WorldWideScience

Sample records for near-zero energy houses

  1. Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) Design Optimization to Improve Life Cycle Cost Performance Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Y.; Berawi, M. A.; Koesalamwardi, A. B.; Supriadi, L. S. R.

    2018-03-01

    Near Zero Energy House (NZEH) is a housing building that provides energy efficiency by using renewable energy technologies and passive house design. Currently, the costs for NZEH are quite expensive due to the high costs of the equipment and materials for solar panel, insulation, fenestration and other renewable energy technology. Therefore, a study to obtain the optimum design of a NZEH is necessary. The aim of the optimum design is achieving an economical life cycle cost performance of the NZEH. One of the optimization methods that could be utilized is Genetic Algorithm. It provides the method to obtain the optimum design based on the combinations of NZEH variable designs. This paper discusses the study to identify the optimum design of a NZEH that provides an optimum life cycle cost performance using Genetic Algorithm. In this study, an experiment through extensive design simulations of a one-level house model was conducted. As a result, the study provide the optimum design from combinations of NZEH variable designs, which are building orientation, window to wall ratio, and glazing types that would maximize the energy generated by photovoltaic panel. Hence, the design would support an optimum life cycle cost performance of the house.

  2. Demonstration Platform for near-zero energy buildings - small houses; Demonstrationsplattform foer naeranollenergibyggnader - smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Svein; Fahlen, Per; Axell, Monica; Kovacs, Peter; Ylmen, Peter; Staahl, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of the Swedish Energy Agency, SP has investigated and recommended how one could form a platform for demonstration of single family houses as nearly zero energy houses. SP suggests that TMF, the national trade and employers' association of the wood processing and furniture industry in Sweden, should administrate this platform. The reason being that members of TMF produce almost 80% of all single family houses in Sweden. TMF also has the capacity to launch a demonstration platform in a reasonable short time. SP has also compiled a set on technical criteria regarding properties related to energy use that should be met by demonstration projects within the platform. One presumption has been that a house that meets the criteria in the south of Sweden also should meet the criteria in the north of Sweden. The reason being to promote an industrialized and cost effective building process. Another ambition has been not to disfavor smaller single family houses. The main criteria are on very energy efficient building envelopes and very efficient building services systems. The criteria are therefore more detailed than the current Swedish building regulations

  3. Demonstration projects of nearly zero-energy housing renovation as a vehicle to market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groote, M.; Mlecnik, E.; Kondratenko, I.; Hilderson, W.; Cré, J.; Verbeke, S.; Van Holm, M.; Vandevelde, B.

    2013-01-01

    The EU ‘Energy Performance of Buildings Directive’ (2010/31/EU) requires Member States to ensure that all new buildings which are constructed by 2021 are nearly zero-energy buildings. This requirement takes effect in 2019 for public buildings. Actions and measures must be taken to increase the

  4. The cost efficiency of improved roof windows in two well-lit nearly zero-energy houses in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Roof windows are efficient and flexible daylight sources that are essential in certain types of houses if theyare to achieve sufficient daylighting throughout. Previous studies have indicated that, for such buildingsto meet nearly zero-energy targets in an easy and robust way without compromising.......The aim of this study was to quantify the scope for investing in improved roof window solutions inbuildings insulated to consume nearly zero-energy. Based on two single-family houses in Copenhagenwith typical roof windows and adequate daylighting, the study identified the prices at which various typesof...... roof window improvements would have to be made available to achieve the same cost efficiency asimproved insulation. If the improvements can be made available for less than these prices, the installationof improved roof windows would make it cheaper to construct well-lit and comfortable nearly zero...

  5. Roadmap for improving roof and façade windows in nearly zero-energy houses in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    comfort in nearly zero-energy houses located in the European cities Rome and Copenhagen. The aim was to identify options that can support the easy and robust design of future homes with typical use of roof and façade windows. Hourly daylight levels were calculated in DAYSIM, while space heating demand...

  6. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  7. How user practice and habits impact the energy consumption in nearly zero energy youth housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Brunsgaard, Camilla

    for this is that occupants’ behaviour and lifestyle strongly influence the final energy consumption. This paper presents a preliminary study of a larger research project that studies the relation between energy use and user practice and habits as well as the users’ expectations to and experiences of living in a newly built...... nearly zero-energy youth housing complex in Denmark. The objective of this study is to examine to what extend user practice and habits influence the energy consumption and on that basis to identify representative user characteristics within this specific user group. Methodologically this is done through...... to the inhabitants’ use of their apartment....

  8. How user practice and habits impact the energy need in nearly zero energy youth housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    for this is that occupants’ behaviour and lifestyle strongly influence the final energy consumption. This paper presents a preliminary study of a larger research project that studies the relation between energy use and user practice and habits as well as the users’ expectations to and experiences of living in a newly built...... nearly zero-energy youth housing complex in Denmark. The objective of this study is to examine to what extend user practice and habits influence the energy consumption and on that basis to identify representative user characteristics within this specific user group. Methodologically this is done through...... to the inhabitants’ use of their apartment....

  9. Pengolahan Siklus Energi: Near Zero-Net Energy Apartment

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Edelyn Elpetina; Ardianta, Defry Agatha

    2016-01-01

    Fenomena krisis energi merupakan suatu hal yang tak terhidarkan dewasa ini yang dikarenakan penggunaan dan pengolahan energi yang kurang efektif. Perlu adanya penanganan dan Perubahan yang dilakukan terhadap pengkonsumsian energi yaitu dengan cara membenahi dan menciptakan sebuah sistem siklus energi baru yang lebih efektif yang memberi keuntungan bagi manusa maupun alam. Respon arsitektur yang menjawab fenomena tersebut ialah bangunan yang menerapkan near zero-net energy. Dengan menggunakan ...

  10. Beyond nearly zero-energy buildings: Experimental investigation of the thermal indoor environment and energy performance of a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    A detached, one-story, single-family house in Denmark was operated with different heating and cooling strategies for 1 year. The strategies compared during the heating season were floor heating without ventilation, floor heating supplemented by warm air heating (ventilation system), and floor...... heating with heat recovery from exhaust air. During the cooling season, the house was cooled by floor cooling and was ventilated mechanically. Air and globe (operative, when applicable) temperatures at different heights at a central location were recorded. The thermal indoor environment, local thermal...... discomfort and overheating were evaluated based on EN 15251 (2007), EN ISO 7730 (2005), and DS 469 (2013), respectively. Energy performance was evaluated based on the energy production and HVAC system energy use. The thermal indoor environment during the heating season was satisfactory...

  11. Technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    or maximum harmonized requirements as well as details of energy performance calculation framework, it will be up to the Member States to define what these for them exactly constitute. In the definition local conditions are to be obviously taken into account, but the uniform methodology can be used in all...... Member States. The directive defines nearly zero energy building as a building that has a very high energy performance and requires the calculation of primary energy indicator. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy building is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m² a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle...

  12. Near zero energy homes – What do users think?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Stephen; Whaley, David; Davidson, Kathryn; Saman, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    With policy directions firmly moving towards net zero energy homes, what do we know about the perceptions and experiences of households who already live in homes at or near that standard? The research sets out to determine whether householders believe these buildings are thermally comfortable, and if they feel confident operating the smart technologies that help achieve the net zero energy outcome? Combining interviews from 25 households and monitored energy data from over 50 near zero energy homes, this paper examines the validity of this policy goal from the building user perspective. The evidence shows households attain high levels of thermal comfort, enjoy lower energy bills, and believe their behaviour has been influenced by the building and its energy systems. Yet many remain concerned that the building industry is unable to produce homes that maintain thermal comfort in all spaces and all seasons. The residents have also identified significant issues in the reliability and usability of the energy technologies. Whilst the policy appears valid from the end-user perspective, the case study highlights the substantial task ahead for policy makers to establish suitable commissioning and compliance processes, and develop effective energy rating tools on the path to zero energy homes. - Highlights: • The policy concept of zero energy homes is examined from the user perspective. • Evidence is collected from a near net zero energy housing estate. • Results show that the homes are highly comfortable and valued by households. • Seasonal differences in the delivery of thermal comfort are found. • Significant design problems and technology reliability issues are identified

  13. Technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    This REHVA Task Force proposes a technical definition for nearly zero energy buildings required in the implementation of the Energy performance of buildings directive recast. Energy calculation framework and system boundaries associated with the definition are provided to specify which energy flows...... or maximum harmonized requirements as well as details of energy performance calculation framework, it will be up to the Member States to define what these for them exactly constitute. In the definition local conditions are to be obviously taken into account, but the uniform methodology can be used in all...... sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Based on the directive’s definition, nearly zero energy building is technically defined through the net zero energy building, which is a building using 0 kWh/(m² a) primary energy. Following the cost-optimality principle...

  14. Creating paradigms for nearly zero energy hotels in South Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Tsoutsos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings recast, hotels and other buildings of a certain size, frequently visited by the public, should set an example in environmental and energy performance. Moreover, being energy intensive buildings, they are at high priority for becoming nearly Zero Energy Buildings. Even though they represent a specific category, along with restaurants, till today there is a lack of credible data for this type of buildings, especially taking into account the wide range of different typologies (coastal, mountain, urban, rural or business, resort, spa/wellness, bed & breakfast. This paper presents the results of the actual energy performance of six south European countries (Greece, Croatia, France, Romania, Italy and Spain plus one north (Sweden for comparison, analyzed in the framework of the nearly Zero Energy Hotels (neZEH project. The project focused on providing technical assistance to existing pilot hotels for refurbishing into nearly Zero Energy Buildings, demonstrating the sustainability of investments towards zero energy and undertaking training and capacity building activities at regional, national and European level. The results showed that the primary energy use for the hosting functions across all sixteen pilot hotels can decrease dramatically—from an average of 277 kWh/m2/y to an average of 102 kWh/m2/y; an average reduction of 63%. At the same time, Renewable Energy Sources share for the hosting functions can be increased from an average of 18% to an average of 46%. The analysis also showed that hotel non-hosting functions, i.e., other facilities that require special indoor environmental conditions, such as spa, kitchen etc. are more critical than the hosting functions; their primary energy use can decrease from an average of 727 kWh/m2/y to an average of 374 kWh/m2/y.

  15. Photon energy conversion by near-zero permittivity nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting S.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Campione, Salvatore

    2017-12-19

    Efficient harmonic light generation can be achieved with ultrathin films by coupling an incident pump wave to an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode of the thin film. As an example, efficient third harmonic generation from an indium tin oxide nanofilm (.lamda./42 thick) on a glass substrate for a pump wavelength of 1.4 .mu.m was demonstrated. A conversion efficiency of 3.3.times.10.sup.-6 was achieved by exploiting the field enhancement properties of the ENZ mode with an enhancement factor of 200. This nanoscale frequency conversion method is applicable to other plasmonic materials and reststrahlen materials in proximity of the longitudinal optical phonon frequencies.

  16. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings. Definition of common principles under the EPBD. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Boermans, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pagliano, L.; Zangheri, P.; Armani, R. [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Voss, K.; Musall, E. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Europe aims at bringing about drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and service sectors of about 90% compared to 1990 by 2050. Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings are a major element of European climate policy. Already by 2021, every new building in Europe has to meet this standard. During 2012, a consortium led by Ecofys undertook a study for the European Commission to provide more guidance to Member States and the Commission with regards to the implementation of the requirements for nearly zero-energy buildings under the EPBD. The study features benchmarks for nearly zero-energy buildings for different European climates, an analytical framework for evaluating Member States national plans for increasing the number of nearly zero energy buildings, a reporting template for these plans and an analysis of the convergence between cost optimal levels and nearly zero-energy buildings.

  17. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Callaway, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Colon, Carlos [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2009-02-20

    This case study reports on a near zero energy home in Callaway, FL. This paper briefly reviews the design and then focuses on the first four months of energy performance during the second half of 2008.

  18. Field Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-08-01

    The authors evaluated a zero energy home built by Ideal Homes in Edmond, Oklahoma, that included an extensive package of energy-efficient technologies and a photovoltaic array for site electricity generation. The home was part of a Building America research project in partnership with the Building Science Consortium to exhibit high efficiency technologies while keeping costs within the reach of average home buyers.

  19. Principles for Nearly Zero-energy Buildings. Paving the way for effective implementation of policy requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boermans, T.; Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Groezinger, J.; Offermann, M. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.; Aggerholm, S.O. [Danish Building Research Institute SBi, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    The overarching objective of this study is to contribute to a common and cross-national understanding on: an ambitious, clear definition and fast uptake of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) in all EU Member States; principles of sustainable, realistic nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, both new and existing; possible technical solutions and their implications for national building markets, buildings and market players. The study builds on existing concepts and building standards, analyses the main methodological challenges and their implications for the nZEB definition, and compiles a possible set of principles and assesses their impact on reference buildings. Subsequently the technological, financial and policy implications of these results are evaluated. Finally, the study concludes by providing an outlook on necessary further steps towards a successful implementation of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

  20. Exploring transitions towards sustainable construction : The case of near-zero energy buildings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales-Carreón, Jesús; García-Díaz, César

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of qualitative information in the construction of an agent- based model in order to study the growth of near-Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB's) in the Netherlands through the innovation systems perspective. Drawing on desktop research and semi-structured interviews, this

  1. Preminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Gainesville, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Chandra, Subrao [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2009-02-20

    This case study is a summary on a near zero energy home that was built in Gainesville, FL as a result of collaboration between the Florida Solar Enegery Center and the Florida H.E.R.O., an innovative developer and builder.

  2. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  3. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings: The state-of-art of national regulations in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziata, Eleonora; Frey, Marco; Rizzi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in buildings is an important objective of energy policy and strategy in Europe. A survey questionnaire was conducted among the 27 European Union Member States. This study aims to provide an overview of the current national regulatory framework focusing on three aspects: 1) integration of energy efficiency and renewable energy requirements, 2) translation of investments in energy saving into economic value, 3) commitment towards “nearly zero-energy” target. The study shows that European countries have adopted different approaches in the design of their national regulatory framework. This heterogeneity consists of four main factors: different authorities involved in energy regulations, traditional building regulations and enforcement models, different contextual characteristics, and maturity of the country in the implementation of energy efficiency measures. These differences are important to take into account country's profile in order to improve the sharing of best-practices and energy efficiency governance among European Union Member States. - Highlights: ► We analyze the legal status for energy efficient buildings in 27 European Countries. ► We examine building markets, renewable technology and “nearly zero-energy” targets. ► European Member States provide a heterogeneous environment to the recast of EPBD. ► National regulatory frameworks have evolved different structures and responsibilities. ► We provide directions in further enforcing energy efficiency in buildings regulation

  4. Nearly Zero Energy Buildings: An Overview of the Main Construction Features across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Paoletti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs represent the backbone to achieve ambitious European goals in terms of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions reduction. As defined in the EPBD, by 31 December 2020, all of the new buildings will have to reach a target of nearly zero energy. This target encourages the adoption of innovative business models as well as the technology development in the building sector, aimed at reducing energy demand and exploiting local renewable energy sources (RES. Assessing the share of implementation and the performance of technologies in new or renovated nZEBs is strategic to identify the market trends and to define design guidelines with the most effective solutions according to the context. In this regard, this paper analyses the construction features of a set of nZEBs, collected in 17 European countries within the EU IEE ZEBRA2020 project, with a special focus on the influence of the boundary conditions on the technologies adopted. The results show a general high insulation level of the envelope and recurrent specific technologies in the Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC system (i.e., heat pumps and mechanical ventilation, while the climatic conditions do not drive significantly the design approach and the nZEB features.

  5. Exploring Transitions Towards Sustainable Construction: The Case of Near-Zero Energy Buildings in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Rosales-Carreón; César García-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of qualitative information in the construction of an agent- based model in order to study the growth of near-Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB’s) in the Netherlands through the innovation systems perspective. Drawing on desktop research and semi-structured interviews, this paper offers two major findings. First, we observed that the difficulties to the development of nZEB’s have been shaped by interaction and institutional barriers: the inner complexity of the buildi...

  6. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option

  7. Scattering of near-zero-energy electrons and positrons by H2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J.-Y.

    2014-04-15

    The parameters for S-wave elastic scattering of near-zero-energy electrons and positrons by H2 molecules are calculated using the stabilization method with explicitly correlated Gaussians. The confined variational method is applied to optimize the Gaussians to describe the short-range interaction of incident e± with H2 in the fixed-nuclei approximation. For e+-H2 scattering the scattering length of previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223202 (2009)] is substantially improved. More importantly, for e−-H2 scattering, from first principles, the scattering length is computed as a function of the internuclear distance. In the case that the two nuclei are at the equilibrium distance the results are in a good agreement with values derived from fitting experimental total and diffusion cross sections to the modified effective range theory.

  8. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  9. Sustainable Design of a Nearly Zero Energy Building Facilitated by a Smart Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Habash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging milestones in building construction is the development of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs. This complex concept is defined as buildings that on a yearly average consume as much energy as they generate using renewable energy sources. Realization of NZEBs requires a wide range of technologies, systems, and solutions with varying degrees of complexity and sophistication, depending upon the location and surrounding environmental conditions. This paper will address the role of the above technologies and solutions and discusses the challenges being faced. The objective is to maximize energy efficiency, optimize occupant comfort, and reduce dependency on both the grid and the municipal potable water supply by implementing sustainable strategies in designing a research and sports facility. Creative solutions by the architectural and engineering team capitalize on the design of a unique glazing system; energy efficient technologies; water use reduction techniques; and a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP microgrid (MG with integrated control aspects and renewable energy sources.

  10. Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy Building in Italian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saeed Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy requirements and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. The building sector is keen to improve its sustainability standards and also to help achieve the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union. The present work aims to design a nearly zero energy sports gymnasium building in Calolziocorte, Italy. Various sustainability techniques are applied in an integrated design project approach using ECOTECT software to undertake the energy modelling exercise. Firstly, the base-case is modelled with conventional building materials and the total energy demand is calculated. Duly considering the local climatic conditions, sustainable materials are chosen for walls, the floor, the roof, and windows and a 38% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. The impact of louvers as a passive design technique has also been examined on the total energy demand of the building. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is undertaken for various individual functions inside the building to identify the critical areas that consume more energy. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is performed with the proposed materials and the air infiltration rate is improved through the building envelope and 63% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. A solar access analysis is conducted to understand the on-site energy production and then the building net energy demand is calculated, which is reduced to 90% compared to the base-case.

  11. Thermo-electrochemical production of compressed hydrogen from methane with near-zero energy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerød-Fjeld, Harald; Clark, Daniel; Yuste-Tirados, Irene; Zanón, Raquel; Catalán-Martinez, David; Beeaff, Dustin; Morejudo, Selene H.; Vestre, Per K.; Norby, Truls; Haugsrud, Reidar; Serra, José M.; Kjølseth, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Conventional production of hydrogen requires large industrial plants to minimize energy losses and capital costs associated with steam reforming, water-gas shift, product separation and compression. Here we present a protonic membrane reformer (PMR) that produces high-purity hydrogen from steam methane reforming in a single-stage process with near-zero energy loss. We use a BaZrO3-based proton-conducting electrolyte deposited as a dense film on a porous Ni composite electrode with dual function as a reforming catalyst. At 800 °C, we achieve full methane conversion by removing 99% of the formed hydrogen, which is simultaneously compressed electrochemically up to 50 bar. A thermally balanced operation regime is achieved by coupling several thermo-chemical processes. Modelling of a small-scale (10 kg H2 day-1) hydrogen plant reveals an overall energy efficiency of >87%. The results suggest that future declining electricity prices could make PMRs a competitive alternative for industrial-scale hydrogen plants integrating CO2 capture.

  12. User-focused design factors of workspace for nearly zero energy office renovation : findings from literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, M.; Remoy, Hilde; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Knaack, U.

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of considering user satisfaction in office renovation. Userfocused design approach in nearly zero energy office (nZEO) renovation is a way to increase user satisfaction and the value of office quality while meeting energy efficiency goal. The purpose of this

  13. Demand Side Management in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Using Heuristic Optimizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s buildings are responsible for about 40% of total energy consumption and 30–40% of carbon emissions, which are key concerns for the sustainable development of any society. The excessive usage of grid energy raises sustainability issues in the face of global changes, such as climate change, population, economic growths, etc. Traditionally, the power systems that deliver this commodity are fuel operated and lead towards high carbon emissions and global warming. To overcome these issues, the recent concept of the nearly zero energy building (nZEB has attracted numerous researchers and industry for the construction and management of the new generation buildings. In this regard, this paper proposes various demand side management (DSM programs using the genetic algorithm (GA, teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO, the enhanced differential evolution (EDE algorithm and the proposed enhanced differential teaching learning algorithm (EDTLA to manage energy and comfort, while taking the human preferences into consideration. Power consumption patterns of shiftable home appliances are modified in response to the real-time price signal in order to get monetary benefits. To further improve the cost and user discomfort objectives along with reduced carbon emission, renewable energy sources (RESs are also integrated into the microgrid (MG. The proposed model is implemented in a smart residential complex of multiple homes under a real-time pricing environment. We figure out two feasible regions: one for electricity cost and the other for user discomfort. The proposed model aims to deal with the stochastic nature of RESs while introducing the battery storage system (BSS. The main objectives of this paper include: (1 integration of RESs; (2 minimization of the electricity bill (cost and discomfort; and (3 minimizing the peak to average ratio (PAR and carbon emission. Additionally, we also analyze the tradeoff between two conflicting objectives

  14. Method for use of economical optimization in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    is that the total energy performance of the building is fulfilling the requirements. To find the solution automatically the Solver function of Excel is used and compared to existing programs the method overestimates the energy use with 2.3-8.3 %. A case example shows how the method with success can find...... model of the energy use for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different qualities of the component. For building envelopes, the energy use will be the heat loss during heating season, and the main quality...... the solution for a typical Danish single family house with the energy performance requirement for 2015....

  15. Maintenance-energy requirements and robustness of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at aerobic near-zero specific growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Tim; Hakkaart, Xavier D V; de Hulster, Erik A F; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established microbial platform for production of native and non-native compounds. When product pathways compete with growth for precursors and energy, uncoupling of growth and product formation could increase product yields and decrease formation of biomass as a by-product. Studying non-growing, metabolically active yeast cultures is a first step towards developing S. cerevisiae as a robust, non-growing cell factory. Microbial physiology at near-zero growth rates can be studied in retentostats, which are continuous-cultivation systems with full biomass retention. Hitherto, retentostat studies on S. cerevisiae have focused on anaerobic conditions, which bear limited relevance for aerobic industrial processes. The present study uses aerobic, glucose-limited retentostats to explore the physiology of non-dividing, respiring S. cerevisiae cultures, with a focus on industrially relevant features. Retentostat feeding regimes for smooth transition from exponential growth in glucose-limited chemostat cultures to near-zero growth rates were obtained by model-aided experimental design. During 20 days of retentostats cultivation, the specific growth rate gradually decreased from 0.025 h(-1) to below 0.001 h(-1), while culture viability remained above 80 %. The maintenance requirement for ATP (mATP) was estimated at 0.63 ± 0.04 mmol ATP (g biomass)(-1) h(-1), which is ca. 35 % lower than previously estimated for anaerobic retentostats. Concomitant with decreasing growth rate in aerobic retentostats, transcriptional down-regulation of genes involved in biosynthesis and up-regulation of stress-responsive genes resembled transcriptional regulation patterns observed for anaerobic retentostats. The heat-shock tolerance in aerobic retentostats far exceeded previously reported levels in stationary-phase batch cultures. While in situ metabolic fluxes in retentostats were intentionally low due to extreme caloric restriction, off-line measurements

  16. Experiences of consortia for scaling up nearly zero-energy renovations of single-family homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Straub, A.; Haavik, T; Laitinen Lindström, Therese; Blume, Ylva; Regebro, Margareta; Hampus, Nina; Hiltunen, Vanja

    2017-01-01

    On average 64 % of the dwellings in Europe are owner-occupied. Although there is an enormous potential to reduce their energy use and hence CO2 emissions, the current average renovation rate is just around 1,2 %. The development of one-stop-shops is expected to increase the market uptake of home

  17. A Solar Heating and Cooling System in a Nearly Zero-Energy Building: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The building sector accounts for more than 40% of the global energy consumption. This consumption may be lowered by reducing building energy requirements and using renewable energy in building energy supply systems. Therefore, a nearly zero-energy building, incorporating a solar heating and cooling system, was designed and built in Beijing, China. The system included a 35.17 kW cooling (10-RT absorption chiller, an evacuated tube solar collector with an aperture area of 320.6 m2, two hot-water storage tanks (with capacities of 10 m3 and 30 m3, respectively, two cold-water storage tanks (both with a capacity of 10 m3, and a 281 kW cooling tower. Heat pump systems were used as a backup. At a value of 25.2%, the obtained solar fraction associated with the cooling load was close to the design target of 30%. In addition, the daily solar collector efficiency and the chiller coefficient of performance (COP varied from 0.327 to 0.507 and 0.49 to 0.70, respectively.

  18. The effect of dynamic solar shading on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in a nearly zero-energy loft room in Rome and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    alternatives in buildings with very low space-heating demand, this study mapped and compared energy, daylighting and thermal comfort for various combinations of window size and glazing properties, with and without dynamic shading. The study considered a loft room with sloped roof windows and moderate venting......Dynamic solar shading is commonly suggested as a means of reducing the problem of overheating in well-insulated residential buildings, while at the same time letting daylight and solar irradiation in when needed. To critically investigate what dynamic shading can and cannot do compared to permanent...... options in nearly zero-energy homes in Rome and Copenhagen. The more flexible solution space with dynamic shading made it possible to either reduce the time with operative temperatures exceeding the comfort limit by 40–50 h or increase daylighting by 750–1000 h more than could be achieved without shading...

  19. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40% of EU final energy demand and policy developments like the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive are stimulating the innovation development for nearly zero-energy housing. However, businesses switching to innovative products for highly energy-efficient houses is a

  20. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  1. Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions—An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Gustafsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  2. Cost optimal and nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) definitions, calculation principles and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnitski, Jarek

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces technical definitions, system boundaries, energy calculation methods and input data for setting primary energy based minimum/cost optimal and nZEB requirements in national energy frames. Offers five case studies of nZEB office buildings.

  3. Combining ε-Near-Zero Behavior and Stopped Light Energy Bands for Ultra-Low Reflection and Reduced Dispersion of Slow Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Frank; Page, A Freddie; Pusch, Andreas; Hamm, Joachim M; Donegan, John F; Hess, Ortwin

    2017-08-18

    We investigate media which exhibits epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) behavior while simultaneously sustaining stopped light energy bands which contain multiple points of zero group velocity (ZGV). This allows the merging of state-of-the-art phenomena that was hitherto attainable in media that demonstrated these traits separately. Specifically, we demonstrate the existence of Ferrell-Berreman (FB) modes within frequency bands bounded by points of ZGV with the goal to improve the coupling efficiency and localization of light in the media. The FB mode is formed within a double layer, thin-film stack where at subwavelength thicknesses the structure exhibits a very low reflection due to ENZ behavior. In addition, the structure is engineered to promote a flattened frequency dispersion with a negative permittivity able to induce multiple points of ZGV. For proof-of-concept, we propose an oxide-semiconductor-oxide-insulator stack and discuss the useful optical properties that arise from combining both phenomena. A transfer matrix (TM) treatment is used to derive the reflectivity profile and dispersion curves. Results show the ability to reduce reflection below 0.05% in accordance with recent experimental data while simultaneously exciting a polariton mode exhibiting both reduced group velocity and group velocity dispersion (GVD).

  4. Implications of life cycle energy assessment of a new school building, regarding the nearly zero Energy Buildings targets in EU: A case of study

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Pedro; Morales, M P (UNIR); Letelier, V; Muñoz, Luis (UNIR); Mora, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Lately EU has promoted several policies with the aim of reducing buildings energy impact. Despite such policies have successfully contributed to reduce residential buildings (RBs) energy consumption, non-residential buildings (NRBs) have shown an increasing of operational energy demand by 15.7%, during last decade. On the one hand, energy impacts are underestimated since only primary energy consumption (PEC) is considered while other energies, such as those related to the construction phase, ...

  5. Zero energy house

    OpenAIRE

    Milián Martínez, Irene; Vink, Willem; Ortiz Braulio, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    The zero energy house project talks about sustainability. In general terms the house is designed to produce as much energy as it consume. If you take a look to the house its possible to find several systems that takes as much profit as possible to the renewable energies like photovoltaic electricity production, geothermal energy used to run a heat pump or a well thought isolated house. First of all it’s possible to find general information about the topics in house, to make people understa...

  6. Near-Zero-Drag Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Vakarelski, I. U.; Klaseboer, E.; Jetly, A.; Mansoor, M. M.; Aguirre-Pablo, A. A.; Chan, D. Y. C.

    2017-11-01

    The quest to reduce aerodynamic drag on blunt objects is driven by the need to reduce propulsive energy. Solid objects moving in an ideal fluid experience no drag. This prediction, known as the D'Alembert's paradox, is resolved by the no-slip boundary condition on the solid surface, which promotes boundary-layer separation and form drag. Here we report objects which minimizes both the form and viscous drag within a liquid, by encasing a free-falling solid sphere inside a streamlined gas cavity. The cavity-shape self-adjusts to the streamlined potential-flow solution satisfying the Bernoulli equation on the free surface, when taking into account the hydrostatic pressure gradient. The tear-drop-shaped gas cavity is originally formed around the sphere as it impacts a pool surface in a deep tank, providing that the sphere is heated above the Leidenfrost temperature. By assuming zero form-drag we can predict the separation point of the free surface from the solid. This sphere-in-cavity structure typically has a drag coefficient less than 10% that of a solid object with the same shape. This should represent the smallest possible drag. The fall velocity is uniquely predicted by sphere density and cavity volume, with larger cavities fall faster.

  7. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-18

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in μ-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a μ-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in ε-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  8. Thermal emitter comprising near-zero permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ting S.; Campione, Salvatore; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2017-10-25

    A novel thermal source comprising a semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial provides control of the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern. These properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. In particular, the thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  9. Epsilons Near Zero limits in the Mie scattering theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tagviashvili, M.

    2009-01-01

    The classical Mie theory - electromagnetic radiation scattering by the homogeneous spherical particles - is considered in the epsilon near zero limits separately for the materials of the particles and the surrounding medium. The maxima of a scattered transverse electrical (TE) field for the surrounding medium materials with the epsilon near zero limits are revealed. The effective multipole polarizabilities of the corresponding scattering particles are investigated. The possibility to achieve ...

  10. Outer shell structure in nearly zero magnetostrictive amorphous microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óvári, T.-A.; Chiriac, H.; Lostun, Mihaela

    2009-04-01

    Nearly zero magnetostrictive microwires have been proven to be very versatile, due to their extremely soft magnetic properties, the changes in their magnetization mechanism with dimensions, and the appearance of sensitive application-related effects, such as the large Barkhausen and the giant magnetoimpedance effects. Their sensitive magnetoimpedance response originates in the specific domain structure, composed of an inner core and an outer shell (OS), since the OS with a circumferential easy axis is the main region involved in the magnetoimpedance effect. The circumferential OS is believed to display a bamboolike structure with consecutive rings circumferentially magnetized in opposite directions. However, earlier theoretical studies predicted a uniformly magnetized OS as being energetically favored. This paper aims to clarify this contradiction. The variation of the magnetostatic energy from the bamboo domain to the uniformly magnetized state has been calculated and it has been found to be null. Therefore, a uniformly magnetized OS has lower energy due to the absence of domain walls. Calculation results are supported by magneto-optical Kerr effect surface domain images and surface hysteresis loops. For large values of the metallic nucleus diameter, as well as for microwires with the glass coating removed, the OS vanishes, being replaced with a surface region with helical magnetization, which expands toward the microwire surface.

  11. Factsheet on Energy Neutral Housing Construction. Definition and Ambition; Infoblad Energieneutraal Bouwen. Definitie en ambitie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Factsheet describes the definition of nearly zero-energy building of houses and how ambitions to achieve zero energy housing can be determined. The factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building' and 'Factsheet Energy Neutral schools and offices' [Dutch] Dit Infoblad beschrijft de definitie van bijna-energieneutraal bouwen en hoe ambities om energieneutrale woningbouw te realiseren kunnen worden bepaald. Het Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutrale Woningbouw' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren'.

  12. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving......  This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  13. Sustainable Plus-energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    This study is an outcome of Elforsk, project number 344-060, Bæredygtige Energi-Plus huse (Sustainable plus-energy houses). The focus of this report is to document the approach and the results of different analyses concerning a plus-energy, single family house. The house was designed...... was monitored. This report is structured as follows. Chapter 1 presents the project and briefly explains the different phases of the project. The details of the house’s construction and its HVAC system are explained in Chapter 2, along with the energy efficiency measures and innovations. Chapter 3 introduces...... the investigations carried out in detail, with respect to different phases of the project. The investigations presented are divided into four phases: design phase and pre-competition period, competition period, year-round measurements in Denmark, and improvement suggestions for building and HVAC system. The results...

  14. Enhancing Near Zero Volt Storage Tolerance of Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Kyle R.

    discharge measurements were performed and show that double layer capacitance likely plays a major role in determining the behavior of electrode potentials during near zero volt storage. To further the viability of the anode pre-lithiation method in LiCoO2/MCMB cells, stabilization coatings on the cathode materials are being investigated to increase the tolerance of the cathode to the low potentials it may experience during near zero volt storage of an RLE lithium ion cell. Results show that an AlPO4 coating prevents cation exhange in the cathode crystal structure and substantially increases the cathode's resilience to low electrochemical potentials. Investigations into applying anode pre-lithiation to cells utilizing LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA) cathodes have also been initiated and found to maintain the anode potential below the copper dissolution potential during near zero volt storage. RLE NCA/MCMB cells showed strong recharge performance and improved rate capability retention over a conventional NCA/MCMB cell after ten, 3-day near zero volt storage periods. Scale up of reversible lithium management to NCA/MCMB x3450 pouch cells was achieved using bath lithium addition and rendered a cell that retained 100% of its discharge performance after a 14 day period at near zero volts under fixed load. The near zero volt storage tolerance of lithium ion cells utilizing an advanced, high energy density lithium rich cathode material (0.49Li2MnO3˙0.51LiNi 0.37Co0.24Mn0.39O2 or HE5050) has also been studied and found to be high at room temperature without the need for anode pre-lithiation. HE5050/MCMB cells maintained 100% of their discharge capacity after five, 3-day and five, 7-day near zero volt storage periods at room temperature. HE5050/MCMB also maintained 99% of their discharge capacity after two, 3-day near zero volt storage periods at 40°C. The high first cycle loss and lower intercalation potential of the HE5050 cathode lead to the anode potential remaining <2.8 V vs. Li/Li+ during

  15. Nearly zero transmission through periodically modulated ultrathin metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Zhang, Jingjing; Peng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Transmission of light through an optically ultrathin metal film with a thickness comparable to its skin depth is significant. We demonstrate experimentally nearly-zero transmission of light through a film periodically modulated by a one-dimensional array of subwavelength slits. The suppressed...... optical transmission is due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons and the zero-transmission phenomenon is strongly dependent on the polarization of the incident wave....

  16. Thermal graphene metamaterials and epsilon-near-zero high temperature plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Hu, Huan; Molesky, Sean; Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Poursoti, Zohreh; Pramanik, Sandipan; Nazemifard, Neda; Fedosejevs, Robert; Thundat, Thomas; Jacob, Zubin

    2017-05-01

    The key feature of a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) emitter is the enhancement of thermal emission corresponding to energies just above the bandgap of the absorbing photovoltaic cell and simultaneous suppression of thermal emission below the bandgap. We show here that a single layer plasmonic coating can perform this task with high efficiency. Our key design principle involves tuning the epsilon-near-zero frequency (plasma frequency) of the metal acting as a thermal emitter to the electronic bandgap of the semiconducting cell. This approach utilizes the change in the reflectivity of a metal near its plasma frequency (epsilon-near-zero frequency) to lead to spectrally selective thermal emission, and can be adapted to large area coatings using high temperature plasmonic materials. We provide a detailed analysis of the spectral and angular performance of high temperature plasmonic coatings as TPV emitters. We show the potential of such high temperature plasmonic thermal emitter coatings (p-TECs) for narrowband near-field thermal emission. We also show the enhancement of near-surface energy density in graphene-multilayer thermal metamaterials due to a topological transition at an effective epsilon-near-zero frequency. This opens up spectrally selective thermal emission from graphene multilayers in the infrared frequency regime. Our design paves the way for the development of single layer p-TECs and graphene multilayers for spectrally selective radiative heat transfer applications.

  17. Roles of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials in optical metatronic circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader

    2014-10-20

    The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.

  18. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    OpenAIRE

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with home-owners. Research was done in Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway as part of an Intelligent Energy Europe project, entitled “COHERENO - Collaboration for housing nearly zero-energy ren...

  20. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongho, Kim; Rosocha, Louis

    2010-01-01

    research necessary to develop a novel, high-efficiency, low-emissions (near-zero, or as low as reasonably achievable), advanced combustion technology for electricity and heat production from biofuels and fuels derived from MSW. For any type of combustion technology, including the advanced technology of this project, two problems of special interest must be addressed: developing and optimizing the combustion chambers and the systems for igniting and sustaining the fuel-burning process. For MSW in particular, there are new challenges over gaseous or liquid fuels because solid fuels must be ground into fine particulates (∼ 10 (micro)m diameter), fed into the advanced combustor, and combusted under plasma-assisted conditions that are quite different than gaseous or liquid fuels. The principal idea of the combustion chamber design is to use so-called reverse vortex gas flow, which allows efficient cooling of the chamber wall and flame stabilization in the central area of the combustor (Tornado chamber). Considerable progress has been made in design ing an advanced, reverse vortex flow combustion chamber for biofuels, although it was not tested on biofuels and a system that could be fully commercialized has never been completed.

