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Sample records for near-stoichiometric lithium niobate

  1. Twinning structures in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shuhua; Chen, Yanfeng

    2010-01-01

    A near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method in a hanging double crucible with a continuous powder supply system. Twins were found at one of the three characteristic growth ridges of the as-grown crystal. The twin structure was observed and analyzed by transmission synchrotron topography. The image shifts ΔX and ΔY in the transmission synchrotron topograph were calculated for the 3 anti 2 anti 12 and 0 anti 222 reflections based on results from high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. It is confirmed that one of the {01 anti 1 anti 2} m planes is the composition face of the twin and matrix crystals. The formation mechanism of these twins is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  3. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  4. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  5. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  6. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-15

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  7. Micro- and nanostructuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, Holger

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the application of the ion-beam-enhanced-etching (IBEE) technique for the fabrication of different optical elements, among these photonic crystals, in lithium niobate, was studied. The development of a mask technology fitted to the requirements of the IBEE technique as well as a simulation of the process were performed. Hereby the limitations of the technique in view on minimal structure sizes and structure quality were analyzed. In chapter 1 first the material lithium niobate with its properties and the structuration procedures studied hitherto in the literature is presented. Chapter 2 presents the functionality of the IBEE process and describes the studies on the application of IBEE in lithium niobate performed in the framework of this thesis. In chapter 3 the experimental conditions of all applied processes of the IBEE procedure, the processes used for the mask fabrication, as well all further applied methods and technologies are summarized. Chapter 4 deals with the mask fabrication. The requirements on the masks and the developments necessary for their fulfilment are studied. In chapter 5 the performed simulation of the irradiation, annealing, and etching process is described. This simulation makes the prediciton of the geometry of the components from the process parameters and vice versa the determination of parameters for the reaching of an optimal element geometry possible. In chapter 6 the application of the technique for the fabrication of photonic-crystal membranes and their optical characterization is described. Chapter 7 shows the fabrication of different waveguide and diffractive elements in lithium niobate by means of IBEE.

  8. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 ). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals

  9. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, Yongfa, E-mail: kongyf@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); R and D Center, Taishan Sports Industry Group, Leling 253600 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Shiguo [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xu, Jingjun [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm{sup 2}). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals.

  10. Micromachining Lithium Niobate for Rapid Prototyping of Resonant Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shibaany, Zeyad Yousif Abdoon; Hedley, John; Huo, Dehong; Hu, Zhongxu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium niobate material is widely used in MEMS application due to its piezoelectric properties. This paper presents the micromachining process of lithium niobate to rapid prototype a resonant biosensor design. A high precision CNC machine was used to machine a sample of lithium niobate material at 5 different spindle speeds to find out the best conditions to machine this brittle material. A qualitative visual check of the surface was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness was quantitatively investigated using an optical surface profiler and Raman spectroscopy to check the strain of the surface. Results show that the surface quality of the lithium niobate was significantly affected by the spindle speed with optimum conditions at 70k rpm giving a strained surface with 500 nm rms roughness

  11. Stability of lithium niobate on irradiation at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.; Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Monahan, E.

    1977-01-01

    In contrast to results obtained for neutron irradiation in a thermal reactor near room temperature, lithium niobate plates irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) did not become metamict. This is attributed to the elevated temperature of the EBR-II. Ion bombardment experiments indicate that to avoid disordering of lithium niobate on irradiation, its temperature should be maintained above 673 K. Evidence for ionic conductivity was found at 873 K, indicating that it would be inadvisable to permit the temperature to rise that high, particularly with voltage across the plate. In reactor application as a microphone transducer, it is tentatively recommended that the lithium niobate be maintained in the middle of this temperature range for a major portion of reactor operating time

  12. Sub-band-gap laser micromachining of lithium niobate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. K.; Müllenborn, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    method is reported which enables us to do laser processing of lithium niobate using sub-band-gap photons. Using high scan speeds, moderate power densities, and sub-band-gap photon energies results in volume removal rates in excess of 106µm3/s. This enables fast micromachining of small piezoelectric...

  13. Nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Liang, Hanxiao; Luo, Rui; Jiang, Wei C; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Lin, Qiang

    2017-06-12

    Recent advance of lithium niobate microphotonic devices enables the exploration of intriguing nonlinear optical effects. We show complex nonlinear oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators that results from unique competition between the thermo-optic nonlinearity and the photorefractive effect, distinctive to other device systems and mechanisms ever reported. The observed phenomena are well described by our theory. This exploration helps understand the nonlinear optical behavior of high-Q lithium niobate microphotonic devices which would be crucial for future application of on-chip nonlinear lithium niobate photonics.

  14. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  15. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzan, Marco, E-mail: marco.bazzan@unipd.it; Sada, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.sada@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  16. Shock-induced luminescence from Z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Shock-induced luminescence from lithium niobate has been studied in the stress range 1.6--21.0 GPa. Both fast-framing photography and five-channel optical pyrometry were used to observe the luminescence. The framing photography showed that the emission pattern is heterogeneous for stresses just above the dynamic yield point. A further increase of the stress resulted in a pattern which was essentially homogeneous to within the experimental spatial resolution of about 30 μm. Narrowband filters and photomultiplier tubes were used in the optical pyrometry experiments. A broadband spectrum with a peak near 700 nm was observed. A plot of the energy dissipated by the shock versus shock stress correlates very well with a plot of the 700-nm intensity versus shock stress. The mechanism for light emission in lithium niobate appears to be closely related to the dynamic yielding process

  17. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  18. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  20. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  1. Photoluminescence of Copper-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Pyatyshev, A. Yu.; Sidorov, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of copper-doped lithium niobate single crystals is studied using different UV-Vis light-emitting diodes and a pulse-periodic laser with a wavelength of 266 nm as excitation radiation sources. With the resonance excitation from a 527-nm light-emitting diode, the intensity of PL increases sharply (by two orders of magnitude). When using a 467-nm light-emitting diode for excitation, the PL spectrum is characterized by the presence of multiphonon lines in the range of 520-620 nm.

  2. Study of structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Kling, A; Correia, J G; Da Silva, M F A; Diéguez, E; Agulló-López, F; Soares, J C

    1996-01-01

    The structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent (lithium deficient) lithium niobate single crystals were studied by RBS- and NRA-channeling as well as perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements. The d-PAC111Cd-PAC investigations point out that a second Li site can be detected in congruent material, while only one is present in stoichiometric. Channeling studies of different axes and the comparison of the results with computer simulations corroborated former indications that this additional lattice site can be attributed to the formation of ilmenite type stacking faults. A comparative study of the energy dependence of the dechanneling showed that a remarkable disorder is also present in the Nb sublattice of the congruent crystals and that these defects have a point-like character.

  3. Monolithic acoustic graphene transistors based on lithium niobate thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Liu, B.-H.; Zhang, H.-X.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, M.-L.; Zhang, D.-H.; Pang, W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces an on-chip acoustic graphene transistor based on lithium niobate thin film. The graphene transistor is embedded in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) acoustic wave device, and surface acoustic waves generated by the resonator induce a macroscopic current in the graphene due to the acousto-electric (AE) effect. The acoustic resonator and the graphene share the lithium niobate film, and a gate voltage is applied through the back side of the silicon substrate. The AE current induced by the Rayleigh and Sezawa modes was investigated, and the transistor outputs a larger current in the Rayleigh mode because of a larger coupling to velocity ratio. The output current increases linearly with the input radiofrequency power and can be effectively modulated by the gate voltage. The acoustic graphene transistor realized a five-fold enhancement in the output current at an optimum gate voltage, outperforming its counterpart with a DC input. The acoustic graphene transistor demonstrates a paradigm for more-than-Moore technology. By combining the benefits of MEMS and graphene circuits, it opens an avenue for various system-on-chip applications.

  4. Absorption and reflectivity of the lithium niobate surface masked with a graphene layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Salas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed simulations of the interaction of a graphene layer with the surface of lithium niobate utilizing density functional theory and molecular dynamics at 300K and atmospheric pressure. We found that the graphene layer is physisorbed on the lithium niobate surface with an adsorption energy of -0.8205 eV/(carbon-atom. Subsequently, the energy band structure, the optical absorption and reflectivity of the new system were calculated. We found important changes in these physical properties with respect to the corresponding ones of a graphene layer and of a lithium niobate crystal.

  5. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material.

  6. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA Phase I STTR effort, the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate (5% MgO:LN) will be established....

  7. Design considerations for quasi-phase-matching in doubly resonant lithium niobate hexagonal microresonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sono, Tleyane J

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication capabilities of high optical quality hexagonal superstructures by chemical etching of inverted ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate platform suggests a route for efficient implementation of compact hexagonal microcavities...

  8. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  9. Photorefractive lithium niobate crystals for applications in photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, U.

    2006-12-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO 3 ) generally show a photorefractive response, i.e., light-induced refractive index changes. Crystals are investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. As a result 'classical' photorefractive holographic volume-phase gratings, originating from space charge fields and the electro-optic effect, and 'non-classical' photorefractive volume-phase gratings, which can be traced back to strong absorption gratings, emerge. Single domain and periodically poled crystals (PPLN) are investigated. PPLN is typically used in non-linear optics for frequency conversion. The crystals also show non-linear photorefractive response during holographic recording with isotropically polarized light beams of equal intensity and, in the case of PPLN, by mixing of domain and holographic gratings. The results are important for applications combining the photorefractive and non-linear optical properties of LiNbO 3 . (orig.)

  10. Fabrication and performance of porous lithium sodium potassium niobate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Zhu, Yuan; Ji, Jun; Cai, Feixiang; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Ningyi; Wang, Andong

    2018-02-01

    Porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (LNK) ceramic has excellent piezoelectric properties, chemical stability and great chemical compatibility. It has a good application potential in the field of biological bone substitute. In the paper, porous LNK ceramic was fabricated with egg albumen foaming agent by foaming method. Effects of preparation process of the porous LNK ceramic on density, phase structure, hole size and piezoelectric properties were researched and characterized. The results show that the influence factors of LNK solid content and foaming agent addition are closely relevant to properties of the porous LNK ceramic. When solid content is 65% and foaming agent addition is 30%, the porous LNK ceramic has uniform holes and the best piezoelectric properties.

  11. Temperature dependence of the thermoelectric coeffiicients of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachaturyan, O.A.; Gabrielyan, A.I.; Kolesnik, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoelectric Zeebeck,Thomson, Peltier coefficients for LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 monocrystals and their dependence on temperature in 300-1400 K range were investigated. It is shown that Zeebeck (α) coefficient changes its sign, depending on temperature change - the higher is α, the higher is material conductivity in the corresponding temperature region. Thomson and Peltier coefficients were calculated analytically for lithium niobate and tantalate

  12. Chemical transport of niobium(V) oxide and of lithium niobate with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Niobium(V) oxide is transported by means of sulphur (calculated for 10 bar at 1223 K) from 1273 → 1173 K. The same applies for lithium niobate. Similar experiments of lithium oxide lead to turbidity of the quartz ampoule. (author)

  13. Gold particle formation via photoenhanced deposition on lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewski, A.M., E-mail: azaniews@asu.edu; Meeks, V.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Gold chloride is reduced into solid gold nanoparticles at the surface of a polarized semiconductor. • Reduction processes are driven by ultraviolet light. • Gold nanoparticle and silver nanoparticle deposition patterns are compared. - Abstract: In this work, we report on a technique to reduce gold chloride into sub-micron particles and nanoparticles. We use photoelectron transfer from periodically polarized lithium niobate (PPLN) illuminated with above band gap light to drive the surface reactions required for the reduction and particle formation. The particle sizes and distributions on the PPLN surface are sensitive to the solution concentration, with inhibited nucleation and large particles (>150 nm) for both low (2E−8M to 9E−7M) and high (1E−5M to 1E−3M) concentrations of gold chloride. At midrange values of the concentration, nucleation is more frequent, resulting in smaller sized particles (<150 nm). We compare the deposition process to that for silver, which has been previously studied. We find that the reduction of gold chloride into nanoparticles is inhibited compared to silver ion reduction, due to the multi-step reaction required for gold particle formation. This also has consequences for the resulting deposition patterns: while silver deposits into nanowires along boundaries between areas with opposite signed polarizations, such patterning of the deposition is not observed for gold, for a wide range of concentrations studied (2E−8 to 1E−3M).

  14. Analysis of Waveguides on Lithium Niobate Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Waveguides formed by etching, proton-exchange (PE, and strip-loaded on single-crystal lithium niobate (LN thin film were designed and simulated by a full-vectorial finite difference method. The single-mode condition, optical power distribution, and bending loss of these kinds of waveguides were studied and compared systematically. For the PE waveguide, the optical power distributed in LN layer had negligible change with the increase of PE thickness. For the strip-loaded waveguide, the relationships between optical power distribution in LN layer and waveguide thickness were different for quasi-TE (q-TE and quasi-TM (q-TM modes. The bending loss would decrease with the increase of bending radius. There was a bending loss caused by the electromagnetic field leakage when the neff of q-TM waveguide was smaller than that of nearby TE planar waveguide. LN ridge waveguides possessed a low bending loss even at a relatively small bending radius. This study is helpful for the understanding of waveguide structures as well as for the optimization and the fabrication of high-density integrated optical components.

  15. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  16. Generation of ionizing radiation from lithium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work done experimentally explores generation of electron and x-ray radiation in the process of heating and cooling monolithic and iron-doped crystals of lithium niobate. Iron doping to the concentrations in the range of 1023 m3 was carried out by adding ferric oxide into the melt during the process of crystal growth. The research into radiation generation was performed at 1-10 Pa. The speed of heating from -10 to 1070 C was 10-20 degrees a minute. Current pulses appeared at 17, 38, 56, 94, 98, 100, 105, 106, 1070 C with the interval of 1-3 minutes. The obtained electron current increased in direct proportion to the crystal surface area. The maximum current was 3mA at the design voltage 11 kV on the crystal with 14,5x10,5x10 mm3 surface area. The article describes the possibility to control the start of generation by introducing priming pulse. The results achieved are explained by the domain repolarization while heating the crystal and the appearance of electric field local strength. Bias and overcharge currents contribute to the appearance of electric strength, which stimulates breakdown and plasma formation. X-ray radiation appears both at the stage of discharge formation and during electron deceleration on gas and target material.

  17. Recent Achievements on Photovoltaic Optoelectronic Tweezers Based on Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel García-Cabañes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an up-dated summary of the fundamentals and applications of optoelectronic photovoltaic tweezers for trapping and manipulation of nano-objects on the surface of lithium niobate crystals. It extends the contents of previous reviews to cover new topics and developments which have emerged in recent years and are marking the trends for future research. Regarding the theoretical description of photovoltaic tweezers, detailed simulations of the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces acting on different crystal configurations are discussed in relation to the structure of the obtained trapping patterns. As for the experimental work, we will pay attention to the manipulation and patterning of micro-and nanoparticles that has experimented an outstanding progress and relevant applications have been reported. An additional focus is now laid on recent work about micro-droplets, which is a central topic in microfluidics and optofluidics. New developments in biology and biomedicine also constitute a relevant part of the review. Finally, some topics partially related with photovoltaic tweezers and a discussion on future prospects and challenges are included.

  18. Magnetophotorefractive effect and interference filters in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam-Hansen, C.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental photorefractive and photovoltaic properties of iron-doped lithium niobate crystals. Experimental observations of a strong magnetic field effect on the energy coupling and grating formation in a vectorial interaction scheme are presented. To the author's knowledge these are the first reported results in the field. It is shown that an enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of 60% is possible by applying even a moderate magnetic field of 0.23 T. A new theoretical model of the magnetophotorefractive effect in the vectorial interaction scheme is presented. It describes the space-charge field formation, two-wave mixing and grating formation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field. Good agreement with the experimental results and the first measurement of nondiagonal components of the magnetophotovoltaic tensor are reported. A theoretical model for the temperature properties of photorefractive interference filters with subangstrom bandwidths are presented and compared favourably with experimental investigations. A novel method for determining the spectral response of these filters from a combined thermal and angular response measurements is described. (au) 9 tabs., 30 ills., 84 refs

  19. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-01-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000 deg. C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO 3 , producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO 3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips

  20. Material modifications in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeth, Niels Lennart

    2017-01-01

    The artificially produced crystals lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and the closely related lithium tantalate (LiTaO 3 ) are proven starting materials for producing active and passive devices that can guide, amplify, switch and process light. For this purpose, it is often necessary to be able to influence the refractive index of the substrate targeted, which is possible in addition to other methods by irradiation of the materials with fast light ions. In this work, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals are irradiated with alpha particles, 3 He ions, deuterons, and protons at projectile energies of up to 14 MeV / nucleon. Energy and crystal thickness are chosen so that the projectiles penetrate the entire sample and are not implanted. All isotopes responsible for the unwanted nuclear activation of the crystals due to the irradiation are relatively short-lived and overall the activation decreases fast enough to allow the safe handling of the irradiated samples after a storage period of a few days to a few weeks. The refractive index changes produced in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate by irradiation with the different projectiles are determined interferometrically and can also be measured by suitable choice of the sample geometry as a function of the ion penetration depth: In LiNbO 3 the ordinary refractive index decreases, the extraordinary increases equally. In LiTaO 3 , both the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices decrease as a result of the irradiation; the ordinary refractive index change is many times stronger than the extraordinary one. There is an enormous long-term stability at room temperature for both crystal systems: Even after eleven (LiNbO 3 ) or three (LiTaO 3 ) years, no decrease in the ion beam-induced refractive index change can be observed. The ion beam-induced refractive index changes are probably the result of atomic displacements such as vacancies, defect clusters or ''latent tracks''. An explanation for

  1. Optimal design of DC-based polarization beam splitter in lithium niobate on insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wang, Junbao; Wu, Chonghao; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Shicheng

    2017-08-01

    We propose a DC-based polarization beam splitter (PBS) in lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI). Utilizing the high birefringence property of Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3, LN), the device is achieved by simple structure in a short length. With the use of beam propagation method (BPM), the simulation results show that the device has a good performance for the separation of TE and TM polarizations with a high extinction ratio (about 35 dB). The simulated fabrication tolerance for the variation of the waveguide width is about 100 nm and the bandwidth is about 65 nm when the extinction ratio is higher than 10 dB.

  2. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  3. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  4. Writing single-mode waveguides in lithium niobate by ultra-low intensity solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, E.; Ramadan, W.; Petris, A.; Chauvet, M.; Bosco, A.; Vlad, V.I.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical waveguides can be conveniently written in photorefractive materials by using spatial solitons. We have generated bright spatial solitons inside lithium niobate which allow single-mode light propagation. Efficient waveguides have been generated with CW light powers as high as few microwatts. According to the soliton formation, waveguides can be formed with different shapes. Due to the slow response time of the lithium niobate, both for soliton formation and relaxation, the soliton waveguide remains memorised for a long time, of the order of months

  5. Tunable dual-wavelength filter and its group delay dispersion in domain-engineered lithium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hao Shao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tunable dual-wavelength filter is experimentally demonstrated in domain-engineered lithium niobate. Application of an electric field on the y-surfaces of the sample results in the optical axes rotating clockwise and anticlockwise, which makes selective polarization rotation. The quasi phase-matching wavelengths could be adjusted through suitable domain design. A unique dual valley spectrum is obtained in a periodically poled lithium niobate structure with a central defect if the sample is placed between two parallel polarizers. The expected bandwidth could be varied from ∼1 nm to ∼40 nm. Moreover, both the spectral response and group delay dispersion could be engineered.

  6. Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel, K.; Péter, Á.; Kovács, L.; Corradi, G.; Dravecz, G.; Hajdara, I.; Szaller, Zs.; Polgár, K. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33 (Hungary); Pálfalvi, L.; Unferdorben, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); MTA-PTE High Field Terahertz Research Group, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)

    2015-12-15

    Owing to the extraordinary richness of its physical properties, congruent lithium niobate has attracted multidecade-long interest both for fundamental science and applications. The combination of ferro-, pyro-, and piezoelectric properties with large electro-optic, acousto-optic, and photoelastic coefficients as well as the strong photorefractive and photovoltaic effects offers a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components in high energy laser applications, tailoring of key material parameters, especially stoichiometry, is required. This paper reviews the state of the art of growing large stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} (sLN) crystals, in particular, the defect engineering of pure and doped sLN with emphasis on optical damage resistant (ODR) dopants (e.g., Mg, Zn, In, Sc, Hf, Zr, Sn). The discussion is focused on crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) technique using alkali oxide fluxing agents. Based on high-temperature phase equilibria studies of the Li{sub 2}O–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–X{sub 2}O ternary systems (X = Na, K, Rb, Cs), the impact of alkali homologue additives on the stoichiometry of the lithium niobate phase will be analyzed, together with a summary of the ultraviolet, infrared, and far-infrared absorption spectroscopic methods developed to characterize the composition of the crystals. It will be shown that using HTTSSG from K{sub 2}O containing flux, crystals closest to the stoichiometric composition can be grown characterized by a UV-edge position of at about 302 nm and a single narrow hydroxyl band in the IR with a linewidth of less than 3 cm{sup −1} at 300 K. The threshold concentrations for ODR dopants depend on crystal stoichiometry and the valence of the dopants; Raman spectra, hydroxyl vibration spectra, and Z-scan measurements prove to be useful to distinguish crystals below and above the photorefractive threshold. Crystals just above the threshold are

  7. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P; McCallum, J C [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F.; Munoz, I.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO 4 ). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  9. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  10. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P.; McCallum, J.C. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Nekvindova, P; Cervena, J; Budnar, M; Razpet, A; Zorko, B; Pelicon, P; 10.1016/S0925-3467(01)00186-0

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1120) and Z (0001) substrate cuts during waveguide fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by mode spectroscopy (waveguide characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cut structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on fitting X-cut orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate c...

  12. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, S.; Rensberg, J.; Johannes, A.; Thomae, R.; Smit, F.; Neveling, R.; Moodley, M.; Bierschenk, T.; Rodriquez, M.; Afra, B.; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, C.; Ridgway, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Ronning, C.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm−1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to

  13. All-optical switching in lithium niobate directional couplers with cascaded nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiek, R.; Baek, Y.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Stegeman, G.I.; Baumann, I.; Sohler, W.

    1996-01-01

    We report on intensity-dependent switching in lithium niobate directional couplers. Large nonlinear phase shifts that are due to cascading detune the coupling between the coupler branches, which makes all-optical switching possible. Depending on the input intensity, the output could be switched

  14. Erbium medium temperature localised doping into lithium niobate and sapphire: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav; Červená, Jarmila; Čapek, P.; Schrofel, J.; Špirková, J.; Oswald, Jiří

    90-91, - (2003), s. 559-564 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : lithium niobate * sapphire * erbium Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  15. UV laser-assisted fabrication of ridge waveguides in lithium niobate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C.L.; Ying, C.Y.J.; Eason, R.W.; Mailis, S.; Ganguly, P.; Soergel, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a UV laser-assisted method for the fabrication of ridge waveguides in lithium niobate. The UV laser irradiation step provides the refractive index change required for the vertical light confinement in the waveguide and also defines the ferroelectric domain pattern which produces the ridge structures after chemical etching.

  16. Interaction of light with impurities in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwesyg, Judith Renate Marie-Luise

    2011-06-06

    Congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and 5-mol% MgO-doped LiNbO{sub 3} (MgO:LN) crystals are widely used as nonlinear-optical crystals in frequency-conversion devices due to their large nonlinear-optic coefficients. These devices usually require high optical pump powers, but absorption of photons by impurities limits their usability due to heat accumulation that leads to thermo-optic refractive index changes. These refractive index changes distort the beam shape and disturb the phase-matching condition. Furthermore pyroelectric fields can build up. In this thesis the residual optical absorption in congruent LiNbO{sub 3} (CLN) and MgO:LN crystals is studied. Absorption spectra of CLN and MgO:LN crystals between 400-2000 nm reveal a residual absorption up to 0.04 cm{sup -1}. This absorption is mainly caused by transition metal impurities. Between 2300-2800 nm unknown hydrogen absorption bands in CLN and MgO:LN are revealed on the order of 0.001 cm{sup -1}. High-temperature annealing is applied to the CLN and MgO:LN crystals, which decreases optical absorption by up to one order of magnitude. As an application, the operation of a 1550-nm pumped singly-resonant CW optical parametric oscillator, resonant around 2600 nm, using a low-loss, periodically-poled, annealed CLN crystal is demonstrated. Another issue that affects CLN is photorefractive damage (PRD), i.e. light-induced refractive index changes. In contrast, MgO:LN crystals do not suffer from PRD even at high optical intensities. However, it is shown in this thesis that PRD can occur within seconds in MgO:LN, using green laser light at light intensity levels as low as 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, if the crystal is heated by several degrees Celsius during or before illumination. Photorefractive damage does not occur in CLN crystals under the same conditions. We show that the pyroelectric effect together with an elevated photoconductivity compared to that of CLN causes this beam distortion and that this effect also

  17. Interaction of light with impurities in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesyg, Judith Renate Marie-Luise

    2011-01-01

    Congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and 5-mol% MgO-doped LiNbO 3 (MgO:LN) crystals are widely used as nonlinear-optical crystals in frequency-conversion devices due to their large nonlinear-optic coefficients. These devices usually require high optical pump powers, but absorption of photons by impurities limits their usability due to heat accumulation that leads to thermo-optic refractive index changes. These refractive index changes distort the beam shape and disturb the phase-matching condition. Furthermore pyroelectric fields can build up. In this thesis the residual optical absorption in congruent LiNbO 3 (CLN) and MgO:LN crystals is studied. Absorption spectra of CLN and MgO:LN crystals between 400-2000 nm reveal a residual absorption up to 0.04 cm -1 . This absorption is mainly caused by transition metal impurities. Between 2300-2800 nm unknown hydrogen absorption bands in CLN and MgO:LN are revealed on the order of 0.001 cm -1 . High-temperature annealing is applied to the CLN and MgO:LN crystals, which decreases optical absorption by up to one order of magnitude. As an application, the operation of a 1550-nm pumped singly-resonant CW optical parametric oscillator, resonant around 2600 nm, using a low-loss, periodically-poled, annealed CLN crystal is demonstrated. Another issue that affects CLN is photorefractive damage (PRD), i.e. light-induced refractive index changes. In contrast, MgO:LN crystals do not suffer from PRD even at high optical intensities. However, it is shown in this thesis that PRD can occur within seconds in MgO:LN, using green laser light at light intensity levels as low as 100 mW/cm 2 , if the crystal is heated by several degrees Celsius during or before illumination. Photorefractive damage does not occur in CLN crystals under the same conditions. We show that the pyroelectric effect together with an elevated photoconductivity compared to that of CLN causes this beam distortion and that this effect also influences frequency conversion

  18. Shock-wave compression of lithium niobate from 2.4 to 44 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, P.L.; Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Shock compression of lithium niobate above the Hugoniot elastic limit (about 2.5 GPa) reveals a succession of unusual features. Just above the Hugoniot elastic limit, the shock velocity is observed to be well below the bulk sound speed, indicative of a drastic reduction of shear strength. The shock velocity is observed to increase with particle velocity at an unusually large rate due to the reduction of strength in a very stiff material and an anomalously large pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. This later behavior may be due to the effects of localized shock heating resulting from heterogeneous shear deformation in ferroelectrics like lithium niobate and lithium tantalate in which increases in temperature are shown to have a strong effect on bulk modulus. A shock-induced polymorphic phase transition occurs at 13.9 GPa. Above the transition point the slope of the Hugoniot curve relating shock velocity and particle velocity is unusually low, indicative of a broad mixed phase region of undetermined extent. Limited work is reported on the isomorphous crystal, lithium tantalate, which exhibits features similar to lithium niobate with a Hugoniot elastic limit of 4 GPa and a phase transition in the vicinity of 19 GPa

  19. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO 3 ) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO 3 crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe 2+ . During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe 2+ concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10 -6 for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10 -1 for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from Fe 2+ . A microscopic shock-wave model is developed that explains the observed absorption front by

  20. Near-field-optical-microscopy studies of micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser irradiation in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, J.; Jaque, D.; Rodenas, A.; Jaque, F.; Torchia, G.A.; Vazquez, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.

    2008-01-01

    Near-field-optical-microscopy has been used to study the micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser pulses focused at the surface and in the volume of lithium niobate crystals. We have found experimental evidence of the existence, close to femtosecond ablation craters, of periodic modifications in the surface reflectivity. In addition, the potential application of near-field-optical microscopy for the spatial location of permanent modifications caused by femtosecond pulses focused inside lithium niobate crystals has been also demonstrated. (orig.)

  1. Damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Bin; Zhong, Sencheng; Zhu, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, the model for the damage threshold prediction of crystal materials based on the improved rate equation has been proposed. Then, the experimental measure method of the damage threshold of crystal materials has been given in detail. On the basis, the variation of the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal with the pulse duration has also been analyzed quantitatively. Finally, the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses has been measured and compared to the theoretical results. The results show that the transmittance of lithium niobate crystal is almost a constant when the laser pulse fluence is relative low, whereas it decreases linearly with the increase in the laser pulse fluence below the damage threshold. The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal increases with the increase in the duration of the femtosecond laser pulse. And the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses is obviously lower than that irradiated by a single laser pulse. The theoretical data fall in good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)

  2. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Branch, D. W.; Cular, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Schamiloglu, E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  3. Design of multi-wavelength tunable filter based on Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Song, Hongyun

    2018-05-01

    A multi-wavelength tunable filter is designed. It consists of multiple waveguides among multiple waveguide gratings. A pair of electrodes were placed on both sides of each waveguide. The tunable filter uses the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate to tune the phase caused by each waveguide. Consequently, the wavelength and wavelength spacing of the filter are tuned by changing external voltages added on the electrode pairs. The tunable property of the filter is analyzed by phase matching condition and transfer-matrix method. Numerical results show that not only multiple wavelengths with narrow bandwidth are tuned with nearly equal spacing by synchronously changing the voltages added on all electrode pairs, but also the number of wavelengths is determined by the number of phase shifts caused by electrode pairs. Furthermore, due to the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate, the tuning speed of the filter can reach the order of ns.

  4. Propagation of light in the lithium niobate crystal along directions close to an optical axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Egorova, G.A.; Lonskij, Eh.S.; Potapov, E.V.; Rakov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are given of studying some characteristics of electrooptical modulator from lithium niobate when propagating in it linear-polarized light in directions close to the optical axis, the electric field being applied along the X axis. It has been shown that an increase in an angle of deviation from the optical axis of a light beam passing in the crystal changes the value of the controlling voltage. This is accompanied by the rotation of the polarization plane and the change in the intensity of the light being passed. The methods have been proposed of increasing the modulator aperture, determining the main refraction indices and some electrooptical coefficients fo the lithium niobate crystal

  5. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Ronning, Carsten; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Ridgway, Mark; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic "8"4Kr and "1"9"7Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm"−"1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles. (paper)

  6. Influence of UV light and heat on the ferroelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigerwald, Hendrik

    2011-08-15

    One of the most important non-linear-optical materials is lithium niobate, due to its ease of fabrication, robustness, transparency in the visible-to-infrared and excellent nonlinear properties. In this thesis the issue of tailoring ferroelectric domain structures in lithium niobate crystals is approached from two sides: interaction of defect structures inside the crystal with growing ferroelectric domains is investigated and also actual domain patterning on all crystal faces by different methods is performed. Special emphasis is given to the Mg-doped material. The fundamental understanding and the methods of domain patterning developed in this thesis are then used to obtain tailored domain structures that meet the requirements of their intended application in non-linear optics. (orig.)

  7. Generation of tunable narrow-band surface-emitted terahertz radiation in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Avetisyan, Y; Beigang, R

    2001-04-15

    Generation of tunable narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation perpendicular to the surface of periodically poled lithium niobate by optical rectification of femtosecond pulses is reported. The generated THz radiation can be tuned by use of different poling periods and different observation angles, limited only by the available bandwidth of the pump pulse. Typical bandwidths were 50-100 GHz, depending on the collection angle and the number of periods involved.

  8. Micro- and nanostructuration of lithium niobate; Mikro- und Nanostrukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Holger

    2010-04-13

    In the framework of this thesis the application of the ion-beam-enhanced-etching (IBEE) technique for the fabrication of different optical elements, among these photonic crystals, in lithium niobate, was studied. The development of a mask technology fitted to the requirements of the IBEE technique as well as a simulation of the process were performed. Hereby the limitations of the technique in view on minimal structure sizes and structure quality were analyzed. In chapter 1 first the material lithium niobate with its properties and the structuration procedures studied hitherto in the literature is presented. Chapter 2 presents the functionality of the IBEE process and describes the studies on the application of IBEE in lithium niobate performed in the framework of this thesis. In chapter 3 the experimental conditions of all applied processes of the IBEE procedure, the processes used for the mask fabrication, as well all further applied methods and technologies are summarized. Chapter 4 deals with the mask fabrication. The requirements on the masks and the developments necessary for their fulfilment are studied. In chapter 5 the performed simulation of the irradiation, annealing, and etching process is described. This simulation makes the prediciton of the geometry of the components from the process parameters and vice versa the determination of parameters for the reaching of an optimal element geometry possible. In chapter 6 the application of the technique for the fabrication of photonic-crystal membranes and their optical characterization is described. Chapter 7 shows the fabrication of different waveguide and diffractive elements in lithium niobate by means of IBEE.

  9. Investigation of the cluster formation in lithium niobate crystals by computer modeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskresenskii, V. M.; Starodub, O. R., E-mail: ol-star@mail.ru; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The processes occurring upon the formation of energetically equilibrium oxygen-octahedral clusters in the ferroelectric phase of a stoichiometric lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) crystal have been investigated by the computer modeling method within the semiclassical atomistic model. An energetically favorable cluster size (at which a structure similar to that of a congruent crystal is organized) is shown to exist. A stoichiometric cluster cannot exist because of the electroneutrality loss. The most energetically favorable cluster is that with a Li/Nb ratio of about 0.945, a value close to the lithium-to-niobium ratio for a congruent crystal.

  10. Structuring of material parameters in lithium niobate crystals with low-mass, high-energy ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peithmann, K.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Goetze, J.; Haaks, M.; Hattermann, H.; Haubrich, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Jentjens, L.; Mader, W.; Raeth, N. L.; Schmid, H.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Maier, K.

    2011-10-01

    Ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals offer a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components, tailoring of key material parameters, especially of the refractive index n and the ferroelectric domain landscape, is required. Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with accelerated ions causes strong structured modifications in the material. The effects induced by low-mass, high-energy ions (such as 3He with 41 MeV, which are not implanted, but transmit through the entire crystal volume) are reviewed. Irradiation yields large changes of the refractive index Δn, improved domain engineering capability within the material along the ion track, and waveguiding structures. The periodic modification of Δn as well as the formation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) (supported by radiation damage) is described. Two-step knock-on displacement processes, 3He→Nb and 3He→O causing thermal spikes, are identified as origin for the material modifications.

  11. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  12. Radiation-damage-assisted ferroelectric domain structuring in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentjens, L.; Peithmann, K.; Maier, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Jungk, T.

    2009-06-01

    Irradiation of 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3:Mg) with high-energy, low-mass 3He ions, which are transmitted through the crystal, changes the domain reversal properties of the material. This enables easier domain engineering compared to non-irradiated material and assists the formation of small-sized periodically poled domains in LiNbO3:Mg. Periodic domain structures exhibiting a width of ≈520 nm are obtained in radiation-damaged sections of the crystals. The ferroelectric poling behavior between irradiated and non-treated material is compared.

  13. Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Meyn, J P; Wallenstein, R; Beigang, R; Avetisyan, Y

    2001-04-23

    The tuning properties of pulsed narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate have been investigated. Using a disk-shaped periodically poled crystal tuning was easily accomplished by rotating the crystal around its axis and observing the generated THz radiation in forward direction. In this way no beam deflection during tuning was observed. The total tuning range extended from 180 GHz up to 830 GHz and was limited by the poling period of 127 microm which determines the maximum THz frequency in forward direction.

  14. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  15. Diffusion of iron in lithium niobate: a secondary ion mass spectrometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, M.V.; Argiolas, N.; Zaltron, A.; Bazzan, M.; Sada, C. [University of Padova, Physics Department (Italy); CNISM, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Iron-doped X-cut lithium niobate crystals were prepared by means of thermal diffusion from thin film varying in a systematic way the process parameters such as temperature and diffusion duration. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was exploited to characterize the iron in-depth profiles. The evolution of the composition of the Fe thin film in the range between 600 C and 800 C was studied, and the diffusion coefficient at different temperatures in the range between 900 C and 1050 C and the activation energy of the diffusion process were estimated. (orig.)

  16. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  17. Domain-Reversed Lithium Niobate Single-Crystal Fibers are Potentially for Efficient Terahertz Wave Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear frequency conversion remains one of the dominant approaches to efficiently generate THz waves. Significant material absorption in the THz range is the main factor impeding the progress towards this direction. In this research, a new multicladding nonlinear fiber design was proposed to solve this problem, and as the major experimental effort, periodic domain structure was introduced into lithium niobate single-crystal fibers by electrical poling. The introduced periodic domain structures were nondestructively revealed using a crossly polarized optical microscope and a confocal scanning optical microscope for quality assurance.

  18. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. Y.; Du, J. K.; Huang, B.; Jin, Y. A.; Xu, M. H.

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE) is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM). The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  19. Bending waveguides made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals for technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarepi, V; Perrone, C; Aveni, M; Videla, F; Torchia, GA

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the performance of several designs of integrated optical deviators made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals by means of femtosecond laser writing using the double line approach. Straight and bent guiding structures have been designed and implemented using this technique. Well-confined propagation modes at communication wavelengths (1.55 μm) were conducted in these structures with acceptable overall losses (less than 2 dB cm −1 ). Further, a discussion about the optical propagation losses for curved and straight deviators devices is included in this work. At a low aperture angle (less than 0.2°), as expected, low losses were determined for both structures; however, a weak output light was observed for large angles (greater than 0.2°) in the straight optical circuits. In contrast, a smooth variation of the output was measured for the bent structures. The results presented in this paper support the possibility of the technological implementation of integrated optical circuits for optical communications fabricated with ultrashort laser writing in lithium niobate crystals. In addition, some hypotheses of loss mechanisms that are normally not considered are discussed in order to explain the differences between the measured values and predictions obtained by calculating with the usual models. (paper)

  20. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with 3 He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10 -3 , which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 μm could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  1. Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackwitz, P., E-mail: peterm@mail.upb.de; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Zrenner, A. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Widhalm, A.; Müller, K. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO{sub 2} layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.

  2. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM. The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  3. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Peter O; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T; Pomerene, Andrew T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Lentine, Anthony L; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.

  4. Conversion of broadband thermal radiation in lithium niobate crystals of various compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuy, A. V.; Litvinova, M. N.; Goncharova, P. S.; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Krishtop, V. V.; Likhtin, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    The conversion of the broadband thermal radiation in stoichiometric ( R = 1) lithium niobate single crystals that are grown from melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2, congruent ( R = Li/Nb = 0.946) melt with the K2O flux admixture (4.5 and 6.0 wt %), and congruent melt and in congruent single crystals doped with the Zn2+, Gd3+, and Er3+ cations is studied. It is demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of the stoichiometric crystal that is grown from the melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2 is less than the conversion efficiency of congruent crystal. In addition, the stoichiometric and almost stoichiometric crystals and the doped congruent crystals exhibit the blue shift of the peak conversion intensity in comparison with a nominally pure congruent crystal. For the congruent crystals, the conversion intensities peak at 520 and 495 nm, respectively.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study of Optoelectronic Trapping on Iron-Doped Lithium Niobate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gazzetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OET are a promising technