or freshly slaughtered poultry from a market is a risk factor for both urban and rural residents, tending to home-raised poultry and existence of a poultry farm in the vicinity of the residence are risk factors unique for rural residents. The virus might have been in stealth circulation in the poultry population before infecting humans. We recommend strict poultry market management and multisectoral collaboration to identify the extent of poultry infection in China.

  6. ATTITUDES OF YOUNG RURAL RESIDENTS FROM ŁÓDZKIE VOIVODESHIP TOWARDS THEIR OWN INNOVATIVENESS

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    Katarzyna Zajda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In a knowledge-based economy, innovativeness is a quality desired on the labour market. It may increase young people’s employment opportunities. The article discusses the issue of young rural residents’ attitudes towards their own innovativeness. It presents the results of sociological research carried out in 2014–2015 in Łódzkie voivodeship among upper secondary school students from rural areas. Three components of the innovative attitude were analysed: cognitive, emotional/evaluative, and behavioral. The study was carried out using a case study method and an auditorium survey involving a total number of 209 people. On the basis of the study, conclusions were made referring to weak points of young rural residents’ attitude to their own innovativeness, and it was demonstrated that relatively few of them display an innovative attitude.

  7. Rural migration: what attracts new residents to non-metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, L J; Kelsey, T W; Thee, R J; Fousekis, P

    1997-01-01

    "This study uses the experience of three non-metropolitan counties in Pennsylvania to explore which community characteristics have the greatest influence on people's decisions to move to rural areas. Personal characteristics affected how in-migrants evaluated prospective rural residential locations. Higher income in-migrants placed a high priority on job opportunities, housing quality, a short commute to work, quality of schools, and low local taxes. Lower income in-migrants were more likely to value a location near family and friends. Ability to own a home, housing costs, and local taxes were also important." excerpt

  8. Health Service Accessibility and Risk in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Comparing Rural Versus Nonrural Residence in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Yolanda J.; Goldberg, Daniel W.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Castle, Philip E.; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Methods Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P < .05) was used to determine if differences were significant and Cohen's r to measure effect. Findings Across all cervical cancer preventive health care services and years, women who resided in rural areas had a significantly greater geographic accessibility burden when compared to nonrural areas (4.4 km vs 2.5 km and 4.9 minutes vs 3.0 minutes for screening; 9.9 km vs 4.2 km and 10.4 minutes vs 4.9 minutes for colposcopy; and 14.8 km vs 6.6 km and 14.4 minutes vs 7.4 minutes for precancer treatment services, all P < .001). Conclusion Improvements in cervical cancer prevention should address the potential benefits of providing the full spectrum of screening, diagnostic and precancer treatment services within individual facilities. Accessibility, assessments distinguishing rural and nonrural areas are essential when monitoring and recommending changes to service infrastructures (eg, mobile versus brick and mortar). PMID:27557124

  9. The Association between Rural Residence and the Use, Type, and Quality of Depression Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, John C.; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Xu, Stanley; Dong, Fran

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between rurality and depression care. Methods: Data were extracted for 10,319 individuals with self-reported depression in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pharmacotherapy was defined as an antidepressant prescription fill, and minimally adequate pharmacotherapy was defined as receipt of at least 4…

  10. A comparison of rural speech-language pathologists' and residents' access to and attitudes towards the use of technology for speech-language pathology service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Carolyn; Pattie, Lydelle; Wilson, Linda; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports results and implications of two related studies which investigated (a) access of residents and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) of rural Australia to information and communication technologies (ICT) and (b) their attitudes towards the use of ICT for delivery of speech-language pathology services. Both studies used mail out questionnaires, followed by interviews with a subset of those who completed the questionnaires. Data were obtained from 43 questionnaires from rural residents and 10 interviews with a subset of those residents, and from questionnaires returned by 49 SLPs and 4 interviews with a subset of those SLPs. Results show a mismatch between rural residents' and SLPs' access to and attitudes towards use of ICT for speech-language pathology service delivery. Rural residents had better access and more positive attitudes to the use of ICT for speech-language pathology service delivery than expected by SLPs. The results of this study have important implications for education and professional development of SLPs and for research into the use of ICT for telespeech-language pathology.

  11. A statistical intercomparison between "urban" and "rural" precipitation chemistry data from greater Manchester and two nearby secondary national network sites in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David S.; Longhurst, James W. S.

    Precipitation chemistry data from a dense urban monitoring network in Greater Manchester, northwest England, were compared with interpolated values from the U.K. secondary national acid deposition monitoring network for the year 1988. Differences were found to be small. However, when data from individual sites from the Greater Manchester network were compared with data from the two nearest secondary national network sites, significant differences were found using simple and complex statistical analyses. Precipitation chemistry at rural sites could be similar to that at urban sites, but the sources of some ions were thought to be different. The synoptic-scale gradients of precipitation chemistry, as shown by the secondary national network, also accounted for some of the differences.

  12. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

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    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  13. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of differences in psychosocial resources and state of health of rural and urban residents – based on studies carried out on students during examination stress

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    Danuta Zarzycka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Civilization changes of the environment shaping the psychosocial resources from rural to urban influence human health. [b]aim.[/b] The study aimed to identify the differences due to the place of residence (rural, urban as far as health resources are concerned (social support, sense of coherence, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration in plasma and health in examination stress situations. The study also determined the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (health resource and cortisol (stress indicator. [b]material and methods.[/b] The psychosocial variables were assessed using the scales: ISEL-48v. Coll., SOC-29, SF-36v.2™ o and analogue scale (perception of examination stress. The study included, based on a stratified sampling (year of study and purposive sampling (written examination, major, 731 students representing the six universities in Lublin, south-east Poland. Among the respondents, 130 students were rural residents. [b]results.[/b] Health resources of students living in rural and urban areas generally differ statistically significantly in social support and the subscales of availability of tangible support, availability of appreciative support, the availability of cognitive-evaluative support and a sense of resourcefulness. The study recorded a sstatistically significantly larger network of family ties among students living in rural areas. The demonstrated diversity of resources did not substantially affect the perceived health, with the exception of pain sensation. Examination stress assessed by subjective opinion of the respondents and plasma cortisol levels vary relative to the place of residence. Students residing in rural areas showed significantly lower cortisol levels values, but subjectively perceived the situation of examation as more stressful. [b]conclusions[/b]. Differences in health resources and their mechanism of impact on health, to a limited extent, were conditioned by the place

  15. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Lumbar Spondylosis and Its Association with Low Back Pain among Rural Korean Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Yeon; Cho, Nam H; Jung, Young Ok; Seo, Young Il; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the relevant risk factors for lumbar spondylosis (LS) among middle-aged and elderly rural Korean residents and to explore the association between radiographic LS and lower back pain (LBP) in relation to age and gender. This community-based, cross-sectional study evaluated 1512 subjects with available radiograph. The prevalence of LBP was obtained using a questionnaire and disability resulting from LBP was measured using a validated Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In lumbar spine radiographs, vertebral levels from L1/2 to L4/5 were evaluated for the presence of osteophytes and joint-space narrowing (JSN), and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading was applied. Of 4261 subjects aged 40-79 years, data from 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of radiographic LS indicated by grade ≥2 osteophytes and JSN were 53.9 and 15.8%, respectively. Seventy-three percent of subjects had KL grade ≥2 spondylosis and LBP was present in 36.5% of subjects. Although LS was more common among males, the prevalence of LBP was higher among females. Age, male gender and history of hand or knee arthritis were risk factors for LS. LS was significantly associated with LBP mostly among females over 60 years old and correlated with the ODI after adjusting for age and gender. Our study among rural Korean residents revealed a high prevalence of LS and LBP. The association between LS and LBP was observed mostly among females and LS was significantly correlated with the severity of back pain.

  17. Disaster preparedness networks in rural Midwest communities: Organizational roles, collaborations, and support for older residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Zhu, Xi; Robinson, Erin L; Schroer, Audrey

    2018-05-17

    This study investigated the roles and interconnections among community organizations belonging to local disaster coalitions in Midwest in supporting older residents. Representatives from 44 organizations participated in one-time survey. Most were non-profit (68%) or federal/state/local government agencies (23%). The analyses of 761 relationships showed stronger collaborations in assessment (average strength=2.88 on a 5-point scale), emergency response (2.72), and planning (2.61); and weaker collaborations in co-sponsoring programs (1.71) and supporting older residents (2.03). The extent of collaboration (network density) to support older adults was also low. Coalitions may enhance network density and centralization by developing sub-committee structure and strengthening existing collaborations.

  18. Quality of Life in Rural Communities: Residents Living Near to Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Khairuddin; Mohamed Shaffril, Hayrol Azril; Md. Yassin, Sulaiman; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Hamzah, Azimi; Abu Samah, Bahaman

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to identify the quality of life (QoL) among communities residing near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers in Malaysia. This quantitative study used a constructed questionnaire as main tool to collect data on the QoL of river communities. A total of 240 villagers were selected as respondents. The results indicated that the dimensions of settlement, safety, involvement and social relationships, as well as education scored highest, while dimensions of physical env...

  19. Knowledge of Food Production Methods Informs Attitudes toward Food but Not Food Choice in Adults Residing in Socioeconomically Deprived Rural Areas within the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…

  20. Health risk assessment to fluoride in drinking water of rural residents living in the Poldasht city, Northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Hossein Mahvi, Amir

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzes the concentrations and health risks of fluoride in 112 drinking water samples collected from 28 villages of the Poldasht city, West Azerbaijan province in Iran. Results indicated that fluoride content in drinking water ranged from0.27 to 10.3mgL -1 (average 1.70mgL -1 ). The 57% of samples analyzed exceeded the limit set for fluoride in drinking water. Based on findings from health risk assessment this study, the highest fluoride exposure for different regions of Poldasht city was observed in young consumers, children and teenager's groups. Also, most of the rural residents suffered from fluoride contaminated drinking water. The calculated HQ value was > 1 for all groups of residents in Agh otlogh and Sari soo areas. Therefore, it is imperative to take measures to reduce fluoride concentration in drinking water and control of fluorosis. Action should be implemented to enhance monitoring of fluoride levels to avoid the potential risk to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals among residents of a rural vegetarian/vegan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Karen; Grinshpan, Laura; Novack, Lena; Göen, Thomas; Segev, Dar; Beacher, Lisa; Stern, Naftali; Berman, Tamar

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly thought to be involved in the rising prevalence of disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and some hormone-dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence have indicated that vegetarian and vegan diets may offer some protection from such diseases. We hypothesized that exposure to selected EDCs among residents of the unique vegetarian/vegan community of Amirim would be lower than what has recently been reported for the omnivorous population in the first Israel Biomonitoring Study (IBMS). We studied 42 Amirim residents (29 vegetarians/13 vegans; 24 women/18men, aged 50.7±13.7y). Subjects answered detailed lifestyle, and multipass, memory-based 24-hr dietary recall questionnaires. Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 11 phthalate metabolites, and the isoflavone phytoestrogens (genistein and daidzein) were determined by GC or LC tandem mass-spectrometry on a spot urine sample. The results were compared to those obtained following the same methodology in the Jewish subgroup of the IBMS (n=184). While a vegetarian/vegan nutritional pattern had no effect on exposure to BPA, it seemed to confer a modest protection (~21%) from exposure to high molecular weight phthalates. Furthermore, the summed metabolites of the high molecular weight phthalate DiNP were 36% lower in vegans compared to vegetarians (P<0.05). In contrast, Amirim residents exhibited a level of exposure to isoflavone phytoestrogens about an order of magnitude higher than in the IBMS (P<0.001). In Israel, a country whose inhabitants demonstrate exposure to EDCs comparable to that of the US and Canada, a voluntary lifestyle of vegetarianism and preference for organic food has a modest, but possibly valuable, impact on exposure to phthalates, while it is associated with a very steep increase in the exposure to phytoestrogens. Major reduction in exposure to EDCs will require regulatory actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of Life in Rural Communities: Residents Living Near to Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairuddin Idris

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to identify the quality of life (QoL among communities residing near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers in Malaysia. This quantitative study used a constructed questionnaire as main tool to collect data on the QoL of river communities. A total of 240 villagers were selected as respondents. The results indicated that the dimensions of settlement, safety, involvement and social relationships, as well as education scored highest, while dimensions of physical environment, financial and job security yielded moderate scores. Dimensions of infrastructure facilities yielded a low mean score. Recommendations are provided, in the hope that our results may be useful for strategies that could enhance QoL of these river communities.

  3. Quality of Life in Rural Communities: Residents Living Near to Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Khairuddin; Mohamed Shaffril, Hayrol Azril; Md Yassin, Sulaiman; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Hamzah, Azimi; Abu Samah, Bahaman

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to identify the quality of life (QoL) among communities residing near the Tembeling, Pahang and Muar Rivers in Malaysia. This quantitative study used a constructed questionnaire as main tool to collect data on the QoL of river communities. A total of 240 villagers were selected as respondents. The results indicated that the dimensions of settlement, safety, involvement and social relationships, as well as education scored highest, while dimensions of physical environment, financial and job security yielded moderate scores. Dimensions of infrastructure facilities yielded a low mean score. Recommendations are provided, in the hope that our results may be useful for strategies that could enhance QoL of these river communities.

  4. Access to medicines in remote and rural areas: a survey of residents in the Scottish Highlands & Western Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, G F; Diack, L; MacRobbie, A; Munoz, S-A; Pfleger, S; Stewart, D

    2015-03-01

    Sparsely populated areas are potentially predisposed to health inequalities due to limited access to services. This study aimed to explore and describe issues of access to medicines and related advice experienced by residents of the Scottish Highlands and Western Isles. Cross-sectional cohort study. Anonymized questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 6000 residents aged ≥18 years identified from the electoral register. The questionnaire contained items on: access to medicines; interactions with health care services; and perceptions of the services. Results were analysed using descriptive, inferential and spatial statistics. Adjusted response rate was 49.5% (2913/5889). Almost two thirds (63.4%, 1847) were prescribed medicines regularly, 88.5% (1634) of whom considered the source convenient. Pharmacy (73.8%, 1364) or dispensing GP (24.0%, 443) were the most accessed sources. Prescription medicine advice was mainly obtained from the GP (55.7%, 1029). Respondents ≥80 years old were significantly (P 80 years living alone disagreed that they obtained prescribed medicines from a convenient source. The majority of respondents who felt they did not have a convenient medicines source, regardless of urban/rural classification, lived within five miles of a pharmacy or GP practice. Respondents accessed medicines and advice from a variety of sources. While most considered their access to medicines convenient, there were issues for those over 80 years and living alone. Perceived convenience would not appear to be solely based on geographical proximity to supply source. This requires further exploration given that these individuals are likely to have long-term conditions and be prescribed medicines on a chronic basis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental knowledge, beliefs and behaviours for oral health of toddlers residing in rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussy, M G; Waters, E B; Riggs, E M; Lo, S K; Kilpatrick, N M

    2008-03-01

    Little is known about the oral health of children under the age of four years. The determinants of early childhood caries (ECC) in this young age group are also not well understood despite a growing recognition that early interventions may deliver the greatest benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviours of parents of children aged 12-24 months living in rural areas of Victoria, Australia. A robust theoretical model was utilized to identify oral health-related behaviours and their antecedent and reinforcing conditions within the context of this specific population group. Two hundred and ninety-four parent/child dyads were recruited through their maternal and child health nurses as part of a larger intervention trial. Parents completed a self-report questionnaire. Knowledge regarding risk and protective factors amongst parents was variable and sometimes at odds with contemporary evidence. Knowledge of the role of early infection with S. mutans was very low, with high levels of behaviours that may promote early transmission reported. Tooth cleaning was reported by most parents at least sometimes, however a large proportion lacked confidence and this was significantly related to the frequency of the cleaning. Parents were confused about the fluoride status of their water supplies. Most parents believed fluoride toothpaste reduced the risk of ECC but did not know whether it should be used with toddlers. The results of this study have implications for efforts to prevent dental decay in this very young age group. Health care professionals other than dentists need support to provide information and promote confidence with regard to optimal fluoride exposure. Attention should also be given to the contribution of early contact with particular bacteria in oral health education and promotion programmes.

  6. Inequality in the hepatitis B awareness level in rural residents from 7 provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juan; Li, Quan; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Guojie; Wangen, Knut R

    2017-05-04

    The hepatitis B (HB) awareness level is an important factor affecting the rates of HB virus vaccination. To better understand income-related inequalities in the HB awareness level, it is imperative to identify the sources of inequalities and assess the contribution rates of these influential factors. This study analyzed the unequal distribution of the HB awareness level and the contributions of various influential factors. We performed a cross-sectional household survey with questionnaire-based, face-to-face interviews in 7 Chinese provinces. Responses from 7271 respondents were used in this analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis of contributing factors, and the concentration index was used as a measure of HB awareness inequalities. The HB awareness level varied across participants with different characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression of the explanatory factors of the HB awareness level showed that several estimated coefficients and relative risk ratios were statistically significant for middle- and high-level awareness, except for sex, occupation, and household income. The concentration index of the HB knowledge score was 0.140, indicating inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor. The contribution rate of socioeconomic factors was the largest (60.8%), followed by demographic characteristics (29.0%) and geographic factors (4.3%). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic factors are associated with the HB awareness inequality. Therefore, to reduce inequality, HB-related health education targeting individuals with low socioeconomic status should be performed. Less-developed provinces, especially with high proportions of poor residents, warrant particular attention. Our findings may be beneficial to improve the HB virus vaccination rate for individuals with low socioeconomic status.

  7. Molecular discrimination of Opisthorchis-like eggs from residents in a rural community of central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiwasan Buathong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini infection is a major public health problem in northern and northeastern Thailand. The chronic infection of O. viverrini is related to cholangiocarcinoma which causes high mortality in endemic areas. Therefore, the diagnosis, treatment, control and prevention of O. viverrini infection are necessary. The morphology of the egg is very similar to that of other species of human liver flukes (Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis as well as that of small intestinal flukes in the family Heterophyidae. Thus, molecular characterization is crucially required to discriminate species of Opisthorchis-like eggs in fecal examination.We aimed to determine the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among villagers living in Sanamchaikate District, Chachoengsao Province, in central Thailand, where O. viverrini infection has previously been reported. A total of 2,609 fecal samples were examined for Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS2 region was used to discriminate Opisthorchis-like eggs. The genetic structure of O. viverrini infection was demonstrated using nucleotide sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1. Testing of evolutionary neutrality of the cox1 and nad1 sequences of O. viverrini was performed using Tajima's D tests and Fu's Fs tests. Moreover, the haplotype networks and phylogenetic trees were constructed to study the relationships of O. viverrini isolated from different endemic areas. A high prevalence of O. viverrini infection is still observed in a rural community of Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. The overall prevalence of Opisthorchis-like eggs using microscopic examination was 16.8%. PCR-RFLP profiles showed the predominant infection of O. viverrini (9.6% including very low infections of other small intestinal flukes, Haplorchis taichui (0.08% and Euparyphium albuferensis (0.08%. The genetic structure of O

  8. Association of perceived neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status and rural residency with health outcomes in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: one center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Sattar, Amal B; Abou El Magd, Sahar

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the role of perceived neighborhood characteristics, socioeconomic status (SES) and rural residency in influencing the health status outcome of Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Eighty patients affected with SLE were consecutively included in this a single-center cross-sectional study from July, 2011 to July, 2013. Outcome measures included the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) score, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey physical functioning score and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D score of ≥ 19 points). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results from multivariate logistic regression analyses, a separate adjusted model of each perceived neighborhood characteristic, indicate associations of worse perceived social cohesion with higher SLAQ scores (P socioeconomic status and rural residency with health status outcomes, the results found association of poor socioeconomic status with the three health status outcome measures and association between rural residency and depression symptoms. Individuals had increased odds of depressive symptoms if they perceived worse neighborhood social cohesion (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; CI: 1.42-2.80), if they perceived worse neighborhood safety (OR: 1.64; CI: 1.02-2.40) and if they perceived worse neighborhood aesthetic characteristics (OR: 2.79; CI: 1.84-3.38). Study findings indicate that poor socioeconomic status, rural residency and perceived neighborhood characteristics are associated with depression; worse perceived neighborhood aesthetics and safety are associated with lower SF-36 physical functioning, and worse neighborhood social cohesion is associated with higher disease activity among patients with SLE. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women's overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madise, Nyovani Janet; Letamo, Gobopamang

    2017-01-01

    We sought to demonstrate that the relationship between urban or rural residence and overweight status among women in Sub-Saharan Africa is complex and confounded by wealth status. We applied multilevel logistic regression to data from 30 sub-Saharan African countries which were collected between 2006 and 2012 to examine the association between women's overweight status (body mass index ≥ 25) and household wealth, rural or urban place of residence, and their interaction. Macro-level statistics from United Nations agencies were used as contextual variables to assess the link between progress in globalization and patterns of overweight. Household wealth was associated with increased odds of being overweight in nearly all of the countries. Urban/rural living and household wealth had a complex association with women's overweight status, shown by 3 patterns. In one group of countries, characterised by low national wealth (median per capita gross national income (GNI) = $660 in 2012) and lower overall prevalence of female overweight (median = 24 per cent in 2010), high household wealth and urban living had independent associations with increased risks of being overweight. In the second group of less poor countries (median per capita GNI = $870) and higher national levels of female overweight (median = 29), there was a cross-over association where rural women had lower risks of overweight than urban women at lower levels of household wealth, but in wealthier households, rural women had higher risks of overweight than urban women. In the final group of countries, household wealth was an important predictor of overweight status, but the association between urban or rural place of residence and overweight status was not statistically significant. The median per capita GNI for this third group was $800 and national prevalence of female overweight was high (median = 32% in 2010). As nations develop and household wealth increases, rural African women

  10. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Lo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  11. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States tend to have higher obesity rates than urban areas, particularly in regions with high proportions of non-white residents. This paper analyzes the effect of fast-food availability on the level of fast-food consumption and obesity risk among both white and non-white residents of central Texas. Potential endogeneity of fast-food availability is addressed through instrumental variables regression using distance to the nearest major highway as an instrument. We find that non-whites tend to exhibit higher obesity rates, greater access to fast-food establishments and higher consumption of fast-food meals compared to their white counterparts. In addition, we found that whites and non-whites respond differently to the availability of fast-food in rural environments. Greater availability is not associated with either greater consumption of fast-food meals or a higher obesity risk among the sample of whites. In contrast, greater availability of fast-food is positively associated with both the number of meals consumed for non-white rural residents and their obesity. While our results are robust to specification, the effect of availability on weight outcomes is notably weaker when indirectly calculated from the implied relationship between consumption and caloric intake. This highlights the importance of directly examining the proposed mechanism through which an environmental factor influences weight outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Influences on Physical Activity among Rural Adults in Montana, United States: Views from Built Environment Audits, Resident Focus Groups, and Key Informant Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Brian K; Morgan, Emily H; Folta, Sara C; Graham, Meredith L; Paul, Lynn C; Nelson, Miriam E; Jew, Nicolette V; Moffat, Laurel F; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-10-04

    Rural populations in the United States have lower physical activity levels and are at a higher risk of being overweight and suffering from obesity than their urban counterparts. This paper aimed to understand the environmental factors that influence physical activity among rural adults in Montana. Eight built environment audits, 15 resident focus groups, and 24 key informant interviews were conducted between August and December 2014. Themes were triangulated and summarized into five categories of environmental factors: built, social, organizational, policy, and natural environments. Although the existence of active living features was documented by environmental audits, residents and key informants agreed that additional indoor recreation facilities and more well-maintained and conveniently located options were needed. Residents and key informants also agreed on the importance of age-specific, well-promoted, and structured physical activity programs, offered in socially supportive environments, as facilitators to physical activity. Key informants, however, noted that funding constraints and limited political will were barriers to developing these opportunities. Since building new recreational facilities and structures to support active transportation pose resource challenges, especially for rural communities, our results suggest that enhancing existing features, making small improvements, and involving stakeholders in the city planning process would be more fruitful to build momentum towards larger changes.

  13. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugochukwu U. Onyeonoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. Results In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0% were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Conclusions Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  14. Urban–Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U.; Ogah, Okechukwu S.; Ukegbu, Andrew U.; Chukwuonye, Innocent I.; Madukwe, Okechukwu O.; Moses, Akhimiem O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization’s STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. RESULTS In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system. PMID:27721654

  15. Urban-Rural Differences in Health-Care-Seeking Pattern of Residents of Abia State, Nigeria, and the Implication in the Control of NCDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu U; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ukegbu, Andrew U; Chukwuonye, Innocent I; Madukwe, Okechukwu O; Moses, Akhimiem O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the differences in care-seeking pattern is key in designing interventions aimed at improving health-care service delivery, including prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the differences and determinants of care-seeking patterns of urban and rural residents in Abia State in southeast Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional, community-based, study involving 2999 respondents aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using the modified World Health Organization's STEPS questionnaire, including data on care seeking following the onset of illness. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to analyze care-seeking behavior and to identify differences among those seeking care in urban and rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, patent medicine vendors (73.0%) were the most common sources of primary care following the onset of illness, while only 20.0% of the participants used formal care. Significant predictors of difference in care-seeking practices between residents in urban and rural communities were educational status, income, occupation, and body mass index. Efforts should be made to reduce barriers to formal health-care service utilization in the state by increasing health insurance coverage, strengthening the health-care system, and increasing the role of patent medicine vendors in the formal health-care delivery system.

  16. Resident Support for Tourism Development in Rural Midwestern (USA) Communities: Perceived Tourism Impacts and Community Quality of Life Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Pin Yu; Shu Tian Cole; Charles Chancellor

    2018-01-01

    Local residents play an important role in the process of sustainable development in tourism. Resident support for tourism development contributes to the health of tourism industry and successful community development. Therefore, it is in the best interest of local residents, the tourism industry, and tourists, that residents have a positive outlook on and positive experiences with tourism development. In order to understand resident support for tourism development from tourism impacts and com...

  17. The nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to ∼12 SNe/month in 2003

  18. Ageing in the Bush: The Role of Rural Places in Maintaining Identity for Long Term Rural Residents and Retirement Migrants in North-East Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Rachel; Warburton, Jeni

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of local population ageing, which is more pronounced in rural areas, the issue of maintaining a positive quality of life for rural older people is attracting significant attention. While environmental psychology theory has advocated the role of place identity in defining the self, there has been little applied research exploring…

  19. Evaluation of the Vocational Preparation and Success of Handicapped Individuals Who Reside in Rural Areas of Florida. Florida Rural Research Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Diane M.

    Phase 2 of a three-phase project examined the secondary education background and employment adjustment of handicapped youth in rural counties in Florida. (Phase 1 was a pilot study.) Subjects were former special education students in five rural project counties who had been identified as needing services in the area of educable mental retardation,…

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Nigeria: A comparative study of rural and urban residences based on the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Emmanuel Olorunleke; Auta, Asa; Khanal, Vishnu; Bamidele, Olasunkanmi David; Akuoko, Cynthia Pomaa; Adefemi, Kazeem; Tapshak, Samson Joseph; Zhao, Yun

    2018-01-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a major public health intervention aimed at ensuring safe pregnancy outcomes. In Nigeria, the recommended minimum of four times ANC attendance is underutilized. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of ANC services with a focus on the differences between rural and urban residences in Nigeria. We analyzed the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey dataset with adjustment for the sampling weight and the cluster design of the survey. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was assessed using frequency tabulation while associated factors were examined using Chi-Square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of underutilization of ANC was 46.5% in Nigeria, 61.1% in rural residence and 22.4% in urban residence. The North-West region had the highest prevalence of ANC underuse in Nigeria at 69.3%, 76.6% and 44.8% for the overall, rural and urban residences respectively. Factors associated with greater odds of ANC underuse in rural residence were maternal non-working status, birth interval urban residence, mothers professing Islam, those who did not read newspaper at all, and those who lacked health insurance, had greater odds of ANC underuse. In both rural and urban residence, maternal and husband's education level, region of residence, wealth index, maternal age, frequency of watching television, distance to- and permission to visit health facility were significantly associated with ANC underuse. Rural-urban differences exist in the use of ANC services, and to varying degrees, factors associated with underuse of ANC in Nigeria. Interventions aimed at addressing factors identified in this study may help to improve the utilization of ANC services both in rural and urban Nigeria. Such interventions need to focus more on reducing socioeconomic, geographic and regional disparities in access to ANC in Nigeria.

  1. A Comparison of the Number of Men Who Have Sex with Men among Rural-To-Urban Migrants with Non-Migrant Rural and Urban Residents in Wuhan, China: A GIS/GPS-Assisted Random Sample Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Dunjin; Zhou, Wang; Gong, Jie; Li, Shiyue; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations and men who have sex with men (MSM) play an increasing role in the current HIV epidemic in China and across the globe. While considerable research has addressed both of these at-risk populations, more effective HIV control requires accurate data on the number of MSM at the population level, particularly MSM among migrant populations. Methods Survey data from a random sample of male rural-to-urban migrants (aged 18-45, n=572) in Wuhan, China were analyzed and compared with those of randomly selected non-migrant urban (n=566) and rural counterparts (580). The GIS/GPS technologies were used for sampling and the survey estimation method was used for data analysis. Results HIV-related risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants were similar to those among the two comparison groups. The estimated proportion of MSM among migrants [95% CI] was 5.8% [4.7, 6.8], higher than 2.8% [1.2, 4.5] for rural residents and 1.0% [0.0, 2.4] for urban residents, respectively. Among these migrants, the MSM were more likely than non-MSM to be older in age, married, and migrated to more cities. They were also more likely to co-habit with others in rental properties located in new town and neighborhoods with fewer old acquaintances and more entertainment establishments. In addition, they were more likely to engage in commercial sex and less likely to consistently use condoms. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that compared to rural and urban populations, the migrant population in Wuhan consists of a higher proportion of MSM who also exhibit higher levels of HIV-related risk behaviors. More effective interventions should target this population with a focus on neighborhood factors, social capital and collective efficacy for risk reduction. PMID:26241900

  2. Value orientations of the population of the Republic of Tuva (a study of an opinion poll of urban and rural residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana P. Tatarova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the system of value orientations and cultural preferences in post-Soviet Russia are of highest importance for contemporary researchers. This article examines the value orientations of the residents of the Republic of Tuva (a constituent subject of Russian Federation both in toto and by generation and along the urban/rural divide. Our analysis utilized the outcomes of our empirical studies titled “The current state of sociocultural institutions in the Republic of Tuva and their role in preventing social problems” (2011 and “The rural culture of the Republic of Tuva” (2011-2012. I am grateful to students of the Tuva Branch of East Siberian State Academy of Culture and Fine Arts for their aid in conducting the study. The study showed that the system of value orientations in Tuva features certain distinctions between those of urban and rural residents, and along the generational divide. The urban population’s vital values are health, personal security and success (for the elder generation and health, money and personal success (for the younger generation. Among the social values the elder generations most frequently name respect from others, integrity, good family relations, while the younger generation focuses on respect from others, good friendship and integrity. Rural population places family and health above everything else. Studying leisure time of the urban population in Tuva showed that the list of top activities includes spending time with friends and/or family, watching TV and a day outdoors. The outcomes of our study do not completely match the hierarchy of leisure time activities in other regions of Russia and the national average. There is a certain danger in contemporary urban environment’s trend towards leaning down the variety of leisure activities. Our study showed that the urban and rural populations have almost identical TV watching habits, with the majority preferring newscasts, music shows and crime reports

  3. [A survey on the agricultural profession-related injuries among 11 902 rural residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Yin, Wei-qing; Ma, Hong; Liu, Wei-liang; Li, Sha-sha; Zhang, Meng-lin; Chu, Wen-jie; An, Bang

    2011-08-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of agricultural activities related injuries among rural residents in Shandong province. A retrospective investigation was conducted among agricultural profession-related workers in 20 villages with multistage cluster sampling method in Shandong province. Four times face-to-face interview were conducted by trained interviewers, including 32 students and local medical personnel under constructed questionnaires. Accidental injuries occurred in the activities or in the agricultural profession-related jobs were recorded, from May 1(st)2009 to April 30(st) 2010. Data was input and analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistical software. A total of 837 cases reported at least 1 job-related injury out of the 11 902 people who had been surveyed in one year. The crude incidence rate was 7.03% and the standardized incidence rate was 7.36%, higher in males (9.01%) than in females (4.10%), χ² = 105.53, P = 0.000. Children and adolescents (≤ 14 aged) had the higher incidence rate (9.50%), χ² = 9.70, P = 0.008. People working in the area of commercial service related to agricultural products had the highest incidence rate (12.94%). In particular, those occupations that related to agricultural construction or materials appeared to have had higher incidence rates as 16.80% and 15.59% respectively, than other kinds of jobs (χ² = 167.30, P = 0.000). There were higher proportion of injuries occurred in the roads (28.79%), in the fields (28.08%)during labor work (38.00%) transportation (27.97%), respectively. The seasonality of agricultural injures mostly occurred between June and August, accounted for 47.43%. Major external causes related to injuries were instruments or tools (31.42%) being used, transportation (24.13%) and falls (20.19%). Wounds on limbs took the majority (56.39%). The accidental self-inflicted injury occupied 76.82%, while accidents to passive injuries occupied 11.47%, other kinds accounted for 11.71%. Most of the accidents

  4. Examining Key Stakeholder and Community Residents' Understanding of Environmental Influences to Inform Place-Based Interventions to Reduce Obesity in Rural Communities, Kentucky 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; McGladrey, Margaret; Liu, Emily; Peritore, Nicole; Webber, Kelly; Butterworth, Brooke; Vail, Ann

    2017-07-07

    Rural residents report high rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and poor eating habits. The objectives of this study were to (1) use the collective impact model to guide efforts to elicit community members' perceptions of county-specific factors influencing high obesity rates; (2) determine the association between utilization of food retail venues and concern about obesity and healthy eating; and (3) determine community members' utilization of physical activity infrastructure and concern about physical inactivity. The study was conducted in 6 rural counties in Kentucky with adult obesity prevalence rates >40%. Community stakeholders met to assess counties' needs and assets in implementing interventions to reduce obesity in their communities. A random-digit dial survey (n = 756) also was conducted to examine awareness and availability of community resources for healthy eating and physical activity. Stakeholders identified lack of access to fruits and vegetables and poor physical activity infrastructure as contributors to obesity. Reporting moderate and serious concern about obesity and healthy eating was associated with higher odds of shopping at a supercenter compared with those expressing little concern. Reported access to information about physical activity opportunities was associated with higher odds of reporting the availability of safe places for physical activity, sidewalks, and trails compared with those who reported that information was difficult to obtain. This study elicits community-identified barriers to healthy behaviors and provides foundational data to inform future place-based obesity reduction interventions. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Effect of urban vs. rural residence on the association between atopy and wheeze in Latin America: findings from a case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endara, P; Vaca, M; Platts-Mills, T A E; Workman, L; Chico, M E; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

    2015-02-01

    The association between atopy and asthma is attenuated in non-affluent populations, an effect that may be explained by childhood infections such as geohelminths. To investigate the association between atopy and wheeze in schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Ecuador and examine the effects of geohelminths on this association. We performed nested case-control studies among comparable populations of schoolchildren living in rural communities and urban neighbourhoods in the Province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. We detected geohelminths in stool samples, measured recent wheeze and environmental exposures by parental questionnaire, and atopy by specific IgE (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to aeroallergens. Atopy, particularly sIgE to house dust mite (HDM), was more strongly associated with recent wheeze in urban than rural schoolchildren: (urban, adj. OR 5.19, 95% CI 3.37-8.00, P children. The association between atopy and recent wheeze was attenuated by markers of geohelminth infections. Our data suggest that urban residence modifies the association between HDM atopy and recent wheeze, and this effect is explained partly by geohelminth infections. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Health Service Accessibility and Risk in Cervical Cancer Prevention: Comparing Rural Versus Nonrural Residence in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Yolanda J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Scarinci, Isabel C; Castle, Philip E; Cuzick, Jack; Robertson, Michael; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2017-09-01

    Multiple intrapersonal and structural barriers, including geography, may prevent women from engaging in cervical cancer preventive care such as screening, diagnostic colposcopy, and excisional precancer treatment procedures. Geographic accessibility, stratified by rural and nonrural areas, to necessary services across the cervical cancer continuum of preventive care is largely unknown. Health care facility data for New Mexico (2010-2012) was provided by the New Mexico Human Papillomavirus Pap Registry (NMHPVPR), the first population-based statewide cervical cancer screening registry in the United States. Travel distance and time between the population-weighted census tract centroid to the nearest facility providing screening, diagnostic, and excisional treatment services were examined using proximity analysis by rural and nonrural census tracts. Mann-Whitney test (P brick and mortar). © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  7. Does where you live matter to your health? Investigating factors that influence the self-rated health of urban and rural Chinese residents: evidence drawn from Chinese General Social Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Zhu, Zhenjun; Li, Zhigang

    2017-04-21

    China's rapid urbanization over the past decades has exacerbated the problems of environmental degradation and health disparities. However, few studies have analysed the differences between urban and rural residents in relation to how environmental quality impacts health outcomes. This study examines the associations between Chinese people's perceptions of environmental quality and their self-rated health, particularly focusing on differences between rural and urban residents in environment-health relationships. Using a logistic regression model and data from the 2013 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), a representative sample of data for 3,402 urban residents (46 ± 16 years) and 2,439 rural residents (48 ± 15 years) was analysed. The dependent variable used for the logistic regressions was whether or not respondents reported being healthy. Independent variables included respondents' evaluations of the living environment, and how frequently they participated in physical activities. Interaction terms were employed to measure the moderating effects of physical exercise on the relationship between perceived environmental quality and health. The percentage of healthy urban residents was significantly larger than that of healthy rural respondents (70.87% versus 62.87%). Urban respondents living in areas with sufficient green space were more likely to report good health (OR = 0.749, CI = [0.628, 0.895]), while rural respondents without reliable access to fresh water were more likely to report poor health (OR = 0.762, CI = [0.612, 0.949]). Urban respondents who were exposed to green spaces and exercised frequently were 21.6 per cent more likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 1.216, CI = [1.047, 1.413]). Those who lived in areas with insufficient green space and exercised frequently were 19.1 per cent less likely to report good health than those who exercised infrequently (OR = 0.805, CI = [0

  8. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas

    2018-03-01

    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  9. Dietary Intake and Food Habits of Pregnant Women Residing in Urban and Rural Areas of Deyang City, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hormann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and imbalanced dietary intake tend to occur during the reproductive period among women in China. In accordance with traditional Chinese culture, pregnant women are commonly advised to follow a specific set of dietary precautions. The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake data and identify risk factors for nutritional inadequacy in pregnant women from urban and rural areas of Deyang region, Sichuan province of China. Cross-sectional sampling was applied in two urban hospitals and five rural clinics (randomly selected in Deyang region. Between July and October 2010, a total of 203 pregnant women in the third trimester, aged 19–42 years, were recruited on the basis of informed consent during antenatal clinic sessions. Semi-structured interviews on background information and 24-h dietary recalls were conducted. On the basis of self-reported height and pre-pregnancy weight, 68.7% of the women had a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI within the normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25, 26.3% were found to be underweight with a BMI <18.5 (20.8% in urban vs. 35.6% in rural areas, while only 5.1% were overweight with a BMI ≥30. In view of acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs the women’s overall dietary energy originated excessively from fat (39%, was low in carbohydrates (49.6%, and reached the lower limits for protein (12.1%. Compared to rural areas, women living in urban areas had significantly higher reference nutrient intake (RNI fulfillment levels for energy (106.1% vs. 93.4%, fat (146.6% vs. 119.7%, protein (86.9% vs. 71.6%, vitamin A (94.3% vs. 65.2%, Zn (70.9% vs. 61.8%, Fe (56.3% vs. 48%, Ca (55.1% vs. 41% and riboflavin (74.7% vs. 60%. The likelihood of pregnant women following traditional food recommendations, such as avoiding rabbit meat, beef and lamb, was higher in rural (80% than in urban (65.1% areas. In conclusion, culturally sensitive nutrition education sessions are necessary for both

  10. Disturbance Ecology from nearby Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, D. H.; Kretschmer, K.; Diehl, R.

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of Galactic Supernovae are carried out to study the rate of nearby events, which may have a direct effect on Earth's ecology though ionizing radiation and cosmic ray bombardment. A nearby supernova may have left a radioactive imprint (60Fe) in recent galactic history.

  11. Availability of health services vs. health condition of residents of rural areas in Poland – Analysis performed on the basis of EHIS 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Laskowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction. [/b]One of the aspects considered in a debate preceding the establishment of the new retirement age in Poland, was the health condition of the Polish population. A steady increase in the average life expectancy, observed for several years, is much higher in the cities than in the country. One of the reasons for this might be a limited availability of health services in rural areas. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim of the study is to assess the scale of income-related inequalities in the access to health services in rural areas, and subsequently to assess the impact of having to give up some medical services on the subjective perception of health condition by rural inhabitants. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] Individual data derived from the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS conducted in 2009 constituted the basis for the presented analysis. The concentration index was used to measure the income-related inequalities in the use of medical services. The ordered logit model was used to verify the hypothesis that the availability of health services has an impact on the health condition. [b]Results.[/b] Significant differences in the distribution of medical services utilization with regard to income, were found only in the case of hospital services. People with low income stay in hospital more often. The obtained inequality indices show a lack of income-related inequality in the use of outpatient services. The performed analyses confirm a negative impact of giving up this type of services on the health condition of residents of rural areas. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The availability of medical services is an important determinant of the health condition. Too few medical institutions and scarce medical personnel limits the use of these services, and not only for people with low income.

  12. Factors associated with reported service use for mental health problems by residents of rural and remote communities: cross-sectional findings from a baseline survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The patterns of health service use by rural and remote residents are poorly understood and under-represented in national surveys. This paper examines professional and non-professional service use for mental health problems in rural and remote communities in Australia. Methods A stratified random sample of adults was drawn from non-metropolitan regions of New South Wales, Australia as part of a longitudinal population-based cohort. One-quarter (27.7%) of the respondents were from remote or very remote regions. The socio-demographic, health status and service utilization (professional and non-professional) characteristics of 2150 community dwelling residents are described. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to identify cross-sectional associations between socio-demographic, health status and professional and non-professional health service utilization variables. Results The overall rate of professional contacts for mental health problems during the previous 12 months (17%) in this rural population exceeded the national rate (11.9%). Rates for psychologists and psychiatrists were similar but rates for GPs were higher (12% vs. 8.1%). Non-professional contact rates were 12%. Higher levels of help seeking were associated with the absence of a partner, poorer finances, severity of mental health problems, and higher levels of adversity. Remoteness was associated with lower utilization of non-professional support. A Provisional Service Need Index was devised, and it demonstrated a broad dose–response relationship between severity of mental health problems and the likelihood of seeking any professional or non-professional help. Nevertheless, 47% of those with estimated high service need had no contact with professional services. Conclusions An examination of self-reported patterns of professional and non-professional service use for mental health problems in a rural community cohort revealed relatively higher rates of general practitioner attendance for

  13. Factors associated with reported service use for mental health problems by residents of rural and remote communities: cross-sectional findings from a baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David; Fuller, Jeffrey; Kelly, Brian J; Lewin, Terry J; Fitzgerald, Michael; Coleman, Clare; Inder, Kerry J; Allan, John; Arya, Dinesh; Roberts, Russell; Buss, Richard

    2013-04-30

    The patterns of health service use by rural and remote residents are poorly understood and under-represented in national surveys. This paper examines professional and non-professional service use for mental health problems in rural and remote communities in Australia. A stratified random sample of adults was drawn from non-metropolitan regions of New South Wales, Australia as part of a longitudinal population-based cohort. One-quarter (27.7%) of the respondents were from remote or very remote regions. The socio-demographic, health status and service utilization (professional and non-professional) characteristics of 2150 community dwelling residents are described. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to identify cross-sectional associations between socio-demographic, health status and professional and non-professional health service utilization variables. The overall rate of professional contacts for mental health problems during the previous 12 months (17%) in this rural population exceeded the national rate (11.9%). Rates for psychologists and psychiatrists were similar but rates for GPs were higher (12% vs. 8.1%). Non-professional contact rates were 12%. Higher levels of help seeking were associated with the absence of a partner, poorer finances, severity of mental health problems, and higher levels of adversity. Remoteness was associated with lower utilization of non-professional support. A Provisional Service Need Index was devised, and it demonstrated a broad dose-response relationship between severity of mental health problems and the likelihood of seeking any professional or non-professional help. Nevertheless, 47% of those with estimated high service need had no contact with professional services. An examination of self-reported patterns of professional and non-professional service use for mental health problems in a rural community cohort revealed relatively higher rates of general practitioner attendance for such problems compared with data from

  14. Scope and importance of non-governmental organisations activities’ and their evaluation by rural residents of the podkarpackie province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the type of operating 210 non-governmental organizations and the scope of their activities in rural areas the Podkarpackie province. The research results show that most active units are, commonly known by inhabitants, voluntary fire brigades, sports clubs, farmer housewives’ associations and folkloristic associations. The activity of these organisations was related to learning, culture, education, upbringing, as well as public safety and environment protection. The opinions of 595 people from the surveyed municipalities were taken into account, in terms of quality of their activities in the local community. The results confirmed full acceptance of nonprofit organizations’ activity, and dominance of good and very good ratings was a recognition of high quality of their services and important role they play in rural areas of the Podkarpackie province.

  15. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorga, Thaworn; Srithong, Kannapatch; Manokulanan, Pratumpan; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Aung, Myo Nyein

    2012-01-01

    The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community. Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI) assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand. A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were "not sure". Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males. The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.

  16. Análise de um sistema de aquecimento de água para residências rurais, utilizando energia solar A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Basso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A conscientização da importância do meio ambiente tem incentivado o estudo de novas fontes energéticas renováveis e menos poluentes. Dentre essas fontes, a energia solar destaca-se por ser perene e limpa. A utilização da energia solar em sistemas de aquecimento de água residencial rural pode colaborar com a economia de energia elétrica, base da matriz energética brasileira. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam na operação de um sistema de aquecimento de água por energia solar é importante na determinação de sua viabilidade técnica, visando a sua difusão em residências rurais. Para tanto, construiu-se um protótipo, no câmpus da Faculdade Assis Gurgacz, em Cascavel - PR, com características similares a um equipamento utilizado em residências para dois habitantes, para funcionar com circulação natural ou termossifão e sem auxílio de sistema de aquecimento complementar. O equipamento mostrou-se viável tecnicamente, alcançando a temperatura mínima para banho de 35 °C, sempre que a radiação solar foi superior a 3.500 Wh m-2, o que aconteceu para a maioria dos dias estudados.The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Paraná, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or

  17. CLINICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM MAINTENANCE THERAPY BY COMBINED DRUGS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL CHILDREN, RESIDENTS OF THE RURAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Ermakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: selection of the supporting anti-asthma therapy (SAAT of the moderate asthma in school children, residents of the village with the lowest ratio of price and efficiency. The maximum frequency of achieving control of asthma was 64%. The spectrum of asthma medicines (drugs used in outpatient phase is represented. For 7 years, the proportion of the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS therapy in children with asthma has increased moderately by 5.5 times and was 66%, of which 2/3 was the combination of inhaled glucocorticosteroids. When using the combined drug salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (50/100 mkg during 3 months, after that fluticasone proionat during next 3 months as a level-controlled asthma the SAAT controlling BA increased 2 times. The cost of drugs accounted for 86% of direct medical costs (DMC, the cost of hospitalization decreased from 80 to 56% (DMC savings — 24%. The results of the analysis of «cost–effectiveness» SAAT allow to review the financial resources for health in favor of providing children with mild asthma inhaled high-performance combination that will improve the quality of medical care for children, residents of the rural regions.Key words: asthma, children, inhaled glucocorticosteriods, combined therapies, pharmacoeconomic analysis.

  18. Relationship between socioeconomic deprivation 
or urban/rural residence and visual acuity before cataract surgery in Northern Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Paul Y; Mustafa, Mohammed S; Scott, Neil W; Kumarasamy, Manjula; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on visual acuity before cataract surgery. 
 The medical case notes of 240 consecutive patients listed for cataract surgery from January 1, 2010, at Grampian University Hospital, Aberdeen, were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with ocular comorbidity were excluded. Demographics, postal codes, and visual acuity were recorded. Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation was used to determine the deprivation rank. Home location was classified as urban or rural. The effect of these parameters on preoperative visual acuity was investigated using chi-square tests or Fisher exact test as appropriate. 
 A total of 184 patients (mean 75 years) were included. A total of 127 (69%) patients had visual acuity of 6/12 or better. An association was found between affluence and preoperative visual acuity of 6/12 or better (χ2trend = 4.97, p = 0.03), with a significant rising trend across quintile of deprivation. There was no evidence to suggest association between geographical region and preoperative visual acuity (p = 0.63). 
 Affluence was associated with good visual acuity (6/12 or better) before cataract surgery. There was no difference in preoperative visual acuity between rural and urban populations.

  19. Consumo alimentar de população adulta residente em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES, Brasil Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilaine Oliveira Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foi aplicado um questionário de frequência alimentar (QFCA em 150 adultos residentes em área rural da cidade de Ibatiba (ES. O QFCA classificou o consumo alimentar como: habitual (> 4 vezes na semana, não habitual (It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil. QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (> 4 times in the week, not habitual (<4 times in the week and rarely (1 time a month, with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  20. The social construction of risk in a rural community: Responses of local residents to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyles, J.; Taylor, S.M.; Baxter, J.; Sider, D.; Willms, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire. After reviewing the literature on risk and risk perception, it begins by describing the event as well as the community in which it occurred. The reasons for adopting a qualitative research design are then established practical, conceptual, and methodological. The residents' accounts of the fire, evacuation, and aftermath in terms of concerns, anxieties, and responses are described. Five themes emerge: economic, community, health, environmental, and governance. The paper concludes by putting forward a case study-derived model of risk appraisal and management, and by relating the findings to policy issues. 48 refs., 1 fig

  1. Livelihood Benefits from Post-Earthquake Nature-Based Tourism Development: A Survey of Local Residents in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale tourism development after a natural disaster often leads to substantial changes in the living conditions of local residents. Few studies have examined how these changes are perceived by residents and related to their support to tourism development. We conducted a household survey in Wolong National Nature Reserve, which is a popular nature-based tourist location severely devastated by a catastrophic earthquake in 2008. Structural equation modelling (SEM was employed to explore the association between residents’ expectation of tourism impacts and their willingness to support tourism development. Results indicated that they held high expectations about development and believed that it would be enhance Wolong’s economic progress and improve their personal living conditions. Expected economic benefits (EEB had a significant and positive relationship with the expected improvement of their personal living conditions, but not with their support to tourism development. The latter two variables, however, were associated with each other, suggesting that expected improvement of living conditions mediated between expected benefits and stated support to tourism development. Similar results were not found for resistance and concerns about tourism development. Policy-makers and tourism planners should recognize that public support to tourism development is not necessarily driven directly by expected economic benefits.

  2. Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T D; Pham, C K; Pham, T H; Hoang, L T; Nguyen, T V; Vu, T Q; Detels, R

    2001-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase.

  3. Hydride Molecules towards Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Raquel R.; La, Ngoc; Goldsmith, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Observations carried out by the Herschel Space Observatory revealed strong spectroscopic signatures from light hydride molecules within the Milky Way and nearby active galaxies. To better understand the chemical and physical conditions of the interstellar medium, we conducted the first comprehensive survey of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and water molecular lines observed through the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer. By collecting and analyzing the sub-millimeter spectra of over two hundred sources, we found that the HF J = 1 - 0 rotational transition which occurs at approximately 1232 GHz was detected in a total of 39 nearby galaxies both in absorption and emission. The analysis will determine the main excitation mechanism of HF in nearby galaxies and provide steady templates of the chemistry and physical conditions of the ISM to be used in the early universe, where observations of hydrides are more scarce.

  4. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  5. Public knowledge of diabetes in Karen Ethnic rural residents: a community-based questionnaires study in the far north-west of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Kannapatch Srithong,1 Pratumpan Manokulanan,1 Thin Nyein Nyein Aung,2 Myo Nyein Aung1,31Boromrajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 3Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine Juntendo University, Tokyo, JapanBackground and purpose: The public knowledge of diabetes is important for prevention of disease. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge of diabetes, risk factors, and the common warning signs of diabetes and complications among community participants in a rural Karen ethnic community.Methods: Participants were asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of diabetes. Fasting blood glucose testing, blood pressure measurement, and body mass index (BMI assessment were provided to the participants. The study was conducted at Thasongyang district, Tak province, Thailand.Results: A total of 299 Karen rural residents were included in the study. The median age was 45 years and median fasting blood glucose was 88 mg/dL. The response rate to the questionnaires was 91.97%. Half of the participants knew diabetes is a noncommunicable disease needing lifelong treatment. Overall, one-third of the community participants could correctly answer the knowledge assessment questions regarding risk factors and common features of diabetes. Whereas the other two-thirds either gave a wrong answer or were “not sure”. Female participants had poorer diabetes knowledge than the males.Conclusion: The public knowledge of diabetes, as represented by this sample of the Karen ethic community, is alarmingly low. There is significant gender difference in knowledge level. Culturally tailored and gender-sensitive diabetes health education interventions are urgently needed in this minority ethnic community.Keywords: health education, gender differences, ethnic minority, diabetes, Karen

  6. Detecting depression in the aged: is there concordance between screening tools and the perceptions of nursing home staff and residents? A pilot study in a rural aged care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Luke; Reid, Alexander; Wilson, Jessica; Levesque, Janelle; Driver, Brian

    2007-08-01

    Recognition of depression in the elderly is exacerbated in rural and remote regions by a lack of mental health specialists. In nursing homes, screening tools have been advocated to circumvent the variable reliability of both nursing staff and residents in recognising depression. Debate concerning the utility of screening tools abounds. Previous research has neglected concordance between screening tools, nursing staff and residents in recognising depression. The present study aimed to determine if there was a significant difference in the proportion of depressed residents identified by recognition sources, and assessed the level of chance corrected agreement between sources. One hundred and two residents of aged care facilities in Wagga Wagga, Australia, mean age of 85.19 +/- 7.09 years. Residents were interviewed within their residential aged care facility. Cross-sectional, between-subjects design. Residents, nursing staff, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-12R) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and nursing staff professional opinion were not significantly different; however, both measures were significantly different to the resident measures (GDS-12R and resident opinion). Kappa statistic analysis of outcome measures revealed, at best, no more than a moderate level of chance corrected agreement between said sources. It is tentatively argued that the different sources might correspond to qualitatively different 'depression' constructs, and that health professionals who are concerned with depression in the elderly be aware of the disparity between, and subsequently consider, a variety of recognition sources.

  7. Planetesimals around nearby millisecond pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1992-05-01

    We predict that it is possible to observe line emissions of OH, CN and C 2 from the planetesimals around some of the nearby millisecond pulsars, such as PSR1257+12. Observation of these lines will provide an independent test of either an existing planetary system or one which is in the process of formation. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  8. Suites of dwarfs around Nearby giant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kaisina, Elena I.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog (UNGC) contains the most comprehensive summary of distances, radial velocities, and luminosities for 800 galaxies located within 11 Mpc from us. The high density of observables in the UNGC makes this sample indispensable for checking results of N-body simulations of cosmic structures on a ∼1 Mpc scale. The environment of each galaxy in the UNGC was characterized by a tidal index Θ 1 , depending on the separation and mass of the galaxy's main disturber (MD). We grouped UNGC galaxies with a common MD in suites, and ranked suite members according to their Θ 1 . All suite members with positive Θ 1 are assumed to be physical companions of the MD. About 58% of the sample are members of physical groups. The distribution of suites by the number of members, n, follows a relation N(n) ∼ n –2 . The 20 most populated suites contain 468 galaxies, i.e., 59% of the UNGC sample. The fraction of MDs among the brightest galaxies is almost 100% and drops to 50% at M B = –18 m . We discuss various properties of MDs, as well as galaxies belonging to their suites. The suite abundance practically does not depend on the morphological type, linear diameter, or hydrogen mass of the MD, the tightest correlation being with the MD dynamical mass. Dwarf galaxies around MDs exhibit well-known segregation effects: the population of the outskirts has later morphological types, richer H I contents, and higher rates of star formation activity. Nevertheless, there are some intriguing cases where dwarf spheroidal galaxies occur at the far periphery of the suites, as well as some late-type dwarfs residing close to MDs. Comparing simulation results with galaxy groups, most studies assume the Local Group is fairly typical. However, we recognize that the nearby groups significantly differ from each other and there is considerable variation in their properties. The suites of companions around the Milky Way and M31, consisting of the Local Group, do not

  9. Locus of health control as a predictor of diet in pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The locus of health control is one of the individual characteristics determining the diet of an individual. The aim of this study was to analyse the consumption frequency of selected food products depending on the locus of health control in a group of pregnant women residing in a small town and rural setting in Małopolska district. The study was conducted in a group of 300 pregnant women from Małopolska region, who were between 20 and 40 years of age (29.02 +/- 6.33). The consumption frequency of food products was examined with a prepared questionnaire, in a 7-item scale (from 7 points--several times a day to 1 point--never). The locus of health control was determined with the MHLC scale developed by K.A. Wallston et al., and adapted by Z. Juczyński. The relationship between the MHLC scale and the frequency of consumption of various products was estimated on the basis of Spearman's coefficients of rank correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test, using Statistica 10.0 software. Higher level of internal control (MHLC-I) was associated with significant increase in the consumption frequency of orange and red vegetables (p locus of health control (MHLC-C) was associated with significantly reduced frequency of consuming whole grains (p control made more rational nutritional choices significantly more frequently than those with the external control.

  10. A statistical intercomparison between 'urban' and 'rural' precipitation chemistry data from Greater Manchester and the two nearby secondary national network sites in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (United Kingdom). Acid Rain Information Centre, Dept. of Environmental and Graphical Studies)

    1992-11-01

    Precipitation chemistry data from a dense urban monitoring network in Greater Manchester, northwest England, were compared with interpolated values from the U.K. secondary national acid deposition monitoring network for the year 1988. Differences were found to be small. However, when data from individual sites from the Greater Manchester network were compared with data from the two nearest secondary national network sites, significant differences were found using simple and complex statistical analyses. Precipitation chemistry at rural sites could be similar to that at urban sites, but the sources of some ions were thought to be different. The synoptic-scale gradients of precipitation chemistry, as shown by the secondary national network, also accounted for some of the differences. 34 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. U-Shaped Relationship between Years of Residence and Negative Mental Health Outcomes among Rural-to-Urban Children in Migrant Schools in Beijing, China: The Moderating Effects of Socioeconomic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Wang, Ri-Chu; Yin, Xing; Fu, Lin; Liu, Zheng-Kui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test the relationship between length of residence and mental health in a school-based sample of migrant children who studied in migrant schools. A total of 7,296 rural-to-urban migrant children were recruited from 58 schools in Beijing and assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Children's Depression Inventory. A quadratic relationship was found between mental health and length of residence. The results suggested that the scores for anxiety and depression were high during the initial resettlement after migrating and then decreased. However, after approximately 8 years, the scores increased. Our findings also showed a significant moderating effect of family socioeconomic status on the relation between mental health and length of residence. This study provided empirical evidence for a better understanding of psychosocial factors on the mental health of migrant children during the process of urbanization in China.

  12. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in the Netherlands: How do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; Jonge, A. de; Martins, D.; Ogedegbe, G.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787;

  13. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of people who reside in high traffic density urban areas and relatively traffic free rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor vehicle emissions constitute the most significant source of ultra particles in an urban environment. Traffic related air pollution is an occupational health hazard to individuals who live and work in an environment close to traffic. The present study intends to study the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in people who reside in areas exposed to automobile exhaust. Material and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFT on 20 people who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their residence nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 others of age and gender matched and similar anthropometric profile people, who reside in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t-test (two-tailed, independent for inter group analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups as far as parameters like FVC, FEV 1 , PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, FEF 25-75% . It can be seen that there is decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared to controls, which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The respiratory system are particulate matter (PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. These pollutants react with each other, forming hazardous acid sulfate particles, which are capable of reaching deep inside the tracheo-bronchial tree producing a bronchoconstrictor response, as their predominant site of action are the small airways. This was a comparative study to demonstrate the effect of air pollution due to automobile exhaust on pulmonary functions of people who reside in areas exposed to a polluted urban environment with a similar group in the rural relatively pollution free environment.

  14. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  15. Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby Residents in Abeokuta Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) meter was employed to monitor the level of particulate matter (PM10) within and around five quarry sites selected for this study. The data collected from hospital records of ...

  16. Networking the rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiongson, K H; Arneson, S I

    1993-04-01

    A branch network of affiliate hospitals has been providing home care services to rural North Dakota residents successfully for a decade. Here's how this effective system meets the special challenges that a rural environment poses for hiring, training, scheduling, and supporting home care aides.

  17. Redshift differences of galaxies in nearby groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    It is reported that galaxies in nearby groups exhibit anomalous nonvelocity redshifts. In this discussion, (1) four classes of nearby groups of galacies are analyzed, and no significant nonvelocity redshift effect is found; and (2) it is pointed out that transverse velocities (i.e., velocities transverse to the line of sight of the main galaxy, or center of mass) contribute components to the redshift measurements of companion galaxies. The redshifts of galaxies in nearby groups of appreciable angular size are considerably affected by these velocity projection effects. The transverse velocity contributions average out in rich, isotropic groups, and also in large samples of irregular groups of low membership, as in the four classes referred to in (1), but can introduce apparent discrepancies in small samples (as studied by Arp) of nearby groups of low membership.

  18. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overall radio detection rate of 54% (22% of all bright nearby galaxies) and we estimate that at least ∼50% (∼20% of all bright nearby galaxies) are true AGN. By comparing the radio luminosity function of the LINERs, composite LINER/Hll and Seyferts galaxies in the Palomar sample with those of selected moderate-redshift AGN, we fhd that our sources naturally extend the radio luminosity function of powerful AGN down to powers of about 10 times that of Sgr A*

  19. A comparison of cardiometabolic risk factors in households in rural Uganda with and without a resident with type 2 diabetes, 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Bahendeka, Silver K.; Gregg, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    .4%) and in males (5.2% vs 5.4%) living in diabetic households compared to residents of nondiabetic households. No differences were found between the 2 types of households in overweight and obesity, upper-arm fat area, intake of staple foods or cooking oil, or physical activity. Conclusion Sharing a household...

  20. [STUDY OF HEALTH LITERACY OF RURAL RESIDENTS OF ALMATY OBLAST (REGION), KAZAKHSTAN: ROLE OF FINANCIAL WELLBEING IN THE FORMATION OF HEALTH LITERACY OF POPULATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisunova, G; Turdaliyeva, B; Tulebayev, K; Zagulova, D

    2016-10-01

    Aim of the study was to explore the relationships between health literacy (HL) and financial wellbeing in residents of Almaty oblast (region). The survey was conducted among 826 residents of Almaty region aged 18 y.o. Over 56.5% were female residents. To estimate health literacy, self assessed health, financial wellbeing and attitude towards health /work -questionnaire HLS-EU-Q was used. The results confirmed a significant relationship between financial wellbeing, health literacy and health outcomes residents of Almaty region. Relationships between HL and self- assessed health and attitudes towards health /work balance were observed only in respondents with low financial deprivation index, in respondents with low financial wellbeing (high financial deprivation index) no such relationships were observed. Higher financial deprivation index and lower health literacy were observed in respondents for whom work meant more than health. Lower financial deprivation index and higher health literacy were in those respondents for whom health meant more than work. Improvement of HL and motivation for healthy behavior are important challenges for public health. To answer them population's financial wellbeing improvement alone is not enough, as complex change of consumer behavior in healthcare system is needed. HL enhancing in disadvantaged population groups should inform about possibilities of free healthcare services, medications and about the structure of public healthcare service.

  1. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  2. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, M Rizal; Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  3. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rizal Abdul Manaf

    Full Text Available Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia.It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed.The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44, living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10, and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36. Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57. There was no significant factor for stress.Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made.

  4. A water heating system analysis for rural residences, using solar energy; Analise de um sistema de aquecimento de agua para residencias rurais, utilizando energia solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Luiz H.; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Siqueira, Jair A.C.; Nogueira, Carlos E.C.; Santos, Reginaldo F. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Agricola], emails: melegsouza@yahoo.com, ssouza@unioeste.br, jairsiqueira@unioeste.br, cecn1@yahoo.com.br, rfsantos@unioeste.br

    2010-01-15

    The awareness of the importance of the environment has stimulated the study of new renewed energy sources and less pollutant. Amongst these sources, solar energy stands alone for being perennial and clean. The use of solar energy in systems of agricultural residential water heating, can complement the economy of electric energy, base of the Brazilian energy matrix. Knowing the factors that influence the operation of a system of water heating by solar energy is important in determining their technical viabilities targeting their distribution in agricultural residences. To evaluate equipment of water heating for solar energy, a prototype was constructed in the campus of Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel,State of Parana, Brazil, with similar characteristics to equipment used in residences for two inhabitants, to function with natural circulation or thermo siphon and without help of a complementary heating system. The equipment revealed technical viability, reaching the minimum temperature for shower, of 35 deg C, whenever the solar radiation was above the 3,500 Wh m{sup -2}, for the majority of the studied days. (author)

  5. Spectrophotometry of nearby field galaxies : The data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, RA; Fabricant, D; Franx, M; Caldwell, N

    We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, R surface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range of luminosities (M(B) = -14 to -22). Here we present the

  6. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections,

  7. Nobeyama CO Atlas of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, N.; Nakai, N.; Sorai, K.; Sato, N..; Yamauchi, A.; Tosaki, T.; Shioya, Y.; Vila-Vilaró, B.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Cepa, J.

    BEARS is a 25-beam focal plane array receiver mounted on the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. The combination of the large dish size of the telescope with the excellent performance of this receiver makes it an ideal tool for mapping observations of extended regions of the sky. We present here one of its current applications in a CO mapping survey of nearby spiral galaxies.

  8. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Whitehead, Jennifer L; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-06-01

    While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents' HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals' sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Bednarczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While national human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. Methods: We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Results: Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents’ HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Conclusions: Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals’ sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Vaccine, Transgender, Gender identity

  10. Design of an autonomous photovoltaic system for the supply of electric power from a rural residence in Bahia, Brazil; Projeto de um sistema fotovoltaico autonomo para o abastecimento da energia eletrica de uma residencia rural na Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Isaque da Silva; Cardoso, Gracieli Sartorio; Santoro, Renata Branco [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a project to establish one electrical system, isolated by photovoltaic energy, in a residence located approximately 7 km from the town of Barra da Estiva, BA, which do not receive electricity through the transmission system, necessitating generation of electricity on the spot to ensure that this family has some benefits offered by electricity. The scaling was done to two situations: one that serves only the lights and another that allows for a more complete electrification to the region. Meanwhile, the deployment of new technologies in remote places such stocks requires new attitudes and forms of organisations for the adoption, management and maintenance of the system chosen, therefore, social aspects of acceptance of this technology are also discussed. (author)

  11. Identifying New Members of Nearby Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Erika; Vican, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Our group has assembled a sample of 14,000 stars of spectral types B9-M9 with measured UVW Galactic space velocities and lying within 125 pc of Earth. We have identified candidate members of three nearby young (less than 100 Myr) moving groups. For stars of spectral types G5 and later, we have used the Kast spectrometer on the Shane 3m telescope at Lick Observatory to measure lithium abundance in order to determine stellar ages. With the data we have obtained from this run, we will be able to establish whether our candidates are bona fide members of the moving groups in question. I will be presenting the preliminary results from this survey, including spectra of the ~50 stars observed thus far. These nearby young stars will make excellent targets for direct imaging followup surveys, since any giant planets around young stars will still be warm, and will therefore be bright enough to detect with instruments like GPI.

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in pregnant Australian Indigenous women residing in rural and remote New South Wales: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Beth; Weatherall, Loretta; Burrows, Julie; Blackwell, Caroline C; Gwynn, Josephine; Wadhwa, Pathik; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Smith, Roger; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-01

    Pregnancy can be a stressful time for many women. There is ample evidence of numerous physical and mental health inequities for Indigenous Australians. For those Indigenous women who are pregnant, it is established that there is a higher incidence of poor physical perinatal outcomes when compared with non-Indigenous Australians. However, little evidence exists that examines stressful events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pregnant women who are members of this community. To quantify the rates of stressful events and PTSD symptoms in pregnant Indigenous women. One hundred and fifty rural and remote Indigenous women were invited to complete a survey during each trimester of their pregnancy. The survey measures were the stressful life events and the Impact of Events Scale. Extremely high rates of PTSD symptoms were reported by participants. Approximately 40% of this group exhibited PTSD symptoms during their pregnancy with mean score 33.38 (SD = 14.37) significantly higher than a study of European victims of crisis, including terrorism attacks (20.6, SD = 18.5). The extreme levels of PTSD symptoms found in the women participating in this study are likely to result in negative implications for both mother and infant. An urgent response must be mounted at government, health, community development and research levels to address these findings. Immediate attention needs to focus on the development of interventions to address the high levels of PTSD symptoms that pregnant Australian Indigenous women experience. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  14. Stellar Death in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, Thomas Warren-Son

    The night sky is replete with transient and variable events that help shape our universe. The violent, explosive deaths of stars represent some of the most energetic of these events, as a single star is able to outshine billions during its final moments. Aside from imparting significant energy into their host environments, stellar deaths are also responsible for seeding heavy elements into the universe, regulating star formation in their host galaxies, and affecting the evolution of supermassive black holes at the centers of their host galaxies. The large amount of energy output during these events allows them to be seen from billions of lightyears away, making them useful observational probes of physical processes important to many fields of astronomy. In this dissertation I present a series of observational studies of two classes of transients associated with the deaths of stars in the nearby universe: tidal disruption events (TDEs) and supernovae (SNe). Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), the objects I discuss were all bright and nearby, and were subject to extensive follow-up observational campaigns. In the first three studies, I present observational data and theoretical models of ASASSN-14ae, ASASSN-14li, and ASASSN-15oi, three TDEs discovered by ASAS-SN and three of the most well-studied TDEs ever discovered. Next I present the discovery of ASASSN-13co, an SN that does not conform to the traditional model of Type II SNe. Finally, I discuss the full sample of bright SNe discovered from 2014 May 1 through 2016 December 31, which is significantly less biased than previous nearby SN samples due to the ASAS-SN survey approach, and perform statistical analyses on this population that will be used for future studies of nearby SNe and their hosts.

  15. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  16. Awareness of chronic disease related health benefits of physical activity among residents of a rural South Indian region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Maiya, Arun G; Nair, Suma; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Nair, Narayanapillai Sreekumaran; Vidyasagar, Sudha

    2014-02-27

    Physical activity trends for a lower-middle income country like India suggest a gradual decline in work related physical activity and no concomitant increase in leisure time physical activity. Perceived health benefits of physical activity and intention to increase physical activity have been established as independent correlates of physical activity status. In India, not much is known about peoples' perceptions of health benefits of physical activity and their intention to increase physical activity levels. This study was performed to understand peoples' perceptions and awareness about health benefits of physical activity in a rural South Indian region. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage cluster sampling design. A content validated, field tested questionnaire was administered in person by a trained interviewer in the participants' native language. The questionnaire assessed the participants' perceptions about their lifestyle (active or sedentary), health benefits of physical activity and need for increasing their physical activity. In addition, the participant's physical activity was assessed using version 2 of global physical activity questionnaire. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarise perceived health benefits of physical activity and other categorical variables. Age and body mass index were summarised using mean ± SD, whereas physical activity (MET.min.wk -1) was summarised using median and interquartile range. Four hundred fifty members from 125 randomly selected households were included in the study, of which 409 members participated. 89% (364) of participants felt they lead an active lifestyle and 83.1% (340) of participants did not feel a need to increase their physical activity level. 86.1%, (352) of the participants were physically active. Though 92.4% (378) of participants felt there were health benefits of physical activity, majority of them (75.1%) did not report any benefit related to chronic diseases. None

  17. Resident and user support for urban natural areas restoration practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Kristin Floress; Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy A. Watkins; Joanne Vining; Alaka Wali

    2016-01-01

    Public support is important to the success of natural areas restoration programs. Support can be especially critical in urban settings where stakeholders recreate in or reside near natural areas but may lack familiarity with practices for managing ecological processes. Surveys of on-site recreationists and nearby residents (N= 888) of 11 Chicago metropolitan natural...

  18. Demographics of Starbursts in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Colbert, E.; Armus, L.; Scoville, N. Z.; Heckman, T.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate the frequency of circumnuclear starbursts in Seyfert galaxies using medium-resolution H and K band spectroscopy. An unbiased sample of ~20 nearby Seyfert galaxies was observed at the KeckII telescope with an average seeing of ~0.7''. Preliminary analysis shows strong stellar absorption lines for most galaxies in our sample. Comparison of stellar equivalent widths in the H and K band will allow us to determine the average age of the dominating stellar population. Evidence for an age trend with Seyfert type would provide a strong hint toward a starburst/AGN connection.

  19. Permanent resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Fisher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The training of physicians in the past century was based primarily on responsibility and the chain-of-command. Those with the bulk of that responsibility in the fields of pediatrics and internal medicine were residents. Residents trained the medical students and supervised them carefully in caring for patients. Most attending physicians supervised their teams at arm's length, primarily serving as teachers of the finer points of diagnosis and treatment during set periods of the day or week with a perfunctory signature on write-ups or progress notes. Residents endeavored to protect the attending physician from being heavily involved unless they were unsure about a clinical problem. Before contacting the attending physician, a more senior resident would be called. Responsibility was the ultimate teacher. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups by the federal government dramatically changed the health care delivery system, placing greater emphasis on attending physician visibility in the medical record, ultimately resulting in more attending physician involvement in day-to-day care of patients in academic institutions. Without specified content in attending notes, hospital revenues would decline. Although always in charge technically, attending physicians increasingly have assumed the role once dominated by the resident. Using biographical experiences of more than 40 years, the author acknowledges and praises the educational role of responsibility in his own training and laments its declining role in today's students and house staff.

  20. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D 4 in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m F475W = 28.0 mag, m F606W = 27.3 mag, and m F814W = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  1. A comparison of mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors between rural and non-rural transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Iantaffi, Alex; Swinburne-Romine, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors of rural and non-rural transgender persons. Online banner advertisements were used to recruit 1,229 self-identified rural and non-rural transgender adults (18+ years) residing in the United States. Primary findings include significant differences in mental health between rural and non-rural transmen; relatively low levels of binge drinking across groups, although high levels of marijuana use; and high levels of unprotected sex among transwomen. The results confirm that mental and physical health services for transgender persons residing in rural areas are urgently needed.

  2. Recreating of rurality around the totoro forest in the outer fringe of tokyo metropolitan area : the spirituality of rurality

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of rural land use and its conservation as the reflection of rurality in outer fringes, and discussed about recreating of rurality with utilising its conservation activities and the spirituality. In Sayama hill region of Tokyo metropolitan area, restructuring of rural land use and recreating rurality have been practised with conservation and maintenance activities in the Totoro forest. Although rural and urban residents think about those activities and their parti...

  3. Rural-Urban Differences in Late-Stage Breast Cancer: Do Associations Differ by Rural-Urban Classification System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Sandi L; Eberth, Jan M; Morris, E Scott; Grinsfelder, David B; Cuate, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rural residence is associated with later stage of breast cancer diagnosis in some but not all prior studies. The lack of a standardized definition of rural residence may contribute to these mixed findings. We characterize and compare multiple definitions of rural vs. non-rural residence to provide guidance regarding choice of measures and to further elucidate rural disparities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods We used Texas Cancer Registry data of 120,738 female breast cancer patients ≥50 years old diagnosed between 1995–2009. We defined rural vs. non-rural residence using 7 different measures and examined their agreement using Kappa statistics. Measures were defined at various geographic levels: county, ZIP code, census tract, and census block group. Late-stage was defined as regional or distant disease. For each measure, we tested the association of rural residence and late-stage cancer with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression. Covariates included: age; patient race/ethnicity; diagnosis year; census block group-level mammography capacity; and census tract-level percent poverty, percent Hispanic, and percent Black. Results We found moderate to high levels of agreement between measures of rural vs. non-rural residence. For 72.9% of all patients, all 7 definitions agreed as to rural vs. non-rural residence. Overall, 6 of 7 definitions demonstrated an adverse association between rural residence and late-stage disease in unadjusted and adjusted models (Adjusted OR Range = 1.09–1.14). Discussion Our results document a clear rural disadvantage in late-stage breast cancer. We contribute to the heterogeneous literature by comparing varied measures of rural residence. We recommend use of the census tract-level Rural Urban Commuting Area Codes in future cancer outcomes research where small area data are available. PMID:27158685

  4. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  5. Three Temperate Neptunes Orbiting Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Howard, Andrew W.; Weiss, Lauren M.; Sinukoff, Evan; Petigura, Erik A.; Isaacson, Howard; Hirsch, Lea; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Grunblatt, Samuel K.; Huber, Daniel; von Braun, Kaspar; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Kane, Stephen R.; Wittrock, Justin; Horch, Elliott P.; Ciardi, David R.; Howell, Steve B.; Wright, Jason T.; Ford, Eric B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the discovery of three modestly irradiated, roughly Neptune-mass planets orbiting three nearby Solar-type stars. HD 42618 b has a minimum mass of 15.4 ± 2.4 {M}\\oplus , a semimajor axis of 0.55 au, an equilibrium temperature of 337 K, and is the first planet discovered to orbit the solar analogue host star, HD 42618. We also discover new planets orbiting the known exoplanet host stars HD 164922 and HD 143761 (ρ CrB). The new planet orbiting HD 164922 has a minimum mass of 12.9 ± 1.6 {M}\\oplus and orbits interior to the previously known Jovian mass planet orbiting at 2.1 au. HD 164922 c has a semimajor axis of 0.34 au and an equilibrium temperature of 418 K. HD 143761 c orbits with a semimajor axis of 0.44 au, has a minimum mass of 25 ± 2 {M}\\oplus , and is the warmest of the three new planets with an equilibrium temperature of 445 K. It orbits exterior to the previously known warm Jupiter in the system. A transit search using space-based CoRoT data and ground-based photometry from the Automated Photometric Telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory failed to detect any transits, but the precise, high-cadence APT photometry helped to disentangle planetary-reflex motion from stellar activity. These planets were discovered as part of an ongoing radial velocity survey of bright, nearby, chromospherically inactive stars using the Automated Planet Finder (APF) telescope at Lick Observatory. The high-cadence APF data combined with nearly two decades of radial velocity data from Keck Observatory and gives unprecedented sensitivity to both short-period low-mass, and long-period intermediate-mass planets. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time was granted for this project by the University of Hawai‘I, the University of California, and NASA.

  6. Discovery of a New Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Covey, K.; Frazier, O.; Hawley, S. L.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.; McGlynn, T.; Reid, I. N.; Shaklan, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby star with a very large proper motion of 5.06 +/- 0.03 arcsec/yr. The star is called SO025300.5+165258 and referred to herein as HPMS (high proper motion star). The discovery came as a result of a search of the SkyMorph database, a sensitive and persistent survey that is well suited for finding stars with high proper motions. There are currently only 7 known stars with proper motions greater than 5 arcsec/yr. We have determined a preliminary value for the parallax of pi = 0.43 +/- 0.13 arcsec. If this value holds our new star ranks behind only the Alpha Centauri system (including Proxima Centauri) and Barnard's star in the list of our nearest stellar neighbours. The spectrum and measured tangential velocity indicate that HPMS is a main-sequence star with spectral type M6.5. However, if our distance measurement is correct, the HPMS is underluminous by 1.2 +/- 0.7 mag.

  7. Morphology and Structures of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mira; Ann, HongBae

    2015-08-01

    We performed an analysis of the structure of nearby dwarf galaxies based on a 2-dimensional decomposition of galaxy images using GALFIT. The present sample consists of ~1,100 dwarf galaxies with redshift less than z = 0.01, which is is derived from the morphology catalog of the Visually classified galaxies in the local universe (Ann, Seo, and Ha 2015). In this catalog, dwarf galaxies are divided into 5 subtypes: dS0, dE, dSph, dEbc, dEblue with distinction of the presence of nucleation in dE, dSph, and dS0. We found that dSph and dEblue galaxies are fainter than other subtypes of dwarf galaxies. In most cases, single component, represented by the Sersic profile with n=1~1.5, well describes the luminosity distribution of dwarf galaxies in the present sample. However, a significant fraction of dS0, dEbc, and dEbue galaxies show sub-structures such as spiral arms and rings. We will discuss the morphology dependent evolutionary history of the local dwarf galaxies.

  8. The U.S. Rural Population and Scheduled Intercity Transportation in 2010 : A Five-Year Decline in Transportation Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, 3.5 million rural residents lost access to scheduled intercity transportation, increasing the percent of rural residents without access to intercity transportation from 7 to 11 percent. In 2005, 5.4 million rural residents lack...

  9. Young star clusters in nearby molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, K. V.; Kuhn, M. A.; Feigelson, E. D.; Broos, P. S.; Bate, M. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    2018-06-01

    The SFiNCs (Star Formation in Nearby Clouds) project is an X-ray/infrared study of the young stellar populations in 22 star-forming regions with distances ≲ 1 kpc designed to extend our earlier MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey of more distant clusters. Our central goal is to give empirical constraints on cluster formation mechanisms. Using parametric mixture models applied homogeneously to the catalogue of SFiNCs young stars, we identify 52 SFiNCs clusters and 19 unclustered stellar structures. The procedure gives cluster properties including location, population, morphology, association with molecular clouds, absorption, age (AgeJX), and infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) slope. Absorption, SED slope, and AgeJX are age indicators. SFiNCs clusters are examined individually, and collectively with MYStIX clusters, to give the following results. (1) SFiNCs is dominated by smaller, younger, and more heavily obscured clusters than MYStIX. (2) SFiNCs cloud-associated clusters have the high ellipticities aligned with their host molecular filaments indicating morphology inherited from their parental clouds. (3) The effect of cluster expansion is evident from the radius-age, radius-absorption, and radius-SED correlations. Core radii increase dramatically from ˜0.08 to ˜0.9 pc over the age range 1-3.5 Myr. Inferred gas removal time-scales are longer than 1 Myr. (4) Rich, spatially distributed stellar populations are present in SFiNCs clouds representing early generations of star formation. An appendix compares the performance of the mixture models and non-parametric minimum spanning tree to identify clusters. This work is a foundation for future SFiNCs/MYStIX studies including disc longevity, age gradients, and dynamical modelling.

  10. Overview of the nearby supernova factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldering, Greg; Adam, Gilles; Antilogus, Pierre; Astier, Pierre; Bacon, Roland; Bongard, S.; Bonnaud, C.; Copin, Yannick; Hardin, D.; Howell, D. Andy; Lemmonnier, Jean-Pierre; Levy, J.-M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, Peter; Pain, Reynald; Pecontal, Arlette; Pecontal, Emmanuel; Perlmutter, Saul; Quimby, Robert; Schahmaneche, Kyan; Smadja, Gerard; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2002-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an international experiment designed to lay the foundation for the next generation of cosmology experiments (such as CFHTLS, wP, SNAP and LSST) which will measure the expansion history of the Universe using Type Ia supernovae. The SNfactory will discover and obtain frequent lightcurve spectrophotometry covering 3200-10000 (angstrom) for roughly 300 Type Ia supernovae at the loW--redshift end of the smooth Hubble flow. The quantity, quality, breadth of galactic environments, and homogeneous nature of the SNfactory dataset will make it the premier source of calibration for the Type Ia supernova width-brightness relation and the intrinsic supernova colors used for K-correction and correction for extinction by host-galaxy dust. This dataset will also allow an extensive investigation of additional parameters which possibly influence the quality of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological probes. The SNfactory search capabilities and folloW--up instrumentation include wide-field CCD imagers on two 1.2-m telescopes (via collaboration with the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking team at JPL and the QUEST team at Yale), and a two-channel integral-field-unit optical spectrograph/imager being fabricated for the University of Hawaii 2.2-m telescope. In addition to ground-based folloW--up, UV spectra for a subsample of these supernovae will be obtained with HST. The pipeline to obtain, transfer via wireless and standard internet, and automatically process the search images is in operation. Software and hardware development is now underway to enable the execution of folloW--up spectroscopy of supernova candidates at the Hawaii 2.2-m telescope via automated remote control of the telescope and the IFU spectrograph/imager

  11. Proper motion survey for solar nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    For its microlensing observations EROS 2 built one of the largest CCD mosaic opera ting since 1996. This instrument allowed us to survey a large area of the sky, to look for faint, cool compact objects in the Solar neighborhood that may contribute to the Dark Matter revealed by flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. We imaged over 400 square degrees, at least three times over four years, with a single, stable instrument. The aim of this work is the reduction, the analysis and the detection of high proper motion objects that would look like those expected in a dark halo. We selected and analyzed thousands of images taken in two bands, visible and near-infrared, and obtained a catalogue of several thousand stars with proper motion typically higher than 80 milli-arc-seconds per year. None of these candidates displays the expected properties of the halo objects: very high proper motion and faintness. The second part of our work was to put constraints on the contributions of white dwarfs and brown dwarfs ta the halo. To do that, we simulated our data set and estimated our sensitivity to halo objects. We compared our results about moderately high proper motion stars with existing Galactic models, and confirmed the robustness of these models. We deduced a upper limit ta the contribution of M_v = 17.5 white dwarfs to the standard halo of 10% (at the 95% confidence level), or 5% of a 14 Gyr old halo, and to the contribution of brown dwarfs of 7% (95% C.L.). Finally, among our candidates, several interesting objects, that do not belong to the halo but are among the coolest and faintest known, have been discovered. Systematic search for faint, nearby objects thus lead us to study disk L dwarfs, as well as old white dwarfs of the disk. (author) [fr

  12. Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership with Rural Hospitals: Experience from Southeast Nigeria. Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Azubuike Kanario Onyebuchi, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Justus Ndulue Eze, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu ...

  13. Valuing health effects from the industrial air pollution in rural Tianjin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; XU Lin-yu

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants such as total suspended particulates(TSP) and sulfur dioxide(SO2 ) have serious impacts on nearby populations. In this paper, a survey of rural Tianjin residents' willingness-to-pay for health improvement was reported on, and the MBDC( multiple bounded discrete choice) model was adopted to study the respondents' willingness-to-pay to prevent respiratory illnesses.The results showed that the willingness-to-pay for health improvement was affected by respondents' health condition, work situation and environmental awareness, but not by personal habits, such as smoking. If person's willingness-to-pay to avoid respiratory diseases can be considered equal to the cost to personal health caused by air pollution, the total cost will reach 538 x 106 RMB Yuan( RMB, equal to 65million USD) per year.

  14. Some Genetic Characteristics of the Population Residing Nearby Nuclear Power Plant. The First Step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkheidze, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is Sosnovy Bor with 60 thousands of inhabitants located 80 km to the west from the centre of St. Petersburg. Here is the greatest and the oldest nuclear power plant, LNPP, with four reactors of the RMBK-1000 (Chernobyl) type. In fact every Sosnovy Bor inhabitant is connected with nuclear technologies. The strategy of the city development is formed and controlled by the policy of federal bodies. It is very difficult to have access to any demographic data and documents reflecting status of population health. Low doses of ionizing radiation are known to cause mutations in germ cells. A great part of the population of Sosnovy Bor works in the NPP and is exposed to low dose ionizing radiation. This paper presents some genetic characteristics of Sosnovy Bor inhabitants including monogenic diseases (phenylketonuria, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, lysosomal diseases, hypothyroidism etc), chromosomal pathology (Down syndrome, Turner and Klinefelter diseases), multiple malformation syndromes and results of aFP screening of pregnant women with high rate of abnormal values of aFP and hHG. These results are obligatory basis and the first step to conduct a study on possible genetic effects of LNPP on genetic structure of Sosnovy Bor population.(author)

  15. Constraints to Gender Participation in Rural Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    who reside in the rural areas as family units (Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria ... cooperatives, individuals through private initiatives, corporate bodies as well as ..... from similar cultural background have many things in common.

  16. The status of rural garbage disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruqiong; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    With the development of rural construction and the improvement of the living standard of residents, the production of rural living waste is increasing day by day. These wastes not only pollute the environment, destroy the rural landscape, but also spread disease, threaten the life safety of human beings, and become one of the public hazards. The problem of rural living waste is a major environmental problem facing China and the world. This paper make a summary analysis about the present situation of municipal waste in China, this paper expounds the problems in rural garbage treatment, and in view of status quo of municipal waste in China put forward comprehensive countermeasures.

  17. Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

  18. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  19. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  20. Symposium “Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies”

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, Keiichi; ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE PROCEEDINGS

    2008-01-01

    This is a proceedings book of the symposium "Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies" held on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, on June 25 – 30, 2006. The symposium focused on mapping the interstellar media and other components in galaxies. Latest results of the following main topics are presented in the volume: Our Galaxy -- mass distribution, local ISM, supermassive black holes and their environments Central part of nearby galaxies -- ISM around starbursts, fueling mechanisms Nearby Galaxies -- molecular gas and star formation, gas dynamics Galactic environment and evolution -- formation of our Galaxy, origin of supermassive black holes The nature of the Dark Matter component -- effects on the internal structures of galaxies

  1. Location and Lifestyle: The Comparative Explanatory Ability of Urbanism and Rurality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W.

    1974-01-01

    The article focuses on 2 questions pivotal to the issue of rural-urban differences: 1) "Do attitudinal differences remain among the rural and urban residents independent of differences generated by other potent variables?"; and 2) "Will any increase in the predictive utility of rurality be generated by use of a composite definition (residence plus…

  2. Interactive Instructional Television: Education for Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagal, Judy; And Others

    The Rural Special Education Project is a federally funded partnership between Kayenta Unified School District and Northern Arizona University's (NAU) Center for Excellence in Education that aims to prepare well qualified special education teachers to work in rural and reservation schools. The participants are Native American residents working…

  3. Time use and rurality – Canada 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Millward; Jamie Spinney

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of rurality as a factor affecting where and how people use their time, in a North American context. Rurality is a complex concept, but two key aspects are the degree of urban influence, and economic dependence on resource industries (farming and fishing particularly). Using dichotomous variables from the 2005 Canadian time use survey, we find that rural residence and resource employment both strongly influence time use and travel behaviour. Respond...

  4. Place of Residence and Cognitive Function among the Adult Population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Ostbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Dupre, Matthew E; Wu, Bei

    2018-03-07

    The place of residence has been linked to cognitive function among adults in developed countries. This study examined how urban and rural residence was associated with cognitive function among adults in India. The World Health Organization Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health data was used to examine cognition among 6,244 community-residing adults age 50+ in 6 states in India. Residential status was categorized as urban, rural, urban-to-urban, rural-to-urban, rural-to-rural, and urban-to-rural. Cognition was assessed by immediate and delayed recall tests, digit span test, and verbal fluency test. Multilevel models were used to account for state-level differences and adjusted for individual-level sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related factors. Urban residents and urban-to-urban migrants had the highest levels of cognition, whereas rural residents and those who migrated to (or within) rural areas had the lowest cognition. The differences largely persisted after adjustment for multiple covariates; however, rural-to-urban migrants had no difference in cognition from urban residents once socioeconomic factors were taken into account. Cognition among adults in India differed significantly according to their current and past place of residence. Socioeconomic factors played an important role in the cognitive function of adults in urban areas. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Should Master's Level Training To Provide Rural Services Survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter A.

    Despite recent efforts to encourage federal funding of psychological services for underserved populations such as the elderly and residents of rural areas, ample evidence suggests that rural areas are underserved by psychologists. Drawing on data from rural and urban areas in Pennsylvania, this paper argues that master's level training can provide…

  6. The Glory of a Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Optical Light from a Hot Stellar Corona Detected with the VLT Summary The solar corona is a beautiful sight during total solar eclipses . It is the uppermost region of the extended solar atmosphere and consists of a very hot (over 1 million degrees), tenuous plasma of highly ionised elements that emit strong X-ray radiation. There is also a much weaker coronal emission in the optical part of the spectrum . The Sun is a normal star and X-ray observations from rockets and orbiting X-ray telescopes have shown that many other stars also possess coronae . But due to observational limits of the telescopes available so far, the much fainter optical emission from stellar coronae had never been detected. Now, however, an optical coronal line from iron ions that have lost 12 electrons (Fe XIII) has for the first time been observed in a star other than the Sun . The object, a cool star named CN Leonis , is located at a distance of 8 light-years. This impressive observational feat was performed with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the VLT 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , within a programme by German astronomer Jürgen Schmitt and his collaborators at the University of Hamburg Observatory. The possibility to observe stellar coronae with ground-based telescopes opens up new and exciting research opportunities, including the detailed study of stellar cycles , similar to the 11-year solar period. PR Photo 24a/01 : The solar corona during the August 11, 1999, solar eclipse. PR Photo 24b/01 : The nearby star CN Leonis . PR Photo 24c/01 : Ultraviolet spectrum of CN Leonis , obtained with UVES at VLT KUEYEN. PR Photo 24d/01 : The coronal Fe XIII emission line at 3388 Ångstrom in CN Leonis . The 'coronium' mystery ESO PR Photo 24a/01 ESO PR Photo 24a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 450 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 899 x 800 pix - 328k] [HiRes - JPEG: 3000 x 2669 pix - 3.1Mk] Caption : Photo of the solar corona, obtained by Philippe Duhoux (ESO) on August 11

  7. Discovery of path nearby clusters in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo; Zheng, Kai; Jensen, Christian S.; Yang, Bin; Kalnis, Panos; Li, Guohe; Wen, Ji Rong

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of regions of interest in large cities is an important challenge. We propose and investigate a novel query called the path nearby cluster (PNC) query that finds regions of potential interest (e.g., sightseeing places and commercial

  8. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  9. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  10. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  11. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  12. Collaborative Rural Healthcare Network: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is a critical issue in rural communities throughout the world. Provision of timely and cost effective health care in these communities is a challenge since it is coupled with a lack of adequate infrastructure and manpower support. Twenty percent of the United States of America‘s population resides in rural communities, i.e., 59 million people; however, only nine percent of the nation’s physicians practice in rural communities. Shortage of health care personnel and the lack of equipment and facilities often force rural residents to travel long distances to receive needed medical treatment. Researchers and practitioners are in search of solutions to address these unique challenges. In this research, we present a proposed collaborative model of a health information system for rural communities and the challenges and opportunities of this global issue.

  13. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  14. Racism and Health in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2018-01-01

    This commentary responds to the recent article by Dr. James et al. on racial and ethnic health disparities in rural America, published in the November 16 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. We applaud Dr. James and colleagues for their important contribution uncovering intra-rural racial and ethnic disparities and build on their paper by discussing potential mechanisms, including structural racism. We also discuss several pragmatic steps that can be taken in research, policy, and practice to address racial and ethnic disparities in rural communities and to work toward health equity for all rural residents.

  15. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced th...

  16. Initial Hubble Diagram Results from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aldering, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Antilogus, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Aragon, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baltay, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bongard, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buton, C [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Childress, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Copin, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Gangler, E. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Loken, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pain, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Pecontal, E. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Pereira, R. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rabinowitz, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rigaudier, G. [Center of Research Astrophysics of Lyon (CRAL) (France); Ripoche, P. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France); Runge, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scalzo, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Smadja, G. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Tao, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics of Lyon (France); Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, C. [Lab. Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), Paris (France)

    2017-07-06

    The use of Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators led to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe a decade ago. Now that large second generation surveys have significantly increased the size and quality of the high-redshift sample, the cosmological constraints are limited by the currently available sample of ~50 cosmologically useful nearby supernovae. The Nearby Supernova Factory addresses this problem by discovering nearby supernovae and observing their spectrophotometric time development. Our data sample includes over 2400 spectra from spectral timeseries of 185 supernovae. This talk presents results from a portion of this sample including a Hubble diagram (relative distance vs. redshift) and a description of some analyses using this rich dataset.

  17. Training child psychiatrists in rural public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M

    1987-04-01

    Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.

  18. Temporal Variation of Tectonic Tremor Activity Associated with Nearby Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, K.; Van der Lee, S.; Hsu, Y. J.; Pu, H. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tectonic tremor and slow slip events, located downdip from the seismogenic zone, hold the key to recurring patterns of typical earthquakes. Several findings of slow aseismic slip during the prenucletion processes of nearby earthquakes have provided new insight into the study of stress transform of slow earthquakes in fault zones prior to megathrust earthquakes. However, how tectonic tremor is associated with the occurrence of nearby earthquakes remains unclear. To enhance our understanding of the stress interaction between tremor and earthquakes, we developed an algorithm for the automatic detection and location of tectonic tremor in the collisional tectonic environment in Taiwan. Our analysis of a three-year data set indicates a short-term increase in the tremor rate starting at 19 days before the 2010 ML6.4 Jiashian main shock (Chao et al., JGR, 2017). Around the time when the tremor rate began to rise, one GPS station recorded a flip in its direction of motion. We hypothesize that tremor is driven by a slow-slip event that preceded the occurrence of the shallower nearby main shock, even though the inferred slip is too small to be observed by all GPS stations. To better quantify what the necessary condition for tremor to response to nearby earthquakes is, we obtained a 13-year ambient tremor catalog from 2004 to 2016 in the same region. We examine the spatiotemporal relationship between tremor and 37 ML>=5.0 (seven events with ML>=6.0) nearby earthquakes located within 0.5 degrees to the active tremor sources. The findings from this study can enhance our understanding of the interaction among tremor, slow slip, and nearby earthquakes in the high seismic hazard regions.

  19. Quantification of rural livelihood dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    role in lifting poor out poverty which could be due to restricted access to more remunerative environmental resources, (ii) the developed approach for livelihood clustering (combining household income and asset variables using regression models) outperform both existing income and asset approaches (iii......Improved understanding of rural livelihoods is required to reduce rural poverty faster. To that end, this PhD study quantified rural livelihood dynamics emphasizing (i) the role of environmental resources use in helping rural households to escape poverty, (ii) development of a new approach...... households. Two groups of attrite households were identified: ‘movers’ (households that left their original location) and ‘non-movers’ (households that still resided in the same location but were not interviewed for different reasons). The findings revealed that (i) total environmental income had a limited...

  20. Testing the Presence of Multiple Photometric Components in Nearby Early-type Galaxies Using SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Semyeong; Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lackner, Claire N., E-mail: semyeong@astro.princeton.edu [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate two-dimensional image decomposition of nearby, morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs). We are motivated by recent observational evidence of significant size growth of quiescent galaxies and theoretical development advocating a two-phase formation scenario for ETGs. We find that a significant fraction of nearby ETGs show changes in isophotal shape that require multi-component models. The characteristic sizes of the inner and outer component are ∼3 and ∼15 kpc. The inner component lies on the mass–size relation of ETGs at z ∼ 0.25–0.75, while the outer component tends to be more elliptical and hints at a stochastic buildup process. We find real physical differences between single- and double-component ETGs, with double-component galaxies being younger and more metal-rich. The fraction of double-component ETGs increases with increasing σ and decreases in denser environments. We hypothesize that double-component systems were able to accrete gas and small galaxies until later times, boosting their central densities, building up their outer parts, and lowering their typical central ages. In contrast, the oldest galaxies, perhaps due to residing in richer environments, have no remaining hints of their last accretion episode.

  1. Concentration of 210Po in local foodstuffs grown nearby High Background Areas (HBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamesh Viswanathan, B.; Arunachalam, Kantha D.; Sathesh Kumar, A.; Jayakrishna, K.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    210 Po is the decay product of natural radionuclide of 238 U series. The presence of a radionuclide migrates from soil > plant > food and ingested by the humans residing in the areas of syentite rocks nearby the High Background Radiation Area's (HBRA). The food samples were studied by Market Basket Study (MBS). The average concentration of 210 Po in foodstuffs like green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, roots and tubers; fruits, fish, other flesh foods, milk and cereals were 1671 ± 163.3, 28.2 ± 7.3, 320 ± 99, 53 ± 17.5, 251.5 ± 54.5, 37 ± 14.5, 16 ± 6 and 230 ± 75 mBq. Kg -1 fresh weight. (author)

  2. Urban Imperviousness Effects on Summer Surface Temperatures Nearby Residential Buildings in Different Urban Zones of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and unplanned urban growth is responsible for the continuous conversion of green or generally natural spaces into artificial surfaces. The high degree of imperviousness modifies the urban microclimate and no studies have quantified its influence on the surface temperature (ST nearby residential building. This topic represents the aim of this study carried out during summer in different urban zones (densely urbanized or park/rural areas of Parma (Northern Italy. Daytime and nighttime ASTER images, the local urban cartography and the Italian imperviousness databases were used. A reproducible/replicable framework was implemented named “Building Thermal Functional Area” (BTFA useful to lead building-proxy thermal analyses by using remote sensing data. For each residential building (n = 8898, the BTFA was assessed and the correspondent ASTER-LST value (ST_BTFA and the imperviousness density were calculated. Both daytime and nighttime ST_BTFA significantly (p < 0.001 increased when high levels of imperviousness density surrounded the residential buildings. These relationships were mostly consistent during daytime and in densely urbanized areas. ST_BTFA differences between urban and park/rural areas were higher during nighttime (above 1 °C than daytime (about 0.5 °C. These results could help to identify “urban thermal Hot-Spots” that would benefit most from mitigation actions.

  3. Meeting Increasing Demands for Rural General Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.

  4. Rural hospital wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Ann M.

    1989-01-01

    Average fiscal year 1982 wages from 2,302 rural American hospitals were used to test for a gradient descending from hospitals in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas to those not adjacent. Considerable variation in the ratios of adjacent to nonadjacent averages existed. No statistically significant difference was found, however. Of greater importance in explaining relative wages within States were occupational mix, mix of part-time and full-time workers, case mix, presence of medical residencies, and location in a high-rent county within the State. Medicare already adjusts payments for only two of these variables. PMID:10313454

  5. Evidence of nearby supernovae affecting life on Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    . A statistical analysis indicates that the Solar system has experienced many large short-term increases in the flux of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) from nearby SNe. The hypothesis that a high GCR flux should coincide with cold conditions on the Earth is borne out by comparing the general geological record...

  6. Monitoring variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, it has been possible to monitor variable X-ray sources in nearby galaxies. In particular, since the launch of Chandra, M31 has been regularly observed. It is perhaps the only nearby galaxy which is observed by an X-ray telescope regularly throughout operation. With 10 years of observations, the center of M31 has been observed with Chandra for nearly 1 Msec and the X-ray skies of M31 consist of many transients and variables. Furthermore, the X-ray Telescope of Swift has been monitoring several ultraluminous X-ray sources in nearby galaxies regularly. Not only can we detect long-term X-ray variability, we can also find spectral variation as well as possible orbital period. In this talk, I will review some of the important Chandra and Swift monitoring observations of nearby galaxies in the past 10 years. I will also present a "high-definition" movie of M31 and discuss the possibility of detecting luminous transients in M31 with MAXI.

  7. Prospects for SODART observations of nearby clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Using the current best understanding of the SODART mirror system, the Bragg panel and of the LEPC/HEPC responses [1] we have studied the feasibility and prospects for SODART studies of nearby clusters of galaxies. From simulated HEPC data of the cluster Abell 2256, we demonstrate that SODART...

  8. AN UPDATED ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF GALEX NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song, E-mail: ybai@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: songw@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang Distict, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1′. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV − K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX–β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  9. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana

    2013-08-01

    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Resident Characteristics Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Resident Characteristics Report summarizes general information about households who reside in Public Housing, or who receive Section 8 assistance. The report...

  11. Investigation and Control Mode of Domestic Pollution in Rural Areas of Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunyi; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the unbalanced economic development and scattered residence in rural areas, it was difficult to adopt a centralized approach in rural environmental governance. Based on the survey results of the present situation of rural environment in Guangxi and the analysis of the pollution characteristics in rural areas, the control mode of domestic pollution suitable for rural areas was obtained. Based on this research, a demonstration project of Guangxi’s administrative village was selected.

  12. Balancing Rural and Urban Development: Applying Coordinated Urban–Rural Development (CURD Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hin Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land in rural China has been under a separate and closed management system for decades even after the urban land reform that started in the late 1980s. The blurred property rights over rural land have been hindering the rural welfare as surplus rural land in sub-urban areas cannot be circulated into more economic use without first being requisitioned by the state. This traditional conversion process creates a lot of problems, among them are the compensation standard as well as displacement of rural residents to the city, where they cannot find adequate welfare protection. The prolonged disparity in economic outcomes for rural and urban residents in China in the process of urbanisation has made the authority realise that land-based local finance is no longer an option. Coordinated Urban and Rural Development (CURD ideology arises to set a level playing field by giving the rural residents comparable welfare status as their urban counterparts’ one. The CURD ideology is basically linked to the strategic development of the three main issues in the rural area of China, or in the Chinese terminology: San Nong. These three issues are rural villages, rural enterprises and rural farmers (nong cun, nong ye, nong min. CURD ideology is to preserve the livelihood of rural villages, facilitate and promote rural enterprises and increase the living standard of rural farmers. Most importantly, however, CURD policy package bestows rural residents with property rights over their farmland so that they could sub-co1ntract the user-rights to other urban commercial entities for higher benefits. While CURD policies are applied in a lot of different regions in China including Chongqing in the West, Qingdao in the North, Zhongshan in the South and Wuhan in the middle, we focus our examination in Chengdu as the Chengdu model has been widely documented and highly regarded as the most successful model in implementing the CURD strategies. From our case study, we find that

  13. Engagement in paid work as a protective predictor of basic activities of daily living disability in Japanese urban and rural community-dwelling elderly residents: An 8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji; Kobayashi, Erika; Minami, Ushio; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideyo; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kumagai, Shu; Watanabe, Shuichiro; Furuna, Taketo; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether engaging in paid work is a predictor of maintaining good functional health among Japanese older adults in both urban and rural communities. We used the 8-year longitudinal Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging with 306 and 675 persons aged 65-84 years from Koganei City (urban) and Nangai Village (rural), respectively, who are independent in basic activities of daily living (BADL). In order to examine the declining patterns in BADL and evaluate the predictive value of working status for future BADL disability, we applied the log-rank test of cumulative proportion curves and the Cox proportional hazard model by sex, controlling for age, research fields, years of education, marital state, chronic medical conditions, pain, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), smoking status, exercise habits, life satisfaction, usual walking speed and serum albumin for evaluating the predictive value of working status at baseline for future BADL disability. In both areas, participants who were not working were more likely to decline in BADL than those working (P women in urban Koganei. Male participants who did not engage in paid work had a higher adjusted hazard ratio of onset of BADL disability, compared with those working, but this was not seen for female participants. Working might be protective from a decline in BADL only for men, but not for women. Regarding the difference of sex roles in conventional Japanese society, working would be an effective solution especially for men to participate in social activities. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Edentulism in high poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jordan; Bennett, Kevin; Brock-Martin, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the differences in oral health status among residents of high-poverty counties, as compared to residents of other rural or urban counties, specifically on the prevalence of edentulism. We used the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 2006 Area Resource File (ARF). All analyses were conducted with SAS and SAS-callable SUDAAN, in order to account for weighting and the complex sample design. Characteristics significantly related to edentulism include: geographic location, gender, race, age, health status, employment, insurance, not having a usual source of care, education, marital status, presence of chronic disease, having an English interview, not deferring care due to cost, income, and dentist saturation within the county. Significant associations between high-poverty rural and other rural counties and edentulism were found, and other socioeconomic and health status indicators remain strong predictors of edentulism. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the decision makers residing ... Key words: Pulses consumption, urban and rural areas, Tanzania and double hurdle model ...... Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics.

  16. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A; Johnson, Andrew O; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D

    2015-03-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention.

  17. Safety aspects of nuclear power plants nearby urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1986-01-01

    According to the Environmental Experts Council smaller reactors would correspond best to the heat demand of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study discusses and investigates into the present safety concepts and site selection criteria, trends towards power plant sites nearby urban areas, site-dependent parameters and their influence on the extent of damage, protective aims, compatibility of the protective aims proposed, and the protective measures required. (DG) [de

  18. The Long Term Features of Tropical Cyclones Nearby Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yueh-Shyuan; Lee, Cheng-Shang

    2017-04-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is affected by several factors. The variability of TC activity over the western North Pacific (WNP) has been examined in the past decade. Previous studies showed that TC activity (such as TC number, intensity and tracks) has multiscale variation or affected by natural oscillation of different scales. However, most of these studies focused mainly on the entire WNP. Very few studies examined the variability of annual TC track or the variability of TC number in the area nearby Taiwan, which caused severe economic loss and life damage to Taiwan in the typhoon season. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the variation of TC activity nearby Taiwan to address its long term features, and also the possible relationship with the associated flow patterns. Preliminary results of wavelet analysis showed that the TC number nearby Taiwan during 1970-2014 had multiscale variations. The following analysis focused on the scale about 4- and 11-year signals, in the targeted area of 118o-125oE, 20o-27oN. The positive phases of both scale 4 and scale 11 showed a tendency of TC tracks toward Taiwan area, while the negative phases showed a lower tendency toward Taiwan. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied on the 4-yr and the 11-yr filtered 500-hPa wind fields and geopotential heights. Results showed that the 4-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U- and V-wind fields, suggesting that the TC track patterns were affected mainly by the midlevel steering flow. On the other hand, the 11-yr signal was mostly dominated by the 500-hPa U-wind field and geopotential anomalies, indicating that the main cause of the difference in TC occurrence nearby Taiwan was the location of TC formation.

  19. CCD photometry of Cepheid sequences in four nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.

    1991-01-01

    We present Isaac Newton Telescope B and V CCD observations of deep photometric sequences in the vicinity of Cepheid variable stars in three nearby galaxies - M31, M33 and NGC 2403. We have also checked the photometry of the brightest stars in M81 and its dwarf companion, Holmberg IX. We use our data, combined with other recent results, to re-analyse the Cepheid distances to these galaxies. (author)

  20. Nearby Galaxies: Templates for Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    OpenAIRE

    Lockman, F. J.; Ott, J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of nearby galaxies including the Milky Way have provided fundamental information on the evolution of structure in the Universe, the existence and nature of dark matter, the origin and evolution of galaxies, and the global features of star formation. Yet despite decades of work, many of the most basic aspects of galaxies and their environments remain a mystery. In this paper we describe some outstanding problems in this area and the ways in which large radio facilities will contribute ...

  1. A search for thermal extreme ultraviolet radiation from nearby pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstein, G.; Margon, B.

    1977-01-01

    We present the first extreme ultraviolet (100-1000 A) observations of radio pulsars. Using an EUV telescope carried aboard the Apollo-Soyuz mission, data were acquired on the nearby pulsars PSR 1133 + 16, 1451 - 68 and 1929 + 10. The data are interpreted to set limits on the effective temperatures of the neutron stars, yielding T 5 K in the best cases, and the limits compared with theoretical predictions. (orig./BJ) [de

  2. Doses of Nearby Nature Simultaneously Associated with Multiple Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. C. Cox

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nature provides a wide range of health benefits. A significant proportion of these are delivered close to home, because this offers an immediate and easily accessible opportunity for people to experience nature. However, there is limited information to guide recommendations on its management and appropriate use. We apply a nature dose-response framework to quantify the simultaneous association between exposure to nearby nature and multiple health benefits. We surveyed ca. 1000 respondents in Southern England, UK, to determine relationships between (a nature dose type, that is the frequency and duration (time spent in private green space and intensity (quantity of neighbourhood vegetation cover of nature exposure and (b health outcomes, including mental, physical and social health, physical behaviour and nature orientation. We then modelled dose-response relationships between dose type and self-reported depression. We demonstrate positive relationships between nature dose and mental and social health, increased physical activity and nature orientation. Dose-response analysis showed that lower levels of depression were associated with minimum thresholds of weekly nature dose. Nearby nature is associated with quantifiable health benefits, with potential for lowering the human and financial costs of ill health. Dose-response analysis has the potential to guide minimum and optimum recommendations on the management and use of nearby nature for preventative healthcare.

  3. Nearby Red Dwarfs are Sexy for Planets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Subasavage, J. P.; RECONS Team

    2005-12-01

    The RECONS group continues to discover many nearby red dwarfs in the southern sky through a combination of proper motion surveys, literature review, and ultimately, our parallax program CTIOPI. Already, we have measured the first accurate parallaxes for 11 of the nearest 100 stellar systems, including four within 5 parsecs of the Sun. These nearby red dwarfs are prime candidates for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) because the astrometric perturbations are largest for planets orbiting stars of low mass that are nearby. In addition, new multiple red dwarf systems can be targeted for mass determinations, thereby providing points on a comprehensive mass-luminosity relation for the most populous members of the Galaxy. Recent atmospheric modeling of planets orbiting red dwarfs indicates that even if the planets are tidally locked, heat distribution is highly effective in keeping the worlds balmy over the entire surface. Red dwarfs are therefore "back on the table" as viable hosts of life-bearing planets. Given their ubiquity, red dwarfs are being seriously considered as prime SETI targets, and will allow us to answer not only the question "Are We Alone?" but "Just How Alone Are We?" This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, and Georgia State University.

  4. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  5. Updated methods for assessing the impacts of nearby gas drilling and production on neighborhood air quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Erickson, Matthew; Wijesinghe, Asanga; Neish, Brad; Williams, Jeff; Colvin, John

    2016-02-01

    An explosive growth in natural gas production within the last decade has fueled concern over the public health impacts of air pollutant emissions from oil and gas sites in the Barnett and Eagle Ford shale regions of Texas. Commonly acknowledged sources of uncertainty are the lack of sustained monitoring of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with gas mining, poor quantification of their emissions, and inability to correlate health symptoms with specific emission events. These uncertainties are best addressed not by conventional monitoring and modeling technology, but by increasingly available advanced techniques for real-time mobile monitoring, microscale modeling and source attribution, and real-time broadcasting of air quality and human health data over the World Wide Web. The combination of contemporary scientific and social media approaches can be used to develop a strategy to detect and quantify emission events from oil and gas facilities, alert nearby residents of these events, and collect associated human health data, all in real time or near-real time. The various technical elements of this strategy are demonstrated based on the results of past, current, and planned future monitoring studies in the Barnett and Eagle Ford shale regions. Resources should not be invested in expanding the conventional air quality monitoring network in the vicinity of oil and gas exploration and production sites. Rather, more contemporary monitoring and data analysis techniques should take the place of older methods to better protect the health of nearby residents and maintain the integrity of the surrounding environment.

  6. A study on the stakeholder of holistic rural tourism: A case of Yangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanheng; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Holistic rural tourism is an important model to rural economy; however, there are a number of issues in the developing of the holistic rural tourism, one of the most prominent problems is the interests of community residents cannot be guaranteed. From the perspective of the stakeholders, the article describes the main stakeholders in the development of holistic rural tourism and analyzes the demands of different stakeholders' interests. The paper summarizes the principles of distribution mechanism of holistic rural tourism interests. Finally, it proposes the primary distribution mechanism and re-distribution mechanism of holistic rural tourism interests to provide some inspiration for the interest distribution in the sustainable development of holistic rural tourism.

  7. The Road to Rural Primary Care: A Narrative Review of Factors That Help Develop, Recruit, and Retain Rural Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlier, Anna Beth; Galvin, Shelley L; Thach, Sarah; Kruidenier, David; Fagan, Ernest Blake

    2018-01-01

    To examine the literature documenting successes in recruiting and retaining rural primary care physicians. The authors conducted a narrative review of literature on individual, educational, and professional characteristics and experiences that lead to recruitment and retention of rural primary care physicians. In May 2016, they searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Grey Literature Report, and reference lists of included studies for literature published in or after 1990 in the United States, Canada, or Australia. The authors identified 83 articles meeting inclusion criteria. They synthesized results and developed a theoretical model that proposes how the findings interact and influence rural recruitment and retention. The authors' proposed theoretical model suggests factors interact across multiple dimensions to facilitate the development of a rural physician identity. Rural upbringing, personal attributes, positive rural exposure, preparation for rural life and medicine, partner receptivity to rural living, financial incentives, integration into rural communities, and good work-life balance influence recruitment and retention. However, attending medical schools and/or residencies with a rural emphasis and participating in rural training may reflect, rather than produce, intention for rural practice. Many factors enhance rural physician identity development and influence whether physicians enter, remain in, and thrive in rural practice. To help trainees and young physicians develop the professional identity of a rural physician, multifactorial medical training approaches aimed at encouraging long-term rural practice should focus on rural-specific clinical and nonclinical competencies while providing trainees with positive rural experiences.

  8. HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

  9. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...

  10. [Burnout in nursing residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Bottura Leite; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum

    2011-03-01

    Nursing residents may experience physical and emotional exhaustion from the daily life of attending the Program. The aim of this study was to determine the Burnout incidence among Nursing Residents. An investigative, descriptive, analytical, longitudinal-prospective study was conducted with 16 Residents over two years. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used, translated and validated for Brazil, as well as a sociodemographic/occupational data tool. Of all residents, 17.2% showed high rates in Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization; 18.8% showed impaired commitment in Personal Accomplishment, 75% of which belonged to specialty areas, such as Emergency Nursing, Adult and Pediatric Intensive Care. Age and specialty area were positively correlated with Personal Accomplishment. One of the Residents was identified with changes in three subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, thus characterized as a Burnout Syndrome patient. Nursing Residents have profiles of disease. Knowing these factors can minimize health risks of these workers.

  11. Particularities of the Romanian rural education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecău Alina Simona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The education of preschoolers, pupils or young people that are part of disadvantaged or at-risk groups is a priority objective of political, socio-economic, cultural and civic organizations in Romania. Romanian rural education is facing a sharp drop in the number of pupils. Causes may be related to a large number of families with socio-economic problems, distances, limited access to cutting-edge information, and migration to nearby cities. Identifying causes accurately and measuring the impact on the quality of rural education is also a challenge from the perspective of educational marketing. Case study may constitute a starting point for further research to propose effective solutions to improve education in rural areas. The present work is an analysis of the situation of preschool and gymnasium educational establishment in one of the communes of the county of Braşov.

  12. Rural influentials' perceptions of tourism and its potential for economic development: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Burr

    1995-01-01

    Rural residents' perceptions of tourism and its associated impacts are likely to be important in planning, development, marketing, and operation of existing and future tourism projects. This study examines rural influentials' perceptions of tourism as a tool for economic revitalization in Pennsylvania's rural counties, its present impact, and its...

  13. Broadband Communications for Rural Development? Yes -- But We Will Need a Marketing Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Widespread provision of non-entertainment services by way of telecommunications can have a significant impact on rural growth and public services and on rural-urban migration patterns if the mix of these services and the places where they are to be introduced are chosen within the context of a national rural policy, and if local residents perceive…

  14. 76 FR 30244 - Veterans' Rural Health Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... on health care issues affecting enrolled Veterans residing in rural areas. The Committee examines... Rural Health Strategic Plan discussion and work session and the other is the Committee's annual report... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Veterans' Rural Health Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting The...

  15. Newcomers to rural Denmark: exploring migration processes and social life changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    The paper explores processes of social change in rural communities by examining migration processes and social changes in remote rural locations in Denmark. Through a survey among both in-migrants and long-term residents focus lays on three themes: changes in rural life due to in-migration......, the development of relationships between local residents and newcomers and the integration of newcomers in rural communities. In this way the paper gives insight into the relation between migration processes and social life change and it also gives new insight in how rural communities can attract newcomers...

  16. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  17. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, A.; Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.

    2011-01-01

    they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs......) of these objects from 60 to 850μm. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs...

  18. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF SECONDARY COMPONENTS IN NEARBY VISUAL BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical characterization of secondary subsystems in binaries helps to distinguish between various scenarios of multiple-star formation. The Differential Speckle Survey Instrument was used at the Gemini-N telescope for several hours in 2015 July to probe the binarity of 25 secondary components in nearby solar-type binaries. Six new subsystems were resolved, with meaningful detection limits for the remaining targets. The large incidence of secondary subsystems agrees with other similar studies. The newly resolved subsystem HIP 115417 Ba,Bb causes deviations in the observed motion of the outer binary from which an astrometric orbit of Ba,Bb with a period of 117 years is deduced.

  19. Surgical specialty procedures in rural surgery practices: implications for rural surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticca, Robert P; Mullin, Brady C; Harris, Joel D; Hosford, Clint C

    2012-12-01

    Specialty procedures constitute one eighth of rural surgery practice. Currently, general surgeons intending to practice in rural hospitals may not get adequate training for specialty procedures, which they will be expected to perform. Better definition of these procedures will help guide rural surgery training. Current Procedural Terminology codes for all surgical procedures for 81% of North Dakota and South Dakota rural surgeons were entered into the Dakota Database for Rural Surgery. Specialty procedures were analyzed and compared with the Surgical Council on Resident Education curriculum to determine whether general surgery training is adequate preparation for rural surgery practice. The Dakota Database for Rural Surgery included 46,052 procedures, of which 5,666 (12.3%) were specialty procedures. Highest volume specialty categories included vascular, obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, cardiothoracic, urology, and otolaryngology. Common procedures in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery are taught in general surgical residency, while common procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology are usually not taught in general surgery training. Optimal training for rural surgery practice should include experience in specialty procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, orthopedics, urology, and otolaryngology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathways to rural family practice at Memorial University of Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; O'Keefe, Danielle; Ravalia, Mohamed; Moffatt, Scott; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; Jong, Michael; Walsh, Kristin Harris; Hippe, Janelle

    2018-03-01

    To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. Analysis of anonymized secondary data. Canada. Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091). National effect was measured by the proportion of MUN's family medicine program graduates practising in rural Canada compared with those from other Canadian family medicine training programs. Provincial effect was measured by the location of MUN's MD graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015. Commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice was measured by anonymized geographic data on admissions, educational placements, and practice locations of MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates, including those who completed family medicine residencies at MUN. Memorial's comprehensive pathways approach to training physicians for rural practice was successful on both national and provincial levels: 26.9% of MUN family medicine program graduates were in a rural practice location 2 years after exiting their post-MD training from 2004 to 2013 compared with the national rate of 13.3% (national effect); 305 of MUN's MD graduates were practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of 2015, with 36% practising in rural areas (provincial effect). Of 114 MD students with known background who graduated in 2011 and 2012, 32% had rural backgrounds. Memorial's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates spent 20% of all clinical placement weeks in rural areas; of note, 90% of all first-year placements and 95% of

  1. Improving Surgical Skills of OBGYN Residents through Partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora

    through Partnership with Rural Hospitals: Experience from Southeast Nigeria. ... of Sociology, Anthropology and Psychiatry, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria .... of the junior residents who felt that their emotions and opinions .... which combined both quantitative and qualitative data to draw ... J Preg Child Health.

  2. Creating a new rural pharmacy workforce: Development and implementation of the Rural Pharmacy Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U

    2017-12-01

    An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. US Health Care Reform and Rural America: Results From the ACA's Medicaid Expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Joseph A; Seiber, Eric E

    2018-03-01

    Medicaid expansions, prompted by the Affordable Care Act, generated generally positive effects on coverage and alleviated much of the financial burden associated with seeking health care. We do not know if these shifts also extend to the nation's rural populations. Using 2011-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, this study compares trend changes for coverage, access to care, and health care utilization in response to Medicaid expansion among urban and rural residents using a difference-in-differences regression approach. Following Medicaid expansion, low-income rural and urban residents both experienced reductions in uninsurance; however, the coverage uptake in rural settings (8.5 percentage points [pp], P .10). In spite of larger uptakes in coverage among rural residents, reductions in cost-related barriers to medical care were slightly larger among urban residents, and access to a regular source of medical care (5.2 pp, P rural residents than urban residents; however, it appears there remain opportunities to improve access to care among potentially vulnerable rural residents. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  5. Spectral differential imaging detection of planets about nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct ground-based optical imaging of planets in orbit about nearby stars may be accomplished by spectral differential imaging using multiple passband acoustooptic filters with a CCD. This technique provides two essential results. First, it provides a means to modulate the stellar flux reflected from a planet while leaving the flux from the star and other sources in the same field of view unmodulated. Second, spectral differential imaging enables the CCD detector to achieve a sufficiently high dynamic range to locate planets near a star in spite of an integrated brightness differential of 5 x 10 8 . Spectral differential imaging at nearby diffraction limited imaging conditions with telescope apodization can reduce the time to conduct a sensitive planetary search to a few hours in some cases. The feasibility of this idea is discussed here and shown to provide, in principle, the discrimination and sensitivity to detect a Jovian-class planet about stars at distances of about 10 parsecs. The detection of brown dwarfs is shown to be feasible as well. 31 references

  6. Modelling the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Katy

    Since Lick indices were introduced in 1994, they have been used as a source of observational data against which computer models of galaxy evolution have been compared. However, as this thesis demonstrates, observed Lick indices lead to mathematical ill-conditioning: small variations in observations can lead to very large differences in population synthesis models attempting to recreate the observed values. As such, limited reliance should be placed on any results currently or historically in the literature purporting to give the star formation history of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, where this is deduced from Lick observations taken from a single instrument, without separate verification from at least one other source. Within these limitations, this thesis also constrains the star formation histories of 21 nearby elliptical galaxies, finding that they formed 13.26 +0.09 -0.06 Gyrs ago, that all mergers are dry, and that galactic winds are formed from AGN activity (rather than being supernovae-driven). This thesis also finds evidence to support the established galaxy-formation theory of "downsizing". An existing galactic model from the literature is examined and evaluated, and the reasons for it being unable to establish star formation histories of individual galaxies are ascertained. A brand-new model is designed, developed, tested and used with two separate data sets, corroborated for 10 galaxies by data from a third source, and compared to results from a Single Stellar Population model from the literature, to model the star formation histories of nearby elliptical galaxies.

  7. Geological isotope anomalies as signatures of nearby supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Schramm, David N; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D; Schramm, David N

    1996-01-01

    Nearby supernova explosions may cause geological isotope anomalies via the direct deposition of debris or by cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the mass of material deposited terrestrially by these two mechanisms, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. A number of radioactive isotopes are identified as possible diagnostic tools, such as Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-53, Fe-60, and Ni-59, as well as the longer-lived I-129, Sm-146, and Pu-244. We discuss whether the 35 and 60 kyr-old Be-10 anomalies observed in the Vostok antarctic ice cores could be due to supernova explosions. Combining our estimates for matter deposition with results of recent nucleosynthesis yields, we calculate the expected signal from nearby supernovae using ice cores back to \\sim 300 kyr ago, and we discuss using deep ocean sediments back to several hundred Myr. In particular, we examine the prospects for identifying isotope anomalies due to the Geminga supernova explosion, and signatures of the possibility...

  8. Do the VOCs that evaporate from a heavily polluted river threaten the health of riparian residents?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Chin; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2010-01-01

    To understand the potential threat of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the health of residents living close to a heavily polluted river, this study investigated the species and the concentration of VOCs evaporating from a river and surveyed the health condition of the nearby residents. Air samples were taken seasonally at the upstream, midstream, and downstream water surfaces of the river, and at different locations at certain distances from the river. These samples were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC/ECD) for chlorinated organic compounds, and through gas chromatography and flame ionization detector (GC/FID) for ordinary hydrocarbons. The health data obtained from valid health questionnaires of 908 residents were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Twenty-six species of VOCs were identified in the environment adjacent the river, many of which are carcinogenic or believed to be carcinogenic to humans. However, results of this study shows that the VOCs evaporating from the polluted river have not been definitively identified as a major factor of cancer in the residents. However, the risk of suffering from certain chronic diseases may increase in residents living less than 225 m away from the river due to the high levels of evaporated VOCs. Residents living less than 225 m away from the river and with nearby specific industries are 3.130 times more at risk of suffering from chronic diseases than those with no nearby specific industries.

  9. The History and Context of Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie

    1987-01-01

    Those who are poor and reside in the rural pockets of poverty are at a cumulative disadvantage in United States society. Low educational levels, poor health, lack of competitive job skills, and a mindset restricted by poverty give little hope for mobility--especially in communities devoid of opportunity and supportive services. (JHZ)

  10. Home Care Services and the Rural Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Independent studies examined a needs v an agency perspective on home health care service needs within a rural county. Interviews with 299 elderly, aged 60-93, revealed there were substantial needs for home health care services and the desire for services varied with residence within the county. (Author)

  11. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  12. HUBBLE'S ULTRAVIOLET VIEWS OF NEARBY GALAXIES YIELD CLUES TO EARLY UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers are using these three NASA Hubble Space Telescope images to help tackle the question of why distant galaxies have such odd shapes, appearing markedly different from the typical elliptical and spiral galaxies seen in the nearby universe. Do faraway galaxies look weird because they are truly weird? Or, are they actually normal galaxies that look like oddballs, because astronomers are getting an incomplete picture of them, seeing only the brightest pieces? Light from these galaxies travels great distances (billions of light-years) to reach Earth. During its journey, the light is 'stretched' due to the expansion of space. As a result, the light is no longer visible, but has been shifted to the infrared where present instruments are less sensitive. About the only light astronomers can see comes from regions where hot, young stars reside. These stars emit mostly ultraviolet light. But this light is stretched, appearing as visible light by the time it reaches Earth. Studying these distant galaxies is like trying to put together a puzzle with some of the pieces missing. What, then, do distant galaxies really look like? Astronomers studied 37 nearby galaxies to find out. By viewing these galaxies in ultraviolet light, astronomers can compare their shapes with those of their distant relatives. These three Hubble telescope pictures, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, represent a sampling from that survey. Astronomers observed the galaxies in ultraviolet and visible light to study all the stars that make up these 'cities of stars.' The results of their survey support the idea that astronomers are detecting the 'tip of the iceberg' of very distant galaxies. Based on these Hubble ultraviolet images, not all the faraway galaxies necessarily possess intrinsically odd shapes. The results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. The central region of the 'star-burst' spiral galaxy at far left

  13. A Predicted Astrometric Microlensing Event by a Nearby White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Peter; Smith, Leigh C.; Wyn Evans, N.; Belokurov, Vasily; Smart, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    We used the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution catalogue, part of Gaia Data Release 1, to search for candidate astrometric microlensing events expected to occur within the remaining lifetime of the Gaia satellite. Our search yielded one promising candidate. We predict that the nearby DQ type white dwarf LAWD 37 (WD 1142-645) will lens a background star and will reach closest approach on November 11th 2019 (± 4 days) with impact parameter 380 ± 10 mas. This will produce an apparent maximum deviation of the source position of 2.8 ± 0.1 mas. In the most propitious circumstance, Gaia will be able to determine the mass of LAWD 37 to ˜3%. This mass determination will provide an independent check on atmospheric models of white dwarfs with helium rich atmospheres, as well as tests of white dwarf mass radius relationships and evolutionary theory.

  14. Gravitational interaction of a black hole with nearby matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Redmount, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of a black hole with nearby matter is examined with a membrane paradigm which includes a 3+1 formalism that splits spacetime coordinates into a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces and one-dimensional time. Emphasis is placed on the influence of matter and its gravity on the shape and evolution of the hole horizon and the effects of the hole on the matter. Universal time coordinates and fiduciary observers are defined outside a dynamically perturbed black hole and tidal gravitational fields are assumed to carry information on the disturbances. The exterior of the hole is examined in terms of the perturbed tidal fields and the material energy, momentum and stress which produce the perturbations. Finally, a membrane model is derived for the interaction of matter and its tidal fields with the stretched null horizon

  15. PROBING EXTRAGALACTIC DUST THROUGH NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S. L.; Li Aigen

    2010-01-01

    The quantities and wavelength dependencies of the dust extinction along the lines of sight toward 33 nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with redshifts z V derived from the Drude approach is generally larger by a factor of ∼2-5 than that inferred by assuming a SMC-type template extinction law. Consistent with previous studies, the extinction-to-gas ratio is mostly smaller than that of the MW, and does not seem to correlate with the shape of the extinction curve. It is shown that the standard silicate-graphite interstellar grain model closely reproduces the extinction curves of all 33 GRBs host galaxies. For these 33 bursts at z < 2, we find no evidence for the evolution of the dust extinction, dust sizes, and relative abundances of silicate to graphite on redshifts.

  16. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  17. COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS WITH ASTROMETRIC ACCELERATION. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Hartung, Markus; Hayward, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Hipparcos astrometric binaries were observed with the NICI adaptive optics system at Gemini-S, completing the work of Paper I. Among the 65 F, G, and K dwarfs within 67 pc of the Sun studied here, we resolve 18 new subarcsecond companions, remeasure 7 known astrometric pairs, and establish the physical nature of yet another 3 wider companions. The 107 astrometric binaries targeted at Gemini so far have 38 resolved companions with separations under 3''. Modeling shows that bright enough companions with separations on the order of an arcsecond can perturb the Hipparcos astrometry when they are not accounted for in the data reduction. However, the resulting bias of parallax and proper motion is generally below formal errors and such companions cannot produce fake acceleration. This work contributes to the multiplicity statistics of nearby dwarfs by bridging the gap between spectroscopic and visual binaries and by providing estimates of periods and mass ratios for many astrometric binaries.

  18. Resolving the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot

    High-resolution studies of nearby stellar populations have served as a foundation for our quest to understand the nature of galaxies. Today, studies of resolved stellar populations constrain fundamental relations -- such as the initial mass function of stars, the time scales of stellar evolution, the timing of mass loss and amount of energetic feedback, the color-magnitude relation and its dependency on age and metallicity, the stellar-dark matter connection in galaxy halos, and the build up of stellar populations over cosmic time -- that represent key ingredients in our prescription to interpret light from the Universe and to measure the physical state of galaxies. More than in any other area of astrophysics, WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. Our WFIRST GO Science Investigation Team (F) will develop three WFIRST (notional) GO programs related to resolved stellar populations to fully stress WFIRST's Wide Field Instrument. The programs will include a Survey of the Milky Way, a Survey of Nearby Galaxy Halos, and a Survey of Star-Forming Galaxies. Specific science goals for each program will be validated through a wide range of observational data sets, simulations, and new algorithms. As an output of this study, our team will deliver optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of MW environments and galaxy halos; cosmological simulations

  19. Radioactive Iron Rain: Evidence of a Nearby Supernova Explosion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A very close supernova explosion could have caused a mass extinction of life in Earth. In 1996, Brian Fields, the late Dave Schramm and the speaker proposed looking for unstable isotopes such as Iron 60 that could have been deposited by a recent nearby supernova explosion. A group from the Technical University of Munich has discovered Iron 60 in deep-ocean sediments and ferromanganese crusts due to one or more supernovae that exploded O(100) parsecs away about 2.5 million years ago. These results have recently been confirmed by a group from the Australian National University, and the Munich group has also discovered supernova Iron 60 in lunar rock samples. This talk will discuss the interpretation of these results in terms of supernova models, and the possible implications for life on Earth.

  20. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  1. Smooth H I Low Column Density Outskirts in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianjamasimanana, R.; Walter, Fabian; de Blok, W. J. G.; Heald, George H.; Brinks, Elias

    2018-06-01

    The low column density gas at the outskirts of galaxies as traced by the 21 cm hydrogen line emission (H I) represents the interface between galaxies and the intergalactic medium, i.e., where galaxies are believed to get their supply of gas to fuel future episodes of star formation. Photoionization models predict a break in the radial profiles of H I at a column density of ∼5 × 1019 cm‑2 due to the lack of self-shielding against extragalactic ionizing photons. To investigate the prevalence of such breaks in galactic disks and to characterize what determines the potential edge of the H I disks, we study the azimuthally averaged H I column density profiles of 17 nearby galaxies from the H I Nearby Galaxy Survey and supplemented in two cases with published Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS data. To detect potential faint H I emission that would otherwise be undetected using conventional moment map analysis, we line up individual profiles to the same reference velocity and average them azimuthally to derive stacked radial profiles. To do so, we use model velocity fields created from a simple extrapolation of the rotation curves to align the profiles in velocity at radii beyond the extent probed with the sensitivity of traditional integrated H I maps. With this method, we improve our sensitivity to outer-disk H I emission by up to an order of magnitude. Except for a few disturbed galaxies, none show evidence of a sudden change in the slope of the H I radial profiles: the alleged signature of ionization by the extragalactic background.

  2. Seasonal variations of ambient air mercury species nearby an airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Chao-Yang; Yang, Kuang-Pu Ou; Xiao, You-Fu; Huang, Wen-Chuan; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the collection of ambient air mercury species (total gaseous mercury (TGM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), gaseous element mercury (GEM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) pollutants at airport nearby sampling site during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 by using Four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder. The results indicated that the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations were 5.04 ± 2.43 ng/m3, 29.58 ± 80.54 pg/m3, 4.70 ± 2.63 ng/m3, respectively during the year of Apr. 2016 to Mar. 2017 (n = 49) period at this airport sampling site nearby. In addition, the results also indicated that the average PBM concentrations in TSP and PM2.5 were 0.35 ± 0.08 ng/m3 and 0.09 ± 0.03 ng/m3, respectively. And the average PBM in TSP concentrations order follows as summer > autumn > spring > winter, while the average PBM in PM2.5 concentrations order follows as spring > summer > winter > autumn. Moreover, the average TGM, RGM and GEM concentrations order follow as spring > summer > autumn > winter. Finally, the Asian continent has the highest average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) when compared with the American and European continents, and the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM and PBM) displayed declined trends for North America (United States and Canada) and Europe (Spain, Sweden and Southern Baltic) during the years of 2004-2014. Also noteworthy is that the average mercury species concentrations (TGM, RGM, GEM) displayed increasing trends in China and Taiwan during the years of 2008-2016. Japan and Korea are the only two exceptions. Those above two countries mercury species concentrations displayed decreasing trends during years of 2008-2015.

  3. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  4. ‘It’s about the smoke, not the smoker’: messages that motivate rural communities to support smoke-free policies

    OpenAIRE

    Kostygina, Ganna; Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    Rural residents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco advertising and tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many rural communities. There is a need for effective health messages to counter the pro-tobacco culture in these communities. To determine relevant cultural themes and key message features that affect receptivity to pro-health advertisements among rural residents, 11 exploratory focus groups and surveys with community advocates (N = 82) in three rural Kentucky counties were...

  5. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....

  6. 北京某农村住宅空气源热泵辅助太阳能供暖系统的运行性能%Operation performance of air-source heat pump assisted solar heating system in Beijing rural residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 田昕; 王皆腾; 徐俊芳

    2017-01-01

    A rural residence adopts air-source heat pump assisted solar heating system.Tests the heating capacity,energy consumption and other performance parameters of the system in the heating season of 2014 to 2015.The results show that the indoor mean daily temperature is 19.6 ℃,the average COP of air-source heat pump is 4.29,mean daily comprehensive energy efficaiency ratio of heating system is about 3.52,and the mean daily solar energy contribution rate is 4.87%.The heat pump unit of the heating system has good operating performance in winter,but the solar energy contribution rate is low,the whole heating system still needs further optimization.%某农村住宅安装了空气源热泵辅助太阳能供暖系统.针对2014-2015年度供暖季系统的制热量、耗电量等性能参数进行了测试.结果表明,室内日平均温度为19.6℃,热泵机组日平均COP为4.29,供暖系统日均综合能效比为3.52,日均太阳能贡献率为4.87%.该供暖系统的热泵机组具有较好的运行性能,但太阳能贡献率偏低,整个供暖系统仍有进一步优化的空间.

  7. Nearby grandmother enhances calf survival and reproduction in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2016-06-10

    Usually animals reproduce into old age, but a few species such as humans and killer whales can live decades after their last reproduction. The grandmother hypothesis proposes that such life-history evolved through older females switching to invest in their existing (grand)offspring, thereby increasing their inclusive fitness and selection for post-reproductive lifespan. However, positive grandmother effects are also found in non-menopausal taxa, but evidence of their associated fitness effects is rare and only a few tests of the hypothesis in such species exist. Here we investigate the grandmother effects in Asian elephants. Using a multigenerational demographic dataset on semi-captive elephants in Myanmar, we found that grandcalves from young mothers (years) had 8 times lower mortality risk if the grandmother resided with her grandcalf compared to grandmothers residing elsewhere. Resident grandmothers also decreased their daughters' inter-birth intervals by one year. In contrast to the hypothesis predictions, the grandmother's own reproductive status did not modify such grandmother benefits. That elephant grandmothers increased their inclusive fitness by enhancing their daughter's reproductive rate and success irrespective of their own reproductive status suggests that fitness-enhancing grandmaternal effects are widespread, and challenge the view that grandmother effects alone select for menopause coupled with long post-reproductive lifespan.

  8. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka

    2007-01-01

    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  9. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

  10. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  11. On the nature of absorption features toward nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs) of largely unknown chemical origin are regularly observed primarily in distant early-type stars. More recently, detections in nearby late-type stars have also been claimed. These stars' spectra are dominated by stellar absorption lines. Specifically, strong interstellar atomic and DIB absorption has been reported in τ Boo. Aims: We test these claims by studying the strength of interstellar absorption in high-resolution TIGRE spectra of the nearby stars τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB. Methods: We focus our analysis on a strong DIB located at 5780.61 Å and on the absorption of interstellar Na. First, we carry out a differential analysis by comparing the spectra of the highly similar F-stars, τ Boo and HD 33608, whose light, however, samples different lines of sight. To obtain absolute values for the DIB absorption, we compare the observed spectra of τ Boo, HD 33608, and α CrB to PHOENIX models and carry out basic spectral modeling based on Voigt line profiles. Results: The intercomparison between τ Boo and HD 33608 reveals that the difference in the line depth is 6.85 ± 1.48 mÅ at the DIB location which is, however, unlikely to be caused by DIB absorption. The comparison between PHOENIX models and observed spectra yields an upper limit of 34.0 ± 0.3 mÅ for any additional interstellar absorption in τ Boo; similar results are obtained for HD 33608 and α CrB. For all objects we derive unrealistically large values for the radial velocity of any presumed interstellar clouds. In τ Boo we find Na D absorption with an equivalent width of 0.65 ± 0.07 mÅ and 2.3 ± 0.1 mÅ in the D2 and D1 lines. For the other Na, absorption of the same magnitude could only be detected in the D2 line. Our comparisons between model and data show that the interstellar absorption toward τ Boo is not abnormally high. Conclusions: We find no significant DIB absorption in any of our target stars. Any differences between modeled and

  12. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  13. Once an Outsider, Always an Outsider? The Accessibility of the Dutch Rural Housing Market among Locals and Non-Locals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carola; Daalhuizen, Femke B. C.; van Dam, Frank; Mulder, Clara H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most pressing questions in the rural gentrification literature is whether rural residents face difficulties in finding a home within their locality due to the influx of more wealthy newcomers. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which intended local movers and intended non-local movers have realised their rural residential…

  14. Changes in medicine: residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …

  15. Inequality in healthcare costs between residing and non-residing patients: evidence from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu M

    2017-05-12

    Place of residence has been shown to impact health. To date, however, previous studies have only focused on the variability in health outcomes and healthcare costs between urban and rural patients. This study takes a different approach and investigates cost inequality facing non-residing patients - patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located. Understanding the sources for this inequality is important, as they are directly related to healthcare accessibility in developing countries. The causal impact of residency status on individual healthcare spending is documented with a quasi-experimental design. The propensity score matching method is applied to a unique patient-level dataset (n = 900) collected at public general and specialist hospitals across North Vietnam. Propensity score matching shows that Vietnamese patients who do not reside in the regions in which the hospitals are located are expected to pay about 15 million Vietnamese dongs (approximately 750 USD) more than those who do, a sizable gap, given the distribution of total healthcare costs for the overall sample. This estimate is robust to alternative matching specifications. The obtained discrepancy is empirically attributable to the differences in three potential contributors, namely spending on accompanying relatives, "courtesy funds," and days of hospitalization. The present study finds that there is significant inequality in healthcare spending between residing and non-residing patients at Vietnamese hospitals and that this discrepancy can be partially explained by both institutional and non-institutional factors. These factors signal practical channels through which policymakers can improve healthcare accessibility.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR ACCRETION IN A NEARBY, YOUNG BROWN DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiners, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of the young, nearby, brown dwarf 2MASS J0041353-562112. The object has a spectral type of M7.5; it shows Li absorption and signatures of accretion, which implies that it still has a disk and suggests an age below 10 Myr. The space motion vector and position on the sky indicate that the brown dwarf is probably a member of the ∼20 Myr old Tuc-Hor association, or that it may be an ejected member of the ∼12 Myr old β Pic association; both would imply that 2MASS J0041353-562112 may in fact be older than 10 Myr. No accreting star or brown dwarf was previously known in these associations. Assuming an age of 10 Myr, the brown dwarf has a mass of about 30 M Jup and is located at 35 pc distance. The newly discovered object is the closest accreting brown dwarf known. Its membership to an association older than 10 Myr implies that either disks in brown dwarfs can survive as long as in more massive stars, perhaps even longer, or that star formation in Tuc-Hor or β Pic occurred more recently than previously thought. The history and evolution of this object can provide new fundamental insight into the formation process of stars, brown dwarfs, and planets.

  17. The POKEMON Speckle Survey of Nearby M-Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, Gerard; von Braun, Kaspar; Horch, Elliott; Clark, Catherine; DSSI Speckle Team

    2018-01-01

    The POKEMON (Pervasive Overview of Kompanions of Every M-dwarf in Our Neighborhood) survey of nearby M-dwarfs intends to inspect, at diffraction-limited resolution, every low-mass star out to 15pc, along with selected additional objects to 25pc. The primary emphasis of the survey is detection of low-mass companions to these M-dwarfs for refinement of the low-mass star multiplicity rate. The resultant catalog of M-dwarf companions will also guide immediate refinement of transit planet detection results from surveys such as TESS. POKEMON is using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) with the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) speckle camera, along with the NN-Explore Exoplanet Stellar Speckle Imager (NESSI) speckle imager on 3.5-m WIYN; the survey takes advantage of the extremely rapid observing cadence rates possible with WIYN and (especially) DCT. The current status and preliminary results from the first 20+ nights of observing will be presented. Gotta observe them all!

  18. Do landfills affect the environmental quality of nearby streams?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Schlemmer Brasil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When inappropriately disposed, solid waste may contaminate the soil, water and air, leading to severe negative impacts on biodiversity. The Brazilian National Policy for Solid Waste (PNRS requires municipalities to ensure the environmental quality of landfills. Accordingly, our objective was to evaluate the community of aquatic insects in a stream with stretches downstream and upstream of a sanitary landfill. Our hypothesis was that there will be no differences in insect community between the stretches (downstream and upstream on the basis of the premise that landfills abiding by the PNRS do not cause environmental damage to nearby areas. There was no change in any aspect of the composition of the macroinvertebrate community as a result of the landfill. The only changes observed in the macroinvertebrate communities occurred between the dry and rainy seasons, which were related to the seasonality and consequent changes in the environmental conditions of the water over the year. Our study, although limited, showed primary and pioneering evidence that the PNRS can contribute positively to the conservation of the biotic quality of aquatic environments, further reinforcing the need for immediate implementation of the PNRS throughout the country.

  19. DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rupke, David S. N., E-mail: alexm@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: rupked@rhodes.edu [Rhodes College, 2000 North Parkway, Memphis, TN 38112 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

  20. Scaling Relations between Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam; Walter, Fabian

    2011-04-01

    High resolution, multi-wavelength maps of a sizeable set of nearby galaxies have made it possible to study how the surface densities of H i, H2 and star formation rate (ΣHI, ΣH2, ΣSFR) relate on scales of a few hundred parsecs. At these scales, individual galaxy disks are comfortably resolved, making it possible to assess gas-SFR relations with respect to environment within galaxies. ΣH2, traced by CO intensity, shows a strong correlation with ΣSFR and the ratio between these two quantities, the molecular gas depletion time, appears to be constant at about 2 Gyr in large spiral galaxies. Within the star-forming disks of galaxies, ΣSFR shows almost no correlation with ΣHI. In the outer parts of galaxies, however, ΣSFR does scale with ΣHI, though with large scatter. Combining data from these different environments yields a distribution with multiple regimes in Σgas - ΣSFR space. If the underlying assumptions to convert observables to physical quantities are matched, even combined datasets based on different SFR tracers, methodologies and spatial scales occupy a well define locus in Σgas - ΣSFR space.

  1. Radiation-Induced Correlation between Molecules Nearby Metallic Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Osaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate optical absorption of molecules embedded nearby metallic antennas by using discrete dipole approximation method. It is found that the spectral peak of the absorption is shifted due to the radiation-induced correlation between the molecules. The most distinguishing feature of our work is to show that the shift is largely enhanced even when the individual molecules couple with localized surface plasmons near the different antennas. Specifically, we first consider the case that two sets of dimeric gold blocks with a spacing of a few nanometers are arranged and reveal that the intensity and spectral peak of the optical absorption strongly depend on the position of the molecules. In addition, when the dimeric blocks and the molecules are periodically arranged, the peak shift is found to increase up to ~1.2 meV (300 GHz. Because the radiation-induced correlation is essential for collective photon emission, our result implies the possibility of plasmon-assisted superfluorescence in designed antenna-molecule complex systems.

  2. Multicolor photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster A119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jintao; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Ma Jun; Wu Zhenyu; Fan Zhou; Zhang Tianmeng; Zou Hu; Yuan Qirong; Wu Jianghua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0.0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC field of view of 58' × 58', there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions of 1376 galaxies brighter than i BATC = 19.5, the photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of early-type galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of sight. No significant evidence for morphology or luminosity segregations is found in either sample. With the PEGASE evolutionary synthesis model, the environmental effect on the properties of star formation is confirmed. Faint galaxies in the low-density region tend to have longer time scales of star formation, smaller mean stellar ages, and lower metallicities in their interstellar medium, which is in agreement with the context of the hierarchical cosmological scenario. (research papers)

  3. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of γ-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the open-quotes KT boundary.close quotes The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events. 24 refs

  4. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  5. LOW-MASS VISUAL COMPANIONS TO NEARBY G-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    A complete census of wide visual companions to nearby G-dwarf stars can be achieved by selecting candidates from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) Point-Source Catalog and checking their status by second-epoch imaging. Such data are obtained for 124 candidates with separations up to 20'', 47 of which are shown to be new physical low-mass stellar companions. A list of visual binaries with G-dwarf primaries is produced by combining newly found companions with historical data. Maximum likelihood analysis leads to a companion frequency of 0.13 ± 0.015 per decade of separation. The mass ratio is distributed almost uniformly, with a power-law index between -0.4 and 0. The remaining uncertainty in the index is related to modeling of the companion detection threshold in 2MASS. These findings are confirmed by an alternative analysis of wider companions in 2MASS, removing the contamination by background stars statistically. Extension of this work will lead to a complete detection of visual companions-a necessary step toward reaching unbiased multiplicity statistics over the full range of orbital periods and, eventually, understanding the origin of multiple systems.

  6. [Nearby nature as a moderator of stress during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraliza, José Antonio; Collado, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this investigation is to study the relation between the amount of nature existing in children's daily environments and the way children deal with stressful events. Every day, children are exposed to situations that cause stress. Taking into account previous studies, it is thought that the greener the place where children spend their time, the better they cope with adversities. Thus, when comparing the stress level of children who are exposed to the same amount of adverse situations, the children who have more frequent daily contact with nature will show less stress than those who do not spend time in nature. This effect from nearby nature is called a buffering effect. The present study provides empirical evidence of the buffering effect caused by the existence of Nature in the residential and the school environment. Therefore, our results show that children who have more access to nature increase their resilience, showing a lower stress level than children whose contact with nature is less frequent.

  7. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Schramm, D N

    1995-01-03

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of gamma-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the "KT boundary." The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events.

  8. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nearby starburst galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, Reda; Bouchachi, Dallel

    2018-04-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are the most energetic of any subatomic particles ever observed in nature. The quest for their mysterious origin is currently a major scientific challenge. Here we explore the possibility that these particles originate from nearby starburst galaxies, a scenario that matches the recent observation by the Telescope Array experiment of a cosmic-ray hotspot above 57 EeV not far from the direction of the starburst galaxy M82. Specifically, we study the stochastic propagation in space of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays through the state-of-the-art simulation framework CRPropa 3, taking into account all relevant particle interactions as well as deflections by the intervening magnetic fields. To ensure a comprehensive understanding of this model, we consider the energy spectrum, the cosmogenic neutrinos and gamma rays, and the distribution of arrival directions. The starburst galaxy scenario reproduces well observations from both the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatories, making it very attractive for explaining the origin of cosmic rays at the highest energies.

  9. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  10. Rural Residents’ Perception of Construction Project Delays in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Hussain

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the key sectors that facilitate sustainable economic and social development in the region. Currently, community development mechanisms are adopted by many developed and developing nations, aimed at enhancing economic growth and quality of life along with social welfare of the local community. This study reviews the rural residents’ perception of public construction project delays and aims to explore economic and social challenges confronted by residents, especially in rural areas in Pakistan. A questionnaire with 26 factors identified from the literature was sent to rural educated residents. Through a questionnaire survey, the opinions of rural residents were sought and tested. Based on 366 (73% valid responses, this study examined the socio-economic influencing factors. The findings of the study revealed that problems faced while traveling, increase the price of consumer goods, high transportation costs, lack of educational opportunities, more expenditures on education, and barriers to primary healthcare access were the top most important factors. Research results confirmed that the delays in construction projects negatively affect the socio-economic conditions of the rural community, which directly influence the rural dwells’ sustainable life. The research findings suggest that the practitioners in public sector organization make sure to execute the project on time and within the quality. Otherwise, it has negative socio-economic implications for the rural community.

  11. Using the theory of reasoned action to model retention in rural primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Much research attention has focused on medical students', residents', and physicians' decisions to join a rural practice, but far fewer studies have examined retention of rural primary care physicians. The current review uses Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to organize the literature on the predictors and correlates of retention of rural practicing physicians. TRA suggests turnover behavior is directly predicted by one's turnover intentions, which are, in turn, predicted by one's attitudes about rural practice and perceptions of salient others' (eg, spouse's) attitudes about rural practice and rural living. Narrative literature review of scholarship in predicting and understanding predictors and correlates of rural physician retention. The TRA model provides a useful conceptual model to organize the literature on rural physician retention. Physicians' subjective norms regarding rural practice are an important source of influence in the decision to remain or leave one's position, and this relation should be more fully examined in future research.

  12. The Keck/OSIRIS Nearby AGN Survey (KONA). I. The Nuclear K-band Properties of Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Malkan, M.; Davies, R.; Yu, P. C.; Shaver, S.; Davis, B.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce the Keck OSIRIS Nearby AGN survey (KONA), a new adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopic survey of Seyfert galaxies. KONA permits at ∼0.″1 resolution a detailed study of the nuclear kinematic structure of gas and stars in a representative sample of 40 local bona fide active galactic nucleus (AGN). KONA seeks to characterize the physical processes responsible for the coevolution of supermassive black holes and galaxies, principally inflows and outflows. With these IFU data of the nuclear regions of 40 Seyfert galaxies, the KONA survey will be able to study, for the first time, a number of key topics with meaningful statistics. In this paper we study the nuclear K-band properties of nearby AGN. We find that the K-band (2.1 μm) luminosities of the compact Seyfert 1 nuclei are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosities, implying a non-stellar origin for the majority of the continuum emission. The best-fit correlation is log L K = 0.9log L 2–10 keV + 4 over three orders of magnitude in both K-band and X-ray luminosities. We find no strong correlation between 2.1 μm luminosity and hard X-ray luminosity for the Seyfert 2 galaxies. The spatial extent and spectral slope of the Seyfert 2 galaxies indicate the presence of nuclear star formation and attenuating material (gas and dust), which in some cases is compact and in some galaxies extended. We detect coronal-line emission in 36 galaxies and for the first time in 5 galaxies. Finally, we find 4/20 galaxies that are usually classified as Seyfert 2 based on their optical spectra exhibit a broad component of Brγ emission, and one galaxy (NGC 7465) shows evidence of a double nucleus. Based on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M

  13. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Zhou Caiyun; Zhou Zirong; Chen Wenying; Zhen Zhijiang

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was 137 Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of 137 Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10 4 Bq·a -1 corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10 7 Bq·a -1 . (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.)

  14. Nearby Search Indekos Based Android Using A Star (A*) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Nababan, EB; Rumahorbo, JA; Andayani, U.; Fahmi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Indekos or rented room is a temporary residence for months or years. Society of academicians who come from out of town need a temporary residence, such as Indekos or rented room during their education, teaching, or duties. They are often found difficulty in finding a Indekos because lack of information about the Indekos. Besides, new society of academicians don’t recognize the areas around the campus and desire the shortest path from Indekos to get to the campus. The problem can be solved by implementing A Star (A*) algorithm. This algorithm is one of the shortest path algorithm to a finding shortest path from campus to the Indekos application, where the faculties in the campus as the starting point of the finding. Determination of the starting point used in this study aims to allow students to determine the starting point in finding the Indekos. The mobile based application facilitates the finding anytime and anywhere. Based on the experimental results, A* algorithm can find the shortest path with 86,67% accuracy.

  15. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyun, Qin; Caiyun, Zhou; Zirong, Zhou; Wenying, Chen; Zhijiang, Zhen [Ministry of Nuclear Industry, Taiyuan, SX (China). Inst. of Radiation Protection

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was {sup 137}Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of {sup 137}Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10{sup 4} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1} corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10{sup 7} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1}. (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.).

  16. Rural-urban differences in human papillomavirus knowledge and awareness among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Kahee A; Subramaniam, Divya S; Geneus, Christian J; Henderson, Emmett R; Dean, Caress A; Subramaniam, Dipti P; Burroughs, Thomas E

    2018-04-01

    Rural residents of the United States have higher HPV-associated cancer incidence and mortality, and suboptimal HPV vaccine uptake compared to urban residents. This study aimed to assess differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-associated cancers among rural and urban residents. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2017 on 10,147 respondents ages ≥18 years. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared urban/rural differences in knowledge and awareness of HPV, associated cancers, and HPV vaccine. Models were adjusted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, census region, health insurance, regular provider, internet use, and personal history of cancer. Overall, 67.2% and 65.8% of urban residents were aware of HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively, compared to only 55.8% and 58.6% of rural residents. Adjusted models illustrated that compared to urban residents, rural residents were less likely to be aware of HPV (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.53-0.86) and HPV vaccine (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). Among those who were aware of HPV, rural residents were less likely to know that HPV causes cervical cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.84) and that HPV can be transmitted through sexual contact (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.56-0.94). No significant differences between rural and urban residents were noted for knowledge that HPV is transmitted sexually and that it causes oral, anal, and penile cancers. This study highlights significant rural health disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and the HPV vaccine compared to urban counterparts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Going the distance: early results of a distributed medical education initiative for Royal College residencies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Douglas L; Hohman, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    There is a shortage of specialty physicians practising in rural Canada: only 2.4% of Canadian specialist physicians practise rurally. Numerous strategies have been proposed and attempted that aim to increase the number of rural physicians. These include undergraduate and postgraduate distributed medical education opportunities. The Distributed Royal College Initiative at the University of Calgary is increasing the exposure of specialty residents to rural medicine through regional rotations and electives. An assessment of the initial impacts of this programme was made. Specialty residents were sent a voluntary survey following their regional rotation in academic year 2010-2011. The survey measured each resident's satisfaction with the experience, interest in undertaking another rotation and the impact of the rotation on potential rural practice location. The survey asked for written comments on the rotation. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. A total of 73% (29) of the 40 eligible residents completed the survey that was distributed upon completion of the rotation. In the survey, 45% of respondents indicated they would have been likely to practise in a regional community prior to the experience. This changed to 76% following the rotation. Analysis of the comments revealed strong positive characteristics of the experience across all disciplines. Specialty-based, rural distributed programmes were perceived by the residents as educationally valuable and may be crucial in helping shift attitudes towards rural practice. Specific successful characteristics of the rotations provide direction to increase their quality further. These findings need to be verified in a larger sample.

  18. Resident fatigue in otolaryngology residents: a Web based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Andrew M; Googe, Benjamin J; Lewis, Andrea F; May, Warren L

    2016-01-01

    Resident fatigue has become a point of emphasis in medical education and its effects on otolaryngology residents and their patients require further study. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and nature of fatigue in otolaryngology residents, evaluate various quality of life measures, and investigate associations of increased fatigue with resident safety. Anonymous survey. Internet based. United States allopathic otolaryngology residents. None. The survey topics included demographics, residency structure, sleep habits and perceived stress. Responses were correlated with a concurrent Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire to evaluate effects of fatigue on resident training and quality of life. 190 residents responded to the survey with 178 completing the Epworth Sleep Scale questionnaire. Results revealed a mean Epworth Sleep Scale score of 9.9±5.1 with a median of 10.0 indicating a significant number of otolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Statistically significant correlations between Epworth Sleep Scale and sex, region, hours of sleep, and work hours were found. Residents taking in-house call had significantly fewer hours of sleep compared to home call (p=0.01). Residents on "head and neck" (typically consisting of a large proportion of head and neck oncologic surgery) rotations tended to have higher Epworth Sleep Scale and had significantly fewer hours of sleep (p=.003) and greater work hours (potolaryngology residents are excessively sleepy. Our data suggest that the effects of fatigue play a role in resident well-being and resident safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Metagenomic Survey of Serpentinites and Nearby Soils in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. Y.; Hsu, Y. W.; Chen, Y. W.; Huang, T. Y.; Shih, Y. J.; Chen, J. S.; Hsu, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    The serpentinite of Taiwan is originated from the subduction zone of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. Many small bodies of serpentinite are scattered around the lands of the East Rift Valley, which are also one of the major agricultural areas in Taiwan. Since microbial communities play a role both on weathering process and soil recovery, uncovering the microbial compositions in serpentinites and surrounding soils may help people to understand the roles of microorganisms on serpentinites during the nature weathering process. In this study, microorganisms growing on the surface of serpentinites, in the surrounding soil, and agriculture soils that are miles of horizontal distance away from serpentinite were collected. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out to examine the metagenomics of uncultured microbial community in these samples. The metagenomics were further clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to analyze relative abundance, heatmap of OTUs, and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA). Our data revealed the different types of geographic material had their own distinct structures of microbial community. In serpentinites, the heatmaps based on the phylogenetic pattern showed that the OTUs distributions were similar in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and WPS-1/WPS-2. On the other hand, the heatmaps of phylogenetic pattern of agriculture soils showed that the OTUs distributions in phyla of Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, WPS-1/WPS-2, and Proteobacteria were similar. In soil nearby the serpentinite, some clusters of OTUs in phyla of Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and WPS-1/WPS-2 have disappeared. Our data provided evidence regarding kinetic evolutions of microbial communities in different geographic materials.

  20. Nearby stars of the Galactic disc and halo - IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    The Milky Way Galaxy has an age of about 13 billion years. Solar-type stars evolve all the long way to the realm of degenerate objects on essentially this time-scale. This, as well as the particular advantage that the Sun offers through reliable differential spectroscopic analyses, render these stars the ideal tracers for the fossil record of our parent spiral. Astrophysics is a science that is known to be notoriously plagued by selection effects. The present work - with a major focus in this fourth contribution on model atmosphere analyses of spectroscopic binaries and multiple star systems - aims at a volume-complete sample of about 300 nearby F-, G-, and K-type stars that particularly avoids any kinematical or chemical pre-selection from the outset. It thereby provides an unbiased record of the local stellar populations - the ancient thick disc and the much younger thin disc. On this base, the detailed individual scrutiny of the long-lived stars of both populations unveils the thick disc as a single-burst component with a local normalization of no less than 20 per cent. This enormous fraction, combined with its much larger scaleheight, implies a mass for the thick disc that is comparable to that of the thin disc. On account of its completely different mass-to-light ratio the thick disc thereby becomes the dark side of the Milky Way, an ideal major source for baryonic dark matter. This massive, ancient population consequently challenges any gradual build-up scenario for our parent spiral. Even more, on the supposition that the Galaxy is not unusual, the thick disc - as it emerges from this unbiased spectroscopic work - particularly challenges the hierarchical cold-dark-matter-dominated formation picture for spiral galaxies in general.

  1. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-01-20

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f {sub SF}) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h {sup −1} Mpc (D8). The slope of f {sub SF} versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f {sub SF} of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f {sub SF} and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f {sub SF} in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  2. Marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula and nearby waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Laiz, Gemma; Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of marine bioinvasions starts with prevention, communication among the scientific community and comprehensive updated data on the distribution ranges of exotic species. Despite being a hotspot for introduction due to numerous shipping routes converging at the Strait of Gibraltar, knowledge of marine exotics in the Iberian Peninsula is scarce, especially of abundant but small-sized and taxonomically challenging taxa such as the Order Isopoda. To fill this gap, we conducted several sampling surveys in 44 marinas and provide the first comprehensive study of marine exotic isopods from the Iberian Peninsula, the southern side of the Strait of Gibraltar (northern Africa) and the Balearic Islands. Exotic species included Ianiropsis serricaudis (first record for the Iberian Peninsula and Lusitanian marine province), Paracerceis sculpta (first record for the Alboran Sea ecoregion), Paradella dianae , Paranthura japonica (earliest record for the Iberian Peninsula) and Sphaeroma walkeri . Photographs with morphological details for identification for non-taxonomic experts are provided, their worldwide distribution is updated and patterns of invasion are discussed. We report an expansion in the distribution range of all species, especially at the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas. Ianiropsis serricaudis and Paranthura japonica are polyvectic, with shellfish trade and recreational boating being most probable vectors for their introduction and secondary spread. The subsequent finding of the studied species in additional marinas over the years points at recreational boating as a vector and indicates a future spread. We call for attention to reduce lags in the detection and reporting of small-size exotics, which usually remain overlooked or underestimated until the invasion process is at an advanced stage.

  3. Discovery of path nearby clusters in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of regions of interest in large cities is an important challenge. We propose and investigate a novel query called the path nearby cluster (PNC) query that finds regions of potential interest (e.g., sightseeing places and commercial districts) with respect to a user-specified travel route. Given a set of spatial objects O (e.g., POIs, geo-tagged photos, or geo-tagged tweets) and a query route q , if a cluster c has high spatial-object density and is spatially close to q , it is returned by the query (a cluster is a circular region defined by a center and a radius). This query aims to bring important benefits to users in popular applications such as trip planning and location recommendation. Efficient computation of the PNC query faces two challenges: how to prune the search space during query processing, and how to identify clusters with high density effectively. To address these challenges, a novel collective search algorithm is developed. Conceptually, the search process is conducted in the spatial and density domains concurrently. In the spatial domain, network expansion is adopted, and a set of vertices are selected from the query route as expansion centers. In the density domain, clusters are sorted according to their density distributions and they are scanned from the maximum to the minimum. A pair of upper and lower bounds are defined to prune the search space in the two domains globally. The performance of the PNC query is studied in extensive experiments based on real and synthetic spatial data. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Biomonitoring a human population inhabiting nearby a deactivated uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, J.; Pereira, R.; Pinto, F.; Caetano, T.; Silva, A.; Carvalheiro, T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human population environmentally exposed to uranium mining wastes. ► Significantly higher levels of manganese and uranium in peripheral blood samples. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts in exposed individuals. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas. - Abstract: Environmental exposure to uranium and its daughter radionuclides, has been linked to several negative effects such as those related with important physiological processes, like hematopoiesis, and may also be associated with genotoxicity effects. Herein, genotoxic effects, immunotoxicity, trace elements and C reactive protein (CRP) analyses, were performed in peripheral blood samples collected from individuals of a population living near a deactivated uranium mine. C reactive protein analysis was performed to exclude candidates with active inflammatory processes from further evaluations. DNA damage and immunotoxicity (immunophenotyping and immune cell counts) were evaluated by comet assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Significant DNA damage was observed in the peripheral blood samples from volunteers living in the Cunha Baixa village. A significant decrease of NK and T lymphocytes counts were observed in the individuals from the Cunha Baixa village, when compared with individuals from the reference site. Uranium and manganese levels were significantly higher in the Cunha Baixa village inhabitants. On the other hand, zinc levels were significantly lower in those individuals when compared with the volunteers from the control village. Results suggest that inhabitants from Cunha Baixa have a higher risk of suffering from serious diseases such as cancer, since high DNA damages were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes and also decreased levels of NK and T cells, which play an essential role in the defense against tumor growth

  5. THE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES OF NEARBY S0 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meng-Yuan; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Mei; Zhou, Luwenjia, E-mail: qsgu@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P. R. China (China)

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of nuclear activities in nearby S0 galaxies. After cross-matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) and visually checking the SDSS images, we derive a sample of 583 S0 galaxies with the central spectrophotometric information. In order to separate nebular emission lines from the underlying stellar contribution, we fit the stellar population model to the SDSS spectra of these S0 galaxies. According to the BPT diagram, we find that 8% of S0 galaxies show central star-forming activity, while the fractions of Seyfert, Composite, and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are 2%, 8%, and 21.4%, respectively. We also find that star-forming S0s have the lowest stellar masses, over one magnitude lower than the others, and that the active S0s are mainly located in the sparse environment, while the normal S0s are located in the dense environment, which might suggest that the environment plays an important role in quenching star formation and/or AGN activity in S0 galaxies. By performing bulge-disk decomposition of 45 star-forming S0s in g - and r -bands with the 2D fitting software Galfit, as well as exploiting the catalog of 2D photometric decompositions of Meert et al., we find that the bulges of approximately one-third of star-forming S0 galaxies (16/45) are bluer than their disks, while for other types of S0s the bulge and disk components show similar color distributions. Besides, the Sérsic index of most star-forming S0s bulges is less than two, while for normal S0s, it is between two and six.

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE CENSUS OF NEARBY INFRARED EXCESS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  7. Search for bright nearby M dwarfs with virtual observatory tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberasturi, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Montesinos, B.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; Solano, E.; Martín, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Using Virtual Observatory tools, we cross-matched the Carlsberg Meridian 14 and the 2MASS Point Source catalogs to select candidate nearby bright M dwarfs distributed over ∼25,000 deg{sup 2}. Here, we present reconnaissance low-resolution optical spectra for 27 candidates that were observed with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (R≈ 1600). We derived spectral types from a new spectral index, R, which measures the ratio of fluxes at 7485-7015 Å and 7120-7150 Å. We also used VOSA, a Virtual Observatory tool for spectral energy distribution fitting, to derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for each candidate. The resulting 27 targets were M dwarfs brighter than J = 10.5 mag, 16 of which were completely new in the Northern hemisphere and 7 of which were located at less than 15 pc. For all of them, we also measured Hα and Na I pseudo-equivalent widths, determined photometric distances, and identified the most active stars. The targets with the weakest sodium absorption, namely, J0422+2439 (with X-ray and strong Hα emissions), J0435+2523, and J0439+2333, are new members in the young Taurus-Auriga star-forming region based on proper motion, spatial distribution, and location in the color-magnitude diagram, which reopens the discussion on the deficit of M2-4 Taurus stars. Finally, based on proper motion diagrams, we report on a new wide M dwarf binary system in the field, LSPM J0326+3929EW.

  8. The circumnuclear environment of nearby non-interacting Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogge, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the physical conditions prevailing in the regions immediately surrounding the active nuclei in 20 nearby, non-interacting Seyfert galaxies is reported. CCD interference-band images isolating the bright emission lines of Hα + [N II] λλ6548, 6583 and [O III] λ5007 have been obtained to search for spatially extended circumnuclear emission regions. Long-slit, low resolution spectrophotometry of interesting cases was used to probe the ionization state of the extended emission regions. For comparison, a CCD Hα + [N II] interference-band imaging survey of a statistically significant sample of 91 bright non-Seyfert spiral galaxies meeting the same non-interaction criteria has been carried out. Only three out of nine Seyfert 1s have spatially extended ionized gas regions compared with eight out of eleven Seyfert 2s. Enhanced circumnuclear star formation is uncommon to both Seyfert 1s and 2s. Extended emission in Seyfert 1s has essentially the same morphology in both Hα + [N II] and [O III] emission. In the Seyfert 2s, the Hα + [N II] and [O III] images show different extended emission morphologies. The [O III] emission regions appear as either one- or two-sided structures, four of which are resolved into two distinct cones of high-ionization gas emanating from the active nucleus. The morphology and ionization of these regions suggest collimation of the nuclear ionizing radiation field. The 91 non-interacting non-Seyfert spiral galaxies exhibit a rich variety of nuclear and circumnuclear emission-line structures ranging from no emission detected to bright stellar nuclei with complicated circumnuclear emission regions extending for many kiloparsecs

  9. NEW DEBRIS DISKS IN NEARBY YOUNG MOVING GROUPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moór, A.; Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Balog, Z.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Csengeri, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Juhász, A., E-mail: moor@konkoly.hu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3, OHA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of nearby young moving group members harbor circumstellar debris dust disks. Due to their proximity and youth, these disks are attractive targets for studying the early evolution of debris dust and planetesimal belts. Here we present 70 and 160 μ m observations of 31 systems in the β Pic moving group, and in the Tucana–Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations, using the Herschel Space Observatory . None of these stars were observed at far-infrared wavelengths before. Our Herschel measurements were complemented by photometry from the WISE satellite for the whole sample, and by submillimeter/millimeter continuum data for one source, HD 48370. We identified six stars with infrared excess, four of them are new discoveries. By combining our new findings with results from the literature, we examined the incidence and general characteristics of debris disks around Sun-like members of the selected groups. With their dust temperatures of <45 K the newly identified disks around HD 38397, HD 48370, HD 160305, and BD-20 951 represent the coldest population within this sample. For HD 38397 and HD 48370, the emission is resolved in the 70 μ m Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrograph images, the estimated radius of these disks is ∼90 au. Together with the well-known disk around HD 61005, these three systems represent the highest mass end of the known debris disk population around young G-type members of the selected groups. In terms of dust content, they resemble the hypothesized debris disk of the ancient solar system.

  10. STAR FORMATION AND SUPERCLUSTER ENVIRONMENT OF 107 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction ( f SF ) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h −1 Mpc (D8). The slope of f SF versus D8 is −0.008 ± 0.002. The f SF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster f SF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher f SF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  11. Exploring the Dust Content of Galactic Winds with Herschel. II. Nearby Dwarf Galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-03-01

    We present results from analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20% of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar disks, but this fraction reaches ˜60% in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disk by energy inputs from on-going star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disk by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disk that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  12. Exploring the dust content of galactic winds with Herschel - II. Nearby dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-06-01

    We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20 per cent of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar discs, but this fraction reaches ˜60 per cent in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disc by energy inputs from ongoing star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disc by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disc that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  13. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    As if it werent enough that quasars distant and bright nuclei of galaxies twinkle of their own accord due to internal processes, nature also provides another complication: these distant radio sources can also appear to twinkle because of intervening material between them and us. A new study has identified a possible source for the material getting in the way.Unexplained VariabilityA Spitzer infrared view of the Helix nebula, which contains ionized streamers of gas extending radially outward from the central star. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.]Distant quasars occasionally display extreme scintillation, twinkling with variability timescales shorter than a day. This intra-day variability is much greater than we can account for with standard models of the interstellar medium lying between the quasar and us. So what could cause this extreme scattering instead?The first clue to this mystery came from the discovery of strong variability in the radio source PKS 1322110. In setting up follow-up observations of this object, Mark Walker (Manly Astrophysics, Australia) and collaborators noticed that, in the plane of the sky, PKS 1322110 lies very near the bright star Spica. Could this be coincidence, or might this bright foreground star have something to do with the extreme scattering observed?Diagram explaining the source of the intra-day radio source variability as intervening filaments surrounding a hot star. [M. Walker/CSIRO/Manly Astrophysics]Swarms of ClumpsWalker and collaborators put forward a hypothesis: perhaps the ultraviolet photons of nearby hot stars ionize plasma around them, which in turn causes the extreme scattering of the distant background sources.As a model, the authors consider the Helix Nebula, in which a hot, evolved star is surrounded by cool globules of molecular hydrogen gas. The radiation from the star hits these molecular clumps, dragging them into long radial streamers and ionizing their outer skins.Though the molecular clumps in the Helix

  14. What Impact Does Behavior of Doctors and Patients on Service Integration of Multi-institutional Readmission cross Township—county Hospitals in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Tang, Wenxi; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: With the change of rural residents’ disease spectrum and patients with chronic diseases boom, multi-institutional health service utilization of rural residents and the continuous service demands are growing sharply in rural China.Objective: Evaluate the service integration of multi-institutional readmission cross township—county hospitals (MRCTCH) in rural China, and figure out determines of service integration.Methods: This study featured 7 sample counties in rural China. Based o...

  15. Rurality and mental health: an Australian primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A; Manoff, T; Caffery, J

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, there has been a significant gap in the literature exploring the issues of the mental health needs for rural communities in Australia. In this study we investigated the prevalence of diagnosable psychological disorders in both a rural and a non-rural primary care sample in far north Queensland, Australia. In a previous study we had screened some 300 GP attendees, on a number of sociodemographic variables and measures of psychological wellbeing, from four rural GP practices and one regional GP practice. Of these, 130 participants agreed to further follow up. In this study, 118 of the participants were selected and contacted by phone to complete the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF). The CIDI-SF diagnosis was then analysed in relation to the sociodemographic indicators that had previously been collected. The prevalence of diagnosable mental health disorders in the rural sample was found to be higher in comparison with the regional urban sample. The sociodemographic factors of rural residence, gender, and length of residence were associated with having a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Although there were a number of methodological limitations to this study, there did appear to be a significant relationship between rural location and the likelihood of receiving a CIDI-SF diagnosis. Why this might be the case is not clear, and we consider a number of explanations, but our finding suggests that further research in mental health should consider the issue of rurality as a key feature to be explored.

  16. An Unbiased Survey of 500 Nearby Stars for Debris Disks: A JCMT Legacy Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.C.; Greaves, J.S.; Holland, W.S.; Wyatt, M.C.; Barlow, M.J.; Bastien, P.; Beichman, C.A.; Biggs, A.; Butner, H.M.; Dent, W.R.F.; Francesco, J. Di; Dominik, C.; Fissel, L.; Friberg, P.; Gibb, A.G.; Halpern, M.; Ivison, R.J.; Jayawardhana, R.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Marshall, J.L.; Phillips, N.; Schieven, G.; Snellen, I.A.G.; Walker, H.J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Weferling, B.; White, G.J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.; Craigon, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the scientific motivation and observing plan for an upcoming detection survey for debris disks using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The SCUBA-2 Unbiased Nearby Stars (SUNS) survey will observe 500 nearby main-sequence and subgiant stars (100 of each of the A, F, G, K, and M spectral

  17. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  18. Rural-urban variation in injury-related hospitalisation, health outcomes and treatment cost in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lower, Tony

    2018-04-19

    To compare differences in injury characteristics, health outcomes and treatment costs between urban and rural residents who were hospitalised following an injury. A retrospective examination of injury-linked hospitalisation and mortality data in New South Wales from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014. Urban (496 325) and rural (213 139) residents who were hospitalised following an injury. Demographic and injury characteristics, injury severity, hospital length of stay, 28-day hospital readmission, 90-day mortality and treatment cost. Rural residents had an increased likelihood of being hospitalised for injuries from motorcycles, vehicles, animate causes, venomous animals or plants and assault compared to urban residents. Rural residents were less likely to be readmitted to hospital within 28 days and had a lower length of stay and age-adjusted length of stay than urban residents. Injury-related hospitalisations for urban and rural residents cost $4.4 billion and $1.7 billion, respectively. Annually, acute injury treatment ($1.1 billion), rehabilitation ($130 million) and subacute non-acute patient care ($57 million) cost $1.3 billion ($990 million for urban and $384 million for rural residents) in New South Wales. Fall-related injuries and transport incidents were the costliest injury mechanisms for both urban and rural residents. Injuries contribute substantially to hospitalised morbidity and its cost. The development and implementation of injury prevention strategies targeting the most common injuries for urban and rural residents will go some way towards reducing hospitalised injury and its cost. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  19. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  20. Determinants of pre-lacteal feeding practices in urban and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... ... place of residence. Keywords: Pre-lacteal feeds, mothers, infants, urban, rural, Nigeria. ... The World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Unit- ed Nations .... Factors considered for the multivariable model were based from ...

  1. Respiratory health effects of livestock farm emissions in neighbouring residents

    OpenAIRE

    Borlée, Floor

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the large contribution of agriculture to fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution, and the public health impact that may result from agricultural emissions.The aim of this thesis was to explore associations between air pollution from livestock farms and respiratory health of non-farming residents living in close proximity to farms in a rural area in the Netherlands. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 12,117 adult patients from 21 general practitioner ...

  2. Why doctors choose small towns: a developmental model of rural physician recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Christine; Steinbach, Alan; Nesbitt, Thomas S; Adler, Shelley R; Auerswald, Colette L

    2009-11-01

    Shortages of health care professionals have plagued rural areas of the USA for more than a century. Programs to alleviate them have met with limited success. These programs generally focus on factors that affect recruitment and retention, with the supposition that poor recruitment drives most shortages. The strongest known influence on rural physician recruitment is a "rural upbringing," but little is known about how this childhood experience promotes a return to rural areas, or how non-rural physicians choose rural practice without such an upbringing. Less is known about how rural upbringing affects retention. Through twenty-two in-depth, semi-structured interviews with both rural- and urban-raised physicians in northeastern California and northwestern Nevada, this study investigates practice location choice over the life course, describing a progression of events and experiences important to rural practice choice and retention in both groups. Study results suggest that rural exposure via education, recreation, or upbringing facilitates future rural practice through four major pathways. Desires for familiarity, sense of place, community involvement, and self-actualization were the major motivations for initial and continuing small-town residence choice. A history of strong community or geographic ties, either urban or rural, also encouraged initial rural practice. Finally, prior resilience under adverse circumstances was predictive of continued retention in the face of adversity. Physicians' decisions to stay or leave exhibited a cost-benefit pattern once their basic needs were met. These results support a focus on recruitment of both rural-raised and community-oriented applicants to medical school, residency, and rural practice. Local mentorship and "place-specific education" can support the integration of new rural physicians by promoting self-actualization, community integration, sense of place, and resilience. Health policy efforts to improve the physician

  3. RURAL DEVELOPMENT: WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias Kühn

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development expression has been increasingly used and consolidated in the study of socioeconomic realities. However, there is still to limit the scope of the term as well as qualification. This article discusses the significance of rural development expression, bringing together authors and seeking foregrounding of the concepts involved in the expression. The main objective of this work is, from a literature review of the concept of rural development and a context of the Capability Approach, indicate how this approach can contribute to the construction of a rural development concept better suited to the diversity inherent in the environment under review. For this, a brief review was made of what has been discussed about the development process and how this process is associated with rural expression. The term development is analyzed from the construction of their interpretations of concepts and theoretical development. It was possible to recognize the main adjectives, as well as the evolution of these discussions over the last 30 years. Finally, it identified a concept associated with the Capability Approach, presented by the Indian economist Amartya Sen. The idea of rural development associated with the Capability Approach, leads to a design that identifies rural development as an increase in choice of individuals residing in environments made up of socio-economic, geographical and cultural relations that show through the landscape, use and (or preservation of aspects related to nature whose reproduction is not entirely dependent and (or conditioned by human action.

  4. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; De Blok, W. J. G.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by 12 CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between Σ mol and Σ SFR but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR . At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed α CO equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, τ dep mol =Σ mol /Σ SFR ∼2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1σ scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, Σ SFR ∝Σ mol N . We find N = 1 ± 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between τ dep mol and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased τ dep mol in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale τ dep mol with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H 2 conversion factor (α CO ) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed τ dep mol trends. After applying a D/G-dependent α CO , some weak correlations between τ dep mol and local conditions persist. In particular, we observe lower τ dep mol and enhanced CO excitation associated with nuclear gas concentrations in a subset of our targets. These appear to reflect real enhancements in the

  5. Backyard Worlds: Finding Nearby Brown Dwarfs Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    Recent discoveries of cool brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and microlensing surveys both point to an undiscovered population of brown dwarfs and rogue planets in the solar neighborhood. We propose to develop and sustain a novel website that enables a unique and powerful citizen-science based search for these and other high-proper-motion objects at 3.5 and 4.6 microns. Through this search, we have an opportunity to discover new ultracool Y dwarfs, crucial links between star formation and planet formation, and also the Sun's nearest neighbors-potentially a system closer than Proxima Centauri. NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (WISE) is nominally sensitive enough to detect a 250 K brown dwarf to > 6 pc and even a Jupiter analog to > 0.6 pc. However, high proper motion objects like these can easily be confused with variable stars, electronic noise, latent images, optical ghosts, cosmic ray hits, and so on in the WISE archive. Computer-based searches for high-proper motion objects falter in dense star fields, necessitating visual inspection all candidates. Our citizen science project, called "Backyard Worlds: Planet 9", remedies this problem by engaging volunteers to visually inspect WISE and NEOWISE images. Roughly 104,000 participants have already begun using a preliminary version of the site to examine time-resolved co-adds of unWISE-processed images, four epochs spanning 2010 to 2014. They have already performed more than 3.6 million classifications of these images since the site's launch on February 15, 2017. Besides seeking new brown dwarfs and nearby stars, this site is also the most sensitive all-sky WISE-based search for a planet orbiting the Sun beyond Pluto (sometimes called Planet Nine). Preliminary analysis data from the site has resulted in the discovery of 13 brown dwarf candidates including 6 T dwarfs. We obtained a spectrum of one of these candidates and published it in Astrophysical Journal Letters, with four citizen scientists

  6. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various

  7. H α IMAGING OF NEARBY SEYFERT HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theios, Rachel L.; Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ross, Nathaniel R., E-mail: rtheios@astro.caltech.edu [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems, 2000 E El Segundo Boulevard, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We used narrowband (Δ λ = 70 Å) interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 m telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby ( z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 μ m active galaxy sample. We obtained pure emission-line images of each galaxy, which reach down to a flux limit of 7.3 × 10{sup −15} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} arcsec{sup −2}, and corrected these images for [N ii] emission and extinction. We separated the H α emission line of the “nucleus” (central 100–1000 pc) from that of the host galaxy. The extended H α emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and indeed correlates well with other indicators of current star formation rates (SFRs) in these galaxies: extended 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, total far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The H α luminosity we measured in the centers of our galaxies is dominated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), and is linearly correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is, however, an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s, because their nuclear H α emission includes a strong additional contribution from the broad-line region. We found a correlation between SFR and AGN luminosity. In spite of selection effects, we concluded that the absence of bright Seyfert nuclei in galaxies with low SFRs is real, albeit only weakly significant. Finally, we used our measured spatial distributions of H α emission to determine what these Seyfert galaxies would look like when observed through fixed apertures (e.g., a spectroscopic fiber) at high redshifts. We found that although all of these Seyfert galaxies would be detectable emission-line galaxies at any redshift, most of them would appear to be dominated by (>67%) their H ii region emission. Only the most luminous AGNs (log( L {sub Hα}/erg s

  8. Black holes at the centers of nearby dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Edward C.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Sugarman, Hannah R.; Vélez, Darik O. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d⩽80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M{sub BH}⩽10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. Thus, as a set, the host galaxies in our sample are the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Our sample is dominated by narrow-line (type 2) AGNs, and it appears to have a much lower fraction of broad-line objects than that observed for luminous, optically selected Seyfert galaxies. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O iii] λ5007 luminosities of the Seyfert nuclei in our sample have a median value of L{sub 5007}=2×10{sup 5} L{sub ⊙} and extend down to ∼10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙}. Using published data for broad-line IMBH candidates, we have derived an [O iii] bolometric correction of log(L{sub bol}/L{sub 5007})=3.0±0.3, which is significantly lower than values obtained for high-luminosity AGNs. Applying this correction to our sample, we obtain minimum black hole mass estimates that fall mainly in the 10{sup 3} M{sub ⊙}–10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} range, which is roughly where the predicted mass functions for different black hole seed formation scenarios overlap the most. In the stellar mass range that includes the bulk of the AGN host galaxies in our sample, we derive a lower limit on the AGN fraction

  9. The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1999-05-01

    We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 - 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are ~ 10(37) -10(40) erg s(-1) (with a mean of 3 x 10(39) erg s(-1) ). The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~ 390 pc. The fact that compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six) galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an AGN indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources are accreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep (Gamma ~ 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object in these galaxies may be similar to a Black Hole Candidate in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT ~ 0.7 keV) gas dominates the emission. The fact that (for both spiral and elliptical galaxies) the spectral slope is steeper than in normal type 1 AGNs and that relatively low absorbing columns (N_H ~ 10(21) cm(-2) ) were found to the power-law component indicates that these objects are somehow geometrically and/or physically different from AGNs in normal active galaxies. The X-ray sources in the spiral and elliptical galaxies may be black hole X-ray binaries, low-luminosity AGNs, or possibly young X-ray luminous supernovae. Assuming the sources in the spiral galaxies are accreting black holes in their soft state, we estimate black hole masses ~ 10(2) -10(4) M_sun.

  10. Leadership Training in Otolaryngology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John P; Fried, Marvin P; Smith, Richard V; Hsueh, Wayne; Choi, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Although residency training offers numerous leadership opportunities, most residents are not exposed to scripted leadership instruction. To explore one program's attitudes about leadership training, a group of otolaryngology faculty (n = 14) and residents (n = 17) was polled about their attitudes. In terms of self-perception, more faculty (10 of 14, 71.4%) than residents (9 of 17, 52.9%; P = .461) considered themselves good leaders. The majority of faculty and residents (27 of 31) thought that adults could be taught leadership ability. Given attitudes about leadership ability and the potential for improvement through instruction, consideration should be given to including such training in otolaryngology residency.

  11. A Search for Exomoons and TTVs from LHS 1140b, a nearby super-Earth orbiting in the habitable-zone of an M dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Jason; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Agol, Eric; Kipping, David; Newton, Elisabeth; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Haywood, Raphaelle; Winters, Jennifer; Ballard, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Exoplanets that transit nearby small stars present the best opportunity for future atmospheric studies with the James Webb Space Telescope and the ground based ELTs currently under construction. The MEarth Project has discovered a rocky planet with a period of 27.43 days residing in the habitable zone of the nearby inactive star LHS 1140. This planet will be the subject of GTO observations by JWST, and additional objects in the system would also be tantalizing targets for future study. Owing to the large planetary mass and orbital separation from its star, LHS 1140b is unique among the planets known to transit nearby M dwarfs in its capability to host a large moon. We propose to survey LHS 1140b for signs of exomoons and to search for transit timing variations that may indicate the presence of additional companions. The long orbital period of 25 days, the 12 hour duration for the transit of the Hill sphere, and the small amplitude of the expected signal preclude pursuing this from the ground and make Spitzer uniquely capable to undertake this study. If successful, we may discover additional planets via TTVs for which we may conduct future searches for transits and atmospheric spectroscopy with JWST, and possibly provide the first evidence for exomoons outside of the Solar System.

  12. Education of the rural surgeon: experience from Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, W Heath; Arnold, Joshua D; Layman, Thomas S; Sumida, Michael P; Brown, Preston W; Burns, R Phillip; Cofer, Joseph B

    2009-12-01

    The rural surgery rotation that is contained within the general surgery residency program at The University of Tennessee College of Medicine-Chattanooga is described in this article. The advantages of this experience, including the extensive endoscopy experience and the close exposure to practicing general surgeons, are also outlined. The rotation receives uniformly positive evaluations from residents at completion, and it has become the primary gastrointestinal endoscopy educational experience in this program. The description serves as a model that can be used by other programs to construct a rural surgery rotation.

  13. U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Wright Morton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm towards water quality and the environment can provide a foundation for public deliberation and decision making. A stratified random sample mail survey of 1,042 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska residents (54% response rate reveals many areas of agreement among farm, rural non-farm, and those who live in towns on the importance of water issues including the importance and use of water resources; beliefs about water quality and perceptions of impaired water quality causality; beliefs about protecting local waters; and environmental attitudes. With two ordinal logistic models, we also found that respondents with strong environmental attitudes have the least confidence in ground and surface water quality. The findings about differences and areas of agreement among the residents of different sectors can provide a communication bridge among divergent viewpoints and assist local leaders and agency staff as they seek to engage the public in discussions which lead to negotiating solutions to difficult water issues.

  14. Differences in cardiovascular risk factors in rural, urban and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Gilman, Robert H.; Smeeth, Liam

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess differences in cardiovascular risk profiles among rural-to-urban migrants and non-migrant groups. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Ayacucho and Lima, Peru Participants rural (n=201); rural-urban migrants (n=589) and urban (n=199). Main outcome measures Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to migrant status (migrants vs. non-migrants), age at first migration, length of residency in an urban area and lifetime exposure to an urban area. Results For most risk factors, the migrant group had intermediate levels of risk between those observed for the rural and urban groups. Prevalences, for rural, migrant and urban groups, was 3%, 20% and 33% for obesity and 0.8%, 3% and 6% for type-2 diabetes. This gradient of risk was not observed uniformly across all risk factors. Blood pressure did not show a clear gradient of difference between groups. The migrant group had similar systolic blood pressure (SBP) but lower diastolic blood pressure (DBP) than the rural group. The urban group had higher SBP but similar DBP than rural group. Hypertension was more prevalent among the urban (29%) compared to both rural and migrant groups (11% and 16% respectively). For HbA1c, although the urban group had higher levels, the migrant and rural groups were similar to each other. No differences were observed in triglycerides between the three groups. Within migrants, those who migrated when aged older than 12 years had higher odds of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome compared to people who migrated at younger ages. Adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic indicators had little impact on the patterns observed. Conclusions The impact of rural to urban migration on cardiovascular risk profile is not uniform across different risk factors, and is further influenced by the age at which migration occurs. A gradient in levels was observed for some risk factors across study groups. This observation indicates that urbanization is indeed

  15. Motions in Nearby Galaxy Cluster Reveal Presence of Hidden Superstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    A nearby galaxy cluster is facing an intergalactic headwind as it is pulled by an underlying superstructure of dark matter, according to new evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Astronomers think that most of the matter in the universe is concentrated in long large filaments of dark matter and that galaxy clusters are formed where these filaments intersect. A Chandra survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster revealed a vast, swept-back cloud of hot gas near the center of the cluster. This geometry indicates that the hot gas cloud, which is several hundred thousand light years in length, is moving rapidly through a larger, less dense cloud of gas. The motion of the core gas cloud, together with optical observations of a group of galaxies racing inward on a collision course with it, suggests that an unseen, large structure is collapsing and drawing everything toward a common center of gravity. X-ray Image of Fornax with labels X-ray Image of Fornax with labels "At a relatively nearby distance of about 60 million light years, the Fornax cluster represents a crucial laboratory for studying the interplay of galaxies, hot gas and dark matter as the cluster evolves." said Caleb Scharf of Columbia University in New York, NY, lead author of a paper describing the Chandra survey that was presented at an American Astronomical Society meeting in New Orleans, LA. "What we are seeing could be associated directly with the intergalactic gas surrounding a very large scale structure that stretches over millions of light years." The infalling galaxy group, whose motion was detected by Michael Drinkwater of the University of Melbourne in Australia, and colleagues, is about 3 million light years from the cluster core, so a collision with the core will not occur for a few billion years. Insight as to how this collision will look is provided by the elliptical galaxy NGC 1404 that is plunging into the core of the cluster for the first time. As discussed by Scharf and another group

  16. Rural AIDS Diagnoses in Florida: Changing Demographics and Factors Associated With Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare demographic characteristics and predictors of survival of rural residents diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with those of urban residents. Methods Florida surveillance data for people diagnosed with AIDS during 1993–2007 were merged with 2000 Census data using ZIP code tabulation areas (ZCTA). Rural status was classified based on the ZCTA’s rural-urban commuting area classification. Survival rates were compared between rural and urban areas using survival curves and Cox proportional hazards models controlling for demographic, clinical, and area-level socioeconomic and health care access factors. Findings Of the 73,590 people diagnosed with AIDS, 1,991 (2.7%) resided in rural areas. People in the most recent rural cohorts were more likely than those in earlier cohorts to be female, non-Hispanic black, older, and have a reported transmission mode of heterosexual sex. There were no statistically significant differences in the 3-, 5-, or 10-year survival rates between rural and urban residents. Older age at the time of diagnosis, diagnosis during the 1993–1995 period, other/unknown transmission mode, and lower CD4 count/percent categories were associated with lower survival in both rural and urban areas. In urban areas only, being non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, being US born, more poverty, less community social support, and lower physician density were also associated with lower survival. Conclusions In rural Florida, the demographic characteristics of people diagnosed with AIDS have been changing, which may necessitate modifications in the delivery of AIDS-related services. Rural residents diagnosed with AIDS did not have a significant survival disadvantage relative to urban residents. PMID:23802929

  17. Emergence of the notion of retirement in rural China. The case of rural districts of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih-Jiunn, Shi

    2008-10-01

    Since the outset of the reform process in 1978, rural China has been undergoing fundamental changes in the relationships between the state, society and individuals. Social policy, including pension policy for rural residents, is an essential factor in this transformation process which has influenced the life chances of many peasants. This paper deals with the relationship between social policy and individual life courses in the case of Shanghai's rural pension policy. It integrates the theoretical insights from life course research to emphasise the close relationship between the state welfare and the institutionalisation of the life course. By analysing biographical interviews conducted in rural Shanghai, this article has identified the changing nature of welfare mix in rural old-age security as well as the emergence of the notion of retirement among the peasants in rural Shanghai. The introduction of the innovative rural pension policy has given rise to the rudimentary emergence of a modern life course, in the contour of a temporal partition between work and retirement. However, diverse local subsidies and individual household situations have led to different perceptions and biographical orientations of the peasants with respect to their old-age security and retirement.

  18. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  19. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. A research on the environmental impact on nearby waters range at low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunling; Xu Zitu; Xiao Zhang.

    1987-01-01

    The possible influence of the low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station upon nearby waters range is discussed. The contents of the article contains the numerical simulation on tidal currents and pollutant diffusion, the calculation of concentration distribution of radioactive contaminants in the water area and of polluted field, and the criterion on radioactive contaminant influence on nearby residents and aquatic biologicals. The result shows that when the Dayawan nuclear power station is on normal operation and after the low-level radioactive waste water has been drained off into the sea, the radioactive concentration is even lower than the natural background radiation just out-side the area of about 4 km 2 round the water outlet. As a result, it won't cause any danger to the water environment. Due to the fact that the concentration of the low-level radioactive waste water from the nuclear power station fully accords with the national standard GB4792-84 and the sea water quality sandard GBH2, 3-82. It is no harm to either residents and aquatic biologicals or ecological balance

  1. Rural youth in northern Zambia: straddling the rural-urban divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    reported for sub-Saharan Africa, young people are increasingly turning their backs on agriculture, seeing it as an occupation that is back-breaking and only fit for old people (FAO, 2014). The aim of this chapter is to explore the livelihood strategies and aspirations of young people living in a rural area...... how, contrary to the trend in much of sub-Saharan Africa, many young people are choosing to stay in their rural villages and engage in farming. This is partly due to the availability of land and government programmes that have been introduced to stimulate agriculture. Increasingly, however, young...... people are not relying solely on farming, but are also engaging in nonfarm activities. Some young people are shown to be highly entrepreneurial, managing to set up and run businesses despite facing constant and changing challenges. Whether they are based in the village or in the nearby small town, most...

  2. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Schuster, Karl-Friedrich [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/ Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  3. Knowing Our Neighbors: Four New Nearby High Proper Motion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Lurie, John C.; Ianna, Philip A.; Riedel, Adric R.; Finch, Charlie T.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John P.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining a well-understood, volume-limited (and ultimately volume-complete) sample of stellar systems within 25 pc is essential for determining the stellar luminosity function, the mass-luminosity relationship, the stellar velocity distribution, and the stellar multiplicity fraction. Such a sample also provides insight into the local star formation history. Towards that end, the Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) team measures trigonometric parallaxes to establish which systems truly lie within the 25-pc radius of the Solar Neighborhood. Recent astrometric measurements with the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9-m telescope establish three high proper motion systems as members (2MASS J02511490-0352459, 2MASS J15345704-1418486, and 2MASS J09211410-2104446) and confirm a fourth (2MASS J23062928-0502285). All four proper motions exceed 0.9”/yr. 2MA0251 travels 2.1497±0.0009”/yr in 149.20±0.05° at a distance of 11.0±0.4 pc. 2M2306 moves 1.0344±0.0007”/yr in 118.50±0.08° at a distance of 12.7±0.2 pc. 2MA1534 goes 0.9726±0.0004”/yr in 251.50 ±0.05° at a distance of 10.93±0.10 pc. 2MA0921 shifts 0.9489±0.0003”/yr in 164.70±0.04° at a distance of 12.3±0.2 pc. The corresponding tangential velocities are 112.4, 62.4, 50.4, and 55.5 km/s whereas the median for parallaxes previously published by RECONS is 53 km/s. With radial velocities in the literature of -75.5 to 80.53 km/s, none of these is a candidate member of any young moving groups.To characterize these late M-early L systems more fully, RECONS obtained VRI photometry; their I -band magnitudes range from 14.10 to 16.55. Over their astrometric baselines of 7.75 to 8.99 years, these demonstrated long-term I-band variability of 0.0135 mag. or less, indicating they may be older systems.With each new confirmation, we come closer to completing the census of the Solar Neighborhood.NSF grants AST 05-07711 and AST 09-08402, NASA-SIM, Georgia State University, the University of Virginia, Hampden-Sydney College

  4. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  5. The potential migration effect of rural hospital closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    to out-migration, although the hypothetical way of questioning leaves uncertainty about the actual scale of out-migration. Child families appear to be the most likely out-migrants. Elderly people may be hardest hit by a hospital closure, being most reliant on health care and least inclined to move away.......Rural hospital closures are high on the current health care agenda in Denmark. One raised concern is that rural hospital closures may further decrease population numbers in rural areas, as closures may induce some residents to move away from affected areas, i.e. closer to health care services...

  6. Training MA Psychologists for Work in Rural Settings: Issues and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter A.

    Despite the assumptions some have naively made about various stresses and the quality of life associated with rural settings, most who have studied people residing in rural areas would acknowledge the strong need for mental health services. However psychologists, like most other health care professionals prefer the amenities of more metropolitan…

  7. Rural Public Libraries as Community Change Agents: Opportunities for Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Mary Grace; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are at a disadvantage with regard to health status and access to health promotion activities. In many rural communities, public libraries offer support through health information provision; there are also opportunities for engagement in broader community health efforts. In a collaborative effort between an academic researcher and a…

  8. Does Rurality Affect Quality of Life Following Treatment for Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Cox, Cathy R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present research examined the extent to which rural residence and social support seeking are associated with quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients following chemotherapy. Methods: Female breast cancer patients (n = 46) from communities of varying degrees of rurality in a Midwestern state completed psychological and QOL…

  9. Probing the LHS Catalog. I. New Nearby Stars and the Coolest Subdwarf

    OpenAIRE

    Gizis, John E.; Reid, I. Neill

    1997-01-01

    We present moderate resolution spectroscopy of 112 cool dwarf stars to supplement the observations we have already presented in the Palomar/MSU Nearby-Star Spectroscopic Survey. The sample consists of 72 suspected nearby stars added to the The Preliminary Third Catalog of Nearby Stars since 1991 as well as 40 faint red stars selected from the LHS catalog. LHS 1826 is more metal-poor and cooler than the coolest previously known extreme subdwarf, LHS 1742a. LHS 2195 is a very late M dwarf of ty...

  10. Habitat Maintenance and Local Economic Ethics in Rural Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by Jane Jacobs's writing on "habitat maintenance," this paper seeks to identify the ethics that sometimes compel rural residents to act in ways that preserve their communities in the long run, despite short-term incentives to do otherwise. Data from focus groups in four rural Atlantic Canadian communities suggest shared ethics around entrepreneurship, market competition, buying local, and subsistence, some of which underlie the rural practices and perspectives that appear, to some outsiders, as irrational and "backwards." Understanding these ethics and the practices they incite as components of habitat maintenance-and judging them by their situated pragmatism rather than their fit with the placeless ideologies of growth-centric global capitalism and competitiveness-highlights their rationality and utility. Findings could help direct discussions of rural economic development toward notions of prosperity, sustainability, and economy that fit better with rural realities. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  11. Reforms, agricultural risks and agro-industrial diversification in rural China: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Weiyong YANG

    2003-01-01

    Since the implementation of the economic reforms in 1978, there is a remarkable diversification trend in rural China characterized by an impressive development of rural enterprises. The main objective of this paper is to understand the forces driving this agro-industrial diversification which has important impact on the employment, incomes and welfare of rural residents. A particular attention has been paid to two categories of factors, agricultural income risks and institutional factors such...

  12. Impact of Residency Training Redesign on Residents' Clinical Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Elaine; Eiff, M Patrice; Dexter, Eve; Rinaldo, Jason C B; Marino, Miguel; Garvin, Roger; Douglass, Alan B; Phillips, Robert; Green, Larry A; Carney, Patricia A

    2017-10-01

    The In-training Examination (ITE) is a frequently used method to evaluate family medicine residents' clinical knowledge. We compared family medicine ITE scores among residents who trained in the 14 programs that participated in the Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) Project to national averages over time, and according to educational innovations. The ITE scores of 802 consenting P4 residents who trained in 2007 through 2011 were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine. The primary analysis involved comparing scores within each academic year (2007 through 2011), according to program year (PGY) for P4 residents to all residents nationally. A secondary analysis compared ITE scores among residents in programs that experimented with length of training and compared scores among residents in programs that offered individualized education options with those that did not. Release of ITE scores was consented to by 95.5% of residents for this study. Scores of P4 residents were higher compared to national scores in each year. For example, in 2011, the mean P4 score for PGY1 was 401.2, compared to the national average of 386. For PGY2, the mean P4 score was 443.1, compared to the national average of 427, and for PGY3, the mean P4 score was 477.0, compared to the national PGY3 score of 456. Scores of residents in programs that experimented with length of training were similar to those in programs that did not. Scores were also similar between residents in programs with and without individualized education options. Family medicine residency programs undergoing substantial educational changes, including experiments in length of training and individualized education, did not appear to experience a negative effect on resident's clinical knowledge, as measured by ITE scores. Further research is needed to study the effect of a wide range of residency training innovations on ITE scores over time.

  13. KDG218, a nearby ultra-diffuse galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Makarova, L. N.; Sharina, M. E.; Karachentseva, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    We present properties of the low-surface-brightness galaxy KDG218 observed with the HST/ACS. The galaxy has a half-light (effective) diameter of a e = 47″ and a central surface brightness of SB V (0) = 24.m4/□″. The galaxy remains unresolved with the HST/ACS, which implies its distance of D > 13.1 Mpc and linear effective diameter of A e > 3.0 kpc. We notice that KDG218 is most likely associated with a galaxy group around the massive lenticular NGC4958 galaxy at approximately 22 Mpc, or with the Virgo Southern Extension filament at approximately 16.5 Mpc. At these distances, the galaxy is classified as an ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) similar to those found in the Virgo, Fornax, and Coma clusters. We also present a sample of 15 UDG candidates in the Local Volume. These sample galaxies have the following mean parameters: 〈 D〉 = 5.1 Mpc, 〈 A e 〉 = 4.8 kpc, and 〈 SB B ( e)〉 = 27.m4/□″. All the local UDG candidates reside near massive galaxies located in the regions with the mean stellar mass density (within 1 Mpc) about 50 times greater than the average cosmic density. The local fraction of UDGs does not exceed 1.5% of the Local Volume population. We notice that the presented sample of local UDGs is a heterogeneous one containing irregular, transition, and tidal types, as well as objects consisting of an old stellar population.

  14. Rural older people had lower mortality after accidental falls than non-rural older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang JW

    2017-01-01

    a significantly lower risk of mortality after falls than the non-rural group (adjusted odds ratio =0.32, 95% confidence interval =0.28–0.37, P<0.001. Age, gender, place of residence, comorbidity, number of medications, and inappropriate medication use were independent risk factors of mortality after falls. Conclusion: The rural older people had a higher frequency of fall-related hospitalizations but lower mortality after falls than the non-rural older people. Fall prevention programs should be adjusted for difference in place of residence. Keywords: accidental falls, mortality, risk factors, rural population

  15. Heaviest Stellar Black Hole Discovered in Nearby Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers have located an exceptionally massive black hole in orbit around a huge companion star. This result has intriguing implications for the evolution and ultimate fate of massive stars. The black hole is part of a binary system in M33, a nearby galaxy about 3 million light years from Earth. By combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Gemini telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, the mass of the black hole, known as M33 X-7, was determined to be 15.7 times that of the Sun. This makes M33 X-7 the most massive stellar black hole known. A stellar black hole is formed from the collapse of the core of a massive star at the end of its life. Chandra X-ray Image of M33 X-7 Chandra X-ray Image of M33 X-7 "This discovery raises all sorts of questions about how such a big black hole could have been formed," said Jerome Orosz of San Diego State University, lead author of the paper appearing in the October 18th issue of the journal Nature. M33 X-7 orbits a companion star that eclipses the black hole every three and a half days. The companion star also has an unusually large mass, 70 times that of the Sun. This makes it the most massive companion star in a binary system containing a black hole. Hubble Optical Image of M33 X-7 Hubble Optical Image of M33 X-7 "This is a huge star that is partnered with a huge black hole," said coauthor Jeffrey McClintock of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "Eventually, the companion will also go supernova and then we'll have a pair of black holes." The properties of the M33 X-7 binary system - a massive black hole in a close orbit around a massive companion star - are difficult to explain using conventional models for the evolution of massive stars. The parent star for the black hole must have had a mass greater than the existing companion in order to have formed a black hole before the companion star. Gemini Optical Image of M33 X-7 Gemini Optical Image of M33 X-7 Such a massive star would

  16. NASA Space Observatories Glimpse Faint Afterglow of Nearby Stellar Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Intricate wisps of glowing gas float amid a myriad of stars in this image created by combining data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The gas is a supernova remnant, cataloged as N132D, ejected from the explosion of a massive star that occurred some 3,000 years ago. This titanic explosion took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a nearby neighbor galaxy of our own Milky Way. The complex structure of N132D is due to the expanding supersonic shock wave from the explosion impacting the interstellar gas of the LMC. Deep within the remnant, the Hubble visible light image reveals a crescent-shaped cloud of pink emission from hydrogen gas, and soft purple wisps that correspond to regions of glowing oxygen emission. A dense background of colorful stars in the LMC is also shown in the Hubble image. The large horseshoe-shaped gas cloud on the left-hand side of the remnant is glowing in X-rays, as imaged by Chandra. In order to emit X-rays, the gas must have been heated to a temperature of about 18 million degrees Fahrenheit (10 million degrees Celsius). A supernova-generated shock wave traveling at a velocity of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) is continuing to propagate through the low-density medium today. The shock front where the material from the supernova collides with ambient interstellar material in the LMC is responsible for these high temperatures. Chandra image of N132D Chandra image of N132D, 2002 It is estimated that the star that exploded as a supernova to produce the N132D remnant was 10 to 15 times more massive than our own Sun. As fast-moving ejecta from the explosion slam into the cool, dense interstellar clouds in the LMC, complex shock fronts are created. A supernova remnant like N132D provides a rare opportunity for direct observation of stellar material, because it is made of gas that was recently hidden deep inside a star. Thus it provides information on stellar evolution and the

  17. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Results Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included ...

  18. Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study

    OpenAIRE

    Jorm Anthony F; Christensen Helen; Griffiths Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there have been many population studies of mental health literacy, little is known about the mental health literacy of people who reside in rural areas. This study sought to determine the impact of remoteness on public knowledge of depression and schizophrenia. Methods The mental health literacy of residents of major cities, inner regional, and outer-remote (including outer regional, remote, and very remote) regions were compared using data from a 2003–04 Australi...

  19. Nearby supernova factory announces 34 supernovae in one year'; best Rookie year ever for supernova search

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory), an international collaboration based at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, announced that it had discovered 34 supernovae during the first year of the prototype system's operation (2 pages).

  20. Resident Peritoneal NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Rosemary; Matzinger, Polly; Perez-Diez, Ainhoa

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a new population of NK cells that reside in the normal, un-inflamed peritoneal cavity. Phenotypically, they share some similarities with the small population of CD49b negative, CD27 positive immature splenic NK cells, and liver NK cells but differ in their expression of CD62L, TRAIL and EOMES. Functionally, the peritoneal NK cells resemble the immature splenic NK cells in their production of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α and in the killing of YAC-1 target cells. We also found that the peritoneum induces different behavior in mature and immature splenic NK cells. When transferred intravenously into RAGγcKO mice, both populations undergo homeostatic proliferation in the spleen, but only the immature splenic NK cells, are able to reach the peritoneum. When transferred directly into the peritoneum, the mature NK cells survive but do not divide, while the immature NK cells proliferate profusely. These data suggest that the peritoneum is not only home to a new subset of tissue resident NK cells but that it differentially regulates the migration and homeostatic proliferation of immature versus mature NK cells. PMID:22079985

  1. Rural-Urban Differences in End-of-Life Nursing Home Care: Facility and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan Tracy; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines urban-rural differences in end-of-life (EOL) quality of care provided to nursing home (NH) residents. Data and Methods: We constructed 3 risk-adjusted EOL quality measures (QMs) for long-term decedent residents: in-hospital death, hospice referral before death, and presence of severe pain. We used…

  2. Rurality and nursing home quality: evidence from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Meng, Hongdao; Miller, Nancy A

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of rural geographic location on nursing home quality of care in the United States. The study used cross-sectional observational design. We obtained resident- and facility-level data from 12,507 residents in 1,174 nursing homes from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used multilevel regression models to predict risk-adjusted rates of hospitalization, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, and moderate to severe pain while controlling for resident and facility characteristics. Adjusting for covariates, residents in rural facilities were more likely to experience hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-1.94) and moderate to severe pain (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.35-2.09). Significant facility-level predictors of higher quality included higher percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries, accreditation status, and special care programs. Medicare payment findings were mixed. Significant resident-level predictors included dementia diagnosis and being a "long-stay" resident. Rural residents were more likely to reside in facilities without accreditations or special care programs, factors that increased their odds of receiving poorer quality of care. Policy efforts to enhance Medicare payment approaches as well as increase rural facilities' accreditation status and provision of special care programs will likely reduce quality of care disparities in facilities.

  3. Robo-AO Kepler Survey. IV. The Effect of Nearby Stars on 3857 Planetary Candidate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Duev, Dmitry A.; Howard, Ward; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kulkarni, S. R.; Morton, Tim; Salama, Maïssa

    2018-04-01

    We present the overall statistical results from the Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey, comprising of 3857 high-angular resolution observations of planetary candidate systems with Robo-AO, an automated laser adaptive optics system. These observations reveal previously unknown nearby stars blended with the planetary candidate host stars that alter the derived planetary radii or may be the source of an astrophysical false positive transit signal. In the first three papers in the survey, we detected 440 nearby stars around 3313 planetary candidate host stars. In this paper, we present observations of 532 planetary candidate host stars, detecting 94 companions around 88 stars; 84 of these companions have not previously been observed in high resolution. We also report 50 more-widely separated companions near 715 targets previously observed by Robo-AO. We derive corrected planetary radius estimates for the 814 planetary candidates in systems with a detected nearby star. If planetary candidates are equally likely to orbit the primary or secondary star, the radius estimates for planetary candidates in systems with likely bound nearby stars increase by a factor of 1.54, on average. We find that 35 previously believed rocky planet candidates are likely not rocky due to the presence of nearby stars. From the combined data sets from the complete Robo-AO KOI survey, we find that 14.5 ± 0.5% of planetary candidate hosts have a nearby star with 4″, while 1.2% have two nearby stars, and 0.08% have three. We find that 16% of Earth-sized, 13% of Neptune-sized, 14% of Saturn-sized, and 19% of Jupiter-sized planet candidates have detected nearby stars.

  4. Rural Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  5. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... community has a significant impact on the local economy. In rural areas, Medicare reimbursement is a critical source of that healthcare spending, particularly since the higher percentage of elderly population in rural areas mean that Medicare accounts for ...

  6. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  7. Exposing some important barriers to health care access in the rural USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthit, N; Kiv, S; Dwolatzky, T; Biswas, S

    2015-06-01

    To review research published before and after the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) examining barriers in seeking or accessing health care in rural populations in the USA. This literature review was based on a comprehensive search for all literature researching rural health care provision and access in the USA. Pubmed, Proquest Allied Nursing and Health Literature, National Rural Health Association (NRHA) Resource Center and Google Scholar databases were searched using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 'Rural Health Services' and 'Rural Health.' MeSH subtitle headings used were 'USA,' 'utilization,' 'trends' and 'supply and distribution.' Keywords added to the search parameters were 'access,' 'rural' and 'health care.' Searches in Google Scholar employed the phrases 'health care disparities in the USA,' inequalities in 'health care in the USA,' 'health care in rural USA' and 'access to health care in rural USA.' After eliminating non-relevant articles, 34 articles were included. Significant differences in health care access between rural and urban areas exist. Reluctance to seek health care in rural areas was based on cultural and financial constraints, often compounded by a scarcity of services, a lack of trained physicians, insufficient public transport, and poor availability of broadband internet services. Rural residents were found to have poorer health, with rural areas having difficulty in attracting and retaining physicians, and maintaining health services on a par with their urban counterparts. Rural and urban health care disparities require an ongoing program of reform with the aim to improve the provision of services, promote recruitment, training and career development of rural health care professionals, increase comprehensive health insurance coverage and engage rural residents and healthcare providers in health promotion. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Urban-Rural Differences in Aerobic Physical Activity, Muscle Strengthening Exercise, and Screen-Time Sedentary Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael C; Song, Jaejoon; Taylor, Wendell C; Durand, Casey P; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-02-16

    Compared to their urban counterparts, US residents in rural settings face an increased risk of premature mortality and health problems that have been linked to insufficient physical activity (PA) levels. There is limited literature regarding urban-rural differences in adherence to national guidelines for all 3 PA-related behaviors. We investigated urban-rural differences in aerobic PA, leisure-time muscle strengthening PA, and leisure screen-time sedentary behavior in a combined data set of the 2011-2014 waves (N = 14,188) of the nationally representative National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey. We found no evidence of a difference between large urban and rural residents' aerobic PA levels. The typical number of weekly bouts of leisure-time muscle strengthening PA was 25% lower for rural residents (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.751, P rural residents to engage in 6.6% less daily leisure screen-time sedentary behavior than their large urban counterparts (IRR = 0.934, P = .031). Taken together with previous literature, these results suggest that rural residents may engage in comparable levels of total PA, but less leisure-time PA, than their urban counterparts. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  9. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  10. Exploring the Personal Cultures of Rural Culturally Diverse Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Doris; Fletcher-Carter, Ruth

    Culturally diverse minority groups make up 40 percent of America's deaf and hearing-impaired school population but only 14 percent of special education teachers. In addition, 90 percent of deaf students have parents who can hear, and one-third reside in rural areas. Although they are primarily Euro-American, hearing, and untrained in deaf…

  11. Rural communities as sites of knowledge: A case for African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the article argues that the indigenous knowledge systems constitute an ontology on its own terms with both theoretical and practical (utilitarian) properties. The argument is that the indigenous knowledge systems reside in the rural areas (sites) and are available as tools for regional transformation processes.

  12. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  13. Oral health: perceptions of need in a rural Iowa county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ronald L; Warren, John J; Levy, Steven M; Hand, Jed S; Merchant, James A; Stromquist, Ann M

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that oral health problems impact the quality of life of older adults. However, few data are available to describe the oral health status, barriers to care, and patterns of care for adults and older populations living in rural areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceived need for treatment of oral health problems by adult residents in a rural county in Iowa. The oral health component was part of a larger longitudinal health study of the residents. The sample was stratified into three groups by residence, that is, farm households, rural non-farm households and town households. The sample was subsequently post-stratified by gender and age group into young elderly, 65-74 years old, and old elderly, 75 years and older. Dentition status varied according to age and was related to the perception of treatment needs. Edentulous persons had fewer perceived treatment needs and utilized a dentist less frequently. Place of residence, education, and marital status were not associated with the subjects' perceived problems with eating and chewing. However, persons with difficulty chewing were more likely to have some missing upper teeth, have a perceived need to have denture work, and have smoked for a number of years. The results suggest that this rural population is retaining more teeth and consequently may need and may seek dental services more often than previous more edentulous cohorts.

  14. Community attachment and resource harvesting in rural Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney R. Zwick; David Solan

    2002-01-01

    Community attachment has been related to "sense of place," and by extension to factors such as the natural resource base of a local geographic area and the utilitarian uses of those resources-a functional attachment that helps root people to a place. The purpose of this study was to examine the resource harvest activities of residents of three modern rural...

  15. Caste dominance and economic performance in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalwij, Adriaan; Iversen, Vegard; Verschoor, Arjan; Dubey, Amaresh

    2014-01-01

    Using household panel data for rural India covering 1993–94 and 2004–5, we test whether scheduled castes (SCs) and other minority groups perform better or worse in terms of income when resident in villages dominated by (i) upper castes or (ii) their own group. Theoretically, upper-caste dominance

  16. Comparison of Urban and Rural Dropout Rates of Distance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hart, K. L.; Venter J. M. P.

    2013-01-01

    South Africa has one of the highest university dropout rates in the world. As a country, it also has a history of forced location and the withholding of resources, including quality education, from certain rural areas. This study investigates, the effect of urbanization (of the area in which a student resides) on the dropout rate of distance…

  17. Skilled delivery care service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4.5% women in rural areas received assistance from skilled birth attendants (SBAs) compared to 64.1 % of their urban counter parts. Through Bayesian logistic regression analysis, place of residence, ANC utilization, women's education, age and birth order were identified as key predictors of service utilization.

  18. Attitudes towards disability in rural area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reus, A.; Mostert, L.; Moonen, X.; Vermeer, A.; Magyarszeky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to gain insight into the attitudes of people living in a rural area of South Africa towards persons with a disability and the extent to which these attitudes are related to people's characteristics. A total of 105 residents of a township in the Gauteng province

  19. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reolon, R.

    1994-01-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  20. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  1. Communicating in designing an oral repository for rural African villages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitmaier, T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe designing an asynchronous, oral repository and sharing system that we intend to suit the needs and practices of rural residents in South Africa. We aim to enable users without access to personal computers to record, store, and share...

  2. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  3. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply; Sector rural uruguayo: demanda de energia y sus posibles fuentes de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reolon, R [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria, Direccion Nacional de Energia, Montevideo(Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them.

  4. A Study on the Innovations of Rural Planning and Management of Chengdu, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng; Fan; Qiu; Jian

    2016-01-01

    China has adopted a dual urban-rural administration system for many years which gives far more attention to cities than to rural areas. Designated as a National Comprehensive Reform Experiment Area for Coordinated Urban-Rural Development, Chengdu is one of several areas in China where the practice of rural planning was fi rstly carried out. After the earthquakes in Wenchuan in 2008 and Lushan in 2013, the post-disaster reconstruction further enriched the local capabilities of rural planning and management. The practice of Chengdu demonstrates that the success of rural planning and management depends on two aspects, a well-organized and well-developed legal systems and institutions and bottom-up selfadministration of local residents which incorporates the social relationships of local communities based on clan and blood kinships. This paper introduces the positive experience of Chengdu in rural planning and management that could be benefi cial for other areas in the country.

  5. Neighbourhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking in South Australian Adults: Differences between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Coffee, Neil T; Nolan, Rebecca; Dollman, James; Sugiyama, Takemi

    2017-08-26

    Although the health benefits of walking are well established, participation is lower in rural areas compared to urban areas. Most studies on walkability and walking have been conducted in urban areas, thus little is known about the relevance of walkability to rural areas. A computer-assisted telephone survey of 2402 adults (aged ≥18 years) was conducted to determine walking behaviour and perceptions of neighbourhood walkability. Data were stratified by urban (n = 1738) and rural (n = 664). A greater proportion of respondents reported no walking in rural (25.8%) compared to urban areas (18.5%). Compared to urban areas, rural areas had lower walkability scores and urban residents reported higher frequency of walking. The association of perceived walkability with walking was significant only in urban areas. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with walking in urban areas may not be relevant in rural areas. Appropriate walkability measures specific to rural areas should be further researched.

  6. A case control study of differences in non-work injury and accidents among sawmill workers in rural compared to urban British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.

  7. Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson Creber, Ruth M; Smeeth, Liam; Gilman, Robert H; Miranda, J Jaime

    2010-07-01

    To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m²), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.

  8. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  9. Rural Veterans' dental utilization, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Shen, Chan; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Findley, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Rural residents are overrepresented in the military; however, access to Veteran services is limited in rural areas. There is a need to identify rural Veteran healthcare utilization. This study addresses that need and has two purposes: a) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and Veteran utilization of dental services; and b) to determine if there is an association between rural dwelling and the oral health outcome of missing teeth. Data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey were used in this study. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Rural Veterans were less likely to have a dental visit during the previous year as compared with metropolitan Veterans in unadjusted analysis (Odds ratio = 0.71, 95% Confidence Interval, 0.64, 0.77) and in adjusted analysis [0.87 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.78, 0.96)]. In cases in which all teeth were missing, rural Veterans had an unadjusted odds ratio of 1.79 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.55, 2.08] and an adjusted odds ratio of 1.37 [95% Confidence Interval, 1.17, 1.62] as compared with metropolitan Veterans. The Veterans Health Administration develops policies for establishing centers for care for Veterans. The policy development should take into consideration that rural Veterans have not been as likely as urban Veterans to utilize dental services and have poorer oral health outcomes. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Slum residence and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Günther, Isabel; Hill, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Continued population growth and increasing urbanization have led to the formation of large informal urban settlements in many developing countries in recent decades. The high prevalence of poverty, overcrowding, and poor sanitation observed in these settlements-commonly referred to as "slums"-suggests that slum residence constitutes a major health risk for children. In this article, we use data from 191 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 73 developing countries to investigate this concern empirically. Our results indicate that children in slums have better health outcomes than children living in rural areas yet fare worse than children in better-off neighborhoods of the same urban settlements. A large fraction of the observed health differences appears to be explained by pronounced differences in maternal education, household wealth, and access to health services across residential areas. After we control for these characteristics, children growing up in the slums and better-off neighborhoods of towns show levels of morbidity and mortality that are not statistically different from those of children living in rural areas. Compared with rural children, children living in cities (irrespective of slum or formal residence) fare better with respect to mortality and stunting but not with respect to recent illness episodes.

  11. A virtual reality endoscopic simulator augments general surgery resident cancer education as measured by performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian; Buchberg, Brian; Tsikitis, V Liana; Herzig, Daniel O; Vetto, John T; Lu, Kim C

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. The need for screening colonoscopies, and thus adequately trained endoscopists, particularly in rural areas, is on the rise. Recent increases in required endoscopic cases for surgical resident graduation by the Surgery Residency Review Committee (RRC) further emphasize the need for more effective endoscopic training during residency to determine if a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator enhances surgical resident endoscopic education by detecting improvement in colonoscopy skills before and after 6 weeks of formal clinical endoscopic training. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected surgery resident data on an endoscopy simulator. Residents performed four different clinical scenarios on the endoscopic simulator before and after a 6-week endoscopic training course. Data were collected over a 5-year period from 94 different residents performing a total of 795 colonoscopic simulation scenarios. Main outcome measures included time to cecal intubation, "red out" time, and severity of simulated patient discomfort (mild, moderate, severe, extreme) during colonoscopy scenarios. Average time to intubation of the cecum was 6.8 min for those residents who had not undergone endoscopic training versus 4.4 min for those who had undergone endoscopic training (p Virtual reality endoscopic simulation is an effective tool for both augmenting surgical resident endoscopy cancer education and measuring improvement in resident performance after formal clinical endoscopic training.

  12. Meaning in life: the perspective of long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Darlene; Moore, Sharon L; Getzlaf, Beverley A

    2012-07-01

    A qualitative approach was used in the exploration of meaning in life for long-term care (LTC) residents. This hermeneutic phenomenological study, as described by van Manen, was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 11 LTC residents from a rural region in Atlantic Canada. Four themes emerged as enhancing meaning in life for the residents in this study: Connectedness, Survival Despite Declining Functional Capacity, Engaging in "Normal" Activities, and Seeking a Place of Refuge. In this article, we describe the emerging themes and the implications for LTC education, practice, and future research. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Sun exposure patterns of urban, suburban, and rural children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is the main etiology of skin cancer. Differences in skin cancer incidence have been observed between rural and urban populations. OBJECTIVES: As sun exposure begins in childhood, we examined summer UVR exposure doses and sun behavior in children resident in urban, suburban......, and rural areas. METHODS: Personal, electronic UVR dosimeters and sun behavior diaries were used during a summer (3.5 months) by 150 children (4-19 years of age) resident in urban, suburban, and rural areas. RESULTS: On school/kindergarten days rural children spent more time outdoors and received higher UVR...... doses than urban and suburban children (rural: median 2.3 h per day, median 0.9 SED per day, urban: median 1.3 h per day, median 0.3 SED per day, suburban: median 1.5 h per day, median 0.4 SED per day) (p ≤ 0.007). Urban and suburban children exhibited a more intermittent sun exposure pattern than rural...

  14. [The social hygienic model of organization of preventive activities concerning rural population of the Omskaia oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berehnoii, V G

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out concerning environmental factors and social hygienic portrait of rural residents. The analysis determined environmental, social and behavioral risk factors of health. The pathologies of risk for rural residents were substantiated. In conditions of degradation of accessibility of medical care to inhabitants residing outside of district centers specified by decreasing of capacity of hospital medical care and decreasing of accessibility of out-patient services, the visiting trips of physicians ’ teams and activities concerning development of hygienic literacy were organized in 2012-2014. This approach permitted ameliorating health indices and organization of medical care for the given category of citizen, including positive results in decreasing of mortality, timely diagnostic of diseases, reduction of number of emergency operations in central district hospitals and attenuation of intensity of impact of regulative risk factors. All this determined in the upshot social and economic effectiveness of advanced model of prevention of health disorders of rural residents.

  15. Medical student attitudes before and after participation in rural health fairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Landy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite an increased need, residents of rural communities have decreased access to healthcare and oftenpresentuniquehealthcare challenges associated with their rurality. Ensuring medical students receive adequate exposure to these issues is complicated by the urban location of most medical schools. Health fairs (fairs conducted in rural communities can provide students exposure to ruralhealth;however, it is unknown how participation affects attitudes regarding these issues. Materials and Methods: During the 2010-2011 academic year, first-year medical students were surveyed before and after participating in a rural fair regarding the importance of rural health issues, the need for exposure to rural healthcare, their plans to practice in a rural community,andthe educational impact of fairs. Results : Of the 121participating students, 77% and 61% completed pre- and post-fair surveys, respectively. Few had lived in a rural area or planned to practice primary care. Participants strongly agreed that the delivery of healthcare in rural areas was important, and that all physicians should receive rural health training (4.8 and 3.7 out of 5, respectively despite less than halfplanning to practice in a rural community.After participating in a rural fair, student attitudes were unchanged, although 87% of participants strongly agreed their involvement had contributed to improving patient health and 70% that the fairs provided rural medicine experience. Conclusions : Among urban medical school students with varied interests in primary care, there was strong interest in volunteering at rural fairs and appreciation for the importance of rural health. Fairs provided interested students with rural medicine experience that reinforced student attitudes regarding rural health. Further, students felt their participation improved patient health.

  16. The Approaches to Narrowing Urban-Rural Income Gap——From the Perspective of Rural Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From the situations about the incomes and life quality of the urban and rural residents,the thesis briefly introduces the status quo of the urban-rural income gap and explores the impact of the income gap on social economy:firstly,it hampers economic development;secondly,it is detrimental to the social development.Then the thesis analyzes the role of a sound social security in narrowing urban-rural income gap:at first,it broadens the institutional environment of improving the agricultural efficiency;secondly,it eliminates the uncertainties influencing the farmers’ income;thirdly,it improves the farmers’ capacity to increase income;at last,it enhances the farmers’ consciousness of wealth.Next the thesis inquires into the problems existing in the system of rural social security:the first problem is more obviously fragmented system;the second is inadequate security projects and narrower coverage;the third is an obvious lack of equality in urban and rural security;the fourth is even less sound management system;the last is the lagging of legislation.Afterwards the thesis proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to improve the system of rural social security and narrow urban-rural income gap:firstly,to integrate the social security system in rural areas;secondly,to perfect security projects and enhance the security system;thirdly,to integrate the administrative management of social security;at last,to enforce the legal system.

  17. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life of Rural Clients Seeking Telepsychology Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Tarlow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services (n=94 had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL, often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients (n=40 was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life (d = 0.70,  P<.001. These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas.

  19. The Effect of Persuasive Communication Strategies on Rurual Resident Attitues Toward Ecosystem Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; Christine Overdevest; Alan D. Bright; H. Ken Cordell; Donald B.K. English

    1997-01-01

    This study examined ways of generating favorable public attitudes toward ecosystem management (EM). Five hundred rural residents of the Chattooga River Basin (CRB) participated in a telephone survey. A recent Forest Service message on EM was compared with four messages developed using the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) and a control (no message) group in their...

  20. Trees in the small city retail business district: comparing resident and visitor perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Many small cities and towns are located near resource lands, and their central business districts serve both residents and visitors. Such quasi-rural retail centers face competitive challenges from regional shopping malls, online purchasing, and big box discount retailers. District merchants must strategically enhance their market...

  1. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  2. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education.

  3. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Barnidge, Ellen K.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Community Context Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We crea...

  4. Surgical residency: A tenant's view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...

  5. Burnout among Dutch medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.T.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.; Van De Wiel, H.B.; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Sprangers, F.; Jaspers, F.C.; van der Heijden, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined levels of burnout and relationships between burnout, gender, age, years in training, and medical specialty in 158 medical residents working at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Thirteen percent of the residents met the criteria for burnout, with the highest

  6. The Changing Context of Rural America: A Call to Examine the Impact of Social Change on Mental Health and Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Snell-Rood, Claire

    2017-05-01

    Recent social changes and rising social inequality in the rural United States have affected the experience and meaning of mental illness and treatment seeking within rural communities. Rural Americans face serious mental health disparities, including higher rates of suicide and depression compared with residents of urban areas, and substance abuse rates in rural areas now equal those in urban areas. Despite these increased risks, people living in rural areas are less likely than their urban counterparts to seek or receive mental health services. This Open Forum calls for a research agenda supported by anthropological theory and methods to investigate the significance of this changed rural social context for mental health.

  7. Body Mass Index and Rural Status on Self-Reported Health in Older Adults: 2004-2013 Medicare Expenditure Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsis, John A; Whiteman, Karen L; Lohman, Matthew C; Scherer, Emily A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    To ascertain whether rural status impacts self-reported health and whether the effect of rural status on self-reported health differs by obesity status. We identified 22,307 subjects aged ≥60 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2013. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese. Physical and mental component scores of the Short Form-12 assessed self-reported health status. Rural/urban status was defined using metropolitan statistical area. Weighted regression models ascertained the relative contribution of predictors (including rural and BMI) on each subscale. Mean age was 70.7 years. Rural settings had higher proportions classified as obese (30.7 vs 27.6%; P rural residents had lower physical health status (41.7 ± 0.3) than urban (43.4 ± 0.1; P rural/urban by BMI. Individuals classified as underweight or obese had lower physical health compared to normal, while the differences were less pronounced for mental health. No differences in mental health existed between rural/urban status. A BMI * rural interaction was significant for physical but not mental health. Rural residents report lower self-reported physical health status compared to urban residents, particularly older adults who are obese or underweight. No interaction was observed between BMI and rural status. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Medical Physics Residency Consortium: collaborative endeavors to meet the ABR 2014 certification requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brent C.; Duhon, John; Yang, Claus C.; Wu, H. Terry; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center (MBPCC) established a Radiation Oncology Physics Residency Program to provide opportunities for medical physics residency training to MS and PhD graduates of the CAMPEP‐accredited Louisiana State University (LSU)‐MBPCC Medical Physics Graduate Program. The LSU‐MBPCC Program graduates approximately six students yearly, which equates to a need for up to twelve residency positions in a two‐year program. To address this need for residency positions, MBPCC has expanded its Program by developing a Consortium consisting of partnerships with medical physics groups located at other nearby clinical institutions. The consortium model offers the residents exposure to a broader range of procedures, technology, and faculty than available at the individual institutions. The Consortium institutions have shown a great deal of support from their medical physics groups and administrations in developing these partnerships. Details of these partnerships are specified within affiliation agreements between MBPCC and each participating institution. All partner sites began resident training in 2011. The Consortium is a network of for‐profit, nonprofit, academic, community, and private entities. We feel that these types of collaborative endeavors will be required nationally to reach the number of residency positions needed to meet the 2014 ABR certification requirements and to maintain graduate medical physics training programs. PACS numbers: 01.40.Fk, 01.40.gb PMID:24710434

  9. Early resident-to-resident physics education in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Akash P

    2014-01-01

    The revised ABR board certification process has updated the method by which diagnostic radiology residents are evaluated for competency in clinical radiologic physics. In this work, the author reports the successful design and implementation of a resident-taught physics course consisting of 5 weekly, hour-long lectures intended for incoming first-year radiology residents in their first month of training. To the author's knowledge, this is the first description of a course designed to provide a very early framework for ongoing physics education throughout residency without increasing the didactic burden on faculty members. Twenty-six first-year residents spanning 2 academic years took the course and reported subjective improvement in their knowledge (90%) and interest (75%) in imaging physics and a high level of satisfaction with the use of senior residents as physics educators. Based on the success of this course and the minimal resources required for implementation, this work may serve as a blueprint for other radiology residency programs seeking to develop revised physics curricula. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  11. Needs Assessment for Incoming PGY-1 Residents in Neurosurgical Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, David M; Haji, Faizal A; Matte, Marie C; Clarke, David B

    2015-01-01

    Residents must develop a diverse range of skills in order to practice neurosurgery safely and effectively. The purpose of this study was to identify the foundational skills required for neurosurgical trainees as they transition from medical school to residency. Based on the CanMEDS competency framework, a web-based survey was distributed to all Canadian academic neurosurgical centers, targeting incoming and current PGY-1 neurosurgical residents as well as program directors. Using Likert scale and free-text responses, respondents rated the importance of various cognitive (e.g. management of raised intracranial pressure), technical (e.g. performing a lumbar puncture) and behavioral skills (e.g. obtaining informed consent) required for a PGY-1 neurosurgical resident. Of 52 individuals contacted, 38 responses were received. Of these, 10 were from program directors (71%), 11 from current PGY-1 residents (58%) and 17 from incoming PGY-1 residents (89%). Respondents emphasized operative skills such as proper sterile technique and patient positioning; clinical skills such as lesion localization and interpreting neuro-imaging; management skills for common scenarios such as raised intracranial pressure and status epilepticus; and technical skills such as lumbar puncture and external ventricular drain placement. Free text answers were concordant with the Likert scale results. We surveyed Canadian neurosurgical program directors and PGY-1 residents to identify areas perceived as foundational to neurosurgical residency education and training. This information is valuable for evaluating the appropriateness of a training program's goals and objectives, as well as for generating a national educational curriculum for incoming PGY-1 residents.

  12. From pipelines to pathways: the Memorial experience in educating doctors for rural generalist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Asghari, Shabnam; Hurley, Oliver; Ravalia, Mohamed; Jong, Michael; Parsons, Wanda; Duggan, Norah; Stringer, Katherine; O'Keefe, Danielle; Moffatt, Scott; Graham, Wendy; Sturge Sparkes, Carolyn; Hippe, Janelle; Harris Walsh, Kristin; McKay, Donald; Samarasena, Asoka

    2018-03-01

    This report describes the community context, concept and mission of The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Memorial), Canada, and its 'pathways to rural practice' approach, which includes influences at the pre-medical school, medical school experience, postgraduate residency training, and physician practice levels. Memorial's pathways to practice helped Memorial to fulfill its social accountability mandate to populate the province with highly skilled rural generalist practitioners. Programs/interventions/initiatives: The 'pathways to rural practice' include initiatives in four stages: (1) before admission to medical school; (2) during undergraduate medical training (medical degree (MD) program); (3) during postgraduate vocational residency training; and (4) after postgraduate vocational residency training. Memorial's Learners & Locations (L&L) database tracks students through these stages. The Aboriginal initiative - the MedQuest program and the admissions process that considers geographic or minority representation in terms of those selecting candidates and the candidates themselves - occurs before the student is admitted. Once a student starts Memorial's MD program, the student has ample opportunities to have rural-based experiences through pre-clerkship and clerkship, of which some take place exclusively outside of St. John's tertiary hospitals. Memorial's postgraduate (PG) Family Medicine (FM) residency (vocational) training program allows for deeper community integration and longer periods of training within the same community, which increases the likelihood of a physician choosing rural family medicine. After postgraduate training, rural physicians were given many opportunities for professional development as well as faculty development opportunities. Each of the programs and initiatives were assessed through geospatial rurality analysis of administrative data collected upon entry into and during the MD program and PG training (L

  13. Patterns of drug use among nonmetropolitan and rural adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, E; Donnermeyer, J F

    1998-08-01

    This article examines illegal drug use among adults living in nonmetropolitan and rural areas of the United States using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Subjects were classified into three categories by residence: nonmetropolitan-urban, metropolitan-rural, and nonmetropolitan-rural. Respondents indicate about 10% of adults were current users of marijuana or other illegal drugs. Discriminant analysis was used to examine differences among groups of individuals classified as current users, past users, and nonusers. For both marijuana and other illegal drugs, the variables that accounted most for group differences were age, marital, status, employment status, occupation, and income. Only minor differences in drug use were exhibited across the three residential categories. It is recommended that future research on the rural and nonmetropolitan adult population incorporate both structural level measures of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of localities, and individual level measures of peer influence, work stress, family factors, and psychosocial characteristics.

  14. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with partial edentulism when compared to urban (Urban, 38.4%, High Poverty Rural 51.3%, Other Rural, 45%). Counties with high rates of full edentulism are also rural (Urban, 4.3%, High-Poverty Rural 10.5%, Other Rural, 8.2%). ( Mitchell, ...

  15. Rural and Urban Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Kenneth; And Others

    This publication provides a variety of information on prevention and intervention programs for rural and urban children and adolescents. Drawing from a rural sociological perspective, the introductory paper defines "rural," discusses rural-urban economic and social differences, and lists indicators of risk for rural youth. It discusses the extent…

  16. Psychiatry residents in a milieu participatory democracy: a resident's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersten, D

    1978-11-01

    Psychiatry residents respond with a variety of coping mechanisms to the lack of traditional structure in a milieu participatory democracy. To incorporate themselves into the system they must accept such democratic ideals as equality among staff and patients, group decision making, and free self-expression and give up some of their traditional ideas about staff and patient roles, treatment modalities, and the therapeutic environment. The author was a first-year resident in psychiatry on a university hospital inpatient therapeutic community; he discusses the conflicts between residents, who often adopt a "we-they" attitude, and the permanent staff, whose protectiveness of the ward community reflects their personal commitment to its ideals.

  17. Does Residency Selection Criteria Predict Performance in Orthopaedic Surgery Residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Tina; Alrabaa, Rami George; Sood, Amit; Maloof, Paul; Benevenia, Joseph; Berberian, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    More than 1000 candidates applied for orthopaedic residency positions in 2014, and the competition is intense; approximately one-third of the candidates failed to secure a position in the match. However, the criteria used in the selection process often are subjective and studies have differed in terms of which criteria predict either objective measures or subjective ratings of resident performance by faculty. Do preresidency selection factors serve as predictors of success in residency? Specifically, we asked which preresidency selection factors are associated or correlated with (1) objective measures of resident knowledge and performance; and (2) subjective ratings by faculty. Charts of 60 orthopaedic residents from our institution were reviewed. Preresidency selection criteria examined included United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores, Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, number of clinical clerkship honors, number of letters of recommendation, number of away rotations, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) honor medical society membership, fourth-year subinternship at our institution, and number of publications. Resident performance was assessed using objective measures including American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) Part I scores and Orthopaedics In-Training Exam (OITE) scores and subjective ratings by faculty including global evaluation scores and faculty rankings of residents. We tested associations between preresidency criteria and the subsequent objective and subjective metrics using linear correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney tests when appropriate. Objective measures of resident performance namely, ABOS Part I scores, had a moderate linear correlation with the USMLE Step 2 scores (r = 0.55, p communication skills" subsection of the global evaluations. We found that USMLE Step 2, number of honors in medical school clerkships, and AOA membership demonstrated the strongest correlations with resident performance. Our

  18. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweiki, Ehyal; Martin, Niels D; Beekley, Alec C; Jenoff, Jay S; Koenig, George J; Kaulback, Kris R; Lindenbaum, Gary A; Patel, Pankaj H; Rosen, Matthew M; Weinstein, Michael S; Zubair, Muhammad H; Cohen, Murray J

    2015-01-01

    Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education.

  19. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    2016-06-10

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  20. Nearby Type Ia Supernova Follow-up at the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Jonathan; O'Neill, Katie; Kilpatrick, Charles; Foley, Ryan

    2018-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) provide an effective way to study the expansion of the universe through analyses of their photometry and spectroscopy. The interpretation of high-redshift SN Ia is dependent on accurate characterization of nearby, low-redshift targets. To help build up samples of nearby SN Ia, the Thacher Observatory has begun a photometric follow-up program in 4 photometric bands. Here we present the observations and analysis of multi-band photometry for several recent supernovae as well as FLOYDS spectra from the Las Cumbres Observatory.

  1. Measurement of radioactivity in the atmosphere and pollution nearby an atomic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is particularly interested in studies on atmospheric radioactivity by reason of the necessity to control the atmosphere nearby nuclear plants as uranium mines, nuclear reactors and hot laboratories or radioactive materials treatment plants. Thus, the CEA developed different apparatus to control and monitor the atmosphere nearby its sites. These air monitors are essentially of two types: the first one, called 'Babar', monitors smokes, fogs and dusts, the second type is an ionization chamber and measures the concentration of radioactive gas in the air. The functioning and sensitivity of these two systems are discussed. (M.P.)

  2. The Importance of Rural, Township, and Urban Life in the Interaction between Social and Emotional Learning and Social Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totan, Tarik; Ozyesil, Zümra; Deniz, M. Engin; Kiyar, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Whether an individual lives in a rural or urban setting may have direct impact on a wide variety of psychological patterns adopted by students. In this study, the effects of positive and negative social behaviors on the relationship between social and emotional learning needs and skills gaps of students who reside in both rural and urban areas…

  3. [A study on health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in six provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xueqiong; Li, Yinghua; Li, Li; Huang, Xianggang

    2014-07-01

    To understand the status and its influencing factors of health information literacy among urban and suburban residents in China, and to explore the method for improving the health information literacy. From March to May in 2013, residents aged 18-60 years in six provinces in China were investigated with Questionnaire of Health Literacy of Diabetes Mellitus of the Public in China about self-reported health information literacy. The results of the survey were standardized by the 6th national census data. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore influencing factors of health information literacy. A total of 4 416 residents were surveyed, and 4 282 (97.0%) valid questionnaires were collected. After weight adjustments, 30.1% of the residents aged 18-60 years had adequate health information literacy in China, and the 95%CI of the rate was 28.5% - 31.6%. Totally, 70.8% of the residents ever actively searched for health information, 43.7% of the residents could easily retrieve the health information, 49.1% of the residents could easily understand the health information, 41.8% of the residents could confidently differentiate the quality of the health information and 51.1% of the residents ever searched health information on the internet. The results of multi-logistic regression showed that the rural residents, the males, those with lower levels of education, those with poor health had a lower health information literacy. The most trusted health information source was from doctors, and the trust rate reached 97.0%, followed by family members, friends or colleagues. The residents trusted the interpersonal communication more than the mass media and the new media. The level of health information literacy of the residents was generally low in China. To improve the health information literacy, high-quality health information services should be delivered to the residents, and the health education on the internet provided by the medical professionals should also be explored.

  4. Oral health and access to dental care: a qualitative exploration in rural Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Elham; Wootton, John; Galarneau, Chantal; Bedos, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We sought to explore how rural residents perceive their oral health and their access to dental care. We conducted a qualitative research study in rural Quebec. We used purposeful sampling to recruit study participants. A trained interviewer conducted audio-recorded, semistructured interviews until saturation was reached. We conducted thematic analysis to identify themes. This included interview debriefing, transcript coding, data display and interpretation. Saturation was reached after 15 interviews. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: rural idyll, perceived oral health, access to oral health care, cues to action and access to dental information. Most participants noted that they were satisfied with the rural lifestyle, and that rurality per se was not a threat to their oral health. However, they criticized the limited access to dental care in rural communities and voiced concerns about the impact on their oral health. Participants noted that motivation to seek dental care came mainly from family and friends rather than from dental care professionals. They highlighted the need for better education about oral health in rural communities. Residents' satisfaction with the rural lifestyle may be affected by unsatisfactory oral health care. Health care providers in rural communities should be engaged in tailoring strategies to improve access to oral health care.

  5. Characterizing Rural Food Access in Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardenhagen, Chris J; Pinard, Courtney A; Pirog, Rich; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus

    2017-10-01

    Residents of rural areas may have limited access to healthy foods, leading to higher incidence of diet related health issues. Smaller grocers in rural areas experience challenges in maintaining fresh produce and other healthy foods available for customers. This study assessed the rural food environment in northeast Lower Michigan in order to inform healthy food financing projects such as the Michigan Good Food Fund. The area's retail food businesses were categorized using secondary licensing, business, and nutrition program databases. Twenty of these stores were visited in person to verify the validity of the categories created, and to assess the availability of healthy foods in their aisles. In-depth interviews with key informants were carried out with store owners, economic development personnel, and other food system stakeholders having knowledge about food access, in order to learn more about the specific challenges that the area faces. Out-shopping, seasonality, and economic challenges were found to affect healthy food availability. Mid-sized independent stores were generally found to have a larger selection of healthy foods, but smaller rural groceries also have potential to provide fresh produce and increase food access. Potential healthy food financing projects are described and areas in need of further research are identified.

  6. Personal finances of urology residents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Tongco, W; MacNeily, A E; Smart, M

    2000-12-01

    We examined how Urology residents in Canada manage their personal finances. A survey instrument was designed to elicit information on demographics, expenses, savings and incomes. The questionnaire was completed by 40 Urology residents attending the 2000 Queen's Urology Exam Skills Training (QUEST) program. Twenty-eight residents (70%) had educational debt (median debt $50 000). Seventeen residents (45%) paid credit card interest charges within the last year. Four residents (10%) maintained an unpaid credit card balance > $7500 at 17% annual interest rate. Twenty-six residents (67%) contributed to Registered Retirement Savings Program (RRSP) accounts. Seventeen residents (44%) contributed to non-RRSP retirement accounts. Nineteen residents (50%) budgeted expenses. Median resident income was $45 000. Thirteen residents (34%) had cash reserves < $250. Many residents save little, and incur substantial debt over and above educational loans. Many residents would benefit from instruction concerning prudent financial management. Residents should be informed of the consequences of low saving and high debt.

  7. Rural nurse job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, D L; Monserud, M A

    2008-01-01

    The lack of rural nursing studies makes it impossible to know whether rural and urban nurses perceive personal and organizational factors of job satisfaction similarly. Few reports of rural nurse job satisfaction are available. Since the unprecedented shortage of qualified rural nurses requires a greater understanding of what factors are important to retention, studies are needed. An analysis of the literature indicates job satisfaction is studied as both an independent and dependent variable. In this study, the concept is used to examine the intention to remain employed by measuring individual and organizational characteristics; thus, job satisfaction is used as a dependent variable. One hundred and three rural hospital nurses, from hospitals throughout the Northwest region of the United States were recruited for the study. Only nurses employed for more than one year were accepted. The sample completed surveys online. The McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale, and two open-ended job satisfaction questions were completed. The qualitative analysis of the open-ended questions identified themes which were then used to support the quantitative findings. Overall alphas were 0.89 for the McCloskey/Mueller Scale and 0.96 for the Gerber Control Over Practice Scale. Rural nurses indicate a preference for rural lifestyles and the incorporation of rural values in organizational practices. Nurses preferred the generalist role with its job variability, and patient variety. Most participants intended to remain employed. The majority of nurses planning to leave employment were unmarried, without children at home, and stated no preference for a rural lifestyle. The least overall satisfied nurses in the sample were employed from 1 to 3 years. Several new findings inform the literature while others support previous workforce studies. Data suggest some job satisfaction elements can be altered by addressing organizational characteristics and by

  8. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  9. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  10. Active living in rural Appalachia: Using the rural active living assessment (RALA tools to explore environmental barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hege

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available People residing in rural communities are more likely to be physically inactive and subsequently have elevated risks for chronic disease. Recent evidence has shown this could stem from environmental barriers, inadequate programming and policies directed at the promotion of physical activity (PA in rural settings. The objective of this research was to assess active living features in rural towns and townships (n=16 across seven counties in northwestern North Carolina (NC. The study utilized the Town-Wide and Street Segment components of the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA as well as the 2014 American Community Survey results. The assessments were conducted in the summer of 2016 in the rural Appalachia region of NC. Using the RALA town-wide assessment scoring system (0−100, the range of scores was 18–84, with the mean being 50.06. Three towns had no sidewalks, nine towns had sidewalks on only one side of the main streets, and four had sidewalks on both sides of the main streets. One town was rated as highly walkable, seven towns as moderately walkable, five towns as moderately unwalkable, and three towns as highly unwalkable. The rural Appalachia region of NC offers unique topographic, geographic and environmental barriers to PA. However, our findings indicate many rural towns offer common PA amenities. Future research should utilize qualitative methods and a community-based participatory research approach to more fully understand the challenges with increasing PA in the rural and often isolated Appalachia communities. Keywords: Rural active living assessment (RALA, Health disparities, Physical activity, Rural Appalachia

  11. Rural-urban Migration Decisions in China: Evidence from Rural Household Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongwon Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the household's off-farm labor response to risk using the Research Center on the Rural Economy (RCRE panel data in China. This paper aims to find out whether the off-farm labor market, especially the migrant labor market, could be used as a means of coping with risk and shocks to income by poor households in rural China who have only limited access to the credit and insurance markets for managing risk. Instead of using the endogenous transitory income variance under the short time span of the data, we suggest using relatively exogenous measure of risk, such as the coefficient of variation of rainfall in each village, might be more appropriate to find the effect of risk on household's off-farm labor participation decision. Our results support the idea that households facing a riskier or more volatile distribution of precipitation are more likely to participate in the off-farm labor market. Attention to the potential risk-coping benefits from off-farm employment is timely for Chinese policy makers because both local and national policies accommodating the growth of markets for off-farm migrant labor have come under increasing pressure. As cities face growing problems of unemployed workers from state- owned enterprises, both local and national governments have taken measures to reduce competition for jobs between rural laborers and those urban residents left unemployed during the state-owned enterprises reform period. This paper suggests that rural resident would suffer from urban policies restricting the in-flow of migrants in two ways. Households sending temporary migrants to cities will suffer both a loss of income, and a loss of means of coping with risk. In fact, the analysis of this paper suggests that the welfare of Chinese farm households in rural areas can be further improved by eliminating the remaining institutional obstacles to expansion of migrant employment opportunities.

  12. The adoption of provider-based rural health clinics by rural hospitals: a study of market and institutional forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, S L

    1999-04-01

    To examine the response of rural hospitals to various market and organizational signals by determining the factors that influence whether or not they establish a provider-based rural health clinic (RHC) (a joint Medicare/Medicaid program). Several secondary sources for 1989-1995: the AHA Annual Survey, the PPS Minimum Data Set and a list of RHCs from HCFA, the Area Resource File, and professional associations. The analysis includes all general medical/surgical rural hospitals operating in the United States during the study period. A longitudinal design and pooled cross-sectional data were used, with the rural hospital as the unit of analysis. Key variables were examined as sets and include measures of competitive pressures (e.g., hospital market share), physician resources, nurse practitioner/physician assistant (NP/PA) practice regulation, hospital performance pressures (e.g., operating margin), innovativeness, and institutional pressure (i.e., the cumulative force of adoption). Adoption of provider-based RHCs by rural hospitals appears to be motivated less as an adaptive response to observable economic or internal organizational signals than as a reaction to bandwagon pressures. Rural hospitals with limited resources may resort to imitating others because of uncertainty or a limited ability to fully evaluate strategic activities. This can result in actions or behaviors that are not consistent with policy objectives and the perceived need for policy changes. Such activity in turn could have a negative effect on some providers and some rural residents.

  13. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  14. Why Seychelles Warblers fail to recolonize nearby islands : unwilling or unable to fly there?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Piersma, T; Kraaijeveld, K; Kraaijeveld-Smit, F; Richardson, DS; Richardson, David S.

    The Seychelles Warbler Acrocephalus sechellensis is a rare island endemic which, from 1920 to 1988, occurred only on Cousin Island (29 ha) in the Seychelles. Despite the saturated nature of this population and the possibility of obtaining higher reproductive success on new nearby islands,

  15. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA survey. II. Supernova environmental metallicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbany, L.; Stanishev, V.; Mourão, A. M.; Rodrigues, M.; Flores, H.; Walcher, C. J.; Sánchez, S. F.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Badenes, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Kehrig, C.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mollá, M.; Meidt, S.; Pérez, E.; van de Ven, G.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that can rule the progenitor's fate. We present the second study of nearby supernova (SN) host galaxies (0.005 ⊙) > 10 dex) by targeted searches. We neither found evidence that the metallicity at the SN

  16. XMM-Newton view of X-ray overdensities from nearby galaxy clusters : the environmental dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caglar,; T.; Hudaverdi,; M.,

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we studied ten nearby (z≤0.038) galaxy clusters to understand possible interactions between hot plasma and member galaxies. A multi-band source detection was applied to detect point-like structures within the intra-cluster medium. We examined spectral properties of a total of 391 X-ray

  17. UVES abundances of stars in nearby galaxies : How good are theoretical isochrones?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Piotto, G; Meylan, G; Djougovski, SG; Riello, M

    2003-01-01

    Here we report some results from an ESO-VLT programme to observe individual stars in nearby dwarf galaxies at high resolution with the UVES spectrograph (Tolstoy, Venn, Shetrone, Primas, Hill, Kaufer & Szeifert 2002, submitted to AJ). We mainly concentrate on illustrating the issues and

  18. Metasurface Cloak Performance Near-by Multiple Line Sources and PEC Cylindrical Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Yatman, William H.; Pehrson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The performance/robustness of metasurface cloaks to a complex field environment which may represent a realistic scenario of radiating sources is presently reported. Attention is devoted to the cloak operation near-by multiple line sources and multiple perfectly electrically conducting cylinders. ...

  19. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  20. Direct imaging of haloes and truncations in face-on nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, J. H.; Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Trujillo, I.; Fliri, J.; Cisternas, M.; Kelvin, L. S.; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.

    2016-01-01

    We use ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe 82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and co-added SDSS/Stripe 82 imaging allows us to probe down to 29-30 r'-mag/arcsec2 and thus reach into the very faint

  1. Electrification for “Under Grid” households in Rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sub-Saharan Africa, 600 million people live without electricity. Despite ambitions of governments and donors to invest in rural electrification, decisions about how to extend electricity access are being made in the absence of rigorous evidence. In this paper, we present high-resolution spatial data on electrification rates in rural Kenya in order to quantify and visualize energy poverty in a novel way. Using our dataset of 20,000 geo-tagged structures in Western Kenya, we provide descriptive evidence that electrification rates remain very low despite significant investments in nearby grid infrastructure. This pattern holds across time and for both poor and relatively well-off households and businesses. We argue that if governments wish to leverage existing infrastructure and economies of scale, subsidies and new approaches to financing connections are necessary.

  2. Hydrokinetic power for energy access in rural Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Veronica B.; Schaefer, Laura A. [Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ramde, Emmanuel W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Gradoville, Robert T. Jr. [Sustainability and Green Design, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Approximately half of Ghana's overall population has access to electricity and, of this, much of it is in urban areas. Often in regions where modern energy is not available, kerosene lamps, for example, are used for indoor lighting. This produces harmful emissions, leading to poor respiratory effects. Implementation of hydrokinetic power (HKP) within nearby streams can provide low impact, robust energy to rural communities. Such a system lends itself to a simple design with ease of maintenance, which can be used as a stand alone power system (SAPS). With Ghana's renewable energy policies coming to fruition, it is sought to establish the economic viability and sustainability of this technology. This paper discusses site selection and the HKP technology in rural areas of Ghana. (author)

  3. General surgery graduates may be ill prepared to enter rural or community surgical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Lawrence M; Vergis, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Rural/community surgery presents unique challenges to general surgeons. Not only are they required to perform "classic" general surgery procedures, but they are also often expected to be competent in other surgical disciplines. Final-year Canadian-trained residents in general surgery were asked to complete the survey. The survey explored chief residents' career plans for the following year and whether or not they would independently perform various procedures, some general surgical, and others now considered within the domain of the subspecialties. Sixty-four residents (71%) completed the survey. Twenty percent planned to undertake a rural surgical practice, 17% an urban community practice, and 55% had confirmed fellowships. Most residents (>90%) expressed comfort with basic general surgical procedures. However, residents were less comfortable with subspecialty procedures that are still performed by general surgeons in many rural practices. More than half of graduating general surgery residents are choosing subspecialty fellowship training over proceeding directly to practice. Those choosing a rural or community practice are likely to feel ill prepared to replace existing surgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternity Care Services Provided by Family Physicians in Rural Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A

    The purpose of this study was to describe how many rural family physicians (FPs) and other types of providers currently provide maternity care services, and the requirements to obtain privileges. Chief executive officers of rural hospitals were purposively sampled in 15 geographically diverse states with significant rural areas in 2013 to 2014. Questions were asked about the provision of maternity care services, the physicians who perform them, and qualifications required to obtain maternity care privileges. Analysis used descriptive statistics, with comparisons between the states, community rurality, and hospital size. The overall response rate was 51.2% (437/854). Among all identified hospitals, 44.9% provided maternity care services, which varied considerably by state (range, 17-83%; P maternity care, a mean of 271 babies were delivered per year, 27% by cesarean delivery. A mean of 7.0 FPs had privileges in these hospitals, of which 2.8 provided maternity care and 1.8 performed cesarean deliveries. The percentage of FPs who provide maternity care (mean, 48%; range, 10-69%; P maternity care who are FPs (mean, 63%; range, 10-88%; P maternity care services in US rural hospitals, including cesarean deliveries. Some family medicine residencies should continue to train their residents to provide these services to keep replenishing this valuable workforce. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. Exposure assessment of residents living near a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Horsak, Randy D.; Parker, Frank M. III; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of environmental sampling and modeling in a neighborhood adjacent to a wood processing plant. This plant used creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to treat wood for over 70 years. Between 1999 and 2001, environmental samples were obtained to quantify the level of environmental contamination from the wood processing plant. Blood from 10 residents was measured for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Soil sediment samples from drainage ditches and attic/dust samples from nearby residents' homes were tested for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The dioxin congeners analysis of the 10 residents revealed elevated valued for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin compatible with PCP as the source. The levels of carcinogenic PAHs were higher than background levels and were similar to soil contamination on wood preserving sites. Wipe sampling in the kitchens of 11 homes revealed that 20 of the 33 samples were positive for octachlorinated dioxins with a mean value of 10.27 ng/m 2 . The soil, ditch samples, and positive wipe samples from the homes indicate a possible ongoing route of exposure to the contaminants in the homes of these residents. Modeled air exposure estimated for the wood processing waste chemicals indicate some air exposure to combustion products. The estimated air levels for benzo(a)pyrene and tetrachlorodibenzodiozin in this neighborhood exceeded the recommended levels for these compounds in some states. The quantitative data presented suggest a significant contamination of a neighborhood by wood processing waste chemicals. These findings suggest the need for more stringent regulations on waste discharges from wood treatment plants

  6. Enhancing Care for Older People Living in Nursing Homes in Rural Australia Using Action Learning as a Catalyst for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Wendy; Meyer, Julienne; Cash, Penny; Clinnick, Lisa; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of action learning workshops in three nursing homes in rural Victoria, Australia has been critical in the re-visioning of how care can be enhanced for residents. The workshops were designed with the intent of improving quality of care for residents by providing health care staff with opportunities to learn together and effect…

  7. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tomashuk

    2017-12-01

    issue of transferring significant powers and resources to places is investigated; there must be an active position and mutual responsibility of local self-government, local business, and civil society for the development of their territory. The main problem is outlined that the financial situation of rural residents in terms of the unstable development of all spheres of the country’s economy is more complicated than that of the urban population. It is emphasized that the current state of social and economic infrastructure of rural areas confirms the existence of a deep crisis. Taking into account the condition and problems of rural development and modern European traditions in this area, it is proposed to finance the management of rural development using three sources – the state budget, local budget, and rural development funds. Potential sources of the formation of local budget funds, which will be directed to ensuring issues of management of rural development and rural development funds, are determined. Specific directions for the use of funds of each of the mentioned sources are proposed. It is determined that for Ukraine, it is important to study foreign skills of formation of sustainable development of rural areas, analyse their regularities and trends of development. It is proved that the experience of countries of the European Union in the context of European integration should become especially useful for the national economy. Practical implementation. The emphasis is made on the fact that state regulation is the main direction of ensuring sustainable development of the Ukrainian village and a means of ensuring the equilibrium of the Ukrainian economy. Originality. It is outlined that one of the directions of the rural development strategy may be to strengthen initiatives of local entrepreneurs, which will be assisted by local partnerships and the state. The urgent task of further scientific development of this problem is to study the influence of the basic

  8. Minimum Data Set Active Resident Information Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MDS Active Resident Report summarizes information for residents currently in nursing homes. The source of these counts is the residents MDS assessment record....

  9. Selection criteria of residents for residency programs in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Yousef; Ayed, Adel

    2013-01-19

    In Kuwait, 21 residency training programs were offered in the year 2011; however, no data is available regarding the criteria of selecting residents for these programs. This study aims to provide information about the importance of these criteria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from members (e.g. chairmen, directors, assistants …etc.) of residency programs in Kuwait. A total of 108 members were invited to participate. They were asked to rate the importance level (scale from 1 to 5) of criteria that may affect the acceptance of an applicant to their residency programs. Average scores were calculated for each criterion. Of the 108 members invited to participate, only 12 (11.1%) declined to participate. Interview performance was ranked as the most important criteria for selecting residents (average score: 4.63/5.00), followed by grade point average (average score: 3.78/5.00) and honors during medical school (average score: 3.67/5.00). On the other hand, receiving disciplinary action during medical school and failure in a required clerkship were considered as the most concerning among other criteria used to reject applicants (average scores: 3.83/5.00 and 3.54/5.00 respectively). Minor differences regarding the importance level of each criterion were noted across different programs. This study provided general information about the criteria that are used to accept/reject applicants to residency programs in Kuwait. Future studies should be conducted to investigate each criterion individually, and to assess if these criteria are related to residents' success during their training.

  10. Urbanizing rural waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, Lena; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    This article studies how urbanization processes and associated rural-urban water transfers in the Lima region (Peru) create water control hierarchies that align the municipal drinking water company, hydropower plants and rural communities on unequal positions. By scrutinizing the history of water

  11. Tourism in rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Church-Chmielowski

    2007-01-01

    Tourism in rural Alaska is an education curriculum with worldwide relevance. Students have started small businesses, obtained employment in the tourism industry and gotten in touch with their people. The Developing Alaska Rural Tourism collaborative project has resulted in student scholarships, workshops on website development, marketing, small...

  12. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  13. Rural tourism development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BarneyM

    Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation ..... intellectual springboard for development of goods and services, crafts, local foods, music, dance, ..... established tourism market as well as the positive attitude of the respondents ... improve the congruence between the rural destination image and the visitor.

  14. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  15. A strategic approach to quality improvement and patient safety education and resident integration in a general surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Heron, Colette T; Jarman, Benjamin T

    2014-01-01

    To outline a structured approach for general surgery resident integration into institutional quality improvement and patient safety education and development. A strategic plan to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review assessments for resident integration into Quality Improvement and Patient Safety initiatives is described. Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation is an independent academic medical center graduating three categorical residents per year within an integrated multi-specialty health system serving 19 counties over 3 states. The quality improvement and patient safety education program includes a formal lecture series, online didactic sessions, mandatory quality improvement or patient safety projects, institutional committee membership, an opportunity to serve as a designated American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and Quality in Training representative, mandatory morbidity and mortality conference attendance and clinical electives in rural surgery and international settings. Structured education regarding and participation in quality improvement and patient safety programs are able to be accomplished during general surgery residency. The long-term outcomes and benefits of these strategies are unknown at this time and will be difficult to measure with objective data. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  16. Age-period-cohort analysis of infectious disease mortality in urban-rural China, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Peigang; Gao, Ge; Xu, Chunling; Chen, Xinguang

    2016-03-31

    Although a number of studies on infectious disease trends in China exist, these studies have not distinguished the age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously. Here, we analyze infectious disease mortality trends among urban and rural residents in China and distinguish the age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously. Infectious disease mortality rates (1990-2010) of urban and rural residents (5-84 years old) were obtained from the China Health Statistical Yearbook and analyzed with an age-period-cohort (APC) model based on Intrinsic Estimator (IE). Infectious disease mortality is relatively high at age group 5-9, reaches a minimum in adolescence (age group 10-19), then rises with age, with the growth rate gradually slowing down from approximately age 75. From 1990 to 2010, except for a slight rise among urban residents from 2000 to 2005, the mortality of Chinese residents experienced a substantial decline, though at a slower pace from 2005 to 2010. In contrast to the urban residents, rural residents experienced a rapid decline in mortality during 2000 to 2005. The mortality gap between urban and rural residents substantially narrowed during this period. Overall, later birth cohorts experienced lower infectious disease mortality risk. From the 1906-1910 to the 1941-1945 birth cohorts, the decrease of mortality among urban residents was significantly faster than that of subsequent birth cohorts and rural counterparts. With the rapid aging of the Chinese population, the prevention and control of infectious disease in elderly people will present greater challenges. From 1990 to 2010, the infectious disease mortality of Chinese residents and the urban-rural disparity have experienced substantial declines. However, the re-emergence of previously prevalent diseases and the emergence of new infectious diseases created new challenges. It is necessary to further strengthen screening, immunization, and treatment for the elderly and for older cohorts at high risk.

  17. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  18. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  19. Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; McEntee, Alice

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime and recent methamphetamine use (including crystal methamphetamine) differed among city, regional and rural residents and whether particular subpopulations were more at-risk. Secondary analyses of the last three National Drug Strategy Household Surveys and corresponding Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Sets (AODTS NMDS). Australian general population. Australians who completed the 2007 (n = 22 519), 2010 (n = 25 786) and 2013 (n = 23 512) NDSHS (aged 14 + ); and treatment episodes where the principal drug of concern was recorded in the 2006/2007 (n = 139 808), 2009/2010 (n = 139 608) and 2012/2013 (n = 154 489) AODTS NMDS. To determine whether rural Australians were more likely to use methamphetamine than non-rural counterparts. Lifetime and recent methamphetamine and recent crystal methamphetamine use were significantly higher among rural than other Australians. Significantly more rural men and employed rural Australians used methamphetamine than their city, regional or Australian counterparts. Rural Australians aged 18-24 and 25-29 years were significantly more likely to have used methamphetamine in their lifetime than city or Australian residents. Rural Australians aged 18-24 years were significantly more likely to have recently used crystal methamphetamine. Interventions tailored to address the specific and unique circumstances of rural settings are required to reduce and prevent methamphetamine use, particularly crystal methamphetamine. Scope exists to focus prevention efforts on rural workplaces and primary care settings. Greater understanding of the higher prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural areas is required, plus implementation of comprehensive strategies and optimised treatment utilisation. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. CONSTRAINING THE SPIN-DOWN OF THE NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STAR RX J0806.4-4123, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE POPULATION OF NEARBY NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    The nearby isolated neutron stars (INSs) are a group of seven relatively slowly rotating neutron stars that show thermal X-ray spectra, most with broad absorption features. They are interesting both because they may allow one to determine fundamental neutron-star properties by modeling their spectra, and because they appear to be a large fraction of the overall neutron-star population. Here, we describe a series of XMM -Newton observations of the nearby INS RX J0806.4-4123, taken as part of larger program of timing studies. From these, we limit the spin-down rate to ν-dot=(-4.3±2.3)x10 -16 Hz s -1 . This constrains the dipole magnetic field to be 13 G at 2σ, significantly less than the field of ∼10 14 G implied by simple models for the X-ray absorption found at 0.45 keV. We confirm that the spectrum is thermal and stable (to within a few percent), but find that the 0.45 keV absorption feature is broader and more complex than previously thought. Considering the population of INSs, we find that magnetic field decay from an initial field of ∼ 14 G accounts most naturally for their timing and spectral properties, both qualitatively and in the context of the models for field decay of Pons and collaborators.

  1. Applying Expectancy Theory to residency training: proposing opportunities to understand resident motivation and enhance residency training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweiki E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ehyal Shweiki,1 Niels D Martin,2 Alec C Beekley,1 Jay S Jenoff,1 George J Koenig,1 Kris R Kaulback,1 Gary A Lindenbaum,1 Pankaj H Patel,1 Matthew M Rosen,1 Michael S Weinstein,1 Muhammad H Zubair,2 Murray J Cohen1 1Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Medical resident education in the United States has been a matter of national priority for decades, exemplified initially through the Liaison Committee for Graduate Medical Education and then superseded by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. A recent Special Report in the New England Journal of Medicine, however, has described resident educational programs to date as prescriptive, noting an absence of innovation in education. Current aims of contemporary medical resident education are thus being directed at ensuring quality in learning as well as in patient care. Achievement and work-motivation theories attempt to explain people's choice, performance, and persistence in tasks. Expectancy Theory as one such theory was reviewed in detail, appearing particularly applicable to surgical residency training. Correlations between Expectancy Theory as a work-motivation theory and residency education were explored. Understanding achievement and work-motivation theories affords an opportunity to gain insight into resident motivation in training. The application of Expectancy Theory in particular provides an innovative perspective into residency education. Afforded are opportunities to promote the development of programmatic methods facilitating surgical resident motivation in education. Keywords: learning, education, achievement

  2. The Impact of Emotional Solidarity on Residents' Attitude and Tourism Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hasani

    Full Text Available In many countries, especially one such as Malaysia, tourism has become a key factor in economic development, and the industry heavily relies on feedback from local residents. It is essential to observe and examine the perceptions of residents towards tourists and tourism development for better planning in realizing successful and sustainable tourism development. Therefore, this research measured the relationship between residents' welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding (emotional solidarity towards tourists and their respective attitudes towards supporting tourism development. To test the proposed research model, we collected data using a questionnaire survey from 333 residents in rural areas in Malaysia. We used the structural equation modelling technique (Amos to evaluate the research model, and the results revealed that the residents' willingness (welcoming nature to accept tourists is the strongest factor that effects the residents' attitudes towards supporting tourism development. However, there was no significant relationship between residents' emotional closeness and their sympathetic understanding towards tourists with their attitude and support towards tourism development. Welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding are able to predict 48% of residents' attitudes towards tourism development and 62% of their support towards tourism development.

  3. Balancing the Roles of a Family Medicine Residency Faculty: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Randall; Sudano, Laura; Siler, Anne; Trimble, Kristopher

    2016-05-01

    Great variety exists in the roles that family medicine residency faculty fill in the lives of their residents. A family medicine-specific model has never been created to describe and promote effective training relationships. This research aims to create a consensus model for faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation. Using a modified grounded theory methods, researchers conducted phone interviews with 22 key informants from US family medicine residencies. Data were analyzed to delineate faculty roles, common role conflicts, and ethical principles for avoiding and managing role conflicts. Key informants were asked to apply their experience and preferences to adapt an existing model to fit with family medicine residency settings. The primary result of this research is the creation of a family medicine-specific model that describes faculty roles and provides insight into how to manage role conflicts with residents. Primary faculty roles include Role Model, Advisor, Teacher, Supervisor, and Evaluator. Secondary faculty roles include Friendly Colleague, Wellness Supporter, and Helping Hand. The secondary roles exist on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshed. When not balanced, the secondary roles can detract from the primary roles. Differences were found between role expectations of physician versus behavioral science faculty and larger/university/urban residencies versus smaller/community/rural residencies. Diversity of opinion exists related to the types of roles that are appropriate for family medicine faculty to maintain with residents. This new model is a first attempt to build consensus in the field and has application to faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation.

  4. The Impact of Emotional Solidarity on Residents' Attitude and Tourism Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Ali; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Hamzah, Amran

    2016-01-01

    In many countries, especially one such as Malaysia, tourism has become a key factor in economic development, and the industry heavily relies on feedback from local residents. It is essential to observe and examine the perceptions of residents towards tourists and tourism development for better planning in realizing successful and sustainable tourism development. Therefore, this research measured the relationship between residents' welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding (emotional solidarity) towards tourists and their respective attitudes towards supporting tourism development. To test the proposed research model, we collected data using a questionnaire survey from 333 residents in rural areas in Malaysia. We used the structural equation modelling technique (Amos) to evaluate the research model, and the results revealed that the residents' willingness (welcoming nature) to accept tourists is the strongest factor that effects the residents' attitudes towards supporting tourism development. However, there was no significant relationship between residents' emotional closeness and their sympathetic understanding towards tourists with their attitude and support towards tourism development. Welcoming nature, emotional closeness, and sympathetic understanding are able to predict 48% of residents' attitudes towards tourism development and 62% of their support towards tourism development.

  5. How Can a Computer be Useful to You? A Feasibility Study to Elicit Perceptions of Computers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Chavan, Apala L.; Jain, Isha; Maroo, Sudhanshoo

    2011-01-01

    The growing influx of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into rural India provides new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diseases across millions of residents. However, little is known about how rural Indians with little or no exposure to computers perceive computers and their uses, and how best to elicit those perceptions. Such perceptions could lead to new insights for using ICTs to affect health behavior change in developing countries. We therefore developed a semi-structured interview approach to probe how residents of a north Indian village perceived computers and their uses. The results suggest that besides helping to overturn several assumptions of the researchers through unexpected insights, the approach could be easily implemented in rural settings, which could lead to deeper insights for developing future culturally and medically-relevant ICTs for rural residents. PMID:22195062

  6. Evaluating Dermatology Residency Program Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashack, Kurt A; Burton, Kyle A; Soh, Jonathan M; Lanoue, Julien; Boyd, Anne H; Milford, Emily E; Dunnick, Cory; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2016-03-16

    Internet resources play an important role in how medical students access information related to residency programs.Evaluating program websites is necessary in order to provide accurate information for applicants and provide information regarding areas of website improvement for programs. To date, dermatology residency websites (D  WS) have not been evaluated.This paper evaluates dermatology residency websites based on availability of predefined measures. Using the FREIDA (Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database) Online database, authors searched forall accredited dermatology program websites. Eligible programs were identified through the FREIDA Online database and had a functioning website. Two authors independently extracted data with consensus or third researcher resolution of differences. This data was accessed and archived from July 15th to July 17th, 2015.Primary outcomes measured were presence of content on education, resident and faculty information, program environment, applicant recruitment, schedule, salary, and website quality evaluated using an online tool (WooRank.com). Out of 117 accredited dermatology residencies, 115 had functioning webpages. Of these, 76.5% (75) had direct links found on the FRIEDA Online database. Most programs contained information on education, faculty, program environment, and applicant recruitment. However, website quality and marketing effectiveness were highly variable; most programs were deemed to need improvements in the functioning of their webpages. Also, additional information on current residents and about potential away rotations were lacking from most websites with only 52.2% (60) and 41.7% (48) of programs providing this content, respectively. A majority of dermatology residency websites contained adequate information on many of the factors we evaluated. However, many were lacking in areas that matter to applicants. We hope this report will encourage dermatology residencyprograms

  7. Impact of Granite Quarrying on the Health of Workers and Nearby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    assessed the residents' awareness of the negative implications of living in close ... residents of neighbouring communities are aware of risks associated with living near quarry ... plants, cement, refineries, petrol-chemicals and .... controlling indoor and outdoor air pollution, ... Plc, Associated Granite Industries, Fijabi Adebo.

  8. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  9. Performing rurality. But who?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymitrow Mirek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflective inquiries to better understand ‘the rural’ have tried to embed rural research within the notion of performativity. Performativity assumes that the capacity of language is not simply to communicate but also to consummate action, whereupon citational uses of concepts produce a series of material effects. Of late, this philosophical shift has also implicated geographers as active agents in producing, reproducing and performing rurality. This paper provides a critical evaluation of what this new insistence really means for the production of geographical knowledge. Using framework analysis as a method, the paper scrutinizes several reportedly influential papers on the topic of rural performativity. Our findings reveal that, while indeed reflexive on issues of academic integrity, methodology and ethics, performances of rurality are continuedly placed ‘out there’ amongst ‘rural people’, i.e. in a priori defined and often stereotypically understood contexts, either by way of ‘spatial delimitation’ or ‘activity delimitation’. Effectively, such testimonies provide a truncated state of fidelity, where performance- oriented reflexivity is seconded by contradictory empirics of uneven value and with few commonalities. We conclude that by turning towards performativity as an allegedly more helpful way of obtaining rural coherence, we at the same time overlook our own role in keeping ‘rural theory’ alive.

  10. Culture and rural health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Marley, Julia V; Reid, John; Bracksley, Stacey; Johnson, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    This paper considers the role of culture in rural health, suggesting that the concept and its impacts are insufficiently understood and studied. It reviews some of the ways that culture has been considered in (rural) health, and states that culture is either used ambiguously and broadly - for example, suggesting that there is a rural culture, or narrowly - indeed perhaps interchangeably with ethnicity, for example Aboriginal culture as a unity. The paper notes that, although culture is a dynamic social concept, it has been adopted into a biomedical research paradigm as though it is fixed. Culture is often treated as though it is something that can be addressed simplistically, for example, through cultural sensitivity education. Authors suggest that culture is an unaddressed 'elephant in the room' in rural health, and that exploring cultural differences and beliefs and facing up to cultural differences are vital in understanding and addressing rural health and health system challenges. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  11. Urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Chaojie; Ren, Xiaohui; Liu, Danping; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2016-09-01

    Preventive care service is considered pivotal on the background of demographic ageing and a rise in chronic diseases in China. The disparity in utilization of preventive care services between urban and rural in China is a serious issue. In this paper, we explored factors associated with urban-rural disparity in utilization of preventive care services in China, and determined how much of the urban-rural disparity was attributable to each determinant of utilization in preventive care services. Using representative sample data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011 (N = 12,976), the present study performed multilevel logistic model to examine the factors that affected utilization of preventive care services in last 4 weeks. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was applied to divide the utilization of preventive care disparity between urban and rural residents into a part that can be explained by differences in observed covariates and unobserved part. The percentage of rural residents utilizing preventive care service in last 4 weeks was lower than that of urban residents (5.1% vs 9.3%). Female, the aged, residents with higher education level and household income, residents reporting self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks and physician-diagnosed chronic disease had higher likelihood of utilizing preventive care services. Household income was the most important factor accounting for 26.6% of urban-rural disparities in utilization of preventive care services, followed by education (21.5%), self-perceived illness in last 4 weeks (7.8%), hypertension (4.4%), diabetes (3.3%), other chronic diseases (0.8%), and health insurance (-1.0%). Efforts to reduce financial barriers for low-income individuals who cannot afford preventive services, increasing awareness of the importance of obtaining preventive health services and providing more preventive health services covered by health insurance, may help to reduce the gap of preventive care services utilization between

  12. The Rural School Leadership Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Jeanne L.; Theobald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The idea that rural schools and communities, indeed, even rural people, are somehow substandard or second-class has deep historical roots. The goal of this essay is to reveal that history so as to render stereotypical conceptions all things rural less powerful and more easily dismissed by rural school professionals. Consequently the focus is on…

  13. Evaluating Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trial Decision Aid for Rural Cancer Patients: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Swati; George, Nerissa; Monti, Denise; Robinson, Kathy; Politi, Mary C

    2018-06-03

    Rural-residing cancer patients often do not participate in clinical trials. Many patients misunderstand cancer clinical trials and their rights as participant. The purpose of this study is to modify a previously developed cancer clinical trials decision aid (DA), incorporating the unique needs of rural populations, and test its impact on knowledge and decision outcomes. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I recruited 15 rural-residing cancer survivors in a qualitative usability study. Participants navigated the original DA and provided feedback regarding usability and implementation in rural settings. Phase II recruited 31 newly diagnosed rural-residing cancer patients. Patients completed a survey before and after using the revised DA, R-CHOICES. Primary outcomes included decisional conflict, decision self-efficacy, knowledge, communication self-efficacy, and attitudes towards and willingness to consider joining a trial. In phase I, the DA was viewed positively by rural-residing cancer survivors. Participants provided important feedback about factors rural-residing patients consider when thinking about trial participation. In phase II, after using R-CHOICES, participants had higher certainty about their choice (mean post-test = 3.10 vs. pre-test = 2.67; P = 0.025) and higher trial knowledge (mean percentage correct at post-test = 73.58 vs. pre-test = 57.77; P decision self-efficacy, communication self-efficacy, and attitudes towards or willingness to join trials. The R-CHOICES improved rural-residing patients' knowledge of cancer clinical trials and reduced conflict about making a trial decision. More research is needed on ways to further support decisions about trial participation among this population.

  14. Finding the Perfect Match: Factors That Influence Family Medicine Residency Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine M; Ryan, Elizabeth R; Gatta, John L; Anderson, Lauren; Clements, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    Residency program selection is a significant experience for emerging physicians, yet there is limited information about how applicants narrow their list of potential programs. This study examines factors that influence residency program selection among medical students interested in family medicine at the time of application. Medical students with an expressed interest in family medicine were invited to participate in a 37-item, online survey. Students were asked to rate factors that may impact residency selection on a 6-point Likert scale in addition to three open-ended qualitative questions. Mean values were calculated for each survey item and were used to determine a rank order for selection criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that predict a strong interest in urban, suburban, and rural residency programs. Logistic regression was also used to identify factors that predict a strong interest in academic health center-based residencies, community-based residencies, and community-based residencies with an academic affiliation. A total of 705 medical students from 32 states across the country completed the survey. Location, work/life balance, and program structure (curriculum, schedule) were rated the most important factors for residency selection. Logistic regression analysis was used to refine our understanding of how each factor relates to specific types of residencies. These findings have implications for how to best advise students in selecting a residency, as well as marketing residencies to the right candidates. Refining the recruitment process will ensure a better fit between applicants and potential programs. Limited recruitment resources may be better utilized by focusing on targeted dissemination strategies.

  15. Urban-Rural Differences in Level of Various Forms of Trust in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Dusek, Tamas; Palmai, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the association between urban/rural residence and various forms of trust in Hungary, including control variables such as age, gender, income, marriage, qualification into the analysis. Trust is a basic dimension of human capital and a very often used concept in everyday situations too. Trust research became increasingly popular in recent years. However, urban-rural and spatial differences of specific forms of trust remains a rarely investigated question. Trust can be measu...

  16. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  17. Obesity awareness among elders living in rural area: a household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maycon Sousa Pegorari; Alisson Fernandes Bolina; Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2017-01-01

    The acceptance of the disease is essential to health self-care, elder’s awareness regarding obesity is suggested to influence their search for health services, and consequently, in obesity’s treatment. This study aimed to verify obesity awareness of elders living in rural areas and associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with 562 individuals, who were older than 60 years and were rural residents from a Brazil southeast city. The identi...

  18. Correlates of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Risa; Wilunda, Calistus; Magutah, Karani; Mwaura-Tenambergen, Wanja; Wilunda, Boniface; Perngparn, Usaneya

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies on alcohol consumption in rural areas in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of alcohol consumption in rural western Kenya. The study was conducted as a preliminary stage of a community-based intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol consumption. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 478 participants aged 18?65?years residing in Ikolomani Sub-county, Kakamega County was conducted in April 2015. Data were collected using ...

  19. Effects of the crisis in the resin sector on the demography of rural municipalities in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Perez, S.; Garcia Robredo, F.; Ayuga Tellez, E.; Fullana Belda, C.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this work is to test the positive effect of a substantially developed resin sector on rural demographic evolution. This work shows how in the period between 1970 and 2010 the demographic decline in the interior regions of Spain was more pronounced in areas characterized by the importance of resin-producing forest stands compared to other nearby rural municipalities where this natural resource is not present. Area of study: The study area consists of a set of rural municipalities in Central Spain, both resin and non-resin producing, in the provinces of Segovia, Avila, Valladolid, Burgos, Soria, Cuenca and Guadalajara. Material and methods: The relationship between resin production and population in resin and non-resin producing municipalities was modeled by means of linear regression analysis. Main results: Generally speaking, between 1950 and 1970 the production of resin halted demographic decline in the regions where this activity was substantially developed. However, when the resin sector entered into crisis in the 1970s, and the economic repercussions of this activity gradually ceased to be felt, the demographic decline in the regions which had been involved in resin production was much more acute than in other non-resin-producing rural areas. Research highlights: This work shows the relationship between resin extraction activity and population evolution in rural municipalities. Sustainable resin exploitation can contribute to the maintenance and development of rural communities, and should be used as a tool for generating employment in rural areas. (Author) 37 refs.

  20. CNA Training Requirements and Resident Care Outcomes in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy B; Yang, Bo Kyum; Han, Kihye

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationship between certified nursing assistant (CNA) training requirements and resident outcomes in U.S. nursing homes (NHs). The number and type of training hours vary by state since many U.S. states have chosen to require additional hours over the federal minimums, presumably to keep pace with the increasing complexity of care. Yet little is known about the impact of the type and amount of training CNAs are required to have on resident outcomes. Compiled data on 2010 state regulatory requirements for CNA training (clinical, total initial training, in-service, ratio of clinical to didactic hours) were linked to 2010 resident outcomes data from 15,508 NHs. Outcomes included the following NH Compare Quality Indicators (QIs) (Minimum Data Set 3.0): pain, antipsychotic use, falls with injury, depression, weight loss and pressure ulcers. Facility-level QIs were regressed on training indicators using generalized linear models with the Huber-White correction, to account for clustering of NHs within states. Models were stratified by facility size and adjusted for case-mix, ownership status, percentage of Medicaid-certified beds and urban-rural status. A higher ratio of clinical to didactic hours was related to better resident outcomes. NHs in states requiring clinical training hours above federal minimums (i.e., >16hr) had significantly lower odds of adverse outcomes, particularly pain falls with injury, and depression. Total and in-service training hours also were related to outcomes. Additional training providing clinical experiences may aid in identifying residents at risk. This study provides empirical evidence supporting the importance of increased requirements for CNA training to improve quality of care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.