  1. Complex epsilon-near-zero metamaterials for broadband light harvesting systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella

    2018-02-17

    We engineered an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material from suitably disordered metallic nanostructures. We create a new class of dispersionless composite materials that efficiently harnesses white light. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Photoluminescence (PLE) measurements we experimentally demonstrate that this nanomaterial increases up to a record value the absorption of ultra-thin light harvesting films at visible and infrared wavelengths. Moreover, we obtained a 170% broadband increase of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) when these ENZ materials are inserted in an energy-harvesting module. We developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables large-scale production of this material for energy-harvesting applications.

  2. Near-Zero-Refractive-Index Structure at Optical Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. Ashour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used a new class of left-handed materials, which uses 3D nanospheres distributed in loops in the dielectric host material. These 3D nanospheres loops give rise to negative effective permeability and permeability at Terahertz (optical frequencies. The modal dispersion relation for Terahertz TE surface waves has been derived for a slab waveguide constructed from a dielectric material slab sandwiched between two thick layers of Terahertz left-handed material (LHM. The modal dispersion relation and the power flow were numerically solved for a given set of parameters: dielectric slab thickness, the operating frequency, mode order, and the power flow and extinction in the structure. The real part of the effective refractive index exhibits near-zero values, with small extinction coefficient values. Besides that, the power flow in the dielectric core increased with slab thickness increase and the power attenuation decreased with thickness increase.

  3. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  4. Acoustic cloaking by a near-zero-index phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Li-Yang

    2014-04-21

    Zero-refractive-index materials may lead to promising applications in various fields. Here, we design and fabricate a near Zero-Refractive-Index (ZRI) material using a phononic crystal (PC) composed of a square array of densely packed square iron rods in air. The dispersion relation exhibits a nearly flat band across the Brillouin zone at the reduced frequency f  = 0.5443c/a, which is due to Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance. By using a retrieval method, we find that both the effective mass density and the reciprocal of the effective bulk modulus are close to zero at frequencies near the flat band. We also propose an equivalent tube network model to explain the mechanisms of the near ZRI effect. This FP-resonance-induced near ZRI material offers intriguing wave manipulation properties. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally its ability to shield a scattering obstacle and guide acoustic waves through a bent structure.

  5. Broadband Epsilon-near-Zero Reflectors Enhance the Quantum Efficiency of Thin Solar Cells at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, A. J.

    2017-02-03

    The engineering of broadband absorbers to harvest white light in thin-film semiconductors is a major challenge in developing renewable materials for energy harvesting. Many solution-processed materials with high manufacturability and low cost, such as semiconductor quantum dots, require the use of film structures with thicknesses on the order of 1 μm to absorb incoming photons completely. The electron transport lengths in these media, however, are 1 order of magnitude smaller than this length, hampering further progress with this platform. Herein, we show that, by engineering suitably disordered nanoplasmonic structures, we have created a new class of dispersionless epsilon-near-zero composite materials that efficiently harness white light. Our nanostructures localize light in the dielectric region outside the epsilon-near-zero material with characteristic lengths of 10-100 nm, resulting in an efficient system for harvesting broadband light when a thin absorptive film is deposited on top of the structure. By using a combination of theory and experiments, we demonstrate that ultrathin layers down to 50 nm of colloidal quantum dots deposited atop the epsilon-near-zero material show an increase in broadband absorption ranging from 200% to 500% compared to a planar structure of the same colloidal quantum-dot-absorber average thickness. When the epsilon-near-zero nanostructures were used in an energy-harvesting module, we observed a spectrally averaged 170% broadband increase in the external quantum efficiency of the device, measured at wavelengths between 400 and 1200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence excitation measurements demonstrate that the properties of these epsilon-near-zero structures apply to general metals and could be used to enhance the near-field absorption of semiconductor structures more widely. We have developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables scaled-up production of this nanomaterial for large

  6. Plasmonic Lithography Utilizing Epsilon Near Zero Hyperbolic Metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Fan; Liang, Gaofeng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L Jay

    2017-10-24

    In this work, a special hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) metamaterial is investigated for plasmonic lithography of period reduction patterns. It is a type II HMM (ϵ ∥ 0) whose tangential component of the permittivity ϵ ∥ is close to zero. Due to the high anisotropy of the type II epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) HMM, only one plasmonic mode can propagate horizontally with low loss in a waveguide system with ENZ HMM as its core. This work takes the advantage of a type II ENZ HMM composed of aluminum/aluminum oxide films and the associated unusual mode to expose a photoresist layer in a specially designed lithography system. Periodic patterns with a half pitch of 58.3 nm were achieved due to the interference of third-order diffracted light of the grating. The lines were 1/6 of the mask with a period of 700 nm and ∼1/7 of the wavelength of the incident light. Moreover, the theoretical analyses performed are widely applicable to structures made of different materials such as silver as well as systems working at deep ultraviolet wavelengths including 193, 248, and 365 nm.

  7. Economic analysis of passive houses and low-energy houses compared with standard houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, A.; Cleyn, S.H. de; Vankerckhove, B.

    2008-01-01

    As the energy demand used for space heating accounts for 78% of EU15 household delivered energy consumption, significant reductions in energy demand can be achieved by promoting low-energy buildings. Our study investigates three building types: the standard house, the low-energy house and the passive house. As more far-reaching measures concerning energy savings usually lead to higher investments, the aim of our study is to perform an economic analysis in order to determine the economic viability of the three building types

  8. Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Bonar, Jacob [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100), which qualifies it for federal energy efficiency and solar incentives. The house is leading to the planned construction of a similar home in Greensburg, Kansas, and 21 staff houses in the Walden Reserve, a 7000-unit "deep green" community in Cookville, Tennessee. Discussions are underway for construction of similar houses in Charleston, South Carolina, Seattle, Washington, Knoxville and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and upstate New York. This house should lead to a 40% and 50% Gate-3, Mixed-Humid-Climate Joule for the DOE Building America Program. The house is constructed with structurally-insulated-panel walls and roof, raised metal-seam roof with infrared reflective coating, airtight envelope (1.65 air changes per hour at 50 Pascal), supply mechanical ventilation, ducts inside the conditioned space, extensive moisture control package, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling system, ZEHcor wall, solar water heater, and a 2.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 compared to all the houses in this series are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Based on a validated computer simulation of ZEH5 with typical occupancy patterns and energy services for four occupants, energy for this all-electric house is predicted to cost only $0.66/day ($0.86/day counting the hookup charges). By contrast, the benchmark house would require $3.56/day, including hookup charges (these costs are based on a 2006 residential rates of $0.07/kWh and solar buyback at $0.15/kWh). The solar

  9. Financial investments for zero energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Zubka, Domantas; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    The climate is constantly changing and is already affecting our future. The construction sector has become energy-intensive and a serious source of pollution. Today, houses use more energy and fossil fuels than ever before. In fact, buildings currently consume more than one-third of all energy......, but single-family houses should also be included in the renovation process and turned into zero energy buildings, which will be the standard in the near future of today’s construction sector. Read about the list of conclusions the investigations of a renovation project of a detached house into a nearzero...

  10. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  12. Architectural Quality of Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper expounds a systematic vocabulary concerning architectural quality in houses in general and low energy houses in particular. The vocabulary consists of nine themes. Inside each theme, examples are given of how to achieve both architectural quality and good environmental performance...

  13. Climatization, energy and design in rural housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroztegui, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Work analyzes the possibilities to influence in the energy inputs of the air conditioning in the rural housing through architectonic project decisions. It presents a methodology to guide the first project decisions and to evaluate the future of the housing behavior

  14. Energy Efficient Renovation of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Grith; Christiansen, Michael

    In years to come the social housing sector (SH) must undergo renovation. The SH is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calcu-lation, flexible building services and social challenges. A way to solve such challenges in an environmentally, economically......, such as residents, housing administration, politicians, advi-sors, producers and contractors. Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy renova-tion SH strategy. Our project contributes to the building sector by suggesting new methods for meeting challenges concerning energy......), (2) workshops and (3) seminars for qualifying (4) the definition of a common framework for (5) the development and (6) acceptance of the actual energy renovation strategy, which will then be transformed into action plans in the form of (7) ”common screening” of housing and housing areas as a basis...

  15. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates, and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award-winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges’ comments.

  16. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house, HARBEMAN house; Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) no simulation ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are a procedure developed to simulate performance of an energy-autonomous (independent) solar house referred to as HARBEMAN HOUSE (HH) built in 1996 in City of Sendai, comparison between the simulated and observed results, and characteristics of the solar house. The house is equipped with a solar collector and sky radiator, both installed on the roof, the former facing south to collect solar energy and generate hot water whereas the latter facing north to radiate heat and generate cool water. Both are connected to an underground heat-insulated tank having a capacity of 31m{sup 3}, which stores hot or cool water to keep their conditions for extended periods. The solar system operates in heat- or cool-storage mode. In the heat-storage mode, quantity of heat stored increases, although at a slow rate, as tank capacity increases. In the cool-storage mode, on the other hand, quantity of cool stored increases in proportion to tank capacity. This is because solar energy is collected throughout the year whereas cooling by radiation is concentrated in early spring. Loss rate of heat stored increases as tank capacity increases, and the opposite trend is observed with cool stored. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. URBox : High tech energy and informal housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Y.J.; Smets, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the URBox concept encompassing the high tech end of solar energy and informal low cost and affordable housing. It aims to contribute to solving the global energy crisis by building solar energy settlements in deserts where land is affordable and sunshine in abundance. First the

  18. Natural gas in low energy house Zittau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maertens, L.; Koschack, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a low-energy house in Zittau, Germany. The house consists of two parts A and B. Part A is heated by means of gas boilers and condensed boilers, while part B is solar heated. Energy for heating and warming of tap water is an important part of the primary energy consumption in Germany. Therefore, one way of reducing the CO2 emissions is to reduce the heat losses of buildings through outer facades and air ventilation, to use regenerative energy sources, to use fuels with low CO2 emissivity like natural gas, and to install efficient heating- and hot water preparation systems. The low-energy house in Zittau is used for energy research

  19. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  20. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  1. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  2. The impact of the year-on-year variation in the intensity of solar radiation on the energy intensity of low-energy and passive houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubrt Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a significant segment of heat gains in the operation of buildings. The importance of this segment is highlighted by lowering the energy performance of buildings. The current condition of assessment considers the standard values of solar radiation but these are often very different from the fair values. In the contribution it draws attention to not only to on-year variation in solar fluctuations in the intensity of solar radiation and its significant long-term deviation from the standard values but also to the impact to energy building in reliance to its energy intensity. The attention will be focused also to different values in standards valid in the Czech Republic. This specification of energy assessment of buildings is not only necessary to approximate calculations of real state, but mainly because we can expect more disputes about if a building has declared calculating the parameters of a building with nearly zero-energy or passive house.

  3. 2011 EnergyValue Housing Award Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, D.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the simulation tool(s) and energy modeling methodology followed in making the energy efficiency estimates and documents the estimated performance of the EVHA award winning houses in comparison with the Building America Benchmark and the associated House Simulation Protocols. A summary of each building and its features is included with a brief description of the project and the judges' comments. The purpose of this report is to assess the energy performance of the 2011 EVHA winners as well as align the EVHA Program with the Building America Program.

  4. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  5. Energy Resilience Modeling for Smart Houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghasemieh, Hamed; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    The use of renewable energy in houses and neighbourhoods is very much governed by national legislation and has recently led to enormous changes in the energy market and poses a serious threat to the stability of the grid at peak production times. One of the approaches towards a more balanced grid

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    This paper presents a case study which investigates a strategic and methodological approach to future proofed renovations of social housing in an environmental, economically and socially sustainable way. In years to come the social housing sector must undergo major renovation. The housing sector...... is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calculation, flexible building services and social challenges. It is no longer enough to focus on developing efficient products concerning energy renovation. To be able to achieve an environmental, economically...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value...

  7. Investigation of poultry housing capacity on energy efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evaluated energy efficiency and effect of poultry house size on energy productivity in three different capacity. Capacities of houses were 10,000 (3 housings), 20,000 (2 housings) and 28,000 (1 house) birds per production period and were assigned as HI, HII and HIII respectively.

  8. Energy conservation for housing: A workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Multifamily housing project managers can reduce their energy costs from 30 to 60 percent by capitalizing on a variety of energy conservation opportunities (ECO's) identified in HUD research on the physical condition of public housing stock. This workbook prepares managers for this planning and for making individualized energy audits. It provides all the materials they need to proceed, including analysis sheets for calculating costs - benefit and payback periods for each of the 50 ECO's described. The ECO's listed all into four general categories: architectural improvements to the energy design of the building envelope; heating system ECO's to increase energy efficiency; secondary ECO's related to the domestic water supply, air conditioning systems, and central laundry equipment; and electric system ECO's reducing utility surcharges and increasing light bulb efficiency.

  9. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  10. Enhanced Solar-to-Hydrogen Generation with Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Nanostructured Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The direct conversion of solar energy into fuels or feedstock is an attractive approach to address increasing demand of renewable energy sources. Photocatalytic systems relying on the direct photoexcitation of metals have been explored to this end, a strategy that exploits the decay of plasmonic resonances into hot carriers. An efficient hot carrier generation and collection requires, ideally, their generation to be enclosed within few tens of nanometers at the metal interface, but it is challenging to achieve this across the broadband solar spectrum. Here the authors demonstrate a new photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution based on metal epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. The authors have designed these to achieve broadband strong light confinement at the metal interface across the entire solar spectrum. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy, the authors prove that hot carriers are generated in a broadband fashion within 10 nm in this system. The resulting photocatalyst achieves a hydrogen production rate of 9.5 µmol h-1  cm-2 that exceeds, by a factor of 3.2, that of the best previously reported plasmonic-based photocatalysts for the dissociation of H2 with 50 h stable operation.

  11. Ventilation in low energy housing retrofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2008-01-01

    According to the definition, passive houses in Europe meet a target energy demand for heating of less than 15 kWh per square meter and per year. This low level for the heating demand is based on heating by a small post-heater in the hygienic ventilation system at 52 °C maximum, while the ventilation

  12. Plasmonic antenna resonance pinning and suppression of near-field coupling from epsilon-near-zero substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVault, C.; Zenin, V. A.; Pors, A.

    2017-01-01

    The resonance wavelength of single gold nanorods patterned on an epsilon-near-zero substrate is observed to be independent of antenna length. Additionally, the near-field coupling between dimer antennas is suppressed at the epsilon-near-zero wavelength.......The resonance wavelength of single gold nanorods patterned on an epsilon-near-zero substrate is observed to be independent of antenna length. Additionally, the near-field coupling between dimer antennas is suppressed at the epsilon-near-zero wavelength....

  13. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  14. Energy performance assessment of collective housing buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Fumagalli, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This project has been carried out for the ALEC (Agence Locale de l'Energie et du Climat) of Grenoble urban area, a French energy and climate agency. It has been composed of several missions, all related to energy management in residential buildings. First, an annual energy use assessment have been conducted for two different building samples:  the eco-district of De Bonne in Grenoble and a sample of about 25 social housing buildings over the region. These two assessments showed that the avera...

  15. Performance analysis on natural energy autonomous house (HARBEMAN house); Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, T.; Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    To reduce fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission, this article introduces an actually constructed natural energy autonomous house. It has a solar collector on the south roof for hot water supply and a sky radiator on the north roof for cooling water supply. The sky radiator uses radiation cooling phenomena into the space by electromagnetic wave through the window of atmosphere. This house also has an insulated tank with a capacity of 31 m{sup 3} in its underground. In the long-term heat storage mode, the heat is collected through the solar radiation during the period from summer to spring and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for heating and hot water supply in winter. The heat can be recovered from the garbage waste incinerator. A gas fired auxiliary boiler is used for the shortage. In the long-term heat regeneration mode, the heat is regenerated through the sky radiator during the period from spring to summer and is stored in the underground water tank, to use it for cooling in summer. For the shortage, the water is cooled using a heat pump operated by the midnight power. The insulating performance is improved by using the pair glass in windows and the glass wool in the walls. Rain water is collected in a tank with a capacity of 2 m{sup 3}, to use it for toilet water. Annual energy and water saving is equivalent to 600,000 yen. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaee, S. Rasoul; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  17. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2009-07-01

    Danish households use more than 30% of the total amount of energy being used in Denmark. More than 80% of this energy is dedicated to space heating. The same relation is seen in many OECD countries. The corresponding energy savings potential was recently estimated at 30% of the energy used in buildings. Energy labelling is seen as an important instrument to target these potential energy savings. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using real metered natural gas consumption and a very wide range of register data describing the houses and households. The study did not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, but more research would be needed to complement this conclusion

  18. An Assisted Workflow for the Early Design of Nearly Zero Emission Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Sleiman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency in buildings is one of the main goals of many governmental policies due to their high impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in Europe. One of these targets is to reduce the energy consumption in healthcare buildings, which are known to be among the most energy-demanding building types. Although design decisions made at early design phases have a significant impact on the energy performance of the realized buildings, only a small portion of possible early designs is analyzed, which does not ensure an optimal building design. We propose an automated early design support workflow, accompanied by a set of tools, for achieving nearly zero emission healthcare buildings. It is intended to be used by decision makers during the early design phase. It starts with the user-defined brief and the design rules, which are the input for the Early Design Configurator (EDC. The EDC generates multiple design alternatives following an evolutionary algorithm while trying to satisfy user requirements and geometric constraints. The generated alternatives are then validated by means of an Early Design Validator (EDV, and then, early energy and cost assessments are made using two early assessment tools. A user-friendly dashboard is used to guide the user and to illustrate the workflow results, whereas the chosen alternative at the end of the workflow is considered as the starting point for the next design phases. Our proposal has been implemented using Building Information Models (BIM and validated by means of a case study on a healthcare building and several real demonstrations from different countries in the context of the European project STREAMER.

  19. Complex assessment of urban housing energy sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Glebova, Julia; Karakozova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of a complex experimental-analytical research of residential development energy parameters - survey of construction sites and determination of calculated energy parameters (resistance to heat transfer) considering their technical condition. The authors suggest a methodology for assessing residential development energy parameters on the basis of construction project's structural analysis with the use of advanced intelligent collection systems, processing (self-organizing maps - SOM) and data visualization (geo-informational systems - GIS). SOM clustering permitted to divide the housing stock (on the example of Arkhangelsk city) into groups with similar technical-operational and energy parameters. It is also possible to measure energy parameters of construction project of each cluster by comparing them with reference (normative) measures and also with each other. The authors propose mechanisms for increasing the area's energy stability level by implementing a set of reproduction activities for residential development of various groups. The analysis showed that modern multilevel and high-rise construction buildings have the least heat losses. At present, however, ow-rise wood buildings is the dominant styles of buildings of Arkhangelsk city. Data visualisation on the created heat map showed that such housing stock covers the largest urban area. The development strategies for depressed areas is in a high-rise building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city. An urban regeneration programme for severely rundown urban housing estates is in a high-rise construction building, which show the economic, social and environmental benefits of upward growth of the city.

  20. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  1. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  2. Actual proof study of energy autonomous house; Energy jiritsu house no jissho jikken. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzawa, O.; Masuzawa, C.

    1997-11-25

    A discussion was given on an `energy autonomous house` which utilizes more effectively photovoltaic power generation, solar heat and light in designing a wooden house to be built by using the conventional construction method. According to the plan, photovoltaic power generation modules and heat collectors are installed superimposed on a roof facing south. Heat-collected air is sent below the floor and the heat is stored in the concrete in winter, utilized as the floor heating type room heater. The hot air is used for hot water supply in other seasons. The building is of two stories with a total area of 118 m {sup 2}, and the photovoltaic generation capacity is 3.48 kW. The photovoltaic generation amount was calculated from insolation forecasted by the AMEDAS system, and energy balance of this house was estimated. The result therefrom may be summarized as follows: total energy supplied reached 11.6 Gcal, signifying that about 10.8% of the energy irradiated onto the building is utilized; ratio of the photovoltaic and solar heat utilization is 27% versus 73%; and energy consumption in this house was estimated and calculated from actual results, airtightness and adiabatic performance of old houses, whereas the energy autonomous rate has reached 92.8%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Renovation of a Detached Single-Family House into an Energy Efficient Low Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain the political goals for national and international energy savings of reducing CO2 emissions and avoid climate changes, renovation projects for dwellings are becoming increasingly more important. This paper describes the results attained from an extensive renovation of a detached...... single-family house built in the early nineteen seventies. The old house was renovated in accordance to the best Danish low energy class (class 1). The project was followed by detailed measurements of the indoor environment (temperature, relative humidity and CO2 levels) and energy consumption for room...

  4. Barriers and opportunities for business collaboration in the nZEB single-family housing renovation market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebut, F.; Warmuth, H.; Supper, S.; Hilderson, W.; Artola, I.; Thuring, M.; Van Holm, M.; Münke, R.; Pannier, P.; Bensmann, K.; Haavik, T.; Kleiven, T.; Solberg, S.S.; Kunkel, S.; Faber, M.; Van der Have, J.A.; Mlecnik, E.; Straub, A.

    2014-01-01

    Research was done in Austria, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway as part of the Intelligent Energy Europe project, entitled “COHERENO - Collaboration for housing nearly zero-energy renovation” (www.cohereno.eu) to better understand the emergence of collaboration structures for nZEB

  5. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  6. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  7. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates: transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Léonie G M; van Maris, Antonius J A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Almering, Marinka J H; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h(-1) ) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. While quiescence is typically investigated as a result of carbon starvation, cells in retentostat are fed by small, but continuous carbon and energy supply. Yeast cells cultivated near-zero specific growth rates, while metabolically active, exhibited characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in exit from the cell cycle into G(0) . Unexpectedly, analysis of transcriptome data from retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, that quiescence-related transcriptional responses were already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h(-1) . These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Furthermore, cells in retentostat do not (or hardly) divide while remaining metabolically active, which emulates the physiological status of metazoan post-mitotic cells. We propose retentostat as a powerful cultivation tool to investigate chronological ageing-related processes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulation of indoor environment in low energy housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagiannis, Georgios; Knudsen, Henrik N.; Toftum, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether low energy consumption in dwellings imposes problems by deteriorating the indoor environment. Several indoor environment parameters were correlated with the energy consumption of low energy houses. One house from a village of low energy houses in Denmar...... with the installation of a chiller, a comfortable thermal indoor environment could be achieved with only a minor increase in the energy consumption....

  9. What is a low-energy house and who cares?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, B.R.

    1994-12-01

    Most energy analysts view low-energy houses as good things, yet differ in their expectations of what exactly a low energy house is. There are two intertwining threads to this report. The first is an evaluation of 50 buildings that have been claimed to be low-energy residences, for which monitored energy performance data have been collected. These data represent the preliminary effort in the ongoing update of the Buildings Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) data base for new residences. The second thread concerns the definition of a low-energy house. After the elements of a definition are presented, their implications for actors involved in providing housing are identified. Several more tractable definitions are applied to the houses in this compilation. The outcomes illustrate ways in which different interests are served by various definitions. Different definitions can yield very different energy rankings. No single definition of a low-energy house is universally applicable.

  10. National Roadmaps for promotion of very low-energy house concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvik, Karin

    2012-07-01

    This report is meant to contribute to the preparation of National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs), which are tools supporting the implementation of energy efficiency improvement policies. The NEEAPs are considered one of the cornerstones of the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive. Previous publications from the NorthPass project report from studies of existing concepts and building standards in the participating countries, and analyses of main challenges in aiming to increase the market share of very low-energy houses. In this report a short overview of the current situation is given, and measures are proposed to support the implementation of the nearly Zero-Energy Building level, as described in the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive. Necessary steps towards a successful implementation will vary within the participating countries; involving technological, financial and policy implications in various degrees. The eight North European countries, participating in the NorthPass project, have similarities and differences. The four Nordic countries have several similarities regarding market penetration of very low-energy houses, as well as activities implemented by the authorities. Poland and the Baltic States have similarities in terms of market situation which is different from the Nordic countries. In the Nordic countries, the path towards the EU 2020 targets has, to a large extent, been chosen, focusing on step by step tightening of building codes, financial incentives and training of actors in the building sector. A discussion is going on about how to affect changes in customers' preferences, which would lead to a growing demand for very low-energy residential buildings. The situation in Poland and the Baltic countries is more problematic, as only few very low energy houses have been built so far. However, a growing interest in energy savings seems to arise, as the energy consumption is considerably high and the

  11. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  12. Indoor climate in renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house....... Moreover, it was investigated among house owners, who had carried out energy retrofitting, whether a number of factors, including the perceived indoor climate, became better or worse after retrofitting. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1,990 house owners in a municipality north of Copenhagen...

  13. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-25

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  14. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Elayouch, A.

    2017-01-05

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.

  15. Experimental study of Rabi-type oscillation induced by tunneling modes in effective near-zero-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yewen; Yang, Yaping; Chen, Hong

    2011-04-01

    A special cavity based on effective near-zero-index paired structures containing ɛ-negative and μ-negative materials is realized by using composite right- or left-handed transmission lines. When an artificial magnetic "atom" is put into the cavity, unusual Rabi-type splitting appears because of the strong coupling between the artificial atom and the localized tunneling mode. The direct time domain energy exchanges between the cavity and the "atom" are experimentally observed after excited by a short pulse signal. Within the "atom" field attenuation time, more than one oscillations appear. Rabi-type splitting and the Rabi-type oscillation period are invariant with the scaling changes of the length but vary with the positions where the "atom" is put with different field intensity. Moreover, the decay time of Rabi-type oscillation becomes longer when the tunneling mode possesses smaller linewidth, which is in good agreement with numerical simulations.

  16. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L Z; Yin, J P

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br2 precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br2 precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, ⟨cos(2) θ⟩, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br2 molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ~1 K, a ⟨cos(2) θ⟩ value of ~0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ~20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ~1 × 10(12) W/cm(2) for alignment.

  17. Energy efficient housing in South Africa. A Research Alliance, CSIR/SUPSI project proposal for energy efficient building (housing) in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available /SUPSI Project Proposal For Energy Efficient Building (Housing) in South Africa PROJECT TITLE: “Energy Efficient Housing in SA” Presentation: Energy Efficient Housing in SA Background SDC HQ Meeting, Bern, Switzerland 11 February, 2010 Presenter: Dr...

  18. Energy renovation of older brick house; Energirenovering af murermesterhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2010-07-15

    The project has aimed to develop methods and examples related to the design of extensive energy renovations (low energy class 1) in order to stimulate energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy in existing buildings. The present report deals with potential opportunities and proposals for energy renovation of a typical old brick house built in the period 1910-40. Typically, these houses have little insulation, and therefore there is good reason to explore how this type of houses can be upgraded to BR08 (building code 2008), low energy class 2 or 1. (ln)

  19. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The Building America research team Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES) worked with four public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy-efficiency retrofit measures that the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs during the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  20. Low energy housing in Ticino - The 'Vitali-Velti' house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.; Generelli, M. [SUPSI-DCT/LEEE-UREC, Trevano-Canobbio (Switzerland); Velti, A; Vitali, B. [architetto, Monte Carasso (Switzerland)

    2003-02-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at work done concerning low energy consumption housing in southern Switzerland. Thanks to large windows in the south-east facade and a well insulated building envelope, the passive solar gains are quoted as providing significant contributions to heating. The remaining heating requirements are covered by a closed fireplace and an electric radiator. Heat is distributed by free convection inside the house, A double-flux ventilation system with heat recovery ensures air renewal (3 volumes per day). Each house has a solar hot water system with electric auxiliary energy supply. Space heating requirements are discussed and compared with the standard values as defined in Swiss energy standards and the conventional auxiliary space heating energy required for the houses is noted.

  1. Perfect imaging, epsilon-near zero phenomena and waveguiding in the scope of nonlocal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Christin; Mortensen, N. Asger; Christensen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmons in metals can oscillate on a sub-wavelength length scale and this large-k response constitutes an inherent prerequisite for fascinating effects such as perfect imaging and intriguing wave phenomena associated with the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime. While there is no upper cut-off within...... response, we show that perfect imaging is surprisingly only marginally affected by nonlocal properties of a metal slab, even for a deep subwavelength case and an extremely thin film. Similarly, for the ENZ response we find no indications of nonlocal response jeopardizing the basic behaviors anticipated...

  2. Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wermager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from an undergraduate research project concerning the energy efficiency, consumption, and generation of a 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2 solar house. The results were compared to a home of similar size and layout, built using traditional construction methods. The solar house was modeled after the Chameleon House: Missouri University of Science and Technology’s 2013 entry in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The efficiency of the design was analyzed using Energy-10 Version 1.8 software. For this comparison, a fictional American couple was created and a breakdown of their energy-use habits was recorded to accurately depict the magnitude of energy consumption. A 71% energy savings was forecasted using the Energy-10 software through the incorporation of various energy-conserving strategies in the home’s design. In addition, if a 9.1 kW photovoltaic array is also installed on a home of this size, it is possible to fully offset the energy consumption of the home. The forecasted energy usage and production detailed in this report shall be used for analyzing the integrity of the design of the Chameleon House as well as future solar houses constructed by the Missouri S&T Solar House Team.

  3. Low energy houses and passive houses - common questions; Laagenergihus och passivhus - vanliga fraagestaellningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Samuelson, Ingemar; Gustavsson, Thorbjoern; Ruud, Svein; Larsson, Krister; Hiller, Carolina; Werner, Goesta; Gabrielii, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    This feasibility study of passive houses and low-energy houses has raised several questions concerning aspects of which more knowledge is needed. Many can be answered by existing knowledge, but there are still several that can only partly be answered, and some that cannot be answered at all. As there is a substantial demand for, and interest in, the construction of low-energy houses and passive houses, it is important that the remaining questions should be addressed so that the building sector can continue to develop. Examples of areas where further knowledge is needed include: moisture safe and energy-efficient building envelopes; demand-responsive ventilation, without risk of poor indoor environmental conditions; thermal comfort (summer and winter); airtight and durable detailing; design systems and working methods to ensure retention of good characteristics when converting or extending buildings; durability aspects of certain components and functions; the effects of occupants on energy use; how indoor environment conditions and functions will cope with climate change; quality assurance in order to ensure that the appropriate knowledge is applied, and that the work is carried out properly. Some important points to emphasise: The design and construction of low-energy houses and passive houses must be firmly based on the correct design principles and appropriate standards of workmanship, in order to ensure that the houses are energy-efficient, have good indoor environmental conditions and can be expected to have long lives. Proper understanding of the principles, coupled with constant quality awareness, are essential in all stages of the work from the developer, designer and construction personnel but also during operation-phase. Hitherto, low-energy houses and passive houses have been built in relatively small numbers, but the expectation is that interest in them will increase. This raises the question of how, if production is to be very much more than at present

  4. Chemical air quality in energy-efficient houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syversen, T.L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical pollutants and ventilation rate have been measured in newly built energy efficient private dwellings. The samples were taken in the absence of normal human activity in the houses. The data show that the main source of organic pollutants seems to be indoor building materials and furniture. For dust an important source could be the outdoor environment. Formaldehyde was primarily found in houses where chipboard was used while levels of radondaughters was very low in all houses tested. (Author)

  5. Self-organization of frozen light in near-zero-index media with cubic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2016-02-01

    Optical beams are generally unbound in bulk media, and propagate with a velocity approximately amounting to the speed of light in free-space. Guidance and full spatial confinement of light are usually achieved by means of waveguides, mirrors, resonators, and photonic crystals. Here we theoretically demonstrate that nonlinear self-organization can be exploited to freeze optical beams in bulk near-zero-index media, thus enabling three-dimensional self-trapping of still light without the need of optical resonators. Light is stopped to a standstill owing to the divergent wavelength and the vanishing group velocity, effectively rendering, through nonlinearity, a positive-epsilon trapping cavity carved in an otherwise slightly-negative-epsilon medium. By numerically solving Maxwell’s equations, we find a soliton-like family of still azimuthal doughnuts, which we further study through an adiabatic perturbative theory that describes soliton evaporation in lossy media or condensation in actively pumped materials. Our results suggest applications in optical data processing and storage, quantum optical memories, and soliton-based lasers without cavities. Additionally, near-zero-index conditions can also be found in the interplanetary medium and in the atmosphere, where we provide a complementary explanation to the rare phenomenon of ball-lightning.

  6. Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberg, Jura; Zhou, You; Richter, Steffen; Wan, Chenghao; Zhang, Shuyan; Schöppe, Philipp; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Ramanathan, Shriram; Capasso, Federico; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ronning, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    Efficient suppression of reflection is a key requirement for perfect absorption of light. Recently, it has been shown that reflection can be effectively suppressed utilizing a single ultrathin film deposited on metals or polar materials featuring phonon resonances. The wavelength at which reflection can be fully suppressed is primarily determined by the nature of these substrates and is pinned to particular values near plasma or phonon resonances—the former typically in the ultraviolet or visible and the latter in the infrared. Here, we explicitly identify the required optical properties of films and substrates for the design of absorbing antireflection coatings based on ultrathin films. We find that completely suppressed reflection using films with thicknesses much smaller than the wavelength of light occurs within a spectral region where the real part of the refractive index of the substrate is n ≲1 , which is characteristic of materials with permittivity close to zero. We experimentally verify this condition by using an ultrathin vanadium dioxide film with dynamically tunable optical properties on several epsilon-near-zero materials, including aluminum-doped zinc oxide. By tailoring the plasma frequency of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide, we are able to tune the epsilon-near-zero point, thus achieving suppressed reflection and near-perfect absorption at wavelengths that continuously span the near-infrared and long-wave midinfrared ranges.

  7. Viscoelastic optical nonlocality of doped cadmium oxide epsilon-near-zero thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting S.; De Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael; Vincenti, Maria A.; Campione, Salvatore; Kelley, Kyle; Maria, Jon-Paul; Keeler, Gordon A.

    2017-08-01

    Optical nonlocalities are elusive and hardly observable in traditional plasmonic materials like noble and alkali metals. Here we experimentally observe and theoretically model viscoelastic nonlocalities in the infrared optical response of a doped, cadmium oxide epsilon-near-zero thin film. The nonlocality is clearly detectable thanks to the low damping rate of conduction electrons and the virtual absence of interband transitions at infrared wavelengths. We describe the motion of conduction electrons using a hydrodynamic model for a viscoelastic fluid, and find excellent agreement with experimental results. The electrons’ elasticity blue-shifts the infrared plasmonic resonance associated with the main epsilon-near-zero mode, and triggers the onset of higher-order resonances due to the excitation of electron-pressure modes above the bulk plasma frequency. We also provide evidence of the existence of nonlocal damping, i.e., viscosity, in the motion of optically-excited conduction electrons using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry data and predictions based on the viscoelastic hydrodynamic model.

  8. NCSU solar energy and conservation house. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar energy house has been built adjacent to the NCSU McKimmon Continuing Education Center. The house contains a two-story embedded sunspace, two Trombe walls, active solar hot water heating, thermal storage in a rock filled ceiling/floor, and numerous research treatments, and energy conservation features. (See attached photo brochure; Appendix 1). The house is completely decorated and furnished in an attractive manner and the exterior architecture is traditional and has broad consumer appeal. It is also thoroughly instrumented to monitor performance. The house is open to the public on weekends and numerous people come to visit on their own initiative and others take advantage of the close proximity to McKimmon while there attending conferences. The house will influence and motivate large numbers of people to consider solar and energy conservation facets in their homes and will provide data to substantiate performance to prospective home buyers and meaningful data on design and construction for builders.

  9. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  10. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with

  11. Energy plus standard in buildings constructed by housing associations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutterecker, Werner; Blümel, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve national, European and international energy goals, energy efficiency strategies in the building sector have to be implemented. The passive house standard and low energy standards are already successfully established in single dwelling houses. These high performance standards are starting to penetrate into the sector of housing associations. A case study about an apartment building constructed by a housing association is presented here. It describes the monitoring concept and the results of the 1st year of monitoring. Depending on the definition of the zero energy building standard (extent of loads included in the balancing), the building could be classified as an energy plus building or as a building, which uses more energy, than is supplied by on-site generation. If the building's total energy use (including user specific loads) is defined as load, only 34.5% of these loads were provided by the net energy output of the PV system. If only the heating energy demand is defined as load, the PV system even yielded a surplus of 45.6% of the energy load. -- Highlights: ► Energy monitoring of an apartment building constructed by a housing association. ► Planned as a Passive House with a semi-central ventilation system with decentralized heat pump technology. ► Total end energy demand of the building was 43 kWh/(m² a). ► Total net energy generation by the PV system was 15 kWh/(m² a). ► Apartment no. 1: 52% of the energy demand were used for heating and ventilation.

  12. Performance of the Low-energy House in Sisimiut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Kragh, Jesper; Borchersen, Egil

    2009-01-01

    A low-energy house was built in Sisimiut, Greenland in 2004-05 and since its inauguration in April 2005, its performance and operation have been object of study for researchers and students. The house is characterised by a highly insulated building envelope, advanced windows and a ventilation...... system with heat recovery, which should cut the energy consumption of the building to only half of what in 2006 became the permissible value in the Greenlandic building code. In addition to this, the house is equipped with a solar collector that supplies heat to the domestic hot water system and delivers...

  13. Directive Emission Obtained by Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero (MENZ metamaterials to realize the substrates that can modify the emission of an embedded line source. Simulation results show that the cylindrical waves emitted from the line source can be perfectly converted to plane wave through the MENZ metamaterial slab with planar exit face. Hence the line source together with the metamaterial slab constructs a high directive slab antenna. The directive radiation pattern of the MENZ metamaterial-assisted slab antenna is independent on the thickness of the slab, the position of the line source, and the shape of the entrance face of the slab, but the slab with grooved entrance side will result in stronger far-field intensity. We also show that the MENZ metamaterials can be applied to the design of antenna array. Moreover, compared with the high directive slab antenna obtained by coordinate transformation approach, the MENZ metamaterial-assisted antenna is more preferable.

  14. Energy Supply System for Industrial Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The gas engine driven carbon dioxide heat pump designed for providing the heat, cold and electricity for industrial poultry house is proposed. The scheme differs from the known by using recuperative heat exchanger installed between the exhaust air duct of poultry house and heat pump evaporator and the heat curtain installed on the air duct after the evaporator. The air coming into the poultry house after the regenerative heat exchanger is supplied to the heat pump gas cooler. The heat pump produces heat of the required parameters of the input air and water for watering of poultry, space heating, etc. Heat pump compressor is driven by gas engine (GPA, by natural gas or biogas. The part of the gas-piston engine heat is used for adjusting the optimal heat pump mode and for regeneration of the absorbent in an evaporative cooler. The proposed technical solution of the above scheme provides a higher COP of the heat pump. Installing of heat curtain does not require the use of non-freezing solution to prevent icing of the air outlet of heat pump evaporator. The latter allows producing, besides electric power and heat, still cold (with the use off the adsorption-refrigerating machine and provide drying air inlet evaporative cooler (if necessary.

  15. An Interesting Thermal Enhancement Near Zero Phase In Saturn's A Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, B. D.; Spilker, L. J.; Pilorz, S. H.; Pearl, J. C.; Altobelli, N.; Edgington, S. G.; Flasar, F. M.; CIRS Team

    2005-08-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations of Saturn's main rings during the first set of orbits designed for prime ring viewing geometry have shown the main rings to be thermally complex. The thermal appearance of the rings changes significantly with viewing geometry, ring local time and phase angle. During one observation near the zero phase on the rings, the CIRS data showed an unexpected thermal enhancement in the A Ring at a phase angle of 0.3 degrees and a local time of 6 hours. A similar radial scan taken one orbit later at a phase angle of 1.5 degrees showed a similar thermal enhancement. For comparison, comparable data taken in the same region, at the same ring opening and local time, but at a phase angle of ˜ 10.5 degrees, showed a lower effective temperature by about 2 degrees than the zero phase measurement. Afternoon scans of this region at phase angles of 14 to 32 degrees show derived temperatures that are comparable to those seen in the morning near zero phase. In general, the A ring appears to be 4 to 5 degrees warmer in the afternoon than in the morning, except at zero phase, where the A ring temperature is warmer than the afternoon temperature. Future observations are planned to help us understand what has been observed near zero phase. One possible explanation for this enhancement in ring temperature is the clumping of particles into larger irregular shaped structures where the inability to see into warmer chasms and craterlike features would be impaired except for viewing conditions near the zero phase point much like the Thermal Beaming effect observed on asteroids and other solar system bodies without atmospheres. This work was performed at JPL/Caltech under contract with NASA.

  16. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO 2 . Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of

  17. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, T.; Peeks, B.

    2013-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  18. Energy efficiency in the British housing stock: Energy demand and the Homes Energy Efficiency Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian G.; Steadman, Philip J.; Bruhns, Harry; Summerfield, Alex J.; Lowe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government has unveiled an ambitious retrofit programme that seeks significant improvement to the energy efficiency of the housing stock. High quality data on the energy efficiency of buildings and their related energy demand is critical to supporting and targeting investment in energy efficiency. Using existing home improvement programmes over the past 15 years, the UK Government has brought together data on energy efficiency retrofits in approximately 13 million homes into the Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED), along with annual metered gas and electricity use for the period of 2004–2007. This paper describes the HEED sample and assesses its representativeness in terms of dwelling characteristics, the energy demand of different energy performance levels using linked gas and electricity meter data, along with an analysis of the impact retrofit measures has on energy demand. Energy savings are shown to be associated with the installation of loft and cavity insulation, and glazing and boiler replacement. The analysis illustrates this source of ‘in-action’ data can be used to provide empirical estimates of impacts of energy efficiency retrofit on energy demand and provides a source of empirical data from which to support the development of national housing energy efficiency retrofit policies. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency level for 50% of the British housing stock is described. • Energy demand is influenced by size and age and energy performance. • Housing retrofits (e.g. cavity insulation, glazing and boiler replacements) save energy. • Historic differences in energy performance show persistent long-term energy savings

  19. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    in the home and for the energy-consumer’s openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument’s 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric....... However, these two behavioural tendencies vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments. The study shows that HRL segmentation is a useful tool for creating more targeted and effective energy-saving campaigns....

  20. Flexible Energy Consumption in Smart House's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    2012-01-01

    the consumer have to use the energy when it is available. The main electrical energy consumer in a modern society is buildings and private homes. The amount of electrical energy used in this sector is about 70% of the total electricity consumption. Because of that buildings and private homes has to play...

  1. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Conlin, Francis [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions (ARIES) Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    More than 1 million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation 10 ten housing units. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6%-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  2. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Podorson, D.; Alaigh, K.

    2014-06-01

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 PHAs across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with two public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in ten housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16-20% and duct leakage reductions averaged 38%. Total source energy consumption savings was estimated at 6-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.7 to 2.2 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of unit per year nationally.

  3. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Over one million HUD-supported public housing units provide rental housing for eligible low-income families across the country. A survey of over 100 public housing authorities (PHAs) across the country indicated that there is a high level of interest in developing low-cost solutions that improve energy efficiency and can be seamlessly included in the refurbishment process. Further, PHAs, have incentives (both internal and external) to reduce utility bills. ARIES worked with four PHAs to develop packages of energy efficiency retrofit measures the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs in the normal course of housing operations at the time when units are refurbished between occupancies. The energy efficiency turnover protocols emphasized air infiltration reduction, duct sealing, and measures that improve equipment efficiency. ARIES documented implementation in 18 housing units. Reductions in average air leakage were 16% and duct leakage reductions averaged 23%. Total source energy consumption savings due to implemented measures was estimated at 3-10% based on BEopt modeling with a simple payback of 1.6 to 2.5 years. Implementation challenges were encountered mainly related to required operational changes and budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, simple measures can feasibly be accomplished by PHA staff at low or no cost. At typical housing unit turnover rates, these measures could impact hundreds of thousands of units per year nationally.

  4. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program, Center for Housing Innovation, University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. The current research program, under the guidance of a steering committee composed of industry and government representatives, focuses on three interdependent concerns -- (1) energy, (2) industrial process, and (3) housing design. Building homes in a factory offers the opportunity to increase energy efficiency through the use of new materials and processes, and to increase the value of these homes by improving the quality of their construction. Housing design strives to ensure that these technically advanced homes are marketable and will meet the needs of the people who will live in them.

  5. The price of energy efficiency in the Spanish housing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Amaia de; Galarraga, Ibon; Spadaro, Joseph V.

    2016-01-01

    The housing sector is a substantial consumer of energy, and therefore a focus for energy savings efforts. The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), introduced in 2002 and revised in 2010, is a key instrument to increase the energy performance of buildings across the European Union. Following the implementation of the EPBD into Spanish law, all properties offered for sale or rented out in Spain are required to have an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). Given that the implementation of the EPC scheme for new, existing and advertised properties is still very low in Spain, unlike other European housing markets, the Spanish one lacks market data on energy efficiency (EE) labels and their impact on housing price. To overcome this gap, we determine the EE ratings of a sample of 1507 homes across Spain on the basis of information collected previously through household surveys. This allowed us to answer the question of whether or not, and to what extent, Spanish housing markets capitalise the value of EE. We apply the hedonic-price technique and observe that more energy efficient dwellings have a price-premium between 5.4% and 9.8% compared to those with the same characteristics but lower EE level. - Highlights: •The Spanish housing market lacks data on energy efficiency (EE) labels. •We determine the EE ratings of a sample of 1507 homes across Spain. •Homes labelled A, B and C account for less than 10% of the housing stock. •Energy efficient dwellings have a price-premium between 5.4% and 9.8%, ceteris paribus.

  6. Energy Resources Consumption Minimization in Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balastov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the energy savings analysis during operation of buildings, provides the heat balance of residential premises, considers options for energy-efficient solutions for hot water supply systems in buildings. As technical facilities that allow the use of secondary heat sources and solar energy, there are also considered the systems with heat recovery of “gray” wastewater, heat pumps, solar collectors and photoelectric converters.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment in Building: A Case Study on the Energy and Emissions Impact Related to the Choice of Housing Typologies and Construction Process in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ángel Rodríguez Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While there exists an international trend to develop zero or near zero emissions building solutions by 2020, and European governments continuously update their building regulations to optimize the building envelope and energy systems to achieve this during the building use stage, at least in Spain the building regulations do not take into account the impact of emissions resulting from urbanization and construction activities prior to building use. This research studies in detail the entire emissions balance (and how it may be related to energy efficiency in a newly built residential cluster project in Mancha Real (Jaén, Spain, and influences due to the choice of different urban typologies. For comparison, terraced housing and low-density, four-floor, multi-family housing alternatives have been studied. The present work assessed the life cycle of the building with the help of commercial software (CYPE, and the energy efficiency and emissions according to the legal regulations in Spain with the official software LIDER and CALENER VYP. After a careful choice of building and systems alternatives and their comparison, the study concludes that the major emissions impact and energy costs of urbanization and building activity occurs during construction, while later savings due to reductions in building use emissions are very modest in comparison. Therefore, deeper analysis is suggested to improve the efficiency of the construction process for a significantly reduced emission footprint on the urban environment.

  8. Occupant Experiences and Satisfaction with New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The development and the erection of low-energy buildings have been intensified in recent years. Still, there are only few studies on occupant experiences and satisfaction of living in low-energy houses. A questionnaire survey was therefore carried out in the autumn 2011 among occupants of low-ene...

  9. On the economics of energy labels in the housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, D.; Kok, N.

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the residential housing market can play an important role in the reduction of global carbon emissions. This paper reports the first evidence on the market adoption and economic implications of energy performance certificates implemented by the European Union. The results show

  10. Goodbye Passive House, Hello Energy Flexible Building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; LaRoche, P.; Schiler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The volume uptake of highly energy-efficient buildings is challenged by transformations in the energy system and the introduction of demand response strategies. In the near future buildings will be able to manage their demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and

  11. Small and Shaping the Future Energy Eco-house System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryuzo; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Sato, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Isu, Norifumi; Ohtsuka, Masuo; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop the elemental technology of the small and thin energy collection system from water, wind, and others in the house, and examine them at the eco-house which will be built at Tohoku University on March 2010. This small energy storage system will contribute to reduce 10% of greenhouse gas emission from household electricity. This project is done by three following groups. 1st group (NEC-Tokin Co. Ltd.) will develop the technologies on the accumulation of electric power pressured from low electric power in which electricity is generated and on the cooperation with AC power supply used for domestic use for this eco-house system. 2nd group (INAX Co. Ltd.) will develop the elemental technology of the slight energy collection system from tap water in the home using a small hydroelectric generator for this eco-house system. 3rd group (Shoei Co. Ltd.) will develop the technologies on existent magnetic gear device, health appliances (Exercise bike), wind power generator, for this eco-house system. Tokoku University compiles these groups. Furthermore, I develop a search of unused small energy and the use technology, and propose a new energy supply system using solar cell and Li ion secondary battery.

  12. Energy-efficient housing stimulus that pays for itself

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevin, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an energy-efficient housing stimulus strategy that can: (1) quickly provide large-scale job creation; (2) reduce home energy bills by 30-50% with associated reductions in emissions and energy assistance spending; (3) stabilize home values and reduce foreclosure inventory; (4) help to eliminate childhood lead poisoning; and (5) implement regulatory reforms that highlight market incentives for cost effective energy efficiency and alternative home energy investments. These benefits, far in excess of costs, can be achieved by combining 'lead-safe window replacement' with other weatherization activities and simple regulatory and market reforms. This strategy can help to coordinate American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding for energy efficiency, the $75 billion Making Home Affordable plan to reduce foreclosures, and the recently announced partnership between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to streamline weatherization efforts and spur job creation.

  13. Energy efficiency of ultra-low-cost housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Richards, P.G.; Wyk, S.L. van; Rousseau, P.G. [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)

    1995-12-01

    Housing is a problem in all developing countries. Presently South Africa has a large urbanization drive, to such an extent that over the next 10 years 1300 houses per day must be built to alleviate the problem. Most of the houses currently being erected could be described as ultra-low-cost houses. These houses are constructed by their owners in record time from corrugated iron. Advantages are the accessibility of building material and straightforward building techniques. Unfortunately the dwellings are thermally and energy inefficient. As a result inhabitants spend a disproportionate percentage of their income on winter heating. They use highly polluting and low energy content fuels such as wood and coal. This presents health risks and burdens the environment and natural resources. This paper evaluates the potential of inexpensive modifications which contribute to improved living and environmental conditions. Investigations are based on a unique analysis method which is eminently suitable for application to the problem. Modifications such as cardboard insulation showed the most potential. Although often available free of charge as waste products, results indicate that a definite cost saving incentive exists even if owners have to buy the cardboard. Modifying the houses as suggested reduces energy requirements and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by up to 75%. (author)

  14. Housing, energy cost, and the poor: Counteracting effects in Germany's housing allowance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groesche, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Adequate housing and affordable warmth are essential human needs, the lack of which may seriously harm people's health. Germany provides an allowance to low-income households, covering the housing as well as the space heating cost, to protect people from the consequences of poor housing conditions and fuel poverty. In order to limit public expenditures, payment recipients are required to choose low-cost dwellings, with the consequence that they probably occupy flats with a poor thermal performance. Recipients might therefore exhibit a lower per-square meter rent but in turn are likely to have a higher energy consumption and energy expenditures. Using a large data set of German households, this paper demonstrates that this financially counteracting effect is of negligible magnitude.

  15. Energy Vulnerability Composite Index in Social Housing, from a Household Energy Poverty Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Llera-Sastresa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the proportion of social housing is high, and such houses tend to be inhabited by below average-income households, which are particularly vulnerable to energy poverty. This article proposes a new methodological approach for defining an index for household energy vulnerability assessment. This method can be used to improve the management of social housing. After establishing a heuristic framework for household energy poverty–which stems from different causes such as income, the characteristics of the residence, energy installations, and the energy-consumption habits of household members–multi-criteria analytical methods, based on the aggregation of indicators which reveal the conditions leading to energy poverty, have been applied, and effective means of intervention are proposed. The method is also applied to a sample of social houses and thus validated as a useful tool in decision-making processes which concern the management of social housing from a household energy-poverty perspective.

  16. Excellent areas. Learning from energy efficient newly built houses. Halfway the knowledge and learning phase; Excellente gebieden. Leerschool voor energiezuinige nieuwbouw. Halverwege het kennis- en leertraject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The so-called Excellent Areas concern 19 innovative newly built houses projects in the residential and utility sector. Houses and office buildings are constructed with at least an energy performance coefficient (EPC), 25% stricter than as described in the Dutch Building Code. This project is aimed at preparing for the Spring Agreement in which it is agreed to tighten the EPC in 2015 and to reach the nearly zero-energy ambition for 2020. Municipalities, project developers and other parties in the energy-efficient building business thus gain experience with innovative construction methods and techniques. And in particular in the search for innovation in the construction process and new forms of cooperation and financing. The knowledge and experiences are supported, shared and disseminated in the knowledge and learning process of Excellent Areas [Dutch] De Excellente Gebieden zijn 19 innovatieve nieuwbouwprojecten in de woning- en utiliteitsbouw. Hier worden woningen en kantoren gebouwd met tenminste een 25% scherpere energieprestatiecoefficient (EPC) dan het Bouwbesluit voorschrijft. Dit ter voorbereiding op de in het Lente-akkoord afgesproken aanscherping van de EPC in 2015 en de bijna energieneutrale ambitie voor 2020. Gemeenten, projectontwikkelaars en andere partijen die energiezuinig bouwen, doen uitgebreide praktijkervaring op met innovatieve bouwmethoden en technieken. En vooral ook met het zoeken naar innovatie in het bouwproces en nieuwe vormen van samenwerking en financiering. Deze kennis en ervaring wordt ondersteund, gedeeld en verspreid in het kennis- en leertraject Excellente Gebieden.

  17. A Near-Zero Refractive Index Meta-Surface Structure for Antenna Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    A new meta-surface structure (MSS) with a near-zero refractive index (NZRI) is proposed to enhance the performance of a square loop antenna array. The main challenge to improve the antenna performance is increment of the overall antenna volume that is mitigated by assimilating the planar NZRI MSS at the back of the antenna structure. The proposed NZRI MSS-loaded CPW-fed (Co-Planar Waveguide) four-element array antenna is designed on ceramic-bioplastic-ceramic sandwich substrate using high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), a finite-element-method-based simulation tool. The gain and directivity of the antenna are significantly enhanced by incorporating the NZRI MSS with a 7 × 6 set of elements at the back of the antenna structure. Measurement results show that the maximum gains of the antenna increased from 6.21 dBi to 8.25 dBi, from 6.52 dBi to 9.05 dBi and from 10.54 dBi to 12.15 dBi in the first, second and third bands, respectively. The effect of the slot configuration in the ground plane on the reflection coefficient of the antenna was analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for UHFFM (Ultra High Frequency Frequency Modulation) telemetry-based space applications as well as mobile satellite, microwave radiometry and radio astronomy applications. PMID:28788376

  18. Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A.P.

    2017-05-15

    As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer – a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material – applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers – and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency – are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.

  19. Efficiency limit of solar cells with index-near-zero photon management layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    As single-junction solar cells saturate in efficiency, the topic of photon management has generated interest in the long running quest to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. While a mirror applied to the backside of a solar cell has proven its benefit as a photon management layer in record setting devices that fall within the Shockley-Queisser limit, it has been proposed that a new type of photon management layer - a transparent index-near-zero (INZ) material - applied to the top surface of a solar cell will allow it to finally exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. INZ layers - and their influence on solar cell current density, open circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency - are analyzed. By considering the principle of detailed balance, Snell's law, and the role that entropy plays, it is shown that INZ layers do not allow a solar cell to exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. At best, a solar cell with an INZ layer would have the same Shockley-Queisser limiting efficiency as a conventional solar cell tracked under a direct solar spectrum (direct beam radiation only), yet would suffer diminished efficiency under a global solar spectrum (direct beam plus diffuse light) due to the presence of an external critical acceptance angle.

  20. Mass current in 3He - A: Some exact representations and their London limit near zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C.

    1995-09-01

    New representations for normal Green's function of the superfluid A-phase of helium-3 are obtained by an exact solution of the Dyson-Gor'kov equation. These representations result in new formulae for the mass current j-vector near zero temperature. Specific limiting cases for j-vector such ast the limit of lowest order in gradients, following the limit of zero temperature, and vice versa, are investigated. It is shown that the mass current previously known as j-vector = j-vector 0 , where j-vector 0 is an expression of first order in gradients, should be treated as a ''quasiclassical'' object in view of the approximations chosen. The parameter 1/χ implying the ''quasiclassics'', is a small quantity, as the London limit condition holds. Expansion of j-vector in powers of 1/χ is considered and first corrections to j-vector 0 are obtained at zero temperature, for two gauges of the order parameter. (author). 26 refs

  1. A Near Zero Refractive Index Metamaterial for Electromagnetic Invisibility Cloaking Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder Sunbeam Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the design of a unit cell of a metamaterial that shows more than 2 GHz wideband near zero refractive index (NZRI property in the C-band region of microwave spectra. The two arms of the unit cell were splitted in such a way that forms a near-pi-shape structure on epoxy resin fiber (FR-4 substrate material. The reflection and transmission characteristics of the unit cell were achieved by utilizing finite integration technique based simulation software. Measured results were presented, which complied well with simulated results. The unit cell was then applied to build a single layer rectangular-shaped cloak that operates in the C-band region where a metal cylinder was perfectly hidden electromagnetically by reducing the scattering width below zero. Moreover, the unit cell shows NZRI property there. The experimental result for the cloak operation was presented in terms of S-parameters as well. In addition, the same metamaterial shell was also adopted for designing an eye-shaped and triangular-shaped cloak structure to cloak the same object, and cloaking operation is achieved in the C-band, as well with slightly better cloaking performance. The novel design, NZRI property, and single layer C-band cloaking operation has made the design a promising one in the electromagnetic paradigm.

  2. Doping-tunable thermal emission from plasmon polaritons in semiconductor epsilon-near-zero thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Young Chul [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Luk, Ting S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies; Robert Ellis, A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies

    2014-09-29

    Here, we utilize the unique dispersion properties of leaky plasmon polaritons in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) thin films to demonstrate thermal radiation control. Owing to its highly flat dispersion above the light line, a thermally excited leaky wave at the ENZ frequency out-couples into free space without any scattering structures, resulting in a narrowband, wide-angle, p-polarized thermal emission spectrum. We demonstrate this idea by measuring angle- and polarization-resolved thermal emission spectra from a single layer of unpatterned, doped semiconductors with deep-subwavelength film thickness (d/λ0 ~ 6 ×10-3, where d is the film thickness and λ0 is the free space wavelength). We show that this semiconductor ENZ film effectively works as a leaky wave thermal radiation antenna, which generates far-field radiation from a thermally excited mode. The use of semiconductors makes the radiation frequency highly tunable by controlling doping densities and also facilitates device integration with other components. Therefore, this leaky plasmon polariton emission from semiconductor ENZ films provides an avenue for on-chip control of thermal radiation.

  3. A Near-Zero Refractive Index Meta-Surface Structure for Antenna Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Habib Ullah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new meta-surface structure (MSS with a near-zero refractive index (NZRI is proposed to enhance the performance of a square loop antenna array. The main challenge to improve the antenna performance is increment of the overall antenna volume that is mitigated by assimilating the planar NZRI MSS at the back of the antenna structure. The proposed NZRI MSS-loaded CPW-fed (Co-Planar Waveguide four-element array antenna is designed on ceramic-bioplastic-ceramic sandwich substrate using high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, a finite-element-method-based simulation tool. The gain and directivity of the antenna are significantly enhanced by incorporating the NZRI MSS with a 7 × 6 set of elements at the back of the antenna structure. Measurement results show that the maximum gains of the antenna increased from 6.21 dBi to 8.25 dBi, from 6.52 dBi to 9.05 dBi and from 10.54 dBi to 12.15 dBi in the first, second and third bands, respectively. The effect of the slot configuration in the ground plane on the reflection coefficient of the antenna was analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for UHFFM (Ultra High Frequency Frequency Modulation telemetry-based space applications as well as mobile satellite, microwave radiometry and radio astronomy applications.

  4. Optical Time Reversal from Time-Dependent Epsilon-Near-Zero Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Stefano; Bruno, Vincenzo; DeVault, Clayton; Roger, Thomas; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Ferrera, Marcello; Clerici, Matteo; Dubietis, Audrius; Faccio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    Materials with a spatially uniform but temporally varying optical response have applications ranging from magnetic field-free optical isolators to fundamental studies of quantum field theories. However, these effects typically become relevant only for time variations oscillating at optical frequencies, thus presenting a significant hurdle that severely limits the realization of such conditions. Here we present a thin-film material with a permittivity that pulsates (uniformly in space) at optical frequencies and realizes a time-reversing medium of the form originally proposed by Pendry [Science 322, 71 (2008), 10.1126/science.1162087]. We use an optically pumped, 500 nm thick film of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material based on Al-doped zinc oxide. An incident probe beam is both negatively refracted and time reversed through a reflected phase-conjugated beam. As a result of the high nonlinearity and the refractive index that is close to zero, the ENZ film leads to time reversed beams (simultaneous negative refraction and phase conjugation) with near-unit efficiency and greater-than-unit internal conversion efficiency. The ENZ platform therefore presents the time-reversal features required, e.g., for efficient subwavelength imaging, all-optical isolators and fundamental quantum field theory studies.

  5. 76 FR 71287 - Public Housing Energy Audits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... evaluation of an ECM. A more detailed cost analysis may be conducted that includes complete lifecycle cost analysis; however, the baseline audit requires only that those lifecycle costs be generally identified, not... insulation; energy-efficient mechanical equipment; low-flow water devices and other water conservation...

  6. Zero Energy Housing for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    cost LCCA life-cycle cost analysis LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design m2 square meter MARR minimum acceptable rate of return...project team. It was through her vision the teams came together to successfully implement the project. Heidi Kaltenhauser of Concurrent Technologies...project. Private companies use a minimum acceptable rate of return ( MARR ) as the metric for project acceptance; the investment opportunity is

  7. Performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Newcomb, C.; Shea, M.; Mort, D.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a technical description of the methodology and the results of a two year effort to collect field data on the performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California. Sixty-three passive solar houses were visited and several hours were spent with the homeowner obtaining building details, management procedures, architectural plans, photographs, and at least a year of billing data. With this information thermal performance parameters were calculated for each of the houses. Eleven of the above sixty-three Class C sites (nine passive solar and two energy conserving houses) were instrumented and monitored using the SERI Class B methodology as a guideline. Continuous data were collected for one year using up to 18 different sensors to measure temperatures, electric power, insolation, and the status of fans, gas burners, and moveable insulation. In addition careful one time measurements were made to determine the loss coefficient, infiltration rate, and furnace efficiency. Analysis of this data giving comfort conditions maintained and energy uses for a complete heating and cooling season for each of the houses is presented.

  8. Integral energy concepts for housing estates; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N.; Kuehl, L. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Integral energy concepts for housing estates require an early cooperation between architects, planners, and specialist engineers on the basis of a holistic planning approach. This is how future-oriented, sustainable concepts evolve which do justice to the multifarious requirements on the integral energy system of a housing estate. The present paper elucidates different approaches to optimising the energy efficiency of buildings such as the implementation of low-energy house concepts, building site and architectural planning, and detailed planning of heat insulation concepts, ventilation and air tightness concepts, and adapted heating systems. The solarisation of development plans has an influence on the arrangement of buildings, which are now planned to give the greatest possible passive and active solar energy gains. The authors also describe solar-assisted district heating systems for housing estates. [Deutsch] Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen erfordern die fruehe Zusammenarbeit von Architekten, Planern und Fachingenieuren im Rahmen einer ganzheitlichen Planung. So entstehen zukunftsweisende und tragfaehige Konzepte, die den vielschichtigen Anforderungen des Gesamtenergiesystems ``Wohnsiedlung`` gerecht werden. Im Folgenden wird die energetische Optimierung von Gebaeuden wie die Umsetzung von Niedrigenergiehaus-Konzepten, Standort und Gebaeudeplanung sowie Detailplanung in Bezug auf das Waermedaemmkonzept, Lueftungs-/Dichtheitskonzept und auf angepasste Waermeversorgungssysteme erl autert. Die Solarisierung von Bebauungsplaenen beeinflusste Anordnung der Gebaeude hinsichtlich der Nutzung passivsolarer Gewinne sowie des Einsatzes von Systemen der aktiven Solarenergienutzung. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermenetze fuer Wohnsiedlungen werden ebenfalls beschrieben.

  9. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  10. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  11. Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Merciadri, Luca

    2007-01-01

    A description about the main characteristics of the passive house concept. The aim of this document is to answer to the question ``Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy ?'' in an objective way.

  12. Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Wyk, S.L. van; Richards, P.G.; Rousseau, P.G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa))

    1994-08-01

    South Africa aims to build 3 million houses in the next six years. The most energy efficient design has to be identified to ensure the optimal use of South Africa's resources and to create a prosperous environment for her inhabitants. For this purpose the various formal low-cost house concepts on the market were evaluated and the projected impact on the country calculated. Houses were evaluated by means of a computer programme, Quick. Through simulations it was found that the common brick building built according to passive design guidelines is the best performer. The difference between the best and worst performer accounts to predicted direct cumulative savings in energy costs for a country like South Africa of over R180 million (US dollars 72 million) per annum. (author)

  13. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  14. A method of immediate detection of objects with a near-zero apparent motion in series of CCD-frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanevych, V. E.; Khlamov, S. V.; Vavilova, I. B.; Briukhovetskyi, A. B.; Pohorelov, A. V.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kudak, V. I.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Dikov, E. N.; Melnik, R. G.; Vlasenko, V. P.; Reichart, D. E.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with a computational method for detection of the solar system minor bodies (SSOs), whose inter-frame shifts in series of CCD-frames during the observation are commensurate with the errors in measuring their positions. These objects have velocities of apparent motion between CCD-frames not exceeding three rms errors (3σ) of measurements of their positions. About 15% of objects have a near-zero apparent motion in CCD-frames, including the objects beyond the Jupiter's orbit as well as the asteroids heading straight to the Earth. The proposed method for detection of the object's near-zero apparent motion in series of CCD-frames is based on the Fisher f-criterion instead of using the traditional decision rules that are based on the maximum likelihood criterion. We analyzed the quality indicators of detection of the object's near-zero apparent motion applying statistical and in situ modeling techniques in terms of the conditional probability of the true detection of objects with a near-zero apparent motion. The efficiency of method being implemented as a plugin for the Collection Light Technology (CoLiTec) software for automated asteroids and comets detection has been demonstrated. Among the objects discovered with this plugin, there was the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON). Within 26 min of the observation, the comet's image has been moved by three pixels in a series of four CCD-frames (the velocity of its apparent motion at the moment of discovery was equal to 0.8 pixels per CCD-frame; the image size on the frame was about five pixels). Next verification in observations of asteroids with a near-zero apparent motion conducted with small telescopes has confirmed an efficiency of the method even in bad conditions (strong backlight from the full Moon). So, we recommend applying the proposed method for series of observations with four or more frames.

  15. Backtest type and housing condition of pigs influence energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, N.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Wiegant, V.M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral response of piglets in a backtest early in life seems indicative of their coping strategy at a later age. Coping characteristics may depend on the interaction between backtest classification and housing conditions. We studied whether growth rate and partitioning of energy in adult

  16. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  17. Development of near zero-order release PLGA-based microspheres of a novel antipsychotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Wang, Lexi; Fan, Chunyu; Yu, Kongtong; Liu, Ximing; Zhao, Xiaolei; Wang, Dan; Liu, Wenhua; Su, Zhengxing; Sun, Fengying; Li, Youxin

    2017-01-10

    The novel antipsychotic isoperidone, a prodrug of paliperidone, was designed to improve liposolubility for the development of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microspheres to achieve near zero-order release behaviour in vivo. Microspheres with a smooth surface were obtained using the oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method and yielded a high encapsulation efficiency of 92%. Pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs showed a one-week plateau phase followed by a two-week quasi-zero-order release with no burst release. The in vitro release method with a good in vitro-in vivo correlation was also established. Pharmacodynamic evaluation was performed using the MK-801-induced schizophrenic behavioural mouse model, and the sustained suppressive effect lasted two weeks. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship of isoperidone microspheres was compared to that of oral administration of free drug. The results revealed a strong correlation between the plasma drug level and the antipsychotic effect. A stable drug plasma concentration was detected in mice both intraday and interday from 8 to 22 d after a single injection of isoperidone microspheres, and a sustained suppressive effect on the schizophrenic model was also observed. In comparison, the mouse group receiving oral daily administration exhibited more dose-dependent effects, and the pharmacological effect diminished rapidly in conjunction with a reduction of the plasma drug levels 8h after the last administration of isoperidone on day 3. The above results confirm the superiority of long-acting release over oral administration and indicate a valuable alternative for the clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HOOPER BAY HOUSING ANALYSIS AND ENERGY FEASIBILITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEA LION CORPORATION; COLD CLIMATE HOUSING RESEARCH CENTER; SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTHY BREATHING; WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION

    2012-12-30

    Sea Lion applied for and received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) towards this end titled Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country. The initial objectives of the Hooper Bay Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study were to demonstrate a 30% reduction in residential/commercial energy usage and identify the economic benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures to the Tribe through: (1) partnering with Whitney Construction and Solutions for Healthy Breathing in the training and hire of 2 local energy assessors to conduct energy audits of 9 representative housing models and 2 commercial units in the community. These homes are representative of 52 homes constructed across different eras. (2) partnering with Cold Climate Housing Research Center to document current electrical and heating energy consumption and analyze data for a final feasibility report (3) assessing the economics of electricity & heating fuel usage; (4) projecting energy savings or fossil fuel reduction by modeling of improvement scenarios and cost feasibility The following two objectives will be completed after the publication of this report: (5) the development of materials lists for energy efficiency improvements (6) identifying financing options for the follow-up energy efficiency implementation phase.

  19. District Heating in Areas with Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan Ibrahim

    This PhD thesis presents a summary of a three-year PhD project involving three case studies, each pertaining to a typical regional Danish energy planning scheme with regard to the extensive use of low-energy district heating systems, operating at temperatures as low as 55°C for supply and 25°C......-energy houses involved, together with the idea of utilizing booster pumps in the district heating network and (ii) use of network layouts of either a branched (tree-like) or a looped type. The methods developed were applied in a case study, the data of which was provided by the municipality of Roskilde...... in Denmark. The second case study was aimed at solving another regional energy planning scheme, one concerned with already existing houses, the heat requirements of which were currently being met by use of a natural gas grid or a conventional high-temperature district heating network. The idea considered...

  20. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  1. Assessment of fire hazards in buildings housing fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Lipska, A.

    1978-01-01

    A number of materials in and within the proximity of buildings housing fusion energy experiments (FEE) were analyzed for their potential fire hazard. The materials used in this study were mostly: electrical and thermal insulations. The fire hazard of these materials was assessed in terms of their ease of ignition, heat release rate, generation of smoke, and the effect of thermal environment on the combustion behavior. Several fire protection measures for buildings housing the (FEE) projects are analyzed and as a result of this study are found to be adequate for the near term

  2. Energy efficient demand controlled ventilation in single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for a simple demand controlled ventilation system for single family houses where all sensors and controls are located in the air handling unit. The strategy is based on sensing CO2-concentration and moisture content in the outdoor air and exhaust air. The CO2...... in the Danish building regulations and the low flow rate is based on minimum requirements in indoor air quality standards. Measurements were performed on an existing single family house where the controls were installed on the existing mechanical ventilation system. The results showed that the ventilation can...... be reduced to the low rate 37% of the time without significant changes in the CO2-concentration and moisture level in the house. In theory this gives a 35% saving on electric energy for fans....

  3. Micro and Nano Electromechanical Systems for Near-Zero Power Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhenyun

    Light is one of the most important tools for human beings to probe and sense the physical world. Infrared (IR) radiation located in longer wavelengths than those of visible light carries rich information of an environment as it reveals the temperature distribution and chemical composition of objects. In addition, it has been utilized for communication and distance measurement owing to the atmospheric window and insensitiveness of human eyes to the IR radiation. As a result, IR detectors nowadays can be found in a wide variety of applications, including thermal imaging, automotive night vision, standoff chemical detection, remote control and laser ranging, just to mention a few. On the other hand, due to the recent fast development of the Internet of Things (IoT), there is a growing demand for miniaturized and power efficient unattended sensors that can be widely distributed in large volumes to form a wireless sensor networks capable of monitoring the environment with high accuracy and long lifetime. In this context, micro and nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) may provide a huge impact, since they can be used for the implementation of miniaturized, low power, high-performance sensors and wireless communication devices fully compatible with standard integrated circuitry. This dissertation presents the design and the experimental verification of high performance uncooled IR detectors based on Aluminum Nitride (AlN) nano electromechanical resonators, and a first-of-its-kind near-zero power IR digitizer based on plasmonically-enhanced micromechanical photoswitches. The unique advantages of the piezoelectric AlN thin film in terms of scaling in thickness and transduction efficiency are exploited by the first experimental demonstration of ultra-fast (thermal time constant, tau ˜ 80 mus) and high resolution (noise equivalent power, NEP ˜ 656 pW/Hz1/2) AlN NEMS resonant IR detectors with reduced pixel size comparable to the state-of-the-art microbolometers

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from near-zero water exchange brackish recirculating aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Uri; Atari, Adiel; Gross, Amit

    2018-02-14

    The development of intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with low water exchange has accelerated in recent years as a result of environmental, economic and other concerns. In these systems, fish are commonly grown at high density, 50 to 150kg/m 3 , using high-protein (30%-60%) feeds. Typically, the RAS consists of a solid treatment and a nitrification unit; in more advanced RAS, there is an additional denitrification step. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a byproduct during nitrification and denitrification processes, is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys the ozone layer. The aim of this study was to measure and assess N 2 O emissions from a near-zero discharge land-based saline RAS. N 2 O flux was monitored from the RAS's fish tank, and moving-bed nitrification and activated-sludge (with intrinsic C source) denitrification reactors. N 2 O emission potential was also analyzed in the laboratory. N 2 O flux from the denitrification reactors ranged between 6.5 and 48mg/day, equivalent to 1.27±1.01% of the removed nitrate-N. Direct analysis from the fish tank and nitrification reactors could not be performed due to high aeration, which diluted the N 2 O concentration to below detection limits. Thus, its potential emission was estimated in the laboratory: from the fishponds, it was negligible; from the nitrification reactor, it ranged between 0.4 and 2.8% of the total ammonia-N oxidized. The potential N 2 O emission from the denitrification reactor was 3.72±2.75% of the reduced nitrate-N, within the range found in the direct measurement. Overall, N 2 O emission during N transformation in a RAS was evaluated to be 885mg/kg feed or 1.36g/kg fish production, accounting for 1.23% of total N application. Consequently, it is estimated that N 2 O emission from aquaculture currently accounts for 2.4% of the total agricultural N 2 O emission, but will decrease to 1.7% by 2030. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Models for the energy performance of low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    of buildings is needed both in order to assess energy-effciency and to operate modern buildings economically. Energy signatures are a central tool in both energy performance assessment and decision making related to refurbishment of buildings. Also for operation of modern buildings with installations......-building. The building is well-insulated and features large modern energy-effcient windows and oor heating. These features lead to increased non-linear responses to solar radiation and longer time constants. The building is equipped with advanced control and measuring equipment. Experiments are designed and performed...... in order to identify important dynamical properties of the building, and the collected data is used for modeling. The thesis emphasizes the statistical model building and validation needed to identify dynamical systems. It distinguishes from earlier work by focusing on modern low-energy construction...

  6. Thermal indoor environment and energy consumption in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    the floor cooling system) and increasing the ventilation rate provided a better thermal indoor environment but with increased energy consumption. The thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house can be improved with decreased glazing area, increased thermal mass, installation of solar......The present study is concerned with the thermal indoor environment and HVAC system energy consumption of a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house during a cooling season. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility for one year....... The house was cooled by a floor cooling system and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system. Different operative temperature set-points and different ventilation rates were tested. Operative temperature at a representative location inside the occupied zone was used as an indicator of the thermal...

  7. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations....... Not one is overpowering, but numerous barriers have to be broken down simultaneously to achieve the desired effect. A questionnaire survey with nearly 900 responding homeowners examines the homeowners’ interest and willingness in performing energy renovations and their potential motivation factors....... The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase...

  8. Development of Biomimetic Membranes for Near Zero PC Power Plant Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Trachtenberg; Robert Cowan; David Smith; Ira Sider

    2009-07-31

    The first objective of this project was to develop, evaluate and compare two different CO2 separation (capture) systems. The second was to carry the preferred solution to pre-pilot development and testing. To achieve these objectives we undertook several infrastructure enabling elements: (1) development of a preferred catalyst coupled with its immobilization onto a microporous polymer membrane, (2) design and development of a microporous membrane-based, contained liquid membrane permeator and a membrane-based absorber/desorber apparatus, (3) development of a resin-wafer electrodialytic absorber/desorber apparatus, (4) development and demonstration of a pre-treatment process to condition the feed gas stream, (5) and development of computer modeling of the components and of the integrated system. The first technology was an enzyme catalyzed, membrane supported, contained liquid membrane apparatus whose gas capture was pressure/vacuum and temperature driven. A first embodiment was as a permeator, i.e. a combined absorber/desorber in a single housing. The second embodiment was as discrete absorber and desorber units. The second technology was an enzyme catalyzed, ion exchange resin wafer electrodialytically-based separation. For each of these technologies the objective was to design, manufacture, test and demonstrate the apparatus, first in the laboratory and then at pre-pilot scale, and to run it for sufficient time at the pre-pilot scale to demonstrate stability even in the face of upset. Tests would include several ranks of coal, which had been appropriately pre-treated to remove NOx, SOx and particles, to a pre-determined acceptance level, as a basis for demonstrating efficient CO{sub 2} capture. The pre-pilot tests would be run at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in North Dakota. A larger scale test (400m{sup 2} test unit) would later be run also at EERC. An economic goal was to compare the cost of CO{sub 2} capture by each of these methods with

  9. Energy Burden and the Need for Integrated Low-Income Housing and Energy Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Bird, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Using detailed sociological and public health qualitative interview data, we demonstrate that energy poverty is more pervasive, and results in a greater energy burden for low-income tenants, than many policymakers would assume. This is due in part to a lack of funding, policy non-coordination, and a lack of understanding of the social and economic benefits of energy conservation, energy education, and flexible utility billing policies. Examining LIHEAP, weatherization, utility, and housing assistance policies, we suggest that a coordinated, regional approach to home energy and housing policy that integrates programs in each area will provide a more coherent policy solution.

  10. House passes energy bill with one-step plant licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The US House of Representatives which has traditionally been wary of measures that would allow nuclear power to expand, came down strongly on the side of nuclear when it approved a much-amended omnibus energy bill on May 27 by a vote of 381 to 37. The key for the nuclear industry is the presence in the bill (H.R. 776) of language on one-step power plant licensing that was taken directly from the Senate energy bill (S. 2166) that passed in February. This means that when the House and Senate work out a compromise version of the legislation, one-step licensing is almost certain to be carried through--and become law once the final bill is signed by President George Bush, which is expected later this year. The House's endorsement of nuclear power--both as it exists now, and as it could be with the introduction of new plant designs and an end to the long hiatus in plant orders by utilities--went beyond one-step licensing. Debate on the House floor prior to Memorial Day totally transformed the nuclear-related part of the energy bill. H.R. 776 was reported to the floor by the Rules Committee with language by the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee that would have created a nominal one-step system, with a full evidentiary hearing prior to plant construction but also allowing an intervenor who later presents new information on the plant to get another full evidentiary hearing after construction but before operation. This would effectively duplicate the two-step process that existed for all plants now in service, and which utilities no longer want to endure

  11. Budget savings through the responsible use of energy in Navy privatized housing communities

    OpenAIRE

    Sachinski, Jeffrey M.; Cook, Rudolph W.; Matteson, Beth M.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1996, Congress authorized the Military Housing Privatization Initiative, which led to the increase in basic allowance for housing (BAH) for active duty members to achieve zero out of pocket housing expenses while living in military privatized housing. Privatized housing residents are not fully incentivized to conserve energy. Average energy costs, taken over like sized groups, are used as a baseline to justify the amount paid to the...

  12. Indoor climate perceived as improved after energy retrofitting of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    2014-01-01

    . It was found that energy consumption and indoor climate are ever more in focus when buying a house and important drivers for house owners’ motivation for retrofitting their existing house. Energy retrofitting is complicated and it is also experienced as such by many house owners. There is uncertainty......The need for energy retrofitting of the Danish single-family houses is massive, especially for the high proportion of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s. But even though the potential benefits are many, only few families embark on a major energy retrofit. There may be many reasons...... for this. An obvious one may be limited knowledge of non-energy benefits, e.g. in relation to the indoor climate. The objective of this study was to explain this limited effort to save energy by identifying barriers and incentives among house owners in relation to energy retrofitting of one’s own house...

  13. Factsheet on Energy Neutral Housing Construction; Infoblad Energieneutrale woningbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    A brief overview is given of all aspects of energy-neutral building and renovating homes. Besides technique, also attention is given to process, financing, management and maintenance. This factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building : Definition and ambition' and 'Factsheet Energy Neutral schools and offices' [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van alle aspecten van energieneutraal bouwen en renoveren van woningen. Naast techniek komen ook proces, financiering en beheer en onderhoud aan de orde. Dit Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutraal bouwen: definitie en ambitie' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren'.

  14. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  15. Analysis and Comparison of Overheating Indices in Energy Renovated Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The scientific literature offers a number of methods for assessing the likelihood of overheating in buildings. The paper calculates eight well-documented indices for four representative family houses, from moderate and temperate climates, under different renovation processes (66 variants), with t......The scientific literature offers a number of methods for assessing the likelihood of overheating in buildings. The paper calculates eight well-documented indices for four representative family houses, from moderate and temperate climates, under different renovation processes (66 variants......), with the use of multi-zone energy software. In two out of four cases, the calculation included passive cooling measures for optimization purposes (shading, ventilative cooling). The analysis shows strong correlations between different methods-indices originating from the same comfort model theory independently...

  16. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  17. Energy at the author's house for saving conventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    About 20 years ago, we decided to make our house. Being working on the utilization of solar energy and with the objective of saving maximum conventional fuel and some family budget, we dicided to make use of maximum this free and clean fuel. After buying the land with proper orientation, we installed different cheap devices and left the proper provision for another devices to installed in future. At present we solar energy mainly for cooking, water heating for bath and dish washing, drying clothes/fruits/vegetables, purification (pasteurization) of water. In addition. we also use solar cells for some electrical devices like solar radio, solar lamp for emergency, charging batteries and mobile phone etc. For our family of five persons, having 3 coloured TV, 2 computers using many hours of Internet, without any use of fuel other than electricity and sun, our electricity consumption is of the order of 270 (dry/summer)-350 (wet/rainy) kWh/month, depending on the season (US$16-21/month). This is roughly 40-50% of the electricity consumed by my other colleagues who do not use solar energy. With this saving, the initial cost of solar devices (US$1200-1400) is already recovered. In this presentation, construction and results of working of these solar thermal, electrical devices and other energy saving means at our house are mentioned.(Author)

  18. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m 2 , the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m 2 , the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  19. Refurbishment of a Victorian terraced house for energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Angeliki

    The impacts of global warming are now obvious. The international community has committed itself to reduce CO2 emissions, the main contributor to the greenhouse effect, both at international and national levels. In the Kyoto Protocol signed in 1997, countries have committed to reduce their greenhouse gases emissions below their 1990 levels by the period 2008-2012. The UK specifically should reduce those emissions by 12.5%. Format reason, the UK has introduced a package of policies, which promote not only the use of renewable energy resources, but most importantly the reduction in energy use, with energy efficiency. Refurbishment of existing houses has and will contribute to the reduction of energy consumption. A Victorian mid-terraced house was studied in this report, and different refurbishment measures were tested, using two software programmes: TAS and SAP. The targets were to achieve certain levels of thermal comfort, to comply with the Building Regulation for building thermal elements and to achieve a high SAP rating. Then, the cost of each measure was calculated and its CO2 emissions were compared. Heat losses were mainly through the walls and roof. Roof and mainly wall refurbishment measures reduce the heating loads the most. Ground floor insulation does not contribute to the reduction of the heating loads, on the contrary it has detrimental effect in summer, where the cooling effect coming from the ground is being reduced. Window replacement achieves a very good performance in summer resulting in the reduction of overheating. Wall and roof insulation increase the SAP rating the most, between the building elements, but boiler replacement and upgrading of heating controls increase it more. According to the SAP rating, CO2 annual emissions are reduced the most by boiler replacement and then by wall and roof. The results given by the two softwares concerning which measure is more leads more to energy efficiency, are the same. Finally, if the measures which lead

  20. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimised project delivery methods forsocial housing energy renovations European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and affordable housing. Housing renovation projects offer the possibility of upgrading the health and comfort levels of their old housing stock to current standards and improve energy efficiency, and this solution also addresses the fuel poverty problems suffered by some tenants. Unfortunately, the limited financial capacity of SHOs is hampering the scale of housing renovation projects and the energy savings achieved.  At the same time, the renovation of the existing housing stock is seen as one of the most promising alternative routes to achieving the ambitious CO2 emissions reduction targets set by European authorities – namely, to reduce EU CO2 emissions to 20% below their 1990 levels by 2020. The synergy between European targets and the aims of SHOs has been addressed by the energy policies of the member states, which focus on the potential energy savings achievable by renovating social housing. In fact, the European initiatives have prioritised energy savings in social housing renovations to such an extent that these are referred to as ‘energy renovations’. Energy renovation is therefore a renovation project with higher energy savings target than a regular renovation project. In total, European SHOs own 21.5 million dwellings representing around 9.4% of the total housing stock. Each SHO owns a large number of dwellings, which means there are fewer people to convince of the need to make energy savings through building renovations, maximising the potentially high impact of decisions. Moreover, SHOs are responsible for maintaining and upgrading their properties in order to continue

  1. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Data overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Rode, Carsten; Madsen, Henrik

    Experiments with persistently exciting heat inputs are a fundamental tool in identification of heat dynamics in buildings. The Low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, provides an advanced experimental setup with frequent measurements of temperatures, heat inputs, and much more. This paper presents...... an overview of data collected since the installation of the new measurement and control system. Focus is on heat dynamics so only data related to that will be shown. 5 experiments have been conducted. They are described, and resulting data is shown....

  2. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    saving improvements carried out in the project are “easy to carry out” and cost-beneficial measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, insulation of walls under windows and a new second window-frame with energy-saving glass. The work was carried out by professional contractors at a total......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....

  3. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 3. Smart Energy-Efficient House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor HNES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart energy-efficient houses as the components of Cyber-Physical Systems are developed intensively. The main stream of progress consists in the research of Smart houses’ energy supply. By this option the mentioned objects are advancing from passive houses through net-zero energy houses to active houses that are capable of sharing their own accumulated energy with other components of Cyber-Physical Systems. We consider the problems of studying the metrology models and measuring the heat dissipation in such houses trying to apply network and software achievements as well as the new types of devices with improved characteristics.

  4. The Comfort Houses : measurements and analysis of the indoor environment and energy consumption in 8 passive houses 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen Larsen, T.; Lund Jensen, R.; Daniels, O.

    2012-01-15

    The report is prepared in relation to the project ''demonstration of energy consumption and indoor climate in 10 Danish passive houses'' which was carried out from 2008 to 2012 in the Comfort Houses. The report presents the achieved results based on measurements of indoor climate and energy consumption, and it also suggests viable solutions for the future low-energy buildings. The Comfort House project was started in 2007 as a development project at the company Saint Gobain Isover A/S, who wanted to disseminate knowledge about low-energy buildings and the principles behind them. The present report mainly focuses on the results from the Comfort Houses, but it also includes references to other Danish experimental buildings and development projects. Furthermore, the analyses are supplemented with experiences from Swedish low-energy buildings found through literature reviews. The indoor climate analyses deal with the different physical parameters that impact the residents. The evaluation includes both thermal, atmospheric, daylight and acoustic climate. The energy consumption is evaluated together with some of the key parameters from the houses that are related to the energy consumption. Finally, the residents' behaviour impacting both energy consumption and indoor climate are analysed. (LN)

  5. Low-energy house in Sisimiut - Measurement equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidthoeft Delff Andersen, P.; Rode, C.; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-08-15

    This paper documents the measurement equipment in a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Detailed measurements are being taken on energy consumption, indoor temperatures, floor heating, ventilation, open/closed state of doors and windows, and indoors climate. Equipped with a central control unit, experiments can be designed in order to study heat dynamics of the building. It is described how to plan and execute such experiments in one apartment in the building. The building also features both a solar thermal system and extra buffer tank facilitating testing of storage strategies on the power generated by the solar thermal system. A weather station equipped with thermometer, pyranometer and anemometer is installed on the building as well. Finally, it is described how to retrieve data from an SQL server which is configured to take monthly backups. R functions have been implemented to fetch and prepare the data for time series analysis. Examples are given on the use of these. (Author)

  6. Energy saving house utilizing photovoltaic system. 3; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Various measurements are conducted in an energy-efficient house equipped with a photovoltaic power generation system and actually lived in by people, and matching between the household load and photovoltaic power generation, and the consumption of power, are examined. As the result investigation of power consumption in the house, it is found that 13.31kWh is consumed in the daytime in winter, and 14.15kWh in summer. Thirty-two 153W modules are used, and they produce 12.74kWh in four hours on a fine summer day, which amount nearly satisfies the demand of the household. As for the records during a year beginning in May, 1996, it is found that an annual amount of 4326kWh was generated, with 68% being surplus and 32% consumed for the household. Details of the household consumption were that 49.2% was consumed for house heating and cooling and 34.1% for cooking, the two in total occupying more than 80% of the whole household consumption. Energy-saving behavior is evaluated by comparing the energy-efficient house with some ordinary residential houses in Kumamoto City, and it is found that there is a yearly difference of 104,310 yen in electricity bill or 47% in energy saving effect. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Ozone sonde cell current measurements and implications for observations of near-zero ozone concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vömel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory measurements of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sonde cell current using ozone free air as well as defined amounts of ozone reveal that background current measurements during sonde preparation are neither constant as a function of time, nor constant as a function of ozone concentration. Using a background current, measured at a defined timed after exposure to high ozone may often overestimate the real background, leading to artificially low ozone concentrations in the upper tropical troposphere, and may frequently lead to operator dependent uncertainties. Based on these laboratory measurements an improved cell current to partial pressure conversion is proposed, which removes operator dependent variability in the background reading and possible artifacts in this measurement. Data from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX have been reprocessed using the improved background treatment based on these laboratory measurements. In the reprocessed data set near-zero ozone events no longer occur. At Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, and San Cristóbal, nearly all near-zero ozone concentrations occur in soundings with larger background currents. To a large extent, these events are no longer observed in the reprocessed data set using the improved background treatment.

  8. Studying heavy-ion collisions with coverage near zero degrees using FAUST–QTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarata, Paul; Chapman, Matthew B.; McIntosh, Alan B.; Souliotis, George A.; Bakhtiari, Layla; Behling, Spencer; Bonasera, Giacomo; Heilborn, Lauren A.; Mabiala, Justin; May, Larry W.; Raphelt, Andrew; Youngs, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions around the Fermi energy provide a rich environment for investigating reaction dynamics and provide an opportunity to explore the transition from quasi-fission to multi-fragmentation. A new detection system, FAUST–QTS, has been commissioned at Texas A&M University in order to investigate the reaction dynamics in this transitional energy regime. FAUST–QTS is constructed through the coupling of the FAUST array to a large bore quadrupole triplet spectrometer, and designed to detect heavy fragments near the beam axis coincident with lighter particles

  9. Marketing energy-efficient solar houses: A method to locate and identify people who will buy energy-efficient solar houses, or related services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Houses built in New England within the last six years, equal to or exceeding energy-efficiency standards from Energy Crafted Homes (ECH) or from DOE's Energy Star Homes are termed energy-efficient for this study. An assumption is that people who purchase houses being newly constructed may request special features including more energy-efficient features. The average house being constructed today is not as energy-efficient as it could easily be; therefore, owners of recently constructed energy-efficient houses may be termed early-adopters of an innovation. It has been demonstrated that early adopters have different personal attitudes and perceptions of an innovation compared to later-adopters. Both types of adopters--owners of recently constructed energy-efficient or energy-inefficient houses, have been surveyed in New England to determine whether their differences are significant enough to be used in identifying future potential early-adopters. Solar houses also are usually energy-efficient, and should be termed an innovation

  10. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Greenhill Contracting, Inc., Hickory Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-09-01

    Greenhill Contracting built this 3,912-ft2 house in Gardiner, New York, to the high-performance criteria of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. A highly efficient air-source heat pump heats and cools the home’s interior, while the roof-mounted photovoltaic system offsets electricity usage to cut energy bills to nearly zero. Many months the home owners see a credit on their utility bill.

  12. Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates : Adaptations to extreme caloric restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overkamp, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an important soil-dwelling bacteria species that is used for the production of e.g. vitamins, enzymes and medicines. In both the natural and industrial environment the availability of energy sources can be limited. In contrary to a situation of complete ‘nutrient depletion’,

  13. Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate Measurements in New Low-Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Ove; Andersen, Karen Holmegaard; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    The CLASS1 project commenced in 2007 and involves 5 countries: Denmark, Estonia, France, Italy and Romania. Originally, 442 dwellings, a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people were to be designed and constructed as "low-energy class 1" houses according to requirements set by the M...

  14. Energy Conservation in Existing Housing Sites; a Comparative Case Analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2009-01-01

    The housing sector in the Netherlands is responsible for a significant fraction of primary energy use and CO2 emissions. Great energy conservation opportunities are to be found in the existing housing stock, especially in large renovation projects on existing sites. Energy conservation savings of up

  15. Toward Net Energy Buildings: Design, Construction, and Performance of the Grand Canyon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcomb, J. D.; Hancock, C. E.; Barker, G.

    1999-06-23

    The Grand Canyon house is a joint project of the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the U.S. National Park Service and is part of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 13 (Advanced Solar Low-Energy Buildings). Energy consumption of the house, designed using a whole-building low-energy approach, was reduced by 75% compared to an equivalent house built in accordance with American Building Officials Model Energy Code and the Home Energy Rating System criteria.

  16. Multiqubit subradiant states in N -port waveguide devices: ɛ-and-μ-near-zero hubs and nonreciprocal circulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader

    2018-02-01

    Quantum emitters interacting through a waveguide setup have been proposed as a promising platform for basic research on light-matter interactions and quantum information processing. We propose to augment waveguide setups with the use of multiport devices. Specifically, we demonstrate theoretically the possibility of exciting N -qubit subradiant, maximally entangled, states with the use of suitably designed N -port devices. Our general methodology is then applied based on two different devices: an epsilon-and-mu-near-zero waveguide hub and a nonreciprocal circulator. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the robustness of the system against a number of nonidealities. These findings link and merge the designs of devices for quantum state engineering with classical communication network methodologies.

  17. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouder, M.; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O.

    2016-01-01

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  18. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M., E-mail: djouder-madjid@ummto.dz; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2016-01-15

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  19. High birefringence and near-zero dispersion photonic crystal fiber at the wavelength of 1.55μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Wu, Limin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    We investigate a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) which consists of squeezed triangle lattice and elliptical air holes. Birefringence and dispersion properties of this PCF have been numerically estimated by the supercell lattice method. Numerical results show that the birefringence is on the order of 10-2 over ultrabroad wavelength rang from1.3μm to 1.7μm and birefringence can be reached 1.71×10-2 at the operating wavelength of 1.55μm. It is also demonstrated that two near-zero dispersion of -1.75(ps/nm/km) (x-polarized mode) and-0.33(ps/nm/km) (y-polarized mode) at 1.55μm can be achieved. Morever, the fluctuations of the dispersion with fiber parameters are very small. The simulation results show that our proposed PCF are robust to fabrication imperfections.

  20. Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing in South Africa`s Gauteng region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H. [Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow (CENT), Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa); Van Wyk, S.L. [Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow (CENT), Dept. of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-01

    A large percentage of South Africa`s population is at present housed in low-cost dwellings. Furthermore, more than 2 million new houses must be built over the next 10 years to alleviate the current housing shortage. Unfortuanately the existing houses are very energy inefficient and if nothing is done now, the new houses will surely also be inefficient. It would have a tremendous impact on the inhabitant`s disposable income, health as well as their environment if these low-cost houses could be made energy efficient. This prompted the authors to investigate retrofit options to improve the energy efficiency of existing houses and to evaluate energy efficiency design concepts for new houses. The energy efficiency of the improvements was evaluated by means of computer simulations. Ceiling insulation was found to be the best retrofit for the typical formal low-cost house. By retrofitting existing formal low-cost houses with insulation integrated ceilings the Gauteng region could save Dollar 12 million in electricity costs per year and Dollar 0.79 billion in peak demand electricity supply. If the proposed new houses are supplied with insulation integrated ceilings the Gauteng region could save approximately Dollar 2 million in electricity costs per year and Dollar 224 million in peak demand electricity supply. (orig.)

  1. Summary of detailed energy audit and building simulation on archetype sustainable house, Woodbridge ON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, A. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Dembo, A.; Zhou, J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Architectural Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper described energy and audit and building simulations conducted on an archetype sustainable house located in Woodbridge, Ontario. The house formed part of a project to construct low energy, sustainable house designs for mass production. The 2 houses formed a duplex. House A was designed using current best design practices, while house B was equipped with advanced and innovative technologies not commonly used in residential constructions. Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) HOT2000 residential building simulation program was used to evaluate the performance of both houses in the duplex. The simulation program demonstrated that house B performed more efficiently than house A. However, neither houses met their designed values. Significantly larger space heating and cooling loads were identified. The program showed that additional weather-stripping around doors, and caulking around windows will help to reduce the amount of draft in the houses. Assessments are also needed to measure heat losses from the common wall in the basement. It was concluded that the energy performance of the house can be optimized by using the appropriate sealing techniques throughout the building envelope. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  3. Self-determined shapes and velocities of giant near-zero drag gas cavities

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2017-09-09

    Minimizing the retarding force on a solid moving in liquid is the canonical problem in the quest for energy saving by friction and drag reduction. For an ideal object that cannot sustain any shear stress on its surface, theory predicts that drag force will fall to zero as its speed becomes large. However, experimental verification of this prediction has been challenging. We report the construction of a class of self-determined streamlined structures with this free-slip surface, made up of a teardrop-shaped giant gas cavity that completely encloses a metal sphere. This stable gas cavity is formed around the sphere as it plunges at a sufficiently high speed into the liquid in a deep tank, provided that the sphere is either heated initially to above the Leidenfrost temperature of the liquid or rendered superhydrophobic in water at room temperature. These sphere-in-cavity structures have residual drag coefficients that are typically less than Embedded Image those of solid objects of the same dimensions, which indicates that they experienced very small drag forces. The self-determined shapes of the gas cavities are shown to be consistent with the Bernoulli equation of potential flow applied on the cavity surface. The cavity fall velocity is not arbitrary but is uniquely predicted by the sphere density and cavity volume, so larger cavities have higher characteristic velocities.

  4. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    that EnergyPlus did not capture the heating-side behavior of heat pumps particularly accurately, and that our simple oil furnace and boiler models needed significant recalibration to fit with RECS. Simulating the full RECS sample on a single computer would take many hours, so we used the 'cloud computing' services provided by Amazon.com to simulate dozens of homes at once. This enabled us to simulate the full RECS sample, including multiple versions of each home to evaluate the impact of marginal changes, in less than 3 hours. Once the tool was calibrated, we were able to address several policy questions. We made a simple measurement of the heat replacement effect and showed that the net effect of heat replacement on primary energy use is likely to be less than 5%, relative to appliance-only measures of energy savings. Fuel switching could be significant, however. We also evaluated the national and regional impacts of a variety of 'overnight' changes in building characteristics or occupant behavior, including lighting, home insulation and sealing, HVAC system efficiency, and thermostat settings. For example, our model shows that the combination of increased home insulation and better sealed building shells could reduce residential natural gas use by 34.5% and electricity use by 6.5%, and a 1 degree rise in summer thermostat settings could save 2.1% of home electricity use. These results vary by region, and we present results for each U.S. Census division. We conclude by offering proposals for future work to improve the tool. Some proposed future work includes: comparing the simulated energy use data with the monthly RECS bill data; better capturing the variation in behavior between households, especially as it relates to occupancy and schedules; improving the characterization of recent construction and its regional variation; and extending the general framework of this simulation tool to capture multifamily housing units, such as apartment buildings.

  5. Carbon Reduction Measures-Based LCA of Prefabricated Temporary Housing with Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing plays an important role in providing secure, hygienic, private, and comfortable shelter in the aftermath of disaster (such as flood, fire, earthquake, etc.. Additionally, temporary housing can also be used as a sustainable form of on-site residences for construction workers. While most of the building components used in temporary housing can be manufactured in a plant, prefabrication technology improves the production efficiency of temporary housing; furthermore, integrated renewable energy systems, for example, solar photovoltaic (PV system, offer benefits for temporary housing operations. In order to assess the environmental impacts of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems, this study first divides the life cycle of temporary housing into six stages, and then establishes a life cycle assessment (LCA model for each stage. Furthermore, with the aim of reducing the environmental impacts, life cycle carbon reduction measures are proposed for each stage of temporary housing. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study in China. Based on the proposed carbon reduction measures, the LCA of a prefabricated temporary housing case study building equipped with renewable energy systems indicates a carbon emissions intensity of 35.7 kg/m2·per year, as well as a reduction in material embodied emissions of 18%, assembly emissions of 17.5%, and operational emissions of 91.5%. This research proposes a carbon reduction-driven LCA of temporary housing and contributes to promoting sustainable development of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems.

  6. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  7. Energy conservation in rental housing: landlords' perceptions of problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, A.; Raab, J.; Astrein, B.; Bernstein, S.; Piernot, C.; Strahs, S.

    1982-03-01

    Rental housing owners have had little incentive to invest in energy conservation measures for their buildings. As the cost of energy continues to rise, market incentives increase. This research explores the decision processes and criteria of a purposive sample of landlords in four cities: Boston, Chicago, Denver, and San Francisco. The report outlines landlords' reasons for investing or not investing in energy conservation measures, the barriers they perceive to energy conservation, and their perceived solutions to energy problems in rental housing.

  8. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  9. Measurement results and experiences from an energy renovation of a typical Danish single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2008-01-01

    . To demonstrate how it could be done in small residential buildings a thorough retrofitting of a single-family house from 1972 was carried out. The house was brought up to the energy performance level of a new house. The energy renovation has reduced the net room heating consumption from 27.8 to 12.7 MWh....../year corresponding to a 54 % reduction. The energy renovation project has proven that it is possible to renovate a typical Danish single-family house from the 1960/70’s in a cost efficient manner to roughly the energy performance standard of a new Danish single-family house. As a positive side effect the living...... conditions have been greatly improved. In the paper the author also describes the lessons learned during the process of renovating the house....

  10. Future Housing Energy Efficiency Associated with the Auckland Unitary Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Su

    2014-01-01

    The draft Auckland Unitary Plan outlines the future land used for new housing and businesses with Auckland population growth over the next thirty years. According to Auckland Unitary Plan, over the next 30 years, the population of Auckland is projected to increase by one million, and up to 70% of total new dwellings occur within the existing urban area. Intensification will not only increase the number of median or higher density houses such as terrace house, apartment building, etc. within t...

  11. A comprehensive assessment of the life cycle energy demand of passive houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, André; Crawford, Robert H.; Myttenaere, Kristel de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life cycle energy demand of a passive house (PH) is measured over 100 years. • Embodied, operational and user transport energy demand are considered. • Embodied energy represents the highest energy consumption in all variations. • A PH might not save energy compared to a standard house. • A poorly insulated city apartment can use less energy than a best case suburban PH. - Abstract: Certifications such as the Passive House aim to reduce the final space heating energy demand of residential buildings. The latter are responsible for a significant share of final energy consumption in Europe of which nearly 70% is associated with space conditioning, notably heating. The improvement of the energy efficiency of residential buildings, in terms of space heating, can therefore reduce their total energy demand. However, most certifications totally overlook other energy requirements associated with residential buildings. Studies on passive houses do not take into consideration the embodied energy required to manufacture the building materials, especially the large amount of insulation required to achieve high operational efficiencies. At an urban scale, most passive houses are single family detached houses located in low density suburbs with a high car usage, resulting in considerable transport related energy demand. This paper analyses the total life cycle energy demand of a typical Belgian passive house, comprising embodied, operational and transport energy. It relies on a comprehensive technique developed by Stephan et al. [1] and conducts a parametric analysis as well as a comparison to alternative building types. Results show that current building energy efficiency certifications might not ensure a lower energy demand and can, paradoxically result in an increased energy consumption because of their limited scope. More comprehensive system boundaries should be used to make sure that net energy savings do occur. The embodied energy of passive

  12. Thermal environment in eight low-energy and twelve conventional Finnish houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, Erkki; Salmi, Kari; Holopainen, Rauno; Pasanen, Pertti; Reijula, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the thermal environment of eight recently built low-energy houses and twelve conventional Finnish houses. We monitored living room, bedroom and outdoor air temperatures and room air relative humidity from June 2012 to September 2013. Perceived thermal environment was evaluated using a questionnaire survey during the heating, cooling and interim seasons. We compared the measured and perceived thermal environments of the low-energy and conventional houses. The mean air temperature was 22.8 °C (21.9-23.8 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 23.3 °C (21.4-26.5 °C) in the conventional houses during the summer (1. June 2013-31. August 2013). In the winter (1. December 2012-28. February 2013), the mean air temperature was 21.3 °C (19.8-22.5 °C) in the low-energy houses, and 21.6 °C (18.1-26.4 °C) in the conventional houses. The variation of the air temperature was less in the low-energy houses than that in the conventional houses. In addition, the occupants were on average slightly more satisfied with the indoor environment in the low-energy houses. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean air temperature and relative humidity of the low-energy and conventional houses. Our measurements and surveys showed that a good thermal environment can be achieved in both types of houses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcedo Rahola, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs) are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and

  14. Design for manufacture of energy efficient housing in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents work in progress in `Design for Energy Efficiency`, one of fifteen task areas within the United States Department of Energy sponsored Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing (EEIH) research program. In this task area, the design, engineering and manufacturing disciplines of the program seek to generate an agenda of energy related research and development priorities from visions of industrialized housing systems for the year 2030. Of the several housing and energy demand scenarios explored, this paper illustrates one -- a low cost concrete panel system for housing at multi-family densities in hot arid, cooling dominated climates (Arizona). This particular scenario explores the opportunity of industrialized technologies to passively condition housing in this context. Aspects of both the long term vision -- as system performance specifications, and the short term research priorities -- as a roster of proposed research activities, are presented.

  15. Design for manufacture of energy efficient housing in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents work in progress in 'Design for Energy Efficiency', one of fifteen task areas within the United States Department of Energy sponsored Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing (EEIH) research program. In this task area, the design, engineering and manufacturing disciplines of the program seek to generate an agenda of energy related research and development priorities from visions of industrialized housing systems for the year 2030. Of the several housing and energy demand scenarios explored, this paper illustrates one -- a low cost concrete panel system for housing at multi-family densities in hot arid, cooling dominated climates (Arizona). This particular scenario explores the opportunity of industrialized technologies to passively condition housing in this context. Aspects of both the long term vision -- as system performance specifications, and the short term research priorities -- as a roster of proposed research activities, are presented.

  16. Case study of the Brownell low energy requirement house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R F; Krajewski, R F; Dennehy, G

    1979-05-01

    An evaluation is made of the design and thermal performance of an innovative house built in 1977 in the Adirondacks area of New York State. The house has a very tight and well-insulated envelope, with the rigid insulation board applied to the outside of the frame. Passive solar gain through south-facing glass, along with internal free sources of heat, are shown to provide a substantial part of the building's heating requirements. Effective integral thermal storage, provided by the exposed interior structure, serves to keep interior temperature excursions within acceptable limits. Additional remote storage is provided in the form of a large thermal storage sand bed, with air ducts, located below the basement floor. Calculations and measured performance data show that the house's space heating needs are only about 40% of those of a similar size house built to HUD minimum property standards, and less than 25% of those of a typical inventory house in the Northeast United States.

  17. Roof windows in low-energy buildings - Analyses of demands and possibilities for future product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Duer, Karsten; Hviid, Christian Anker

     no interaction of air or heat between zones. This showed how improved roof-window frame constructions and heat loss coeffcients of the glazing lower than current standard levels would make it possible to achieve nearly zero- energy consumption with a wider range of options providing sufficient daylighting......As part of an ambitious energy policy and strategy for reducing the use of fossil fuels in the European Union, all new buildings are required to consume `nearly zero-energy' by the end of 2020. This creates a strong need for research in cost-effective solutions and technology that can help balance...... the goal of a very low energy use with good daylighting and a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Windows play a very large role in both the energy consumption and the indoor environment of buildings. Roof windows are a particularly efficient daylighting source, which certain types of houses depend...

  18. Issues associated with energy efficiency programs implementation at the housing and utility enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving potential is quite huge in the most sectors of the national economy, particularly in housing and utilities and industry. Due to this, energy efficiency increase at the enterprises of housing and utilities and industry through the energy efficiency programs implementation, is one of the priorities in the modern economy of Russia and its regions, and requires radical measures to improve the effectiveness of its implementation. The purpose of the authors is the scientific and practical study of the main problems of energy efficiency programs implementation at the enterprises of housing and utilities services and industry in modern conditions. To achieve this purpose the authors solved the following problems: the current state of the housing and utilities sector and industry, the relevance and the need for energy saving policy at the enterprises of housing and utilities services and industry are studied; the main problems impeding to implement the energy-saving program effectively at the enterprises of housing and utilities services and industry are determined; the possible ways of solving the problems identified in the energy efficiency programs implementation at the enterprises of housing and industry are offered. The team of authors focuses in this study on the problems of the energy audit using in practice as a basic tool for the energy saving programs development at the enterprises of housing and utilities services, industry and their subsequent implementation. The subject of author's researches is the factors that determine the energy efficiency programs implementation at the enterprises of housing and utilities services and industry at the level of individual region and the whole country, and the object is the enterprises of housing and utilities services and industry. Methodologically the scientific and practical research is based on the complex approach using the methods of comparative, statistical and logical analysis.

  19. Energy efficiency in social housing: Opportunities and barriers from a case study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodach, Susanne; Hamhaber, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy efficiency in a segment of the building sector in emerging countries by analyzing and evaluating the energy efficiency of a social housing project in Brazil. Energy efficiency measures and bioclimatic design strategies are developed in order to improve thermal comfort in this social housing project and to reduce the energy consumption and expenses of their residents. The institutional barriers and constraints toward higher efficiency are described. The results of this study show that there is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in emerging countries like Brazil. The implementation and consideration of the energy efficiency measures and policy recommendations would contribute substantially to the goal to dampen the fast growth of energy demand in these countries. Moreover the improvement of energy efficiency in the social housing sector could be a driver for market transformation towards more sustainability in the whole building sector. - Research highlights: →There is a high potential to increase energy efficiency in social housing in Brazil. →Energy-efficient social housing would contribute substantially to dampen the fast growth of energy consumption in emerging countries like Brazil. →Implementation of energy efficiency would improve the income situation of the poorest strata of the population.

  20. Characterisation of representative building typologies for social housing projects in Brazil and its energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, Maria Andrea; Lamberts, Roberto; Sassi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil the housing deficit is around 5.5 million houses. To address this need, the government created a programme called “My house, My life”. The main subsidies of the programme are for families earning up to three times the minimum wage. In order to formulate strategies for more energy efficiency buildings, it is necessary to understand the thermal and energy performance of what is being built. This article defines representative projects for typologies being built in the Brazilian social housing sector through the analysis of 108 projects considering two groups of income levels and investigates the thermal and energy performance of the representative projects in relation to the Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil for two bioclimatic zones. Five representative building models were defined. Considering the most common features found on the sample, the study suggests the importance of addresing energy efficiency measures on the sector since current building techniques for social housing shows a tendency towards a low performance in relation to the thermal and energy performance criteria of the Energy Labelling especially for lower income projects. This provides a basis for future policy and allows for more in depth studies within the sector. - Highlights: • Characterisation of representative typologies built for social housing in Brazil. • More recurrent building physics characteristics considered. • Energy efficiency and thermal performance of Brazilian social housing analysed. • Regulation for Energy Efficiency Labelling of Residential Buildings in Brazil used for analysis.

  1. Modelling of phase change materials in the Toronto SUI net zero energy house using TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-08-15

    In the context of building applications, phase change materials (PCM), can be defined as any heat storage material that can absorb a large amount of thermal energy while undergoing a change in phase, such as from a solid to a liquid phase. The incorporation of PCM into the building envelope can enhance occupant comfort through the reduction of indoor temperature fluctuations. It has also been shown to cause a decrease in the overall energy consumption associated with the heating and cooling of buildings. This paper extended the analysis of the impact of using PCM, which has traditionally focused on homes of ordinary construction, to incorporate low to zero energy homes using a model of the Toronto net zero energy house developed in TRNSYS. The paper provided a description of the TRNSYS model/methodology, with reference to the wall layer used in the net zero energy house, and model of the layout of the net zero energy house in TRYNSYS. The TRYNSYS/type 204 PCM component was also presented along with the simulation results in terms of the temperature profile of the third floor of the net zero energy house on a typical winter day with varying PCM concentrations; the temperature profile of the third floor of the net zero energy house on a typical summer day with varying PCM concentrations; yearly heating/cooling load requirements of the net zero energy house for a variety of thermal mass used; temperature profile of the third floor of the net zero energy house on a typical summer day when PCM and concrete slab was used; yearly temperature profile of the third floor of the net zero energy house, illustrating the impact of using PCM; and the yearly heating/cooling load of the net zero energy house as the concentration of PCM was varied. It was concluded that the use of building integrated PCM can reduce temperature fluctuations considerably in the summer but only slightly in the winter. 16 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Plus-Energy House via Photovoltaic/Thermal Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Sevela, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Present work addresses the HVAC and energy concerns of the Technical University of Denmark's house, Fold, for the competition Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative solutions are investigated; photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels, utilization of ground as a heat source/sink and phase change...... two separate systems. PV/T panels enable the house to perform as a plus-energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively. The ground heat exchanger acts as the heat sink/source of the house. Free cooling enables the same cooling effect...

  3. Dynamic analysis of a low energy test house and a central heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L. H.

    1996-12-01

    This report is concerned with the description and the modelling of the heat transfer in a test house at the Department of Buildings and Energy (IBE) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The test house is a single-storeyed low energy house and it is fairly well known due to some previously performed experiments. A water-based central heating system is used as heating system. The report presents the preliminary analysis of the heat dynamics in the test house heating experiment. Input sequences to the water based central heating system are designed. (au) 21 refs.

  4. DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing: A federal partnership. Program summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-06-01

    One of the primary goals of the US Department of Housing and urban Development (HUD) is the expansion of home ownership and affordable housing opportunities. Recognizing that energy efficiency is a key component in an affordable housing strategy, HUD and the US Department of Energy (DOE) created the DOE-HUD Initiative on Energy Efficiency in Housing. The DOE-HUD Initiative was designed to share the results of DOE research with housing providers throughout the nation, to reduce energy costs in federally-subsidized dwelling units and improve their affordability and comfort. This Program Summary Report provides an overview of the DOE-HUD Initiative and detailed project descriptions of the twenty-seven projects carried out with Initiative funding.

  5. Excitation of epsilon-near-zero resonance in ultra-thin indium tin oxide shell embedded nanostructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Khant; Anopchenko, Aleksei; Yang, Jingyi; Lee, Ho Wai Howard

    2018-02-05

    We report a novel optical waveguide design of a hollow step index fiber modified with a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO). We show an excitation of highly confined waveguide mode in the proposed fiber near the wavelength where permittivity of ITO approaches zero. Due to the high field confinement within thin ITO shell inside the fiber, the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode can be characterized by a peak in modal loss of the hybrid waveguide. Our results show that such in-fiber excitation of ENZ mode is due to the coupling of the guided core mode to the thin-film ENZ mode. We also show that the phase matching wavelength, where the coupling takes place, varies depending on the refractive index of the constituents inside the central bore of the fiber. These ENZ nanostructured optical fibers have many potential applications, for example, in ENZ nonlinear and magneto-optics, as in-fiber wavelength-dependent filters, and as subwavelength fluid channel for optical and bio-photonic sensing.

  6. DOE-HUD initiative on energy efficiency in housing: A federal partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinch, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ternes, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Myers, M. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A five-year initiative between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) demonstrated the feasibility of improving the energy efficiency of publicly-assisted housing. Twenty-seven projects and activities undertaken during 1990--95 involved research and field demonstrations, institutional and administrative changes to HUD policies and procedures, innovative financing and leveraging of federal dollars with non-federal money, and education, training, and technical assistance. With most of the 27 projects and activities completed, the two departments have initiated a five-year deployment effort, the DOE-Energy Partnerships for Affordable Homes, to achieve energy and water savings in public and assisted housing on a large scale throughout the country. A Clearinghouse for Energy Efficiency in Public and Assisted Housing managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), will offer hands-on energy assistance to housing providers to complement DOE`s assistance. This paper presents the findings of the DOE-HUD Initiative, with primary attention paid to those projects which successfully integrated energy efficiency into private and public single and multifamily housing. The paper includes examples of the publications, case-study reports, exhibits and videotapes developed during the course of the Initiative. Information on the new DOE Energy Partnerships and on the NCAT Clearinghouse is also presented. New Partnership projects with the Atlanta and Chicago Housing Authorities describe the technical assistance envisioned under the Partnership.

  7. Methodological Approach to Determining the Effect of Parallel Energy Consumption on District Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latosov, Eduard; Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres; Kurnitski, Jarek; Thalfeldt, Martin

    2017-05-01

    District heating (DH) offers the most effective way to enhance the efficiency of primary energy use, increasing the share of renewable energy in energy consumption and decreasing the amount of CO2 emissions. According to Article 9 section 1 of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, the Member states of the European Union are obligated to draw up National Plans for increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings [1]. Article 2 section 2 of the same Directive states that the energy used in nearly zero-energy buildings should be created covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby. Thus, the heat distributed by DH systems and produced by manufacturing devices located in close vicinity of the building also have to be taken into account in determining the energy consumption of the building and the share of renewable energy used in the nearly zero-energy buildings. With regard to the spreading of nearly zero-energy and zero-energy houses, the feasibility of on-site energy (heat and/or electricity) production and consumption in DH areas energy (i.e. parallel consumption, when the consumer, connected to DH system, consumes energy for heat production from other sources besides the DH system as well) needs to be examined. In order to do that, it is necessary to implement a versatile methodological approach based on the principles discussed in this article.

  8. An arctic low-energy house as experimental setup for studies of heat dynamics of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Rode, Carsten; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    throughout long winters, strong winds, and very different circumstances regarding solar radiation compared to areas where low-energy houses are usually built, make the location very interesting for modeling and testing purposes. In 2011 new measurement equipment was installed in the house, which will be used......This paper addresses the difficulties in pinpointing reasons for unexpectedly high energy consumption in construction, and in low-energy houses especially. Statistical methods are applied to improve the insight into the energy performance and heat dynamics of a building based on consumption records...... and weather data. Dynamical methods separate influences from outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and wind on the energy consumption in the building. The studied building is a low-energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland. Weather conditions like large temperature differences between indoors and outdoors...

  9. Low-energy house in Arctic climate - 5 years of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra; Rode, Carsten; Kragh, J.

    2011-01-01

    sustainability in Greenlandic buildings. The article presents some measurements, analyses and comparisons of theoretical simulations, and also some steps which were taken to improve the house with impacts on the energy consumption. The results include energy consumption, temperatures, and solar heating......The aim of this article is to present and disseminate the experience gained from a low‐energy house in Sisimiut, Greenland, over the 5 years of operation since its inauguration in April 2005. The house was designed to test and present new low‐energy technologies in the Arctic climate and to improve...... the past 5 years from 139 to 150 kWh/(m2⋅a). Currently the house is on the way to present a good energy solution, and the annual energy consumption for heating in 2010 was 90 kWh/m2....

  10. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    be improved by considering the location in the room, accounting for both long and short-wave radiation and that daylighting should be modelled in a dynamic manner. Full-scale measurements have been conducted to verify improved models for MRT and climate-based daylighting and their implementation...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards......’ perception of glare was indicated. Based on these results and findings in the literature, a shading strategy was proposed. Its performance is verified by full-scale measurements and annual simulations....

  11. Pichia Pastoris exhibits high viability and a low maintenance energy requirement at near-zero specific growth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebnegger, C.; Vos, T.; Graf, Alexandra B.; Valli, Minoska; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.; Mattanovicha, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. Understanding its physiology at extremely low growth rates is a first step in the direction of decoupling product formation from cellular growth and therefore of biotechnological relevance. Retentostat cultivation

  12. Improving health and energy efficiency through community-based housing interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Crane, Julian; Chapman, Ralph; Fougere, Geoff

    2011-12-01

    Houses designed for one climate and cultural group may not be appropriate for other places and people. Our aim is to find cost-effective ways to improve the characteristics of older homes, ill-fitted for New Zealand's climate, in order to improve the occupants' health. We have carried out two community randomised trials, in partnership with local communities, which have focused on retrofitted insulation and more effective heating and have two other studies under way, one which focuses on electricity vouchers and the other on housing hazard remediation. The Housing, Insulation and Health Study showed that insulating 1,350 houses, built before insulation was required, improved the occupants' health and well being as well as household energy efficiency. In the Housing, Heating and Health Study we investigated the impact of installing more effective heating in insulated houses for 409 households, where there was a child with doctor-diagnosed asthma. Again, the study showed significant results in the intervention group; indoor temperatures increased and levels of NO(2) were halved. Children reported less poor health, lower levels of asthma symptoms and sleep disturbances by wheeze and dry cough. Children also had fewer days off school. Improving the energy efficiency of older housing leads to health improvements and energy efficiency improvements. Multidisciplinary studies of housing interventions can create compelling evidence to support policies for sustainable housing developments which improve health.

  13. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Springer and A. German

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, California. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  15. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  16. The Impact of Multi-level Governance on Energy Performance in the Current Dutch Housing Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The housing sector is responsible for 33% of total CO2 emissions in the Netherlands. As such, large reductions in CO2 emissions can be gained by increasing the energy performance in the existing housing stock. Yet, several barriers make this difficult. Renovation investments and maintenance costs

  17. Analysis of energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey (ENL). Energy poverty in the light of the 2013 National Housing Survey - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charles-Andre; Teissier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the results of the French national housing survey (ENL, Enquete Nationale Logement) of 2013 which gives information on the housing stock and on tenure conditions for households in their primary residence. After a brief presentation of this source and of its limitations, this study aims at characterising households in a situation of energy poverty according to indicators defined by the ONPE (national observatory of energy poverty), and at assessing their dwelling conditions. It also aims at highlighting the different aspects of the phenomenon of energy poverty. Evolutions of indicators are considered on the 1996-2013 period, based on the survey results in 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2013. After a recall of the ONPE indicators, the authors discuss statistic results related to these indicators, try to assess the severity of the energy poverty phenomenon, and the impact of the 'energy check'. Social-economic characteristics of households are presented in a table and discussed, as well as housing characteristics, the case of social housing, some behavioural characteristics of households, financial supports for works and works performed by occupying owners. The next part comments evolutions of indicators, their continuities and deviations, by examining their sensitivity to energy prices, and their evolution in time. A synthesis of results is proposed and lessons learned are finally discussed. Appendices address various issues (factors influencing a statement of the cold, methodologies of calculation of indicators), and propose additional results, and values of indicators in time

  18. The gap between plan and practice : Actual energy performance of the zero-energy refurbishment of a terraced house

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xexakis, G.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Prêt-à-Loger, TU Delft’s entry to the Solar Decathlon Europe 2014 (SDE2014), demonstrated the conversion of a common terraced house to energy neutrality, whilst adding value to its living quality. The house was retrofitted according to principles of smart & bioclimatic design, using local

  19. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  20. Energy consumption of building related energy functions in houses and utility buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arkel, W.G.; Jeeninga, H.; Menkveld, M.; Ruijg, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    This study investigates the development of the use of electricity and natural gas in houses and buildings until 2010. For the domestic sector it is studied how much energy is used now and will be used in future for heating, for production of hot water, for lighting, for ventilation and for cooling. For different sorts of buildings (shops, hospitals, schools, offices, restaurants) it has been determined how much gas will be used for heating, for hot water production and by humidifiers. It has also been calculated how much electricity will be used for lighting, ventilation, cooling and humidifying. The influence of higher and lower energy prices on the amount of use has been studied. Experts have been asked to give their opinions on trends in the use of buildings and the role of new technologies. The influence of these ideas on the use of energy has been calculated. 44 refs

  1. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-03

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  2. Polarization-Insensitive Surface Plasmon Polarization Electro-Absorption Modulator Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Indium Tin Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Wen, Long; Liang, Li; Chen, Qin; Sun, Yunfei

    2018-02-01

    CMOS-compatible plasmonic modulators operating at the telecom wavelength are significant for a variety of on-chip applications. Relying on the manipulation of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode excited on the metal-dielectric interface, most of the previous demonstrations are designed to response only for specific polarization state. In this case, it will lead to a high polarization dependent loss, when the polarization-sensitive modulator integrates to a fiber with random polarization state. Herein, we propose a plasmonic modulator utilizing a metal-oxide indium tin oxide (ITO) wrapped around the silicon waveguide and investigate its optical modulation ability for both the vertical and horizontal polarized guiding light by tuning electro-absorption of ITO with the field-induced carrier injection. The electrically biased modulator with electron accumulated at the ITO/oxide interface allows for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode to be excited at the top or lateral portion of the interface depending on the polarization state of the guiding light. Because of the high localized feature of ENZ mode, efficient electro-absorption can be achieved under the "OFF" state of the device, thus leading to large extinction ratio (ER) for both polarizations in our proposed modulator. Further, the polarization-insensitive modulation is realized by properly tailoring the thickness of oxide in two different stacking directions and therefore matching the ER values for device operating at vertical and horizontal polarized modes. For the optimized geometry configuration, the difference between the ER values of two polarization modes, i.e., the ΔER, as small as 0.01 dB/μm is demonstrated and, simultaneously with coupling efficiency above 74%, is obtained for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The proposed plasmonic-combined modulator has a potential application in guiding and processing of light from a fiber with a random polarization state.

  3. Energy conservation house by photovoltaic system. 2; Taiyoko hatsuden wo donyushita sho energy jutaku. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Photovoltaic power generation system was once placed in excessive expectation what with a growing tendency toward environmental issues and what with vulnerability in supply and demand of energy. However, its utilization was negative because of the low energy conversion efficiency and the high cost. Then, gradually the wind shifted round to the improvement in solar cell efficiency, reduced cost, implementation of subsidizing policy by MITI, purchase of excess power by electric power companies and the amendment of the Electricity Enterprises Act, encouraging the use of the system again. In addition, with a lesson from the Great Hanshin Earthquake, the merit of the system was appreciated as a life-support power source, motivating house-builders. Earlier, the authors had reported designs of energy-saving homes, system structures of photovoltaic power generation, etc. This paper presents the power generation record of a year old system and an example of the comfortable sealed residential room environment, etc., created with the use of the power thus obtained. The annual power generation was 4,088kWh, 30% of which was used in the house and 70% of which was sold as an excess power, resulting in the purchase of power for 6,642kWh. 5 refs., 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  4. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  5. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... consider: The design and factory construction techniques of manufactured housing, The climate zones... Safety Standards (the HUD Code) rather than the climate zones in the IECC, and Alternative practices that... information on the potential interplay between air exchange rates comparable to those specified under the 2012...

  6. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing. Danish experiences with different policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K.; Haunstrup Christensen, T. (Aalborg Univ., Danish Building Research Institute, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    This report contains a memo written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy-efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent and relevant instruments concluding both on the results concerning the impact of the instruments especially on owners of single-family houses and on more general experiences with their implementation. Finally the memo concludes on the general lessons that can be learned from the Danish experiences. (Author)

  7. Earth-sheltered housing: an evaluation of energy-conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The Innovative Structures Program (ISP) began an evaluation of the energy conservation potential of earth-sheltered houses in late 1979. Since that time, several projects have been undertaken as part of this evaluation. The findings of these projects, plus a discussion of the work of others in the field, form the body of this report. Although a comprehensive evaluation of earth-sheltered housing has not been completed, this report presents a compendium of knowledge on the subject. The conclusions are more qualitative than quantitative in nature because of the limited information on which to base projections. The major conclusions to date are as follows: Earth-sheltered houses are capable of very good energy performance. Earth-sheltered houses, as a passive means to conserve energy, perform significantly better in some climatic regins than in others. Earth-sheltered houses are not the optimum passive concept in several major housing growth regions of the country. Earth-sheltered houses, including their land and site improvements, will cost an estimated 10 to 35% more than comparable aboveground houses, and this additional cost may not be justified on a life cycle cost basis, given 1981 market conditions. The use of earth sheltering will probably grow in some parts of the country; however, broad-scale national or regional utilization is not likely to occur in the next 20 to 30 years.

  8. Possible explanations for the gap between calculated and measured energy consumption of new houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Knudsen, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    The overall aim to reduce CO2 emissions has brought the energy requirements for new houses into focus. The question is whether the stepwise tightening of the energy requirements for new houses has had the expected impact on the actual realized energy consumption. In the news media, headlines......’s “careless” energy behavior. However, this may not be the full explanation and there may be other reasons for the difference. Or more specifically: Does the theoretical calculated energy demand, based on standard assumptions and without taking into account the effect of variations in e.g. hot water...

  9. Performance of low-temperature district heating for low-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    houses, which was previously developed and reported in the project “Development and demonstration of low-energy district heating for low energy housing” [EFP, 2007]. Two different concepts of low energy district heating substations are tested, and measurements of their performance aim to document...... that LEDH is a proper solution for sustainable heating systems and answer the question which concept of used substations is more favourable to be used in detached low energy houses. The preliminary results show that LEDH can provide low energy buildings with space heating and domestic hot water (DHW...

  10. The sustainability of conventional houses, passive houses and earthships, based on legislation, environmental impact energy and operating energy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, Elena

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Buildings demand energy in their life cycle. Energy use is, among others, restricted by the Energy Performance Standard (EPN), which is a standard determining the quantity of energy that new buildings are allowed to use, compelling them to comply

  11. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    existing single-family houses in the Nordic countries are to have competitive power compared to new buildings on the future housing market. Good technical solutions exist but need to be combined based on the full range of (standard) solutions in order to reach the low primary energy level of new...... the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses –a sustainable renovation concept suitable for different categories of single-family houses with regard to type and age has been proposed in this article. The sustainable renovation concept...

  12. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  13. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  14. Improving health, safety and energy efficiency in New Zealand through measuring and applying basic housing standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Keall, Michael; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Baker, Michael G

    2013-08-02

    Substandard housing is a problem in New Zealand. Historically there has been little recognition of the important aspects of housing quality that affect people's health and safety. In this viewpoint article we outline the importance of assessing these factors as an essential step to improving the health and safety of New Zealanders and household energy efficiency. A practical risk assessment tool adapted to New Zealand conditions, the Healthy Housing Index (HHI), measures the physical characteristics of houses that affect the health and safety of the occupants. This instrument is also the only tool that has been validated against health and safety outcomes and reported in the international peer-reviewed literature. The HHI provides a framework on which a housing warrant of fitness (WOF) can be based. The HHI inspection takes about one hour to conduct and is performed by a trained building inspector. To maximise the effectiveness of this housing quality assessment we envisage the output having two parts. The first would be a pass/fail WOF assessment showing whether or not the house meets basic health, safety and energy efficiency standards. The second component would rate each main assessment area (health, safety and energy efficiency), potentially on a five-point scale. This WOF system would establish a good minimum standard for rental accommodation as well encouraging improved housing performance over time. In this article we argue that the HHI is an important, validated, housing assessment tool that will improve housing quality, leading to better health of the occupants, reduced home injuries, and greater energy efficiency. If required, this tool could be extended to also cover resilience to natural hazards, broader aspects of sustainability, and the suitability of the dwelling for occupants with particular needs.

  15. Passive annual heat storage principles in earth sheltered housing, a supplementary energy saving system in residential housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselm, Akubue Jideofor [Green Architecture Department, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper looks through the many benefits of earth not only as a building element in its natural form but as a building mass, energy pack and spatial enclosure which characterized by location, unique physical terrain and climatic factors can be utilized in developing housing units that will provide the needed benefits of comfort alongside the seasons. Firstly the study identifies existing sunken earth houses in the North-west of China together with identifying the characters that formed the ideas behind the choice of going below the ground. Secondly, the study examines the pattern of heat exchange, heat gains and losses as to identify the principles that makes building in earth significant as an energy conservation system. The objective of this, is to relate the ideas of sunken earth home design with such principles as the passive annual heat storage systems (PAHS) in producing houses that will serve as units used to collect free solar heat all summer and cools passively while heating the earth around it and also keeping warm in winter by retrieving heat from the soil while utilizing the free solar heat stored throughout the summer as a year-round natural thermal resource. (author)

  16. Feasibility of upgrading the energy performance of recent massive brick houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Janssens

    2014-03-01

    The analysis shows that deep energy transformations are financially unacceptable, related to the irrevocable character of investments in energy efficiency attributes of massive brick houses. This confirms that energy performance endowment measures should be designed and implemented at the time of first construction of a building.

  17. The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more. -- Highlights: •Actors do not see energy efficiency as a critical problem. •Factors other than costs and price were important in the decision making. •Energy issues just one factor in housing purchase decisions. •The consumers don′t know what to ask for. •Building norms should require the most energy efficient solution

  18. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated....... The model calculates heating demand, room temperatures, and thermal comfort parameters for a person in the room. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer...... to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model has been used to calculate heating demand and room temperature in a typical well insulated Danish single-family house with a heating demand of approximately 6000 kWh per year, for a 130 m² house. Two different types of floor heating systems...

  19. Towards minimum energy houses with EPC {<=}0; Op weg naar minimum energie woningen met EPC {<=}0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Dulk, F.W. [Piode - ontwerp- en adviesbureau BNA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of the publication is to inform stakeholders about the current state concerning energy efficient building of houses and residential buildings. Also guidance is provided with regard to steps to follow and some practical examples are given. The energy concepts shown are based on known and marketable techniques. An energy concept is a balanced and tailored set of design measures, building construction facilities, installation and (sustainable) energy supply. Optimization is based on energy savings and costs and benefits and it must also meet requirements for health, safety, comfort and ease of operation [Dutch] Het doel van de publicatie is om belanghebbenden te informeren over de huidige stand van zaken m.b.t. vergaand energiezuinig bouwen. Tevens wordt een handreiking geboden over de te volgen stappen en zijn een aantal voorbeelden opgenomen over de praktijk. De publicatie is beperkt tot seriematige woningbouw. De energieconcepten zijn op het niveau van de individuele woning of een woongebouw. De weergegeven energieconcepten zijn gebaseerd op bekende- en marktrijpe technieken. Een energieconcept is een afgewogen en op elkaar afgestemd samenstel van ontwerpmaatregelen, bouwkundige maatregelen en voorzieningen, de installatie en de (duurzame) energievoorziening . Optimalisatie vindt plaats op basis van energiebesparing en kosten/baten terwijl tevens moet worden voldaan aan eisen voor veiligheid, gezondheid, comfort en bedieningsgemak.

  20. Annual experimental results on heat and cool storage modes for natural energy autonomous house, HARBEMAN house; Shizen energy jiritsu house (HARBEMAN house) no chikunetsu chikurei mode no jissoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.; Fujino, T.; Suzuki, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein is performance of the solar system, followed for a year, installed in a solar house (HARBEMAN HOUSE) built in 1996 in City of Sendai. The house is equipped, on the roof, with a 30.42m{sup 2} wide solar collector on the south and sky radiator on the north. They are connected to a heat-insulated tank (31m{sup 3}) installed underground, storing hot or cool water which carries energy for heating/air-conditioning and hot water. The solar system operates in a long-term hot or cool water storage mode. In the hot water storage mode, the solar collector is connected to the underground main tank, where pumped-up water heated by solar heat is stored to be supplied as hot water. Heat collected is low during the December-February period, and recovered in March. In the cool water storage mode, the radiator is connected to the underground main tank, where pumped-up water is cooled by radiation and stored to be supplied to a fan coil unit in each room for air-conditioning. The recorded lowest temperature of water in the tank is 5.1degC. No air-conditioning load is observed, on account of the unseasonal weather. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  2. Integrated decision-making about housing, energy and wellbeing: a qualitative system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Davies, Michael; Shrubsole, Clive; Luxford, Naomi; May, Neil; Chiu, Lai Fong; Trutnevyte, Evelina; Bobrova, Yekatherina; Chalabi, Zaid

    2016-03-08

    The UK government has an ambitious goal to reduce carbon emissions from the housing stock through energy efficiency improvements. This single policy goal is a strong driver for change in the housing system, but comes with positive and negative "unintended consequences" across a broad range of outcomes for health, equity and environmental sustainability. The resulting policies are also already experiencing under-performance through a failure to consider housing as a complex system. This research aimed to move from considering disparate objectives of housing policies in isolation to mapping the links between environmental, economic, social and health outcomes as a complex system. We aimed to support a broad range of housing policy stakeholders to improve their understanding of housing as a complex system through a collaborative learning process. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop a qualitative causal theory linking housing, energy and wellbeing. Qualitative interviews were followed by two interactive workshops to develop the model, involving representatives from national and local government, housing industries, non-government organisations, communities and academia. More than 50 stakeholders from 37 organisations participated. The process resulted in a shared understanding of wellbeing as it relates to housing; an agreed set of criteria against which to assess to future policy options; and a comprehensive set of causal loop diagrams describing the housing, energy and wellbeing system. The causal loop diagrams cover seven interconnected themes: community connection and quality of neighbourhoods; energy efficiency and climate change; fuel poverty and indoor temperature; household crowding; housing affordability; land ownership, value and development patterns; and ventilation and indoor air pollution. The collaborative learning process and the model have been useful for shifting the thinking of a wide range of housing stakeholders towards a more

  3. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    sampling; (ii) technical characteristics of both devices, i.e. progress cycles of CHOMIK device in different materials and torque in the manipulator joints during sampling operations; (iii) confirmation of applicability of both devices to perform such type of tasks. The phases in operational scenario were prepared to meet mission and system requirements mainly connected with: (i) environment (near zero gravity, vacuum, dust), (ii) safety and (iii) to avoid common operation of both devices at the same time.

  4. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single family houses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Vibeke; Larsen, Anders; Togeby, Mikael

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other...... papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying...

  5. Between Indoor and Outdoor. Norwegian Perceptions of Well-Being in Energy Efficient Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wågø, Solvår; Hauge, Bettina; Støa, Eli

    2017-01-01

    that includes atmosphere and feeling at home. In a qualitative study of four Norwegian low-energy housing projects, we investigate and discuss the impact of visual and sensory qualities, like view, daylight and access to fresh air, on residential well-being. The study reveals that it is possible to achieve well......-being in energy-efficient housing, but some practices jeopardize the energy- design concept and influence energy use. Residents find strategies to achieve well-being by opening windows and doors, despite restrictions on airing naturally. Access to daylight and view and the ability to open windows or balcony doors...

  6. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  7. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  8. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez-Leube

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the “Smart Grid” which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called “MagicBox” equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency.

  9. Building Energy Assessment and Computer Simulation Applied to Social Housing in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aranda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual energy consumption and simulated energy performance of a building usually differ. This gap widens in social housing, owing to the characteristics of these buildings and the consumption patterns of economically vulnerable households affected by energy poverty. The aim of this work is to characterise the energy poverty of the households that are representative of those residing in social housing, specifically in blocks of apartments in Southern Europe. The main variables that affect energy consumption and costs are analysed, and the models developed for software energy-performance simulations (which are applied to predict energy consumption in social housing are validated against actual energy-consumption values. The results demonstrate that this type of household usually lives in surroundings at a temperature below the average thermal comfort level. We have taken into account that a standard thermal comfort level may lead to significant differences between computer-aided energy building simulation and actual consumption data (which are 40–140% lower than simulated consumption. This fact is of integral importance, as we use computer simulation to predict building energy performance in social housing.

  10. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  11. Pulse shaping in the presence of enormous second-order dispersion in Al:ZnO/ZnO epsilon-near-zero metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Priscilla; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2018-04-01

    A numerical study of the ultra-short pulse propagation in the aluminum-doped zinc oxide multi-layered metamaterial at the epsilon-near-zero spectral point is presented. The Drude model for dielectric permittivity and comparison with recent experimental data predict that damping frequency γD has the highest impact on the material losses and results in enormous second-order dispersion. Numerical simulations using both, the finite-difference time domain algorithm and the split-step Fourier method, show that variations of group velocity across the pulse at the epsilon-near-zero point results in a unique "soliton-like" propagation regime without nonlinearity for the propagation lengths of up to 300 nm.

  12. Achieving highly efficient and broad-angle polarization beam filtering using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials mimicked by metal-dielectric multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng

    2018-03-01

    We report a highly efficient and broad-angle polarization beam filter at visible wavelengths using an anisotropic epsilon-near-zero metamaterial mimicked by a multilayer composed of alternative subwavelength magnesium fluoride and silver layers. The underlying physics can be explained by the dramatic difference between two orthogonal polarizations' iso-frequency curves of anisotropic epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. Transmittance for two orthogonal polarization waves and the polarization extinction ratio are calculated via the transfer matrix method to assess the comprehensive performance of the proposed polarization beam filter. From the simulation results, the proposed polarization beam filter is highly efficient (the polarization extinction ratio is far larger than two orders of magnitude) and has a broad operating angle range (ranging from 30° to 75°). Finally, we show that the proper tailoring of the periodic number enables us to obtain high comprehensive performance of the proposed polarization beam filter.

  13. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  14. Hot Money Flows, Commodity Price Cycles, and Financial Repression in the US and the People’s Republic of China: The Consequences of Near Zero US Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    McKinnon, Ronald; Liu, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Under near zero United States (US) interest rates, the international dollar standard malfunctions. Emerging markets with naturally higher interest rates are swamped with "hot money" inflows. Emerging market central banks intervene to prevent their currencies from rising precipitously. They subsequently lose monetary control and begin inflating. Primary commodity prices rise worldwide unless interrupted by an international banking crisis. This cyclical inflation on the dollar’s periphery only ...

  15. Exploring the Housing and Household Energy Pathways to Stress: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress, known to contribute to negative physical and mental health outcomes, is closely associated with broader issues of material hardship, poor neighborhood conditions, residential instability, and inadequate housing conditions. However, few studies have comprehensively explored pathways to stress in a low-income housing environment. A mixed-methods pilot study investigated the concept of energy insecurity by looking at the impacts of weatherization and energy efficiency interventions on low-income households in the South Bronx neighborhood of New York City. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 low-income heads of household; participants also completed health, housing and budget assessments. Physical deficiencies, economic hardship, and health issues all interacted to directly and indirectly produce living conditions that contribute to chronic stress. Households with higher stress reported more health problems. Poor quality housing led to coping responses that increased expenses, which in turn increased stress around housing and energy affordability. This study provides further support for the connections between both health and the built environment and between low socio-economic status populations and net negative health outcomes. Energy insecurity is an important contributor to chronic stress in low-income households, and isolating pathways to stress where there is potential for interventions is important for future policy and housing-based strategies.

  16. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  17. Gain and bandwidth investigation in a near-zero ultra-flat dispersion PCF for optical parametric amplification around the communication wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Partha Sona; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we explore the fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) gain and bandwidth spectra of near-zero ultra-flattened photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) around the communication wavelength. The parametric gain and spectral bandwidth have been explored for all the three zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) of the near-zero ultra-flat fiber. Our numerical analysis establishes a dispersion profile with D=0±0.35  ps/nm/km for a bandwidth of 440 nm around the communication wavelength to fully exploit the four-wave mixing effect with three ZDWs for broadband applications. It has been observed that the broader gain spectrum of FOPAs can be achieved with the near-zero and ultra-flattened dispersion curve with proper tuning of the pumping condition. A broader bandwidth with sufficient peak gain value has been achieved with small negative anomalous dispersion (β2≤0) and positive value of fourth-order dispersion parameter (+ve  β4) around the pumping wavelength. Wider bandwidth of the parametric amplifier has been observed around the second ZDW with a negative slope of the dispersion curve. A total bandwidth ≈520  nm could be achieved with the ultra-flat dispersion nature of the optimized PCF. The design methodology of achieving wider gain by tuning the pumping wavelength for favorable higher-order dispersion parameters would be very useful for future dispersion engineered devices.

  18. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Northwest Energy Works of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The DOE research team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home Program (NEEM) program administrator, collaborated to research a new specification that would reduce the energy requirements of a NEEM home.This research identified and developed combinations of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that can readily can be deployed in the manufacturing setting that reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over the present NEEM specifications.

  19. Application of R-2000 and advanced house energy standards in affordable homes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    This report provides a survey of some of the potential energy efficiency upgrades available on the Canadian market for application to low-cost housing and reviews the incremental cost, performance, and potential for acceptance of various options. Upgrades are evaluated on the basis of implementation in a model affordable home, a 93-square-metre narrow-front row house. Upgrade packages for meeting multi- unit R-2000 and Advanced House energy standards are assembled for semi-detached and middle units for five representative cities from Halifax to Vancouver. Cost effectiveness analysis is based on a cash flow index which measures the principal, interest, tax, and energy payment savings associated with upgrading. The effect on cost effectiveness of an energy-efficient mortgage discount is also examined.

  20. Solar Sustainable Heating, Cooling and Ventilation of a Net Zero Energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Skrupskelis, Martynas; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    Present work addresses the heating, cooling and ventilation concerns of the Technical University of Denmark’s house, Fold, for Solar Decathlon Europe 2012. Various innovative approaches are investigated, namely, utilization of ground, photo-voltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels and phase change materials...... by the embedded pipes which are coupled with the ground. Ventilation is mainly used to control the humidity and to remove sensory and chemical pollution. PV/T panels enable the house to be a “plus” energy house. PV/T also yields to a solar fraction of 63% and 31% for Madrid and Copenhagen, respectively...

  1. Evaluation of Modeled and Measured Energy Savings in Existing All Electric Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Andrew [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Salzberg, Emily [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project analyzes the cost effectiveness of energy savings measures installed by a large public housing authority in Salishan, a community in Tacoma Washington. Research focuses on the modeled and measured energy usage of the first six phases of construction, and compares the energy usage of those phases to phase 7. Market-ready energy solutions were also evaluated to improve the efficiency of affordable housing for new and existing (built since 2001) affordable housing in the marine climate of Washington State.

  2. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    2013-01-01

    the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...

  3. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  4. Policies for improving energy efficiency in the European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    According to EC forecasts, if energy efficiency could be increased 1% annually until 2010, two-thirds of the potential energy saving in the EU could be achieved. This would comply with 40% of the EU's Kyoto obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the 1990 level by 2010-12, by cutting

  5. Feasibility of net-zero energy housing for the Canadian environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2009-06-15

    The development of net zero energy homes can be attributed to the growing interest in sustainable and energy efficient housing. Net zero energy homes are residential units that consume as much energy as they produce. Their basic design methodology consists of developing a highly insulated building envelope to minimize the energy consumption, along with a viable source of renewable energy for energy production. A comprehensive analysis of the technical and economic feasibility of net zero energy housing within Canada was conducted. A TRNSYS modeling tool developed by the Canadian Center for Housing Technology (CCHT) and Natural Resources Canada was used for the simulations. Any modifications that were made to the building used the tool as the base. The project consisted of two identical houses, with one serving as a reference and the other for testing advanced technologies. The houses were built in 1998 and conform to the R-2000 standard. The impact of insulation level on energy consumption was examined through the use of sensitivity analysis. RSI-10 was found to be the most suitable insulation level for most of the 12 Canadian cities used in this study. An air-source heat pump that provides relatively high COP even at colder temperatures was found to be a practical and an ideal solution for Canadian environment. Photovoltaics were used for meeting electricity needs, and a solar domestic hot water heater was supplemented with a backup electrical element to meet the hot water needs. The feasibility study focused on energy performance as well as the economic and payback cost of building a net zero energy home. The prevalent price of electricity in a particular region determined whether a project was feasible. Nunavut was found to have the shortest payback of only 7 years, while Montreal had the longest at 59 years. 24 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Final evaluation of the `solar garden house`, a new concept for energy conscious design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorden, M. van der; Pel-Hoogendoorn, M.; Tilde, P. de [Building Physics Group, Faculty of Architecture, Delis University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The `Solar Garden House` is an example of a recently developed concept for Energy Conscious Building Design. One of the striking features of this house is a huge sun space connecting two small housing blocks. The sun space is meant as an air collector from which heated air can be conducted through a cavity wall in each of the mentioned housing blocks. The cavity wall is used as a component for storage of energy supplied by the heated air and can be used as a source for supplementary heating of inner spaces on both sides of the wall. A preliminary computational study, carried out at Dells University of Technology, indicated that the contribution of the cavity wall to energy savings was negligible. Therefore, as a follow-up the alternative use of the sun space as a device for pre-heating air for ventilation purposes has been investigated. This option turned out to be far more promising from the energy saving point of view. This presentation focuses on the original building concept. A final evaluation of the Solar Garden House will be given. The following aspects will be discussed: energy behaviour and thermal comfort, relevant design parameters and accuracy of obtained computational results. (orig.) 4 refs.

  7. Indoor Thermal Environment of Temporary Mobile Energy Shelter Houses (MeSHs in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Gook Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing must be developed to support the long-term residence needs of disaster victims. The present study assesses a temporary housing unit, the so-called Mobile Energy Shelter House (MeSH, incorporating the “Korean Dwelling Insulation Standard” in order to reduce energy usage for cooling and heating. To assess energy performance, the characteristics of the indoor thermal environment were measured during the winter and summer seasons. In summer, at maximum insolation, the outdoor temperature was 37.6 °C and the indoor temperature of the MeSH ranged from 18 to 24 °C when the cooling system was not used. Conversely, during winter, the average outdoor temperature was −11.3 °C and the indoor temperature ranged from 16.09 to 20.63 °C when a temperature-controlled floor-heating was installed. Furthermore, the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV was adopted to determine whether the ISO 7730 comfort criterion (i.e., PMV range from −0.5 to +0.5 was achieved. Based on the calculations presented here, PMV in summer ranged from −1.21 to +1.07 and that in winter ranged from −0.08 to −0.85, suggesting that the thermal environment is not always comfortable for occupants in either summer or winter. Nevertheless, the ISO comfort criterion can be achieved through varying air velocity in summer and changing clothing characteristics in winter. A comparison between yearly energy demand of existing characteristic temporary housing (Shelter House and the MeSH modules used in this study was performed. The simulation results show a 60% difference in energy demand between MeSH and existing temporary housing shelter houses.

  8. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...] Alternative practices that result in net estimated energy consumption equal to or less than the specific IECC... provided in WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or text file format. Those responding should avoid the use of...

  9. Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaj, A.S.; James, P.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Social housing offers an alternative for low-to-medium income families and keyworkers (teachers, nurses, and police). In the United Kingdom (UK), this fairly priced, rental accommodation is normally owned by housing associations. This paper explores urban energy generation (micro-generation) focussing on photovoltaics (PV) and how its generated electricity can be used to provide added value in terms of demand reduction and contribute to a reduction in fuel poverty. It presents the results associated from in-depth monitoring of nine low-energy social housing units equipped with PV systems commissioned in 2004 in the South of England, UK. We report on energy load profiles and relate these to occupier behaviour and any changes in consumption that occur. The results highlight the impact of micro-generation showing a close correlation between occupant behaviour and energy consumption. Increased energy awareness can lead to changes in the way energy is used, reducing overall consumption but 'education' must be sustained to ensure long-term energy reductions. The financial benefit of operating high demand electrical appliances at the peak of the solar day as opposed to in the evening when overall demand on the central grid is higher is highlighted. The paper also draws conclusions allied to the challenges that PV micro-generation technology presents in the social housing context. (author)

  10. Energy management and parametric optimization of an integrated PV solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Mahrous, A.-F.; Youssef, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical simulation model of an integrated PV solar house was proposed. • Developed model was validated with results available in the literature. • A solar house size of 12–24 m 3 /1 m 2 of collector area satisfies heating conditions. • A flow rate of 0.06 kg/s is accepted for a size of 24 m 3 /1 m 2 collector area. • Longitudinal configuration for the solar cell array is preferred. - Abstract: This paper concerns with optimum design and performance parameters related to energy management of a small solar house. The house is designed to satisfy the main requirements of electrical power and space heating. The proposed house has a south facing PV module employed for direct converting of solar energy into electricity as well as an air solar collector that is integrated behind the solar module. Integration of the solar collector with the PV module aims to enhance the efficiency as well as to decrease the capital cost of the unit. A heat and mass flow numerical model for the energy and mass balances of the flowing air behind the PV module is developed. Temperature variation of individual rooms inside the house is also considered in the study. The developed model has been employed to determine: an appropriate size for the solar house as regards to the given area of PV module, the optimum mass flow rate through the solar collector, and the best configuration of the solar cell array. The simulation results show that an area of 2 m 2 of the PV module would satisfy an acceptable room temperature in the season of winter with a solar house size of 24–48 m 3 . Besides, there would be a significant enhancement in thermal efficiency at high mass flow rate of flowing air through the system. Furthermore, higher thermal efficiency and an acceptable room temperature would be achieved in longitudinal configuration of PV module

  11. The deployment of decentralised energy systems as part of the housing growth programme in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Jo

    2010-01-01

    The housing growth programme could offer an opportunity for accelerating the deployment of decentralised renewable energy systems (DRES) in the UK. The Government hopes to leverage private sector investment into DRES as part of new housing projects. The aim of this paper is to assess whether current regulatory and funding frameworks are sufficient to achieve this. The question is explored by drawing on the experience of developers, local authorities, energy utilities and service companies operating in the largest housing growth region in the UK-Thames Gateway. Their experience suggests that the current low intervention approach will be insufficient to generate the shift required in both industries. In order to be more successful economic and regulatory instruments should focus on producers (house-builders and energy providers) rather than consumers (households). Tighter regulation is needed to ensure that producers have a responsibility to install DRES as part of new developments, to enable connection to the grid, to ensure a sustained financial return from investment and revenue is spent on the expansion of new renewable energy infrastructure. This regulatory framework must be under-pinned by substantial funds focused on producers. Greater intervention is needed if DRES is to be included in new housing development.

  12. The Construction of Affordable Low Energy Prefabricated Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez; Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy......Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur...

  13. Towards more financing options for energy efficient buildings and houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vethman, P.; Menkveld, M.

    2012-02-01

    This article offers an impression of the problems related to the limited financial options for energy efficient buildings and dwellings and possible solutions. It is based on a recent ECN study (RE-BIZZ) and several interviews about this topic with financers. There is a need for a more business appreciation of market parties such as financers for energy efficiency in buildings to increase financing options. The market needs the help of the government, which can help to remove barriers and hence make financing more appealing. [nl

  14. Assessing the Engineering Performance of Affordable Net-Zero Energy Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Wallpe, Jordan P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and ...

  15. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adams, K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, R. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ortiz, S. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, Pat M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  16. 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct highly energy-efficient homes, while addressing building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that achieve whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers.

  17. Criteria for passive houses and energy-efficient buildings; Kriterier for passivhus- og lavenergibygg - yrkesbygg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokka, Tor Helge; Klinski, Michael; Haase, Haase; Mysen, Mads

    2009-07-01

    In this report preliminary criteria for energy-efficient houses (PH) for professional buildings are presented. The term 'professional building' includes the eleven building categories in TEK 07 (Norwegian building regulations for passive houses) apart from the two housing categories: smaller dwellings and apartment buildings. Criteria have also been proposed for low-energy houses, with levels between today's regulations and passive house levels. In the suggested standard there are requirements for net heating needs, net cooling needs, heat loss figures and carbon dioxide emissions. The requirements comply with the passive house standard NS 3700 for dwellings under construction. Minimum requirements for components have also been proposed. In addition there are recommended values for additional internal heat and air quantities, based on the best available technology today. Comprehensive enclosures include detailed support on how the criteria have been developed. These preliminary criteria could also be applied in Enova's work on good example projects on PH and LE -levels, and also form the basis for a standard for professional buildings which supplements the coming NS 3700. (EW)

  18. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AS THE BASIS FOR ENERGY SAVING IN HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Павло Трохимович БУБЕНКО

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considered a scientific approach to energy conservation issues in the housing from the standpoint of program-oriented management, when in contrast to the current practice solutions of energy saving tasks, the process is carried out based on the analysis and comparison of the costs and resource losses for each energy-saving project, and the energy-saving process is based on the provisions of the theory project management. The necessity of mandatory registration of housing construction industry sub-sectors with the utilities in the process of implementing energy-saving strategies. Proposed key areas of energy efficiency of existing and new buildings, formed components selection, programming and planning of energy saving activities at the strategic, tactical and operational levels. We studied the organizational and structural relationship of the construction sector and sub-sectors of housing and communal services in the implementation of energy-saving strategies. We prove the advantages of using the network form of organizational and economic support implementation of energy saving projects.

  19. Green-house gasses reduction in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovski, Mirko; Markovska, Natasha; Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up activity of the Macedonian First National Communication under the UNFC-CC, Technology Needs Assessment is conducted, evaluating by GACMO model the measures related mainly to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies. An abatement cost curve is constructed and used as an illustrative tool for recognizing priorities in GHG abatement policy. About half of the measures are shown to be of 'win-win' type, reducing 3% of the baseline GHG emissions, while the total reduction which can be achieved by all measures amounts to 20%. For each measure difficulties for implementation are identified, being the highest for the measures with largest GHG abatement potential. Generally, these difficulties include lack of financing and low prospects for attracting foreign investments as well as legislative and administrative barriers. It must be recognized that climate change issues could not be of high priority in a country with economy in transition. Consequently, in our case the main issues which should be integrated within the framework of ongoing transition reforms, in an effort to implement a GHG emission reduction policy, would be: institutional capacity building, attracting foreign investment, emphasis on energy efficiency and considering the switch toward less carbon intensive fuels. (Author)

  20. Studies of Heat Dynamics in an Arctic Low-energy House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff; Rode, Carsten; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A low energy house situated in Sisimiut, Greenland is used as study object for analysis of dynamic thermal properties of energy efficient buildings. The building is instrumented with a number of energy meters and thermal sensors, and these thermal data are logged with fine time intervals....... Statistical methods are being developed in a PhD project to derive the properties to be used in a dynamic thermal model of the whole building. Characteristic of the building is its exposure to the extreme Arctic climate, which is both very cold and where the sun in some periods may shine constantly......, or not at all. The house is equipped with a weather station measuring temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direction. The building is highly energy efficient and its performance has been followed since its inception in 2005. The energy efficiency of the building is due to good thermal insulation, large...

  1. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  2. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  3. Ultra-High and Near-Zero Refractive Indices of Magnetron Sputtered Thin-Film Metamaterials Based on TixOy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukoman Jokanović

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials based on TixOy with ultra-high and near-zero refractive indices were obtained by DC magnetron sputtering. The data on refractive indices, extinction coefficients, film thickness, and band gaps, obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry, showed very high potential of these materials as metamaterials. Phase analysis performed by XRD revealed the presence of titanium phases with lower titanium oxidation states resulting from high concentration of oxygen vacancies, which are crucial for such extraordinary jumps and drops of refractive indices. Numerous band gaps for direct and indirect electron transitions additionally confirmed unique properties of these materials.

  4. Thermal design of a modern, two floor, zero energy house in a desert compound

    KAUST Repository

    Serag-Eldin, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents a thermal analysis and design of a fully equipped, air-conditioned, zero energy house located in a desert compound at 24.5° latitude. Unlike previous designs the home is two floors high, which makes the balancing of energy supply and demand even more challenging. The roof of the house carries an array of retractable Photovoltaic modules and cover. During day light hours the modules convert the incident sun energy into useful electrical power, while shielding the roof from direct sun-radiation. At night time, the roof cover and modules are retracted to expose the roof to the cool night-sky, thus enhancing cooling. The paper employs time-dependent modeling of Solar input and heat transfer to predict the roof, wall and window temperature distributions and cooling loads, as well as energy generated by the modules. With the aid of battery storage, the modules provide the entire energy needs of the house. The paper displays the results of energy balances for three key days of the year which demonstrate that the proposed two floor design is indeed capable of operating without external energy. © 2010 IEEE.

  5. Barriers to installing innovative energy systems in existing housing stock identified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several barriers to upgrading existing social housing with innovative energy systems (IES) have been identified by a study of eight large-scale renovation projects in the Netherlands. These include a lack of trust between stakeholders, opposition from tenants on grounds of increased costs or delays,

  6. Improved perceived indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was, among other things, to evaluate how tenants perceived the indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing erected in the 1960s. Tenants answered a questionnaire to quantify problems and satisfaction with the indoor environment before...

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Home — Double ZeroHouse, Lancaster, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The home that won a Production Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards serves as a model for this builder, showcasing high-tech features including an electric car charging station; a compressed natural gas (CNG) car fueling station; a greywater recycling system that filters shower, sink, and clothes washer water for yard irrigation; smart appliances; and an electronic energy management system.

  8. An Investigation of Energy Storage Possibilities in Single Family Houses for Smart Grid Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark it will be a challenge in near future to balance the electrical grid due to a large increase in the renewable energy production mainly from wind turbines. Smart grid solutions which exploit all storage capacities are essential to meet this challenge. In this work single family houses w...

  9. Towards Energy Demand Reduction in Social Housing Buildings: Envelope System Optimization Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Esquivias

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the potential for the reduction of energy demand in residential buildings by acting on the exterior envelope, both in newly constructed buildings and in the retrofitting of existing stock. It focuses on analysing social housing buildings in Mediterranean areas and on quantifying the scope of that reduction in the application of different envelope design strategies, with the purpose of prioritizing their application based on their energy efficiency. The analyses and quantifications were made by means of the generation of energy models with the TRNSYS tool for simple or combined solutions, identifying possible potentials for reduction of the energy demand from 20% to 25%, basically by acting on the windows. The case study was a newly built social housing building of a closed block type located in Seville (Spain. Its constructive techniques and the insulation level of its envelope are standardized for current buildings widespread across Mediterranean Europe.

  10. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    , exemplified with a case study. The case study evaluates different types of design principles of a typical Danish house, especially with respect to choices of materials etc. As the conclusion of this paper will show, unconventional thinking can negate this effect and even bring about new ways of working......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...... demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept...

  11. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  12. Leveraging energy efficiency to finance public-private social housing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Italian housing model relies on a high rate of privately owned houses. In comparison, few dwellings are built and managed by the public sector. The social housing stock has been built mainly during some post-second world war decades; instead, since the early nineties, it underwent a privatization process. Such a model is inefficient and iniquitous in the long run. Therefore, after being disregarded for several years, social housing has gone back to be among the main agenda items. Nonetheless, due to the lack of public grants, new funding sources are required. The government now fosters an increasing involvement of private finance through Public-Private Partnership schemes. A first outcome can be found in some pioneering experiences. Their comparative analysis allows bringing out worthwhile findings, which are useful to steer housing policies. Moderate to low yields entail the need to involve new kinds of private entities, particularly those adopting a venture philanthropy approach. Meanwhile, building energy performance measures are a crucial driver of feasibility. They allow the tenants to be willing to pay agreed rents somehow higher than both social rents of protected tenancies and fair rents of regulated tenancies. - Highlights: •In Italy, the provision of affordable dwellings was disregarded for years. •Recently, instead, social housing has come back to be among the main agenda items. •Latest regulations try to tie together social housing and Public-Private Partnership. •Social tenants may be asked to pay more than in protected and regulated tenancies. •Energy-efficient measures allow keeping the tenants neutral about the rent increase.

  13. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... conditions of Greenland, there is considerable potential for energy saving in houses due to their construction, shape and condition. To estimate the total potential for energy saving and thus reducing CO2 emissions, we carried out a detailed investigation of three typical standard semi-detached family houses...

  14. Energy-active walls for solar houses made by using energy accumulating panels with ecologically safe panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the opportunities for separate assemblage and dismounting of the structural layers of energy-accumulating panels, meant for construction of energy-active walls, which could find an application in the process of building of so called 'solar houses'. A situation has been considered, for a panel, whose structure layers after the expiration of their operational term could be dismounted separately and could be recycled for secondary use

  15. New Building Principles In Consequence Of Legislative Demands For Reduced Energy Consumption In Danish Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof; Brohus, Henrik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2006-01-01

    demands regarding energy consumption. More often than not sustainable aspects like the need for reduced energy consumption are implemented late in the design process. This paper investigates the affect of incorporating aspects like solar heat gain and energy consumption in the initial concept......The increasing restrictions in coming building codes regarding energy consumption in housing generate a need to rethink the building design as well as the building process. This paper discusses the need to change/challenge the way structures are conceived in order to accommodate new legislative...

  16. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  17. Energy performance ratings and house prices in Wales: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; McAllister, Pat; Nanda, Anupam; Wyatt, Pete

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) ratings on residential prices in Wales. Drawing on a sample of approximately 192,000 transactions, the capitalisation of energy efficiency ratings into house prices is investigated using two approaches. The first adopts a cross-sectional framework to investigate the effect of EPC rating on price. The second approach applies a repeat-sales methodology to investigate the impact of EPC rating on house price appreciation. Statistically significant positive price premiums are estimated for dwellings in EPC bands A/B (12.8%) and C (3.5%) compared to houses in band D. For dwellings in band E (−3.6%) and F (−6.5%) there are statistically significant discounts. Such effects may not be the result of energy performance alone. In addition to energy cost differences, the price effect may be due to additional benefits of energy efficient features. An analysis of the private rental segment reveals that, in contrast to the general market, low-EPC rated dwellings were not traded at a significant discount. This suggests different implicit prices of potential energy savings for landlords and owner-occupiers.

  18. Correlations between energy economy and housing market prices in the EU-impacts on future sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maassen Maria Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic system is facing multiple challenges in terms of social development, technology and innovation, as well as sustainability needs. As a result, the value of existing assets is changing globally depending on the scarcity, necessity and effects on the business field leading to increased prices of traditional sources of energy and increased competition in the economic field. Thus, the EU energy market has progressed in reducing its dependence on external energy sourcing, by increasing production of renewable energy, such as wind or solar, as well as by further integration of the electric grid. Based on the Pearson coefficient this article intends to research the correlations between the economic, energy and house prices in recent years and the future possible impacts depending on their evolution. For example, gas prices in the past decade increasing household costs in most countries due to the dependence on third parties for energy, lead to the need of increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption, which have consequently decreased electricity prices since 2008. However, this development has still not solved the additional costs issue of households due to the new technologies implemented although wind and solar energy receive in general low margins. Such energy issues, as well as the increased housing prices after the financial crisis in 2008 have caused on their own an additional burden on the economy and households spending income in the next years following.

  19. Energy consultancy services for end-user in the housing sector in Poland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Prebensen, K.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of establishing consulting service schemes is based on the Polish needs to introduce energy saving measures at different levels. In connection with the financing of energy saving measures whether this is carried out through private banks or Energy Saving Companies (ESCOs) there is a need for an institutional component responsible for standardized procedures for appraisal and supervision of energy saving projects. The objective of the project is to reduce the energy consumption in the municipal and housing sector in Warsaw, Gdansk and Katowice, and subsequently implement the results and experience to a large number of other towns in Poland. Education and training of more than thousand energy consultants within a period of 2 years is planned. The fundamental idea of the project is education and training of Polish professionals, who will perform the subsequent training of Polish consultants within the framework of a Polish National Energy Consultant Scheme. A comprehensive compendium (approximately 500 pages) was worked out in English language. The scope of work for the consultant covers all energy aspects in the housing sector: Individual heat generation; Control systems; Heat distribution in the building and local district heating network; Domestic Hot Water; Electricity; Thermal renovation of the Building Envelope; Energy management; Financial aspects and applications for finance of the energy saving measures. The first training course with 41 participants in Poland took place from 4 to 9 December 1995. (EG)

  20. Measurements of Energy Performance and Indoor Environmental Quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the first results from a large Danish project regarding measurements of energy performance and indoor environmental quality in 10 Danish Passive Houses. The project includes both qualitative and quantitative analyses. This paper describes the first results from the quantitative...... part. The house considered in this paper has an air change rate (ACR) of 0.34 h-1 and the results from the first few months of measurements show excellent results when relative humidity (RH) and CO2-levels are considered. When the temperatures are assessed problems with slight overheating are found...

  1. Tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    studied and verified. The objective of the present project was to evaluate tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing. A questionnaire was developed that included questions about perceived indoor climate, possible co-benefits, the renovation process, various...... construction-related measures as well as questions on changed habits after the renovation. The questionnaire was distributed in two large settlements of social housing erected in the 1960s, one representing a case of comprehensive renovation and another representing a case of more moderate renovation...

  2. Final Expert Meeting Report: Simplified Space Conditioning Strategies for Energy Efficient Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.

    2011-07-01

    More research is needed to evaluate the level of energy efficiency and the conditions where simplified space conditioning systems will work in new and retrofitted houses. Guidance is needed on the design and installation of these systems to support a wider adoption throughout the new construction and retrofit market. The purpose of this expert meeting was to recap the current state of knowledge in this area and to provide a peer review of IBACOS's research plan for new and existing unoccupied test houses with minimized space conditioning systems.

  3. House Owners’ Interests and Actions in Relation to Indoor Temperature, Air Quality and Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    In order to make better and more realistic predictions of energy consumption in dwellings, more knowledge is needed about how individuals and households control the indoor environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the objective of studying the interest and actions taken in relation...... the winter compared with the rest of the year. Actions are taken to improve the air quality by the majority of the house owners by opening windows. The most frequent reasons for opening windows once or several times a day was “to get fresh air” and “in relation to showering”. House owners are interested...

  4. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption. This will ......It has long been a political aim to reduce the emissions caused by energy consumption, and in Denmark politicians aim to make Denmark a society independent of fossil fuels by 2050. To achieve this, it is necessary to increase sustainable energy production and reduce energy consumption....... This will take time, so both areas must be considered already now, but it will be beneficial to work on reducing the consumption before the sustainable energy supply is fully developed, so that we can avoid expensive over-production. Some 30% of the total energy consumption in Denmark takes place in households......, and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...

  5. Using renewable energy to create comfort in the first Romanian passive house suited for offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using renewable energy is becoming more profitable nowadays because of applying advanced technology. The paper, presented by the authors, analyses the case of using solar and geothermal energy to create comfort in homes with low energy consumption. In this situation, the performance of the systems that take energy from low-heat renewable sources and convert it into useful energy is growing. The characteristics of the buildings with low power consumption, of passive houses in particular, can cause the development of a new generation of devices to create comfort. The energy used to create comfort in the first passive house built in Romania, which was designed for offices, analyzed by the authors, is using both geothermal and solar power. The authors present the energy performance of the building correlated with the performance of the air-conditioning system that uses ground-water heat pumps. The thermodynamic analysis presented, highlights how the performance of geothermal energy systems increased, their variation depending on the climate zone variation parameter values. The authors make a detailed analysis, in the presented paper, about the influence of the working conditions of the installation elements, on the heat pump energy consumption and the methods adopted to reduce losses and increase system performance.

  6. The Modern Solar House: Architecture, Energy, and the Emergence of Environmentalism, 1938--1959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel A.

    This dissertation describes the active discourse regarding solar house heating in American architectural, engineering, political, economic, and corporate contexts from the eve of World War II until the late 1950s. Interweaving these multiple narratives, the aim of the project is threefold: to document this vital discourse, to place it in the context of the history of architecture, and to trace through it the emergence of a techno-cultural environmentalism. Experimentation in the solar house relied on the principles of modern architecture for both energy efficiency and claims to cultural relevance. A passive "solar house principle" was developed in the late 30s in the suburban houses of George Fred Keck that involved open plans and flexible roof lines, and emphasized volumetric design. Spurred by wartime concern over energy resource depletion, architectural interest in solar heating also engaged an engineering discourse; in particular, an experimental program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology led to four solar houses and a codification of its technological parameters. Attention to the MIT projects at the UN and in the Truman and Eisenhower administrations placed the solar house as a central node in an emergent network exploring the problems and possibilities of a renewable resource economy. Further experimentation elaborated on connections between this architecturalengineering discourse and the technical assistance regimes of development assistance; here by MIT researcher Maria Telkes, who also collaborated, at different junctures, with the architects Eleanor Raymond and Aladar Olgyay. The solar house discourse was further developed as a cultural project in the 1958 competition to design a solar heated residence, "Living With the Sun," which coalesced the diverse formal tendencies of midcentury modernism to promote the solar house as an innovation in both lifestyle and policy. Though the examples described are not successful as either technological

  7. Horizontal temperature distribution in a plus-energy house: cooling season measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the air and operative temperatures at different locations in a detached, one-story, single family, plus-energy house. The house was located in Denmark and it has been used as a full-scale experimental facility with heated dummies to simulate occupants living...... system) and was ventilated with a mechanical ventilation system (heat recovery on ventilation). Inside the house, there was a single space combining kitchen, living room and bedroom areas. The thermal comfort of the occupant(s) in this space could differ based on the location of the occupant, and control...... would follow the temperature changes in the occupied zone closely and, thus, would provide a good indication of the thermal indoor environment to the control system....

  8. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, Christine [Building American Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  9. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. -K. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mrozowski, T. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Harrell-Seyburn, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Ehrlich, N. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Hembroff, L. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Lieburn, B. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mazor, M. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); McIntyre, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mutton, C. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Parsons, G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Syal, M. G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Wilkinson, R. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the "Market Characterization" project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University, and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within the Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as "archetypes" by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market.

  10. Description of case houses. Building integrated energy supply; Beskrivelse af casehuse. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The present report describes typical construction details of the building envelope (windows, floor, outside wall and roof/ceiling) for houses built in the years 1961-1972, 1973-1978 and 1979-1998. Furthermore the report describes the necessary improvements for the buildings' U-value to be the minimum value as stated in the Danish building code of 2010, and to be the values for buildings at the level of low-energy class 2015. Cost estimation for optimizing the houses to an optimum insulation level has been made. (ln)

  11. Energy Efficiency Potential in the U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Typical approaches for assessing energy efficiency potential in buildings use a limited number of prototypes, and therefore suffer from inadequate resolution when pass-fail cost-effectiveness tests are applied, which can significantly underestimate or overestimate the economic potential of energy efficiency technologies. This analysis applies a new approach to large-scale residential energy analysis, combining the use of large public and private data sources, statistical sampling, detailed building simulations, and high-performance computing to achieve unprecedented granularity - and therefore accuracy - in modeling the diversity of the single-family housing stock. The result is a comprehensive set of maps, tables, and figures showing the technical and economic potential of 50 plus residential energy efficiency upgrades and packages for each state. Policymakers, program designers, and manufacturers can use these results to identify upgrades with the highest potential for cost-effective savings in a particular state or region, as well as help identify customer segments for targeted marketing and deployment. The primary finding of this analysis is that there is significant technical and economic potential to save electricity and on-site fuel use in the single-family housing stock. However, the economic potential is very sensitive to the cost-effectiveness criteria used for analysis. Additionally, the savings of particular energy efficiency upgrades is situation-specific within the housing stock (depending on climate, building vintage, heating fuel type, building physical characteristics, etc.).

  12. Method for design of low-energy type houses based on simulations of indoor environment and energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies

    2013-01-01

    is to contribute to the development of Danish low-energy residential buildings with good indoor environment. To reach the target of a fossil-free energy supply in Denmark by 2050, both new building design and renovation of existing buildings to meet future energy requirements need to be taken into account......There is a need to reduce energy consumption in buildings and in general improve energy efficiency in the building sector in Denmark, as in the rest of the EU. Energy savings, however, should go hand in hand with providing a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. So, the aim of this thesis....... To encourage the development of appropriate designs for new low-energy buildings and façade renovation of existing buildings, improved knowledge is needed on window design. The research consisted of two parts. First in relation to window design in a typical Danish single-family house constructed in accordance...

  13. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  14. Accurate path integral molecular dynamics simulation of ab-initio water at near-zero added cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Daniel; Fritz, Michelle; Soler, José; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi

    It is now established that nuclear quantum motion plays an important role in determining water's structure and dynamics. These effects are important to consider when evaluating DFT functionals and attempting to develop better ones for water. The standard way of treating nuclear quantum effects, path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD), multiplies the number of energy/force calculations by the number of beads, which is typically 32. Here we introduce a method whereby PIMD can be incorporated into a DFT molecular dynamics simulation at virtually zero cost. The method is based on the cluster (many body) expansion of the energy. We first subtract the DFT monomer energies, using a custom DFT-based monomer potential energy surface. The evolution of the PIMD beads is then performed using only the more-accurate Partridge-Schwenke monomer energy surface. The DFT calculations are done using the centroid positions. Various bead thermostats can be employed to speed up the sampling of the quantum ensemble. The method bears some resemblance to multiple timestep algorithms and other schemes used to speed up PIMD with classical force fields. We show that our method correctly captures some of key effects of nuclear quantum motion on both the structure and dynamics of water. We acknowledge support from DOE Award No. DE-FG02-09ER16052 (D.E.) and DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871 (M.V.F.S.).

  15. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Energy Performance of Two Multi-Story Wood-Frame Passive Houses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushna Mahapatra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two eight-story wood-framed residential buildings with the Swedish 2012 passive house standard were built in 2009 in the Portvakten Söder quarter in the city of Växjö in Sweden. In this paper, we present the monitored specific energy use of the buildings and compare to the requirements of the Swedish building code and recommendation for passive houses. We also estimated the primary energy use and CO2 emissions and investigated the tenants’ views and experiences of the two buildings. Results show that the actual specific energy use of 40.2 kWh/m2Atemp/year in the Portvakten Söder building fulfills, by a good margin, the requirements of the Swedish building code and the recommended passive house standard, but is higher than projected. Applying a marginal perspective, the calculated primary energy use and carbon dioxide emission from operating the buildings (excluding household electricity was 40 kWh/m2Atemp/year and zero, respectively. Responses of 20 tenants to a mail-in questionnaire survey showed that over 90% were satisfied with their apartments.

  17. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Cascade Apartments - Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington, which resulted in annual energy cost savings of 22%, improved comfort and air quality for residents, and increased durability of the units. This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary Building America research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capital improvement funding.

  18. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Increase of outdoors temperature, due to climate changes, results in warmer summers even in cold climate regions. Moreover the use of wider glazing surfaces leads to high amount of incoming solar radiation. As a consequence, the moving toward low energy buildings with the improved air tightness.......The main result is that a crossed use of both strategies leads to a cooling demand reduction (21 kWh/m2year) that varies between 98%-100% depending on the building’s tightness. Behavioural actions of the occupants were also considered in the calculation of the cooling energy demand and their impact...... is raising the issue of overheating even in the middle seasons creating not negligible thermal discomfort. Through building simulation program, the effect of passive cooling strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, on a residential building under Copenhagen climate conditions...

  19. Building Energy Consumption Pattern Analysis of Detached Housing for the Policy Decision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jiyoun; Lee, Seung-Eon

    2018-03-01

    The Korean government announced its plan to raise the previous reduction goal of greenhouse gas emission from buildings by 26.9% until 2020 on July 2015. Therefore, policies regarding efficiency in the building energy are implemented fast, but the level of building owners and market understanding is low in general, and the government service system which supports decision making for implementing low-energy buildings has not been provided yet. The purpose of this study is to present the design direction for establishing user customized building energy database to perform a role to provide autonomous ecosystem of low-energy buildings. In order to reduce energy consumption in buildings, it is necessary to carry out the energy performance analysis based on the characteristics of target building. By analysing about 20-thousand cases of the amount of housing energy consumption in Korea, this study suggested the real energy consumption pattern by building types. Also, the energy performance of a building could be determined by energy consumption, but previous building energy consumption analysis programs required expert knowledge and experience in program usage, so it was difficult for normal building users to use such programs. Therefore, a measure to provide proper default using the level of data which general users with no expert knowledge regarding building energy could enter easily was suggested in this study.

  20. Influence of Adaptive Comfort Models on Energy Improvement for Housing in Cold Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pérez-Fargallo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of construction standards using adaptive thermal comfort models has a great impact on energy consumption. The analysis of a user’s climate adaptation must be one of the first steps in the search for nearly/net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB. The goal of this work is to analyze the standards recommended by the Chile’s Construction with Sustainability Criteria for the building of housing, applying the ASHRAE 55-2017 and EN 15251:2007 adaptive comfort models in social housing. The study produces concrete recommendations associated with construction strategies, to increase the number of hours the user finds themselves with acceptable thermal comfort levels, without repercussions for energy consumption. Sixteen parametric series were evaluated with a dynamic simulation of the most common prototype of social housing in the Bio-Bio Region. The study shows that thermal comfort conditions can be increased through a combination of improvement measures compared to the ECCS standard (Construction Standards with Sustainability Criteria: 27.52% in the case of applying EN 15251:2007 and 24.04% in the case of ASHRAE 55-2017.

  1. A Pedestrian Approach to Indoor Temperature Distribution Prediction of a Passive Solar Energy Efficient House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in energy consumption by buildings in keeping the indoor environment within the comfort levels and the ever increase of energy price there is need to design buildings that require minimal energy to keep the indoor environment within the comfort levels. There is need to predict the indoor temperature during the design stage. In this paper a statistical indoor temperature prediction model was developed. A passive solar house was constructed; thermal behaviour was simulated using ECOTECT and DOE computer software. The thermal behaviour of the house was monitored for a year. The indoor temperature was observed to be in the comfort level for 85% of the total time monitored. The simulation results were compared with the measured results and those from the prediction model. The statistical prediction model was found to agree (95% with the measured results. Simulation results were observed to agree (96% with the statistical prediction model. Modeled indoor temperature was most sensitive to the outdoor temperatures variations. The daily mean peak ones were found to be more pronounced in summer (5% than in winter (4%. The developed model can be used to predict the instantaneous indoor temperature for a specific house design.

  2. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based.

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  4. Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    Continuous increasing of fuel prices due to the limited stock, together with their negative impact on the environment open the gates for new technologies, more environmental friendly resource and free to use resources like the ones used by renewable energies. In this paper an economic analysis...... and a feasibility study of a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables smart house (SH) in Denmark is presented. Due to the continuous increasing penetration levels of wind and solar power in today’s energy system call for the development of high efficiency optimizations and Smart Grid (SG) enabling options....... In case of renewable energies, one main challenge is the discontinuity of generation which can be solved with planning and control optimization methods. The results of the economic analysis and the feasibility of the sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables SH show that this could be possible...

  5. Annual Performance Evaluation of a Pair of Energy Efficient Houses (WC3 and WC4) in Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Beginning in 2008, two pairs of energy-saver houses were built at Wolf Creek in Oak Ridge, TN. These houses were designed to maximize energy efficiency using new ultra-high-efficiency components emerging from ORNL s Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) partners and others. The first two houses contained 3713 square feet of conditioned area and were designated as WC1 and WC2; the second pair consisted of 2721 square feet conditioned area with crawlspace foundation and they re called WC3 and WC4. This report is focused on the annual energy performance of WC3 and WC4, and how they compare against a previously benchmarked maximum energy efficient house of a similar footprint. WC3 and WC4 are both about 55-60% more efficient than traditional new construction. Each house showcases a different envelope system: WC3 is built with advanced framing featured cellulose insulation partially mixed with phase change materials (PCM); and WC4 house has cladding composed of an exterior insulation and finish system (EIFS). The previously benchmarked house was one of three built at the Campbell Creek subdivision in Knoxville, TN. This house (CC3) was designed as a transformation of a builder house (CC1) with the most advanced energy-efficiency features, including solar electricity and hot water, which market conditions are likely to permit within the 2012 2015 period. The builder house itself was representative of a standard, IECC 2006 code-certified, all-electric house built by the builder to sell around 2005 2008.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Marcus; Gustafsson, Moa Swing; Myhren, Jonn Are; Bales, Chris; Holmberg, Sture

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving measures can be cost-effective as part of a planned renovation. • Primary energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption and CO 2 emissions are assessed for different electricity mixes. • EAHP can be a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial complement to district heating. • EAHP has lower LCC and significantly shorter payback time than ventilation with heat recovery. • Low-temperature ventilation radiators improve the COP of the heat pump. - Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO 2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island, United Veterans Beacon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-09-01

    United Way of Long Island’s Housing Development Corporation built this 3,719-ft2 two–story, 5-bedroom home in Huntington Station, New York, to the rigorous performance requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home Program. The home is packed with high-performance features like LED lighting and ENERGY STAR appliances. The asymmetrical, optimally angled roof provides plenty of space for roof-mounted solar panels for electric generation and hot water.

  8. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O. Olotuah; Olabosipo I. Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

    Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research metho...

  9. Post occupancy evaluation of energy-efficient behavior in informal housing of high density area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D. N.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The concept of energy-efficient building emphasizes the critical of efficiency in the use of water, electrical energy, and building materials, beginning with design, construction, to the maintenance of the building in the future. This study was conducted to observe the behavior of Energy Saving of the residents in performing everyday activities in the building. The observed variables are the consumption of natural resources (energy, material, water, and land) and the emissions of air, water, and land related to the environment and health. This research is a descriptive qualitative research with the method of data collection is the distribution of questionnaires and observation. The method of analyzing data is posted occupancy evaluation undertaken to obtain patterns of community-based behavior in urban areas. The informal high-density housing area is a typology of population settlements that found in many big cities in Indonesia. This community represents various community groups regarding occupation, education, income, and race. The results of the study concluded that there are five components of energy-saving behavioral formers in housing namely: residential building components, environmental components in occupancy, external occupancy components, components of social activities and elements of business

  10. Microclimate design methods for energy-saving houses on various site conditions in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Kyeong

    2008-07-09

    A small area can have several different microclimates depending on how much sunlight, shade or wind are exposed on the area. Microclimate can be influenced by inclined terrain, surfaces, and 3-dimensionally geometry such as combinations of architectural elements and annex buildings. This study investigates microclimate modification for energy-saving using design elements of Korean traditional and passive house. Microclimate analysis method in this study enables to predict temporal and spatial variances in the building geometry. A combination of passive solar heating, cold wind blocking, indoor air circulation, natural ventilation cooling and shading etc, seasonally help to form a comfort condition with less energy consumption. The passive heating and cooling controls with microclimate modification are efficient to accomplish the energy efficiency in the building. This work includes the microclimate modifications of the high-performance designs, microclimate energy-saving methods, Passive House design methods, and common physical bases in energy simulation methods. For hot and humid summer in Korea, ventilation is beneficial for convective or evaporative cooling. The air flow through a building geometry is generated by differences in air temperature and pressure. The layout of surrounding buildings acts as barriers and diverts the flow into narrower. The resulted patterns of airflow are affected more by building geometry and orientation than by air speed. A novel simulation method combining multi-zone and CFD energy simulations is used to analyze energy-saving aspects in passive and microclimate design elements. EnergyPlus is a multi-zone energy simulation tool that uses a parameterization to simplify the energy-saving problem for each zone. However, the model is not appropriate to handle variations in the building geometry since it estimates only the average value for each volume. On the contrary, CFD method with subdivided grid units is more suitable to estimate

  11. Energy performance of building fabric - Comparing two types of vernacular residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Vanya Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    Notwithstanding apparent differences, Japanese and Bulgarian traditional residential houses share a lot of common features - building materials, building techniques, even layout design. Despite the similarities, these two types of houses have not been compared so far. The study initiates such comparison. The focus is on houses in areas with similar climate in both countries. Current legislation requirements are compared, as well as the criteria for thermal comfort of people. Achieving high energy performance results from a dynamic system of 4 main key factors - thermal comfort range, heating/cooling source, building envelope and climatic conditions. A change in any single one of them can affect the final energy performance. However, it can be expected that a combination of changes in more than one factor usually occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the thermal performance of building envelope designed under current regulations and a traditional one, having in mind the different thermal comfort range in the two countries. A sample building model is calculated in Scenario 1 - Japanese traditional building fabric, Scenario 2 - Bulgarian traditional building fabric and Scenario 3 - meeting the requirements of the more demanding current regulations. The energy modelling is conducted using EnergyPlus through OpenStudio cross-platform of software tools. The 3D geometry for the simulation is created using OpenStudio SketchUp Plug-in. Equal number of inhabitants, electricity consumption and natural ventilation is assumed. The results show that overall low energy consumption can be achieved using traditional building fabric as well, when paired with a wider thermal comfort range. Under these conditions traditional building design is still viable today. This knowledge can reestablish the use of traditional building fabric in contemporary design, stimulate preservation of local culture, building traditions and community identity.

  12. Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  13. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50% over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  14. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program: High Performance Manufactured Home Prototyping and Construction Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peeks, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Northwest Energy Works (NEW), the current Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program (NEEM) administrator, have been collaborating to conduct research on new specifications that would improve on the energy requirements of a NEEM home. In its role as administrator, NEW administers the technical specs, performs research and engineering analysis, implements ongoing construction quality management procedures, and maintains a central database with home tracking. This project prototyped and assessed the performances of cost-effective high performance building assemblies and mechanical systems that are not commonly deployed in the manufacturing setting. The package of measures is able to reduce energy used for space conditioning, water heating and lighting by 50 percent over typical manufactured homes produced in the northwest.

  15. Formation of Conceptual Provisions for the Development of the Energy Efficient Housing Construction in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Current problems and the prospects of energy saving in Russia as well as the importance of creation of complete legislative and legal base and the mechanisms of economic incentives of energy saving is are considered in article. The analysis of the existing criteria of the energy efficiency of buildings is carried out. The introduction of so-called “road map” of the development of energy saving in housing-and-communal services is expedient. According to the author, that will allow to provide owners of buildings and the servicing companies with the information for acceptance of organizational and technical project, construction and operational decisions, reasonable decisions on maintenance, reconstruction or dismantling of the buildings, directed to lowering of energetic expenses and also to the proper organization of life cycle of buildings in general.

  16. Energy Value Housing Award Guide: How to Build and Profit with Energy Efficiency in New Home Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, J. L.

    2001-06-01

    As concern over the environment grows, builders have the potential to fulfill a market niche by building homes that use fewer resources and have lower environmental impact than conventional construction. Builders can increase their marketability and customer satisfaction and, at the same time, reduce the environmental impact of their homes. However, it takes dedication to build environmentally sound homes along with a solid marketing approach to ensure that customers recognize the added value of energy and resource efficiency. This guide is intended for builders seeking suggestions on how to improve energy and resource efficiency in their new homes. It is a compilation of ideas and concepts for designing, building, and marketing energy- and resource-efficient homes based on the experience of recipients of the national Energy Value Housing Award (EVHA).

  17. Performance of skylight illuminance inside a dome shaped adobe house under composite climate at New Delhi (India: A typical zero energy passive house

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Chel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents annual experimental performance of pyramid shaped skylight for daylighting of a dome shaped adobe house located at solar energy park in New Delhi (India. This approach of single story dome shaped building with skylight is more useful for rural and semi-urban sectors for both office and residential buildings reducing artificial lighting energy consumption. The hourly measured data of inside and outside illuminance for three different working surface levels inside the existing rooms are presented for each month of the year. The embodied energy payback time of the skylight is also determined on the basis of lighting energy saving potential.

  18. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  19. Search paths for the actions of energy retrofit and new quality of housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Milardi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available HOPUS (Housing Praxis for Urban Sustainability is a research project conducted by the department DASTEC Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, with various community and local partners. The project aimed to implement and promote the use of design codes for building sustainable development in European cities and create a local support group for testing the codes. The objective to start this process was to establish a synergy between research centers, governments and enterprises, in order to understand and improve the relationships built with the new quality framework for social, urban, housing and energy. Objects of the experiments were some existing public residential buildings that are located in Reggio Calabria and built in different historical periods.

  20. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  1. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Caldwell and Johnson — Church Community and Housing Corporation, Charlestown, RI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home garnered an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, for its highly insulated construction, minisplit heat pump and water heater, and triple pane windows.

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  4. The project to design and develop an energy-related program for public housing residents: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    This demonstration project studied how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilities indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

  5. Cutting energy costs in multifamily housing: Practical case studies for the builder and developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiddon, W.I.

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on an expert evaluation of nine existing and three proposed multifamily housing projects across the US. The existing buildings include three lowrise projects (three to four stories), six midrises (five to seven stories), and three highrise buildings (nine to thirty-nine stories). Two projects were designed and built in the late 1950's, two in the late 1960's, and five late in the ''energy-crisis'' of the 1970's. The existing projects range from municipally subsidized elderly housing, to HUD Section-8 suburban developments, to luxury urban highrise buildings. The three ''future'' buildings, designed by the NAHB research team, were based on trends anticipated in the multifamily industry by IREM and NAHB leaders, over the next five years. The key trends identified were: downsizing of units (by 10 to 20%); increased project size (in number of units), denser developments (more midrise and highrise projects), and increased amenities - all in the context of more affordable housing.

  6. Embodied Energy Calculation in Mitigating Environmental Impact of Low-Cost Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larasati ZR Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the negative impacts of building construction, or mitigation, should be done in the early phase of a project. Particular method that can be used to reduce the negative impact is Embodied Energy (EE calculation. This research develops a method to calculate the total EE of materials used in building construction by using the Material Selection Analysis (MSA based on Indonesia’s Construction Work Unit Price Analysis (WUPA. MSA breaks down the types, its unit, and total volume of materials within an object. Using the EE data from Inventory Carbon and Energy (ICE Bath, in the UK, this research calculate the embodied energy in three small house types in Indonesia: Type 21 M2, Type 36 M2, and Type 45 M2. The result reveals a negative correlation between building’s area and EE value. Nonetheless, the EE value is positively related to the volume of material used. Proposed strategies to decrease the value of EE in low cost housing construction manly; a design approach in improving the efficiency of material usage, b materials substitution to material with lower value of EE, especially on material on large volume of usage, c socialization of EE value to stakeholders as consideration in determining the choice of materials used, thus, environmental mitigation is expected to be an important aspect in determining the design decisions and the choice of materials used.

  7. Evaluation of the Energy and Comfort Performance of a Plus-Energy House under Scandinavian Summer Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    respectively in the first and ground floors. In general, the indoor climate was quantitatively better during the heating period (June and September) than in the cooling period (July and August). Overheating did not result to be an issue, which suggests that the installation of a cooling system could have been...... avoided. The energy balance proved to be positive, with a total of 1563 kWh of electricity produced by the photovoltaic cells installed on the roof, and 333 kWh used by the mechanical systems of the house during the four studied months. The air temperature in the semi-outdoor space frequently reached 2...

  8. Optimizing Whole House Deep Energy Retrofit Packages: A Case Study of Existing Chicago-Area Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnie Aguilar Leinartas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency of the residential building stock plays a key role in mitigating global climate change. New guidelines are targeting widespread application of deep energy retrofits to existing homes that reduce their annual energy use by 50%, but questions remain as to how to identify and prioritize the most cost-effective retrofit measures. This work demonstrates the utility of whole building energy simulation and optimization software to construct a “tool-box” of prescriptive deep energy retrofits that can be applied to large portions of the existing housing stock. We consider 10 generally representative typology groups of existing single-family detached homes built prior to 1978 in the Chicago area for identifying cost-optimal deep energy retrofit packages. Simulations were conducted in BEopt and EnergyPlus operating on a cloud-computing platform to first identify cost-optimal enclosure retrofits and then identify cost-optimal upgrades to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC systems. Results reveal that prescriptive retrofit packages achieving at least 50% site energy savings can be defined for most homes through a combination of envelope retrofits, lighting upgrades, and upgrades to existing HVAC system efficiency or conversion to mini-split heat pumps. The average upfront cost of retrofits is estimated to be ~$14,400, resulting in average annual site energy savings of ~54% and an average simple payback period of ~25 years. Widespread application of these prescriptive retrofit packages across the existing Chicago-area residential building stock is predicted to reduce annual site energy use by 3.7 × 1016 J and yield approximately $280 million USD in annual energy savings.

  9. Barriers and opportunities for improving energy efficiency in the social housing sector: Case study of E4C's Division of Housing and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Smith, Patrick

    Energy efficiency improvements in the social housing sector have the potential to produce a range of environmental and social benefits. These improvements can be produced through retrofits that deliver energy savings or new construction built to a high standard of energetic efficiency. However, implementation of these approaches is hindered by economic and organizational constraints affecting the agencies that provide society with social housing and the governments that support the provision of these services. This thesis builds on the work of other researchers studying these constraints by supplying an in-depth case study from Alberta and a discussion based on its findings. The case study focuses on E4C, a social service agency with several housing projects. Overall, findings matched important themes identified in the academic literature. The in-depth nature of the case study added additional insight to many of these themes. Most barriers are economic in nature and related to a lack of sufficient funding or the up-front costs of energy-saving retrofits. The recommendations presented are based on consideration of the multiple barriers and opportunities faced. Most of these require a considerable investment of time on the part of agencies and would be followed up by capital investments to implement energy-saving changes. Therefore it is important to note that the most significant barrier is commitment, which is one of E4C's central values. This thesis showed that commitment cannot exceed capacity to act. Greater commitment on the part of governments, agencies or society at large could have significant impacts in improving the energy efficiency of buildings in the Albertan, and Canadian, social housing sector.

  10. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L.

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  11. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C.; Payne, W. Vance

    2016-01-01

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  12. Energy Use Consequences of Ventilating a Net-Zero Energy House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Payne, W Vance

    2016-03-05

    A Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland to demonstrate that a home similar in size, aesthetics, and amenities to those in the surrounding communities can achieve net-zero energy use over the course of a year while meeting the average electricity and water use needs of a family of four in the United States. The facility incorporates renewable energy and energy efficient technologies, including an air-to-air heat pump system, a solar photovoltaic system, a solar thermal domestic hot water system, and a heat recovery ventilation system sized to meet American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2-2010 ventilation requirements. The largest energy end use within the home was space conditioning, which included heat loss through the building envelope, ventilation air supplied by the heat recovery ventilator (HRV), and internal loads. While HRVs are often described as being able to save energy when compared to ventilating without heat recovery, there have been no studies using a full year of measured data that determine the thermal load and energy impacts of HRV-based ventilation on the central heating and cooling system. Over the course of a year, continuous operation of the HRV at the NZERTF resulted in an annual savings of 7 % in heat pump energy use compared with the hypothetical case of ventilating without heat recovery. The heat pump electrical use varied from an increase of 5 % in the cooling months to 36 % savings in the heating months compared with ventilation without heat recovery. The increase in the cooling months occurred when the outdoor temperature was lower than the indoor temperature, during which the availability of an economizer mode would have been beneficial. Nevertheless, the fan energy required to operate the selected HRV at the NZERTF paid for itself in the heat pump energy saved

  13. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  14. Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gui-jun; Jiang, Shou-lin; Zhao, Zong-chao; Xu, Jing-jing; Tao, Xiao-rong; Sword, Gregory A; Gao, Yue-bo; Pan, Wei-dong; Chen, Fa-jun

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields markedly affect the growth and development of many species of organisms potentially due to cryptochrome and endogenous presence of magnetic materials. Sensitivity to magnetic fields can also be involved in geomagnetic orientation by some long-distance migratory insects. In this study, near-zero magnetic fields (NZMF) in relation to normal geomagnetic fields (GMF) were setup using the Hypomagnetic Field Space System (HMFs) to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of two species of migratory planthopper, the small brown planthopper (abbr. SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, and the brown planthopper (abbr. BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Exposure of both L. striatellus and N. lugens to NZMF delayed egg and nymphal developmental durations and decreased adult weight and female fecundity. The 1st-5th instars of SBPH and BPH showed different responses to NZMF. The 4th instar was significantly affected by NZMF, especially for BPH males, in which NZMF exposure reduced the difference in development duration between females and males. Compared with GMF, the vitellogenin transcript levels of newly molted female adults and the number of eggs per female were significantly reduced in both planthopper species, indicating a negative effect on fertility under NZMF. Our findings provided experimental evidence that NZMF negatively affected the growth and development of SBPH and BPH, with particularly strong effects on reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyse of possibilities of increasing housing energy efficiency by application of phase-changing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić-Vavan Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Refurbishment of existing building stock using energy-saving phase-changing smart materials and technologies, in addition to improved indoor climatic conditions, offer an opportunity for increasing housing energy efficiency and value. This fast developing technology becomes increasingly cost-effective with much shorter payback periods. However, it is undertaken only on a limited scale; because of lack of knowledge about their changeable properties and dynamism in that they behave in response to energy fields. Main characteristics, which make them different form others, are: immediacy transience, self-actuation, selectivity and directness. Phase change processes invariably involve the absorbing, storing or releasing of large amounts of energy in the form of latent heat. These processes are reversible and phase-changing materials can undergo an unlimited number of cycles without degradation. Since phase-changing materials can be designed to absorb or release energy at predictable temperatures, they have naturally been explored for use in architecture as a way of helping deal with the thermal environment in a building. Technologies based on sealing phase-changing materials into small pellets have achieved widespread use in connection with radiant floor heating systems, phase change wallboards, mortar or facade systems. Thermal characteristics of existing buildings can be improved on increasing their thermal-stored mass by implementation products of phase-changing smart materials. In addition to contributing to carbon reduction and energy security, using phase-changing materials in the building sector stimulates innovations.

  16. Simulation Study of the Energy Performance of Different Space Heating Methods in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Jacob; Andersen, Mads E.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    cases the heat source was a natural gas fired condensing boiler, and for the floor heating cases also an air-to-water heat pump was used to compare two heat sources. The systems were also compared in terms of auxiliary energy use for pumps and fans. The results show that the investigated floor heating...... from the low temperature heating potential since an increased floor covering requires higher average water temperatures in the floor loops and decreases the COP of the heat pump. The water-based heating systems required significantly less auxiliary energy input compared to the air-based heating system......Due to a shortage of energy resources, the focus on indoor environment and energy use in buildings is increasing which sets higher standards for the performance of HVAC systems in buildings. The variety of available heating systems for both residential buildings and office buildings is therefore...

  17. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    . The evaluation of the five concepts provided knowledge about the investment limit for private energy renovations and the limit for how much the homeowners think is acceptable to pay for the potential benefits and savings. The general picture is that the prices of the first three concepts (160.000 DKK, 120......From the results, it is clear that the knowledge about possible subsidies and counseling is not great among the respondents. They neither know about the possibilities to seek information and advice, nor do they know about the schemes from which grants are given in relation to energy savings...... of different kinds. There is however more knowledge about the economic grants than about the counseling, and some groups know more than others. The homeowners who have lived for less than one year in their current house have little knowledge about their opportunities and the longer the respondents have lived...

  18. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  19. Housing Conditions and the Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Households of Senior Citizens in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zalega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The article aims to show the housing situation, satisfaction with housing conditions and place of residence, and the use of renewable energy sources in urban households of Polish seniors. Design/methodology/approach - Direct research in the form of a survey questionnaire was carried out on a sample of 2537 households in 2014-2015 in ten Polish cities of various populations and sizes. In accordance with the research assumptions, the sample included persons over 65 years of age who took independent purchasing decisions in the market. In order to select the sample, the selective quota sampling procedure was used. The survey was conducted among participants of the University of the Third Age at state universities in: Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Poznań, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, Toruń and Wrocław, as well as among members of parochial clubs in parishes located in the Archdioceses of Warsaw, Kraków, Łódź, Białystok, Gdańsk, Katowice, Lublin, Poznań, Wrocław and the Dioceses of Warsaw-Praga and Toruń. Findings - The survey reveals that more than half of seniors' households are satisfied with both the place of residence and housing conditions. The use of RES in seniors' households looks slightly worse. Only 1.5% of all the surveyed households of persons aged 65+ invest in alternative energy sources to produce electricity and heat. Financial problems are the key barrier to the development of RES-related projects in their households. Research implications/limitations - Given the limited financial capacities, the study of housing conditions and the use of RES among people aged 65+ was confined solely to seniors' households in the largest Polish cities. In those households, a relatively low share of RES often results from inadequate technical conditions for the connection of RES installations. Rural households generate slightly more electricity and heat from RES Originality/value/contribution - This is one of the first

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: John Hubert Associates — EXIT-0 House, North Cape May, NJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This house is the first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home for this builder and won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The 1,871-ft2 home features advanced-framed above-grade walls with R-21 fiberglass batt plus an R-3.6-insulated coated OSB sheathing, R-18 rigid-foam-insulated crawlspace walls, solar water heating, a high-efficiency heat pump, an HRV, and mostly LED lighting.

  1. Building America Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes; Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.
    home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  2. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  3. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  4. Analysis of Energy Efficiency Measures and Retrofitting Solutions for Social Housing Buildings in Spain as a Way to Mitigate Energy Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aranda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty is a common issue in social housing all over Europe, with a harder impact in Southern European countries. Social housing buildings play an important role in energy poverty. They are usually owned and managed by public institutions and usually share common characteristics and issues. Behavioural changes and energy retrofitting are interesting paths forward but some solutions do not fit well in this type of housing due to socioeconomic reasons. This paper makes a thorough analysis of possible energy efficiency measures in social housing buildings, characterizing them by energy and economic savings and investment and proposing different methods of prioritization. A rational approach of behavioural and retrofitting solutions that best fit into this particular housing type is delivered, with the aim to increase the thermal comfort of the residents and mitigate the energy poverty issue. Results show that there is a wide range of domestic efficiency measures to be applied in this type of dwellings at none or low costs, bringing annual savings per average dwelling of about 510 €/year (55% of initial energy costs including measures both at domestic level, and at building level with a final aggregated payback of the investments to be about 1.5 years.

  5. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  6. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, H. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Pettit, B. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  7. Near-zero difficult tracheal intubation and tracheal intubation failure rate with the "Besta Airway Algorithm" and "Glidescope® in morbidly obese" (GLOBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzi, Elena; Mosca, Alessandro; Pe, Federico; Togazzari, Tiziana; Manenti, Ottavia; Mittempergher, Francesco; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; Latronico, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Unpredicted Difficult Tracheal Intubation (DTI) with Macintosh occurs frequently in obese patients. We investigated the incidence of DTI using an algorithm based on preoperative assessment with the El-Ganzouri Risk Index (EGRI) and Glidescope® routine use. We prospectively enrolled morbidly obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Patients were scheduled for Glidescope® intubation under general anesthesia if EGRI was Cormack and Lehane grades ≥III, Intubation Difficulty Scale >5 and modified Intubation Difficulty Scale >5. Secondary outcomes included intubation success on the first attempt, the Time to Cormack, the time to intubation, failure to intubate, oxygen desaturation and difficult ventilation. Of the 214 patients enrolled, 212 (99%) were intubated with Glidescope® and 2 (1%) with awake Flexible Fiber-optic Intubation (one electively, one after a Glidescope® failure). There were no cases of DTI assessed using Cormack and Lehane and Intubation Difficulty Scale, and 3 cases (1.4%; 95% CI 0.45-4.29%) assessed using modified Intubation Difficulty Scale. Of the 213 patients intubated with Glidescope®, 185 (87%) had successful intubation on the first attempt. Mean Time to Cormack and time to intubation were 13.1 (SD 9.6) and 38.1 seconds (SD 21.1) respectively. We had one case (0.5%) of failed Glidescope® intubation and no cases of clinically significant complications. The incidence of DTI and Intubation Failure was reduced to near-zero using Glidescope® and the Besta Airway Algorithm in this sample of morbidly obese patients.

  8. Design of passive low energy, low cost housing : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachem, C.; Athienitis, A.; Fazio, P.; O' Brien, W. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science

    2009-06-15

    This project focused on the design of a low-cost, self sufficient housing system that would function in areas with limited or no infrastructure. A hybrid system of passive and active solar design was considered in order to minimize the energy use to near net zero consumption. The passive design relies on 4 key parameters, notably building insulation, glazing, thermal mass and building orientation. Active technologies used in conjunction with passive design include thermal collectors, active ventilation and photovoltaic systems (PV). A PV stand-alone, off-grid, 12 V DC system was explored in this project. The initial layout of a low cost, off-grid, small prefabricated housing system under mild climate conditions provided insight into the performance of the building envelope, which helped in the process of modifying the design. The analysis of the initial design shows that the temperature may reach unacceptably high levels in the summer. Another undesirable feature is the large diurnal room temperature fluctuations reaching 10 degrees C differences. Using a low absorbtance of the outer siding in mild climates was found to be important. Low absorbtance partially reduced the high summer temperature without compromising winter indoor temperature. Additional reduction of overall summer temperature can be achieved by increasing panel insulation value to 5 RSI. Adding windows on the south-facing facade may increase the solar gain in winter without significantly affecting the performance during summer. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Evaluation of the energy and comfort performance of a plus-energy house under Scandinavian winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    on the ground and first floors when the set-point was 22°C. The electrical energy balance resulted to be negative, with a photovoltaic (PV) production of 432 kWh and a consumption from the mechanical systems of 1521 kWh during the studied winter period of almost four months. Put into perspective with the summer...... envelope, whose thermal environment has been investigated. The house is located in Nordborg, Denmark and was undergoing a year-round measurement campaign, of which are hereby presented the results from 16/11/2015 to 04/03/2016. During this period, the house was operated in heating mode, with five different...... cases investigated, combining different set-points (20 to 22°C) and ventilation heat recovery settings. The thermal comfort indoors proved to be satisfactory, depending on the chosen set-point. Up to 92 and 98% of the time was reported within the range 21-25°C (Category I of EN 15251) respectively...

  10. New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority - savings evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    The New York Power Authority (NYPA) and the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) are replacing refrigerators in New York City public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models over a five-year period. This report describes the analysis of the energy cost savings achieved through the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in 1996, the first year of the NYPA/NYCHA program. The NYPA/NYCHA project serves as the lynchpin of a larger program designed to offer energy-efficient appliances to housing authorities across the country. The national program is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE). Starting with the 1997 refrigerator contract, this program invites other housing authorities to join NYPA in its volume purchase of energy-efficient refrigerators, at the same price and terms available to NYPA. Through these volume purchases, DOE`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program hopes to encourage appliance manufacturers to bring more efficient appliances to the market and to provide volume purchasers with the per-unit price savings of a bulk purchaser. DOE asked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to establish a protocol for evaluating the savings achieved with the NYPA refrigerators. That protocol is summarized in this report.

  11. Project to design and develop an energy-related program: For public housing residents and renters: Volume 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This demonstration project was undertaken as a result of an unsolicited proposal submitted by THE ASSIGNMENT GROUP (TAG) to the Office of Minority Economic Impact, Department of Energy (DOE). The problem to which the proposal responded was how to minimize the costs associated with public housing tenants in standard public housing as well as under homeownership transfers. A related problem was how to graduate the tenants to another level of responsibility and self-sufficiency through resident business developments and training in energy-related fields. The size and gravity of the problem necessitated a purpose or aim that had nationwide application, yet lent itself to a microscopic look. Consequently, the goal that emanated was the design and development of an energy-related demonstration program that educates public housing residents, facilitates indigenous business development where appropriate, and trains residents to provide needed services.

  12. The potential of the Code for Sustainable Homes to deliver genuine 'sustainable energy' in the UK social housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, A.; Gaterell, M.R.; Coates, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concern in light of anthropogenic climate change will impact the housing sector as one of the major energy-consuming and carbon dioxide producing sectors. For new housing, currently the most important policy to combat this issue is the Code for Sustainable Homes. The social housing sector is under obligation to comply with these standards, which entails a significant increase in the cost of housing delivery. The sector is also under pressure to increase much-needed housebuilding, without increased funding being available. The quandary facing the sector is how to achieve both aims. Therefore any policy, such as the Code, which impacts on the ability of the sector to deliver unit numbers must be truly effective at delivering its own main aim. This paper explores the current situation, with a preliminary analysis of how the Code may not be able to deliver its 'sustainable energy' goals due to the ways in which 'low and zero carbon technologies' are assessed and how they behave in real world situations. It demonstrates that further research and policy changes are needed to deliver sustainable energy for this sector and ensure the delivery of crucial new housing is not hampered whilst also failing to meet energy goals. (author)

  13. Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChambeau, Brian

    The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

  14. Energy well. Ground-source heat in one-family houses; Energiakaivo. Maalaemmoen hyoedyntaeminen pientaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J.; Lapinlampi, T.

    2013-08-15

    This guide deals with the legislation, planning, building, usage and maintenance of ground-source heat systems. The guide gives recommendations and instructions on national level on the permit practices and how to carry out the whole ground-source heat system project. The main focus of the guide is on energy wells for one-family houses. The principle is that an action permit is needed to build a ground-source heat system. On ground water areas a permit according to the water act may also be required. To avoid any problems, the placement of the system needs to be planned precisely. This guide gives a comprehension to the orderer on the issues that need to be considered before ordering, during construction, when the system is running and when giving up the use of the ground-source heat system. (orig.)

  15. Local government influence on energy conservation ambitions in existing housing sites-Plucking the low-hanging fruit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, T.; Bressers, J.Th.A.; Lulofs, K.R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Greater energy efficiency can be achieved in existing dwellings thanks to longer lifecycles, slow replacement rates, and technical innovations. Many such dwellings are located in dense urban neighbourhoods, where urban renewal projects are undertaken. Local government can encourage the setting of ambitious goals as a stepping stone to realizing energy efficiency goals that achieve high levels of energy efficiency. The research question which this paper addresses is: to what degree do local governments influence ambitions to conserve energy in existing housing sites? To examine this issue, thirty-three sites in the Netherlands were studied using a quantitative analysis. The results show that collaboration between local authorities and local actors increases the level of ambition to conserve energy. However, local authorities intentionally selected sites with poor energy efficiency, so it would be easy to meet ambitious energy conservation targets. Collaboration between local authorities and local actors turns out to be the key factor in selecting those sites. Moreover, there is little sign of genuine ambition. This article contributes to the debate on energy conservation policies in local housing sites. The study provides starting points for systematic, empirical research into the realisation of energy conservation in existing housing, especially in large-scale refurbishment projects. - Research Highlights: → Local governments encourage the setting of goals to realize energy efficiency goals. → Local authorities intentionally select sites with poor initial energy efficiency performance. → Collaboration with local actors turns out to be a key factor in selecting those sites. →There is little sign of genuine ambition. → Starting points for empirical research into the realisation of energy conservation in housing.

  16. Environmental assessment of low-energy social housing, Boatemah Walk building, Brixton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lidia Johansen

    Energy use from buildings represents a considerable share from the UK energy consumption as a whole and the resulting C02 emissions are considered the main driver for climate change. There is a global urge for new and existing buildings to be truly effective in reducing their energy consumption. This study evaluates the performance in use of low energy design in social housing: Boatemah Walk is a newly built residential block of 18 flats located in Angell Town, Brixton, which benefits from various low energy enhancing features such as: a low embodied energy building fabric, super insulation, photovoltaic panels integrated in the roof, rainwater recycling system and non-toxic building materials and finishes. The new building layout and surrounding landscape influences positively the community integration and safety. The evaluation has been done through observation, monitoring, interviews with tenants and the use of TAS software, throughout the year after occupation. Boatemah Walk building has proved successful in some aspects and less successful in others. It is crucial that a demonstration project like Boatemah Walk building considers all mechanisms necessary to monitor its efficiency, as this would provide feedback to prove the efficiency and encourage similar investments. However, during the course of the study it was found that a meter for the recycled water and export meters for the photovoltaic production were missing. This proved to be an obstacle for the accurate monitoring of the building performance. The annual heating in Boatemah Walk is below the national averages, which confirms the good performance of its building fabric. In hot summer days the lightweight building is expectedly vulnerable to the outside. This is not a frequent occurrence however the effects of climate change are very likely to increase the length and temperatures in the future. The tenants' energy consuming behavior has a definitive impact, as revealed through monitoring and direct

  17. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing : Opportunities and challenges related to the adoption of passive houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2013-01-01

    In previous years we have seen a recognition of the significant potential that exists for reducing energy use through innovation in residential buildings. This study investigates innovation challenges and identifies opportunities that could lead to a rapid increase in the adoption of highly

  18. Keeping warm? Self-reported housing and home energy efficiency factors impacting on older people heating homes in North Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Windle, Gill

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines a representative sample (N=421) of older people (aged 70+) living in rural North Wales with regard to relationships between fuel poverty, feeling cold in one's home and a range of self-reported housing and home energy efficiency items. In the Welsh context, the combination of poor housing stock and low-level income is likely to increase the chance of older people experiencing fuel poverty, therefore the analyses are relevant to both energy and social policy. The paper hypothesises that: (i) People in 'fuel poor' homes are: low-income households; living in older houses; lacking home energy efficiency measures; (ii) not all people facing difficulties heating their home (i.e. wearing extra clothing to keep warm during cold spells) are identified as 'fuel poor', but there will be an association between taking extra measures to keep warm and low income; older houses and lacking home energy efficiency factors. The results partially support the hypotheses. An estimation is made of the expenditure required to counter the factors associated with fuel poverty and cold homes in the region. The paper concludes with implications for the UK Fuel Poverty Strategy

  19. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.; Vinha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH 50 , i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is -1 . Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h -1 , the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100 % in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h -1 . This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. (authors)

  20. “Damp in bathroom. Damp in back room. It's very depressing!” exploring the relationship between perceived housing problems, energy affordability concerns, and health and well-being in UK social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Christine; Pahl, Sabine; Jones, Rory V.; Fuertes, Alba

    2017-01-01

    Social housing residents often struggle with achieving adequate levels of warmth in their home on a limited household budget. Additionally, other housing problems such as damp are common. Previous research has found a link between housing problems and poor health and reduced well-being, but this relationship is complex and poorly understood. A survey among UK social housing residents (N=536) investigated the association between cold and damp housing, as well as the role of energy affordability concerns in the relationship between housing problems and health. The findings indicated that struggles with keeping warm related to a cluster of damp and mould issues rather than any one specific issue. In describing these problems householders expressed a sense of frustration and helplessness. Support was found for an indirect effect on health whereby households experiencing cold, damp or mould issues reported more difficulty with affording their energy bills, these affordability concerns in turn related to poor health and well-being. The effects were found to be more consistent and stronger for men compared to women. Policies aimed at reducing housing problems should consider the important role of affordability concerns and the need for households to regain control of their energy bills. - Highlights: • Housing problems common in social housing could have negative health impacts. • We examine these housing problems and what may underlie the association with health. • Problems with keeping warm relate to a range of condensation, damp and mould issues. • Households with housing problems report more energy affordability concerns. • These concerns in turn were found to relate to poor health and reduced well-being.

  1. Zero energy homes – Are they economically viable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Stephen; Davidson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Whilst net zero energy homes are espoused in many policy circles, and many bespoke examples have been constructed to demonstrate their technical feasibility, there is a scarcity of evidence demonstrating such a standard would be economically rational, particularly for large scale housing development where orientation and aspect may not always be optimal. Drawing on energy monitoring evidence and construction economics associated with a nearly zero energy housing estate in Adelaide, Australia, this paper explores the economic feasibility of the net zero energy home policy in warm temperate climates. The results demonstrate that using economic tools and assumptions typically applied for building energy regulatory policy changes, net societal economic benefits significantly outweigh costs. The clear economic outcomes, combined with expected health and productivity benefits from improved levels of thermal comfort, should provide security to policy makers to progress home energy standards towards net zero energy performance. -- Highlights: •The concept of net zero energy homes is examined for economic viability. •Evidence is collected from a near net zero energy housing estate. •Conservative results show that societal benefits outweigh costs. •Significant additional benefits gained from net zero energy homes

  2. The effect of building regulations on energy consumption in single-family houses in Denmark. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen Kjaerbye, V. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change, Roskilde (Denmark)); AKF (Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Larsen, Anders E. (Roskilde Univ.. Dept. of Society and Globalisation, Roskilde (Denmark)); Togeby, M (Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    This paper explores how changes in regulatory requirements for energy efficiency in buildings (in the US also known as building energy codes) affect household energy consumption. The focus in this paper is on natural gas consumption by Danish single-family owner-occupied houses. Unlike most other papers investigating household energy consumption this paper uses a unique panel data set constructed by merging several administrative data bases. The data set describes house and household characteristics, outdoor temperature and actual metered natural gas consumption over 6 years (1998-2003). Applying advanced econometric methods we examine differences in heating energy consumption due to different building regulation requirements at the time of house construction. As for the effect of the building regulation, we find that changes in Danish building regulations have led to significant reductions in energy used for heating. The latest revision of the Danish building regulation covered by this paper is that of 1998. This revision has resulted in a 7 percent reduction in natural gas consumption. (Author)

  3. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  4. Renewable energy and negative externalities: the effect of wind turbines on house prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Koster, H.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, wind turbines are constructed as part of a strategy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this paper, we measure the external effect of wind turbines on the transaction prices of nearby houses. A unique house price dataset covering the period 1985-2011 is used, including the

  5. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity supply in Malaysia. This could potentially influence in an increase in electricitycosts which lead to a phase of power scarcity and load shedding for the country. With the risk ofinterrupted power supplies, rural households, especially those of low-income groups areparticularly vulnerable to the post-effects of a power outage and an inequitable distribution to thepeople. Distributed generation of electricity by solar PVs diminishes the vulnerability of thesehouseholds and can also offer an income to them by feeding the power supply to the national gridthrough Feed-in Tariff scheme. At the moment, the deployment of solar PV installations is still inthe introductory stage in Malaysia, where roof-mounted PV panels are only available to commercialand urban residential buildings. This is due to the lack of a suitable renewable energy policy forrural households and the high cost of the solar PV technology. This paper will put forward ananalysis for incorporating solar photovoltaic on roofs of rural houses by identifying the energyconsumption of these households and the extent to which PVs can alleviate electricity insecurity.The results present significant potential for distributed PV power generation in rural areas inMalaysia which shown a considerable amount of electricity needed to be harvested from roofmountedsolar PV for rural people in Malaysia.

  6. How to Define Nearly Net Zero Energy Buildings nZEB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnitski, Jarek; Allard, Francis; Braham, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    in which way are taken into account in the energy performance assessment. The intention of the Task Force is to help the experts in the Member States in defining the nearly zero energy buildings in a uniform way. The directive requires nearly zero energy buildings, but since it does not give minimum...... or maximum harmonized requirements as well as details of energy performance calculation framework, it will be up to the Member State to define what these for them exactly constitute. In the definition, local conditions are to be obviously taken into account, but the uniform methodology can be used in all...... Member States. The directive defines nearly zero energy buildings as a building that has a very high energy performance and requires the calculation of primary energy indicator. The nearly zero of very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable...

  7. Study on the detached house plan using of a maximum natural energy. Part 1; Shizen energy fukugo riyo no keikaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, I.; Mino, M.; Miyata, T.; Okawa, M. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The geographical position or environment is set on the assumption that the natural energy of a detached house is used in a hybrid state. Moreover, the energy consumption of the house and the natural energy supply obtained from the geographical position were compared and investigated. As a result, the energy consumption is 10,617 kWh, and the energy supply is 8,236 kWh. About 78% of the whole consumption can be theoretically made from natural energy. The energy supply is calculated on the low side during prediction. Therefore, an increase in the energy supply is expected by installing a solar collector based on solar energy, expanding the solar panel area, and increasing the number of wind mills. However, this energy is partially lost via an inverter while it is supplied to the general domestic equipment. At the six main points in Tokyo and its districts, the adaptability of natural energy used based on the regional characteristics is investigated presently and the installation of a system is examined. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing: Lessons from eight large-scale renovation projects in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to new insights on the impacts that dwellings have throughout their life cycles, there has been increased attention to retrofitting innovative energy systems (IES) in existing housing. This paper uses an explorative case study design to gain more knowledge about the governance aspects of this under-researched topic. The central research question is: Which factors influence the adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing sites during renovation projects? To answer this question, eight large-scale renovation projects in The Netherlands were investigated. These case studies allowed the identification of barriers, enabling factors and perspectives from three main actors—housing associations, tenants and local authorities. It turns out that adopting IES encounters many barriers: lack of trust between project partners, delay in project progress, financial feasibility considerations, lack of support from tenants, lengthy legal permit procedures, over-ambitious project goals, poor experiences in previous projects, and IES ambitions that are not taken serious by key decision-makers. Furthermore, IES were only successfully fitted in three of the eight projects. Moreover, ambitions were lowered as the projects progressed in all the cases investigated. The study calls for further systematic, in-depth comparison of fitting IES in large-scale renovation projects in social housing. - Highlights: ► Attention to adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing. ► Several non-technical factors influence adoption. ► In-depth analysis of eight local-level renovation projects. ► Ambitions are lowered as projects progress. ► Barriers: financial feasibility, over-ambitious goals, delay, lack of trust.

  9. Anaerobic Co-digestion for Enhanced Renewable Energy and Green House Gas Emission Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaratnam, Navaneethan; Zitomer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    system. These increases were great than anticipated based on theoretical methane production from the additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the co-digestates. Co-digestion of the most promising wastes with primary sludge was estimated to generate enough electricity to power more than 2500 houses. Synergistic outcomes of co-digestion may be caused by chances in microbial community resulting in more rapid methane production rate and higher specific methanogenic activities of the biomass against acetate, propionate and H2 as substrates. The presence of Methanospirillum hungatei correlated to higher SMAs in the Co-Digester 1 system. In subsequent full-scale testing, acid whey in addition to primary sludge increased methane production by 16 %, biogas methane content by 5%, methane yield per VS destroyed by 9% ( from 650 to 710 L CH4 / kg VSdestroyed ) and volatile solids removal by 20%. Co-digestion is a promising technology to increase renewable energy production and convert municipal digesters into regional renewable energy facilities.

  10. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  11. A local-community-level, physically-based model of end-use energy consumption by Australian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhengen; Paevere, Phillip; McNamara, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    We developed a physics based bottom-up model to estimate annual housing stock energy consumption at a local community level (Census Collection District—CCD) with an hourly resolution. Total energy consumption, including space heating and cooling, water heating, lighting and other household appliances, was simulated by considering building construction and materials, equipment and appliances, local climates and occupancy patterns. The model was used to analyse energy use by private dwellings in more than five thousand CCDs in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The predicted results focus on electricity consumption (natural gas and other fuel sources were excluded as the data are not available) and track the actual electricity consumption at CCD level with an error of 9.2% when summed to state level. For NSW and Victoria 2006, the predicted state electricity consumption is close to the published model (within 6%) and statistical data (within 10%). A key feature of the model is that it can be used to predict hourly electricity consumption and peak demand at fine geographic scales, which is important for grid planning and designing local energy efficiency or demand response strategies. - Highlights: ► We developed a physics-based model to estimate housing stock energy consumption. ► House type and vintage, family type and occupancy time were considered. ► The model results are close to actual energy consumption at local community level. ► Its’ results agree well with the published model and statistical data at state level. ► It shows the model could provide from hourly to annual residential energy consumption.

  12. Strategic stock management task for building corporations. Energy as part of the house quality; Strategisch voorraadbeheer taak woningcorporaties. Energie als onderdeel van de woonkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdorf, E. [DWA installatie en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    From a strategic stock management perspective building corporations should have a vision on what is important for future target groups: young or old, families or singles, income, etc. Those aspects have a great impact on the level of facilities and provisions in houses and the possibility to adjust houses by applying domotics, comfort cooling, care facilities, the use of renewable energy systems. [Dutch] Vanuit het strategisch voorraadbeheer van woningcorporaties is een visie op de toekomstige doelgroepen van belang. Vindt er een verschuiving plaats van jong naar oud? Gezinnen of juist alleenstaanden? Welke inkomensgroepen worden bediend? Dergelijke vragen hebben grote invloed op het voorzieningenniveau in de woningen. Flexibiliteit inbouwen door woningen gemakkelijk aanpasbaar te maken voor domotica, comfortkoeling, zorgfuncties, en met oog voor de opties voor duurzame energie. Want met de huidige stijgende energieprijzen kunnen de energielasten stijgen tot 40 procent van de woonkosten. Dat vraagt aandacht voor de post energie.

  13. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  14. The Effects of Roof and Wall Insulation on the Energy Costs of Low Income Housing in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lucero-Álvarez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions, such as air temperature and solar radiation, have a complex relationship with the energy requirements for heating and cooling of residential buildings. In this work, a comparative analysis of the insulation methods most commonly applied to low income single-family houses in Mexico is presented, in order to find the most energy-efficient combinations of methods for the various climates in this country. A common kind of building, small houses built with hollow cinder block walls and concrete slab roofs, was analyzed considering three insulation scenarios: walls only, roof only and both. We used dynamic simulation to evaluate energy consumption under the climate conditions found in several Mexican cities. From the energy consumption data and the cost of electricity in Mexico, we calculated net annual energy costs, including both annual energy savings and the annualized cost of the initial investment in better insulation. Results of this analysis show that insulating both roof and walls is most effective in cities with cold winters; insulating just the roof is best for temperate climates; and insulating walls (combined with high-albedo roofs is most effective for cities with year-long warm weather.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  16. Predicting energy consumption and savings in the housing stock: A performance gap analysis in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasa Majcen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research methods  The research used several large datasets, about dwellings theoretical energy performance, most of which were related to energy label certificates. All the datasets containing theoretical performance were merged with actual energy data. In addition to that, some were also enriched with socioeconomic and behaviour related data from Statistics Netherlands (CBS or from surveys which were designed for the purpose of this research. Simple descriptive statistics were used to compare average theoretical and actual consumptions. Advanced statistical tests were used for detecting correlations, followed by several regression analyses. In a separate scenario study, the resulting averages of both theoretical and actual consumptions were extrapolated nation-wide in order to be compared with the existing policy targets. Due to low predictive power of the variables in regression analyses, a sensitivity analysis of the theoretical gas use was performed on six assumptions made in the theoretical calculation to show how an increment in one of the assumptions affects the final theoretical gas consumption and whether this can explain the performance gap. Last but not least, longitudinal data of the social housing dwelling stock between 2010 and 2013 was analysed, focusing on dwellings that had undergone renovation. The goal was to find out whether the theoretical reduction of consumption materialised and to what extent. A comparison of the actual reduction of different renovation measures was made in order to show what renovation practices lower the consumptions most effectively. The discrepancies between actual and theoretical heating energy consumption in Dutch dwellings. Discrepancies between theoretical and actual gas and electricity consumption On average, the total theoretical primary energy use seems to be in accordance with actual primary energy consumption but when looking at more detailed data, one can see that the contribution of gas to

  17. Investigation of the impact of using thermal mass with the net zero energy town house in Toronto using TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, O.; Fung, A.; Tse, H.; Zhang, D. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Since buildings in Canada account for 30 per cent of the country's total energy consumption, it has become necessary to find ways to reduce the overall energy use in buildings. Heating and cooling loads in buildings can be effectively reduced by using the thermal mass incorporated into the building envelope, particularly in climates where a large daily temperature fluctuations exist. Thermal mass is defined as any building material that has a high heat storage capacity that can be integrated into the structural fabric of the building to use the passive solar energy for heating or cooling purposes. Concrete slabs, bricks and ceramic blocks are some of the commonly used materials. This study analyzed the impact of using thermal mass with a highly insulated building envelope such as that used in Low Energy or Net Zero housing. In particular, TRNSYS was used to simulate a Net Zero Energy Town House located in Toronto, in which a ground source heat pump was integrated with an infloor radiant heating system. The simulation revealed that for colder climates such as in Canada, thermal mass can replace some of the insulation while still providing excellent results in terms of the reductions in daily indoor temperature fluctuations. The impact of thermal mass during the winter was more significant when compared with summer, possibly because of the unique construction and orientation of the Net Zero Energy House. The optimum thickness of the concrete slab was determined to be 6 inches for the winter season and 4 inches for summer. The optimum location for the thermal mass was found to be right next to the gypsum wallboard that forms the interior part of the wall. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Smart energy services to low-energy houses based on user-driven innovation; Intelligente energiydelser i lavenergiboliger baseret pae brugerdreven innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Ditte Marie; Hoej Christensen, A.; Hansen, Lars; Braendgaard Nielsen, S.; Huet, J.-M. [Teknologisk Institut. Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Aarhus (Denmark); Bay Christensen, A. [Asger BC Lys, Koebenhavn (Denmark); Degn Larsen, E. [Fischer, Koege (Denmark); Lux, D. [Seluxit, Aalborg (Denmark); Jacobsen, Lis [Nilan, Hedensted (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    The project tested and documented the energy and use advantages of simple or more complex control concepts and systems for energy services. This has been done with a focus on the control solution being able to control the comfort in the house as efficient and energy-efficient as possible, while the users' requirements and needs for information about and for being able to control comfort and energy consumption in the home also must be taken into account. The experiments with several control strategies in cooperation with the family in the low-energy demonstration house EnergyFlexHouse (EFH), show that one can not develop an adequate control strategy without involving the users. Thus, users will not be satisfied with the indoor environment if they have no influence on control. This should be seen in the context that an energy-efficient management require as little user influence as possible, in order to realize the expected energy efficiency. The optimal control is thus characterized in that it at the same time takes into account the requirements of the user and at the same time results in a change in user behavior that adapts to the control system. The project also shows that there is a significant barrier to getting products of different manufacturers to communicate. Based on the concept, developed in collaboration with the residents of EFH, the companies involved and Technological Institute, a prototype of the advanced control applications was developed and tested by the family in EnergyFlexHouse. Trials were carried out with the 3 advanced control strategies, indoor climate optimized, energy optimized, and user-driven management, for a period of 7 days per strategy. The experiments showed that the degree day adjusted space heating consumption was about. 30% lower for the energy optimized control compared to the user-driven control. For the indoor-optimized control was the degree day adjusted space heating was approx. 21% lower compared to the user

  19. IEA HPP Annex 32 - Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses. State-of-the-art report Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-04-01

    Norway is a member of Annex 32, 'Economical heating and cooling systems for low-energy houses' (2006-2008), organized under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the IEA Heat Pump Programme (HPP). The 9 participating countries are Switzerland (Operating Agent), Austria, Canada, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the USA. The Norwegian participation is financed by Enova SF, and SINTEF Energy Research is responsible for planning and carrying out the Norwegian activities. Task 1 of the project is a state-of the art analysis of the low-energy building market and heat pump technologies applied in this type of buildings. Heating demands for low-energy houses and passive houses in Norwegian climate are characterized as follows: The ratio of the annual heating demand for hot water heating and the total annual heating demand of the houses typically range from 40 to 85 percent, and the heating season for space heating and heating of ventilation air range from about 5-7 and 4-6 months per year for semi-detached houses and flats, respectively (Oslo climate). In comparison, the heating season for semi-detached houses and flats constructed in accordance with the Norwegian building codes of 1997 is 8 and 9 months, respectively. Development companies for residential properties, co-operative building societies as well as housing manufactures are now showing great interest in low-energy houses and passive houses. According to The Norwegian State Housing Bank, almost 10.000 residences with low-energy or passive house standard are now being planned, constructed or have been completed. The projects include single-family houses, semi-detached houses, row houses, block of flats and apartment buildings. The main focus in these projects has been on the architectural design, building construction and efficient ventilation systems, and less on the heating (and cooling) systems. The heat pump market in this market segment is regarded to be promising due to

  20. Modelling and Control of Collecting Solar Energy for Heating Houses in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dehghan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a new model was developed and modified with a combined solar heating system which works with solar radiation and electricity. In order to model the system, the outdoor temperature of the location and solar irradiance has been considered. The case study of this research has been done in Porsgrunn City in the south of Norway. The building which was modelled in this research is a passive solar building which is able to store heat by using phase change materials, which are mounted on the floor and release the heat when the temperature of the house decreases. The model of the house was designed based on some assumptions about ambient temperature, solar collector size, transmitting lines length and some specific properties like air density and specific heat. The results of this research show that a solar heating system which is working with electricity can provide a sufficient temperature for the house in winter time. With using the phase change materials in order to have a passive solar building design, an improvement in the temperature inside the house was seen. Based on the simulation results which were achieved, a solar heating system which works with electricity can be an efficient system to heat the house, especially in the winter times.

  1. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Cheap heat pump heating system for low-energy-consumption housing -- Design handbook; Kostenguenstige Waermepumpenheizung fuer Niedrigenergiehaeuser: Technisches Handbuch: Grundlagen, Planungsvorgehen und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, T. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Buehring, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Duerig, M.; Keller, P.; Zweifel, G. [Fachhochschule Zentralschweiz, School of Engineering and Architecture, Lucerne (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Widmer, P. [Huber Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Shafai, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institut fuer Mess- und Regeltechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a technical handbook on the principles and planning processes involved in designing and installing heating systems for low-energy and so-called passive houses with air-renewal systems and provides examples taken from practice. The manual is intended to provide guidance to architects, planners and manufacturers. In the first part of the three-part manual, the basics of energy balances, ecological assessment and modern control techniques are dealt with, the second part covers integral planning, feasibility and manufacturing techniques and the third part gives examples of three houses built to so-called 'Minergie' low-energy and 'passive house' standards. The factors to be taken into account when planning low-energy and passive houses heated with heat pumps are discussed and calculation tools aiding the dimensioning and simulation of the systems are introduced.

  3. Feeding behaviour and daily energy expenditure of domesticated budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) : Influence of type of housing and vertical position of the feeder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnegg, Antoine; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Keller, Petra; Visser, G. Henk; Steiger, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a common health problem in captive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The welfare of budgerigars would be increased in a housing system limiting obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of 3 different housing types on feeding behaviour and energy balance. Fifty-four

  4. Re-adaptation of Malay House Thermal Comfort Design Elements into Modern Building Elements – Case Study of Selangor Traditional Malay House & Low Energy Building in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Hidayahtuljamilah Ramli

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Malay house is one of the richest components of Malay’s cultural heritage in Malaysia. Generally, the traditional Malay house is a reflection of the Malay community’s way of living. With greater global awareness of the environment and a renewed perspective on contemporary Malaysian architecture, architects and designers are once again looking for tropical solutions in building design. One of the main characteristics of traditional Malay house is that they are designed with a d...

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, Ithaca, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    Eleven new townhomes comply with EPA's airPLUS criteria and use EPA WaterSense-qualifying features. Foundation walls are insulated on the exterior with XPS insulation. Non-shared walls use wall panels that were produced offsite. This builder was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the affordable home category.

  6. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, Brian; Roach, Richard; Perkins, James

    2011-01-01

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO 2 emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: → Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. → Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. → Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. → Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. → Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  7. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island, United Veterans, Beacon House, Deer Park, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 32 without PV or HERS 9 with PV.

  8. Prospects for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply and hot water supply to private houses under the conditions of Baku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamov, O. M.; Aliev, F. F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the discovery of the potential for jointly using solar and wind energy for heat supply (HS) and hot water supply (HWS) to a one-family private house located in the Apsheron Peninsula. (authors)

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Marine Climate (Volume 11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2010-09-01

    With the measures described in this guide, builders in the marine climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers.

  10. A procedure for analysing energy savings in multiple small solar water heaters installed in low-income housing in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, Thalita; Lamberts, Roberto; Barbosa, Miriam; Urbano, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to government subsidies, Brazil has witnessed an increase in the installation and use of small solar water heating systems in low-income housing projects. Although the initiative has reduced the load curve during peak times due to the reduced use of electric showerheads, measurement and verification (M and V) are needed to validate the savings. M and V procedures should take into account the social and economic variability of low-income housing developments. To improve M and V in low-income housing projects, this paper presents a methodology for identifying homogeneous subgroups based on their energy-saving potential. This research strategy involved a cluster analysis designed to improve the understanding of what energy savers and other influencing factors exist. A case study in Londrina Brazil was undertaken with 200 low-income families. Five clusters, created based on savings potential, were defined. The results showed that only two clusters demonstrated good electricity savings, representing 47% of families. However, two clusters, or 37%, did not provide satisfactory savings, and the other 16% did not provide any consumption history due to previous use of illegal city electricity connection practices. Therefore, studies confirm the need for a detailed measurement of the representative subgroups to assess the influence of human behaviour on potential SWHS-induced savings. - Highlights: • M and V is necessary to improve solar collector-area-based subsidy programmes. • M and V in large-scale sample should contemplate the social and economic variability. • Samples with homogeneous subgroups contribute to a consistent energy-saving M and V. • Solar Water Heaters in some cases may not offer energy saving in a low-income context. • SWH performance decreases with low educational level and difficulty of operation

  11. Energy Performance of Water-based and Air-based Cooling Systems in Plus-energy Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads E.; Schøtt, Jacob; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2016-01-01

    Energy use in buildings accounts for a large part of the energy use globally and as a result of this, international building energy performance directives are becoming stricter. This trend has led to the development of zero-energy and plus-energy buildings. Some of these developments have led to ...

  12. Project of energy orientation law modified in second lecture by the house of commons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This project of law follows the French national debate on energies which took place in 2003. The French energy orientation policy has to solve 3 main problems: moderating the increase and optimizing the use of energy, developing the renewable energy sources, and renewing of the nuclear power generation tool or substitution by another power generation source. The French energy policy is built around 4 main objectives: saving energy and developing renewable energy sources, protecting human health and the environment, keeping energy prices competitive, and contributing to the social and territorial cohesion by warranting an access to energy for anyone. This document details, first, the above objectives, and then details for each article the changes made with respect to previous energy and environmental legislative texts. (J.S.)

  13. Lighting and social practices - what role does lighting play for low energy house (LEH) households and LED frontrunners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    As lighting in Danish households consume approximately 1.3 TWh every year, reducing electricity consumption from lighting is important. Studies have shown that a mere substitution of inefficient lighting technologies towards more efficient ones may not be possible, as many social and cultural...... dimensions influence how people use and relate to lighting. Assessing how very distinctive contexts of households (that diverge from an exemplary kind of household), such as low energy houses and LED frontrunner households, use and understand lighting, may give some insight into what may trigger or hamper...

  14. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  15. A simple model for the energy supply of a stand-alone house using a hybrid wind-solar power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2016-01-01

    A research project for secondary school students involving both physical measurements and modelling is presented. The problem to be solved is whether and how a typical house can be supplied with energy off-grid, based entirely on renewable energy sources, more specifically, on solar and wind energy, while using relatively simple devices, namely, photovoltaic modules, wind turbines and accumulators. To this end our students carried out a long term measurement series in order to assess the typical energy consumption of houses. Further, the number of solar modules and wind turbines, and the necessary accumulator capacity, was estimated.

  16. Energy conservation by means of the personal computer. The Energy Wizard as a start for the smart-house concept; Energiebesparing met behulp van de pc. De Energy Wizard als aanzet to het smart-house concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiperij, R. [Elsdon CGI, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    The notion `Domotics` represents applications by means of electronic information exchange in houses. The tuning of those applications and the communication takes place through so-called Home Electronic Systems. By using Domotics smart houses can be designed. The author`s company deals with domotics concepts and stand-alone concepts that can also be applied in combination with other systems. All the concepts make use of the calculating and controlling possibilities of the personal computer, already present in many houses. 3 figs., 2 ills.

  17. Development of an Nearly Zero Emission Building (nZEB Life Cycle Cost Assessment Tool for Fast Decision Making in the Early Design Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Jin Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic feasibility optimization method for the life cycle cost (LCC has been developed to apply energy saving techniques in the early design stages of a building. The method was developed using default data (e.g., operation schedules, energy consumption prediction equations and cost prediction equations utilizing design variables considered in the early design phase. With certain equations developed, an LCC model was constructed using the computational program MATLAB, to create an automated optimization process. To verify the results from the newly developed assessment tool, a case study on an office building was performed to outline the results of the designer’s proposed model and the cost optimal model.

  18. Effects of fermentable starch and straw-enriched housing on energy partitioning of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Staals, S.T.M.; Zandstra, T.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Both dietary fermentable carbohydrates and the availability of straw bedding potentially affect activity patterns and energy utilisation in pigs. The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of straw bedding and fermentable carbohydrates (native potato starch) on energy partitioning

  19. Near Zero Consumption Building as an Urban Acupuncture for a Vertical Slum. A Case Study in the City of Malaga, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos; Nebot, Nuria; García Moreno, Alberto; José Márquez Ballesteros, María

    2017-10-01

    A vertical slum is defined as a socially vulnerable community in a building, with serious problems of functionality, safety and habitability. It is related to an important level of physical degradation, and a precarious socioeconomic situation of its occupants. Their inability to create a real community for proper and mandatory maintenance increases the physical deterioration of the building. The abandonment of the original owners of the houses can cause a system of illegal occupation and illegal activities, and vice versa. In many cases, the new occupants are primarily interested in maintaining the building in a state of precariousness in order to avoid any attempt of renovation by administrations. These security and habitability problems often extend outside the building and they affect a whole community of neighbours within the neighbourhood who feel threatened and insecure, causing their rejection and a strong social segregation in the area. This article wants to show some of the results from a research work developed on a case study of vertical slum in the city of Malaga, in Spain. In this context of marginality previously described, the research project explores different alternatives for the renovation of a building, its vulnerable community and the neighbourhood in which it is inserted. The project establishes four major objectives: (a) a physical renovation of the building, (b) social transformation in a disadvantaged environment, (c) functional evolution-from a residential model to a new hybrid model with a mixed supply of social services, and (d) the incorporation of new parameters of environmental sustainability that improve the energetic behaviour of the building (transforming it into a building of almost zero consumption). The research closes with a series of strategies and results for the case study. However, the main contribution of the work is related to the research methodology that has been developed. This is structured according to the four

  20. Modeling & Verifying Aircraft Paint Hangar Airflow to Reduce Green House Gas and Energy Usage while Protecting Occupational Health Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Technology Certification Program FPM Feet per Minute FRCSW Fleet Readiness Center Southwest GHG Greenhouse Gases HDI Hexamethylene diisocyanate HVAC ...decreased energy consumption by fan motors . Existing motors fitted with controllers can be operated at reduced RPMs. As an example, modern VFD...Electric Motor Energy Intensity used by exhaust and supply Reduction or increase2 in energy use Energy (Fan Power) 1 (kWhlff) fans dming wipe down and

  1. Risk analysis on housing energy retrofitting in China with transaction costs considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Qian, K.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In China, majority of residential buildings constructed before 2000 remain poor energy performances due to few regulations on energy conservation before 2000. Thus there is a great potential for energy savings in China’s residential buildings. However, in the current situation it is difficult to

  2. Super-energy wrap-up model for renovation of standard wooden houses in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    as a robust building renovation method with focus on applying the membrane for air tightness with a minimum of risk of leakage, high level of insulation with very few thermal bridges, focus on fire protection by using insulation material of mineral wool and high attention on solving details in the building......This paper is based on the developed theoretical practice of super-insulation solution for renovation of exiting standard wooden houses in Greenland built from 1950s until 2006, more than half the building stock in Arctic Greenland. From various perspectives, the wrap-up system is evaluated...

  3. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  4. A strategy and protocol to increase diffusion of energy related innovations into the mainstream of housing associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce human causes of global warming, large scale implementation of innovative products that save energy is necessary. Innovative products first reach the early market actors who are driven by a visionary attitude. Hereafter, the products must reach the much larger mainstream market whose actors are driven by a pragmatic attitude. Many innovations, however, only appeal to the visionary early market and do not meet the more pragmatic needs of the mainstream. For that reason, innovations often fall in a 'chasm' between the early market and the mainstream and fail to reach the mainstream. We developed a strategy and a protocol to aid governmental agencies in influencing the mainstream members of housing associations to adopt energy conservation innovations. Our method is an adaptation of an existing marketing method and applicable to other target groups. The first step in crossing this chasm is to find a niche segment in the mainstream as the starting point for winning the rest of the mainstream. By surveying the target group and analyzing the data, we identified 29 housing associations (234 interviewed) that belong to this niche segment. Identifying the niche segment and its determinants of behaviour is part of our 4-step protocol that leads to adapting the innovative product to meet the needs of the niche and setting up a marketing plan to win the rest of the mainstream

  5. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  6. Energy conservation by thermal insulation and refurbishment of the heating system in housing estate `Sudeckie` in Swiebodzice. Final monitoring report 1996 - 97 and 1997 - 98, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The site for the project is located in South West Poland in the city of Swiebodzice, in a housing society called `Sudeckie`. The society is served by its own district heating network supplied from a coal fired boiler plant. There are plans for a future conversion of the boiler plant to natural gas, but as yet there is no gas pipeline in the district to supply the plant. The monitoring programme is based on the readings from energy meters installed in all buildings, in the boiler house and from data obtained from a number of thermologgers placed in selected apartments. The manual readings are done by the local staff in the housing society and the boiler house. In the 800 flats housing estate the energy saving activities are already showing good results by a clear and detectable drop in the energy consumption. The total energy savings due to thermal insulation, thermostatic valves and balancing valves in 1996-97 are approximately 15% and in 1997-98 the savings have increased to 30%. The effect from the installed thermostatic valves is improved comfort through better control of indoor temperature, as well as energy savings by reducing the excess heat. The boiler house has been furnished with variable speed pumps and frequency converters and automatic weather compensating equipment. The boiler house has also been equipped with a pressure holding system and control valves for heat control. In the houses thermostatic valves have been mounted at the radiators, and air venting equipment has been installed at the top of the risers. (EG)

  7. Decision support model for establishing the optimal energy retrofit strategy for existing multi-family housing complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Kim, Hyunjoong; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The number of multi-family housing complexes (MFHCs) over 15 yr old in South Korea is expected to exceed 5 million by 2015. Accordingly, the demand for energy retrofit in the deteriorating MFHCs is rapidly increasing. This study aimed to develop a decision support model for establishing the optimal energy retrofit strategy for existing MFHCs. It can provide clear criteria for establishing the carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) and allow efficient budget allocation for conducting the energy retrofit. The CERT for “S” MFHC, one of MFHCs located in Seoul, as a case study, was set at 23.0% (electricity) and 27.9% (gas energy). In the economic and environmental assessment, it was determined that scenario #12 was the optimal scenario (ranked second with regard to NPV 40 (net present value at year 40) and third with regard to SIR 40 (saving to investment ratio at year 40). The proposed model could be useful for owners, construction managers, or policymakers in charge of establishing energy retrofit strategy for existing MFHCs. It could allow contractors in a competitive bidding process to rationally establish the CERT and select the optimal energy retrofit strategy. It can be also applied to any other country or sector in a global environment. - Highlights: • The proposed model was developed to establish the optimal energy retrofit strategy. • Advanced case-based reasoning was applied to establish the community-based CERT. • Energy simulation was conducted to analyze the effects of energy retrofit strategy. • The optimal strategy can be finally selected based on the LCC and LCCO 2 analysis. • It could be extended to any other country or sector in the global environment

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon: Challenging Students to Build Energy Efficient, Cost-Effective, and Attractive Solar-Powered Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal, and design excellence with optimal energy production and maximum efficiency. The paper discusses the solutions developed for the event. We believe that the solutions implemented for Solar Decathlon 2011 represent current trends and that by analyzing, critiquing, and exposing the solutions pursued, the industry can become better suited to address challenges of the future. Constructing a solar community using high-efficiency design and unique materials while remaining code compliant, safe, and effective results in solutions that are market relevant, important, and interesting to the industry as a whole.

  9. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... housing for all. It especially addresses the housing needs of lower-income households as well as new house-holds. This chapter presents how the self-owning Danish non-profit housing associations construct and manage one fifth of the Danish housing stock. Here the tenants’ democracy sets the framework...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  10. Energy efficient low-income housing demonstration with Houston Habitat for Humanity. Final status report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-30

    Using DOE grant funds, the Alliance to Save Energy developed and managed an award-winning low-income housing demonstration in cooperation with Houston Habitat for Humanity at the 1996 and 1997 annual NAHB Builders Show in Houston, Texas. Using a unique group of over 30 national, state and local partners, the energy design of Houston Habitat houses was permanently upgraded to the Energy Star Homes Program threshold. Meeting Energy Star Homes Program criteria, the partner design team increased the level of efficiency approximately 30% over the 1992 Model Energy Code. This innovative design using commercially available materials added approximately $1,400 in cost-effective energy upgrades with an estimated payback of less than 8 years. The 30 public-private partners successfully demonstrated energy and resource efficient housing techniques to the 65,000 NAHB home show attendees and the over 3,000 Habitat affiliates. This project resulted in the Houston Habitat affiliate becoming the nation`s first low-income Energy Star Homes Program home builder. By the year 2000, Houston Habitat anticipates building over 500 homes to this new level of efficiency as well as set an example for other Habitat affiliates nationwide to follow. The 1997 demonstration house utilized an all-women volunteer builders team to construct a 3 bedroom home in Houston Habitat`s Woodglen Subdivision. Energy consumption was remotely metered by Texas A and M.

  11. Implementation of a genetic algorithm for energy design optimization of livestock housing using a dynamic thermal simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Menconi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genetic Algorithm (GA is an optimization process inspired by natural systems ability of surviving in many different environments through the mechanisms of natural selection and genetics. The pairing of GA-based optimization techniques with dynamic energy models is a common and effective practice to find energy efficient design solutions. In this paper is implemented an optimization tool that use a GA and a dynamic energy model. Efficiency of GAs depends largely on the coding strategy and on the parameters selection. In order to test the code and to find the best combination of parameters, a parametric analysis of GA's performances is carried out. The algorithm, coded in Matlab, works with populations of strings. Each string, that represents a complete design solution, is initially randomly generated by the GA and evaluated in terms of energy performances by the dynamic thermal simulator. A new population is then generated using three different GA stochastic operators: reproduction, crossover and mutation, by selecting, mixing and randomly modifying the fittest solutions of the previous generation. Each generation is energetically evaluated and thus the fitness of the strings, that represent the energy efficiency of the design solutions, improves every cycle till eventually converge to the best solution. This whole methodology is well documented and applied in residential buildings design but can be easily extended to livestock housing. In this paper the algorithm is coded to be applied on a simple sheepfold model in order to optimize only passive design solutions.

  12. Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jindou; Xu, Jinliang; Wang, Yaodong

    2018-03-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction have become targets for modern society due to the potential energy crisis and the threat of climate change. A distributed hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) consists of photovoltaic (PV) arrays, a wood-syngas combined heat and power generator (CHP) and back-up batteries is designed to power a typical semi-detached rural house in China which aims to meet the energy demand of a house and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Based on the annual load information of the house and the local meteorological data including solar radiation, air temperature, etc., a system model is set up using HOMER software and is used to simulate all practical configurations to carry out technical and economic evaluations. The performance of the whole HRES system and each component under different configurations are evaluated. The optimized configuration of the system is found

  13. Energy-conscious design of low-cost housing - passive solar design of a new-built block of flats in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Azzawi, Subhi

    1991-01-01

    New-build, low-cost housing can incorporate concepts of micro-climatic control and of environmental design as well as passive solar design, energy-efficient building and environmentally-friendly architecture, without necessarily incurring significant additional cost. This is particularly so in terms of concepts, layouts, forms, and orientations of residential blocks as well as of habitable rooms and spaces (and of ancillary areas) within each block, house, flat or maisonette. (author).

  14. Kaupuni Village: A Closer Look at the First Net-Zero Energy Affordable Housing Community in Hawai'i (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This is the first of four Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative community brochures focused on HCEI success stories. This brochure focuses on the first LEED Platinum net-zero energy affordable housing community in Hawaii. Our lead NREL contact for HCEI is Ken Kelly.

  15. House Owners’ Interests and Actions in Relation to Indoor Temperature, Air Quality and Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    energy consumption. Results show that well-planned communication about feedback possibilities is important. Women and men answer slightly differently to some of the questions, e.g. women are more active in airing, and they wear warmer clothing, whereas men are more actively following their energy...

  16. Influence of Urban Microclimate on Air-Conditioning Energy Needs and Indoor Thermal Comfort in Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chi Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climate measurement was implemented in the third largest city of Taiwan, for the check of accuracy of morphing approach on generating the hourly data of urban local climate. Based on observed and morphed meteorological data, building energy simulation software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the cooling energy consumption of an air-conditioned typical flat and the thermal comfort level of a naturally ventilated typical flat. The simulated results were used to quantitatively discuss the effect of urban microclimate on the energy consumption as well as thermal comfort of residential buildings. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for city planning and energy management divisions to study urban sustainability strategies in the future.

  17. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [Washington State Univ. Extension Energy Office, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilationstrategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings betweenSalishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  18. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7. Median energy use for the development is 11,000 kWh; annual energy costs are $780, with a fair amount of variation dependent on size of home. Preliminary analysis of savings between Salishan 7 and previous phases (4 through 6) suggest savings of between 20 and 30 percent. A more comprehensive comparison between Salishan 7 and previous phases will take place in year two of this project.

  19. The reference building--one approach in the evolution of building energy performance criteria for houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldenbrand, J.L.; Petersen, S.R.

    1982-12-01

    The reference building approach described in this paper was introduced in the context of the National Bureau of Standards support for the building energy conservation criteria program of the Office of Buildings and Community Systems, U.S. Department of Energy. The role of NBS is to develop technical data and methods for design, construction, and retrofitting of energy efficient buildings. Recent federal initiatives to regulate energy use at the design stage of new buildings support the broadening of performance standards to the whole-building level. A logical means of developing such standards is to provide a methodology for linking component performance standards to the whole-building design-energy-performance level. A side benefit of such a methodology is the assurance that these two paths to building design are consistent and complementary. The ''Reference Building Approach'' (RBA) reported here is one such method. As described here, the RBA approach is not a complete package suitable as a substitute for the Department of Energy's proposed Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). However, the paper deals with an element of BEPS and offers a possible improvement to it.

  20. Evaluation of Savings in Energy-Efficient Public Housing in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Lubliner, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Howard, L. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Kunkle, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of an energy performance and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Salishan phase 7 and demonstration homes were compared to Salishan phase 6 homes built to 2006 Washington State Energy Code specifications 2. Predicted annual energy savings (over Salishan phase 6) was 19% for Salishan phase 7, and between 19-24% for the demonstration homes (depending on ventilation strategy). Approximately two-thirds of the savings are attributable to the DHP. Working with the electric utility provider, Tacoma Public Utilities, researchers conducted a billing analysis for Salishan phase 7.

  1. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 15: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Noonan, Christine F.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 15th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  2. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 16: 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Adams, Karen; Butner, Ryan S.; Ortiz, Sallie J.

    2011-09-01

    This best practices guide is the 16th in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the mixed-humid climate can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and those requirements are highlighted in the text. Requirements of the 2012 IECC and 2012 IRC are also noted in text and tables throughout the guide. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  3. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable......The continuous increasing negative effects of fossil fuel consumption on society and the environment, opens a major interest into environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain the increasing demand for energy services. Despite the obvious advantages of renewable energy, it presents important...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  4. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability to t...... to reduce residential energy use and improve the user’s satisfaction degree by optimal management of demand/generation sides.......In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability...... to take part in demand response (DR) programs. The superior performance and efficiency of the proposed system is studied through several scenarios and case studies and validated in comparison with the conventional models. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MOEMS has the capability...

  5. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  6. A comparison of the energy and carbon implications of new systems of energy provision in new build housing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monahan, J.; Powell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The built environment needs to develop sustainable, decarbonised, low energy systems and approaches that are socially acceptable and economically beneficial. The UK mainstream house construction industry is being driven, through policy and regulation, towards achieving this end without evidence of how these new systems of provision are used by passively adopting households. In this paper energy use, consequential emissions of CO 2 , and annual running costs for a case study comprising 14 newly constructed low energy affordable homes are evaluated. Four different energy typologies are compared: ground sourced heat pumps; active solar (thermal and photovoltaic); passive solar and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery; conventional high efficiency gas boiler. The carbon embodied in construction and emitted over a 20 year occupation period for each typology is calculated. Ground source heat pumps have the highest annual primary energy demand, CO 2 emission and annual running costs over the 20 year period. The homes with active solar technologies provided most benefit across all three evaluation criteria. Energy and CO 2 emissions associated with end uses other than heating were similar to the UK average. This poses significant questions on the probability of policy application in the real world to deliver projected reductions in emissions of CO 2 . - Research Highlights: → Heat pumps have the highest primary energy demand, CO2 emissions and running costs. → Solar technologies have greatest benefit to passively adopting households. → No difference in energy demand of non heating end uses compared with UK average. → Reductions attributed to technology not behaviour in passively adopting households. → Policy may not deliver projected reductions in CO2 emissions in real world.

  7. Monitoring dwelling stock efficiency through energy performance register : Trends in Dutch social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 EU adopted the Energy Performance of Buildings directive which was subsequently adopted by the member states. However, more than a decade later, no national registers of certificates have become available publicly or to research institutions in order to give feedback on the introduced

  8. Initiatives for the energy renovation of single-family houses inDenmark evaluated on the basis of barriers and motivators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified, and arr......The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified...

  9. Anything but 'yodel architecture'. Plus energy house with photovoltaics, heat pump and mountain panorama; Alles andere als 'Jodelarchitektur'. Plusenergiehaus mit Photovoltaik, Waermepumpe und Bergpanorama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karweger, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration has built an energy-autarkic house in the South Tyrolean mountains. This house has an energy-efficient design and gets its power from a photovoltaic power plant on the roof. On the broad south facade as well as on the narrow east and west facades of this house there are large glass fronts that capture the solar energy in winter.

  10. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States); Peeks, Brady [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH), which is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual percent savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  11. Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewes, Tom; Peeks, Brady

    2015-09-15

    ?This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). The scope of this project involved building four HPMH prototypes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). The HPMH home is intended to make significant progress toward performing as zero-net-energy ready. Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This report describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability during 2014. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  12. Heating power at room and building levels in passive houses and low-energy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Rinholm, Jonas Myrberg

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis investigates the Norwegian standard for calculating necessary power demand, NS-EN 12831:2003- Varmesystemer i bygninger - Metode for beregning av dimensjonerende effektbehov. In that context, it is also investigated how power demand affects heating systems financially and environmentally, but also in terms of comfort and indoor air quality. Improved energy efficiency are leading to a reduction in the power demand for heating purposes in buildings. However, there are few...

  13. Energy efficiency: rehabilitation action in public housing project; Efficacite energetique: operation de rehabilitation en HLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document presents an operation of rehabilitation in public buildings near Paris (Montreuil). The chosen building is a four floor building built in 1969, showing a favorable solar exposition. Using a bio-climatic and a high environmental quality, the project realized 30% of energy conservation, 30% of water conservation, poor emissivity glass for windows, an outdoor insulation, vitreous balconies and the use of recycled materials. (A.L.B.)

  14. Evaluating the financial efficiency of energy and water saving installations in passive house

    OpenAIRE

    Stec Agnieszka; Mazur Aleksandra; Słyś Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The article contains the outcomes of the Life Cycle Cost analysis for alternative energy and water sources utilized in passive buildings. The solutions taken into account included: heat pumps, solar collectors, photovoltaic panels, Drain Water Heat Recovery units, Rain Water Harvesting Systems and Greywater Recycling Systems. In addition, air pollution emission reduction was also calculated for all the installation variants analyzed. The analysis have shown that the systems under consideratio...

  15. Economic analysis of passive houses and lowenergy houses compared to standard houses

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, Amaryllis; De Cleyn, S; Vankerckhove, B

    2007-01-01

    As the energy demand used for space heating accounts for 78% of EU15 household delivered energy consumption significant reductions in energy demand can be achieved by promoting low energy buildings. Our study investigates three building types: the standard house, the low-energy house and the passive house. As more far-reaching measures concerning energy savings usually lead to higher investments, the aim of our study is to perform an economic analysis in order to determine the economic viabil...

  16. Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy for Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security and Equitability of Rural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, N.A; Byrd, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates on how Malaysia’s development landscapes has been poweredby cheap oil and gas making it dependent and addicted on using large amounts of fossil fuels. As acountry that is primarily depended on fossil fuels for generating power supply, Malaysia needs tocogitate of long-term energy security due to fossil fuel depletion and peak oil issues. Loss of theseresources could leadto thereduction of power generation capacitywhich will threaten the stabilityof the electricity suppl...

  17. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  18. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  19. Investigating the potential of a novel low-energy house concept with hybrid adaptable thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoes, P.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Hoekstra Bonnema, B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic. → Permanent thermal mass concepts are not optimal in all operational conditions. → We propose a concept that combines the benefits of low and high thermal mass. → Building simulation shows the concept is able to reduce the energy demand with 35%. → Furthermore, the concept increases the performance robustness of the building. -- Abstract: In conventional buildings thermal mass is a permanent building characteristic depending on the building design. However, none of the permanent thermal mass concepts are optimal in all operational conditions. We propose a concept that combines the benefits of buildings with low and high thermal mass by applying hybrid adaptable thermal storage (HATS) systems and materials to a lightweight building. The HATS concept increases building performance and the robustness to changing user behavior, seasonal variations and future climate changes. Building performance simulation is used to investigate the potential of the novel concept for reducing heating energy demand and increasing thermal comfort. Simulation results of a case study in the Netherlands show that the optimal quantity of the thermal mass is sensitive to the change of seasons. This implies that the building performance will benefit from implementing HATS. Furthermore, the potential of HATS is quantified using a simplified HATS model. Calculations show heating energy demand reductions of up to 35% and increased thermal comfort compared to conventional thermal mass concepts.

  20. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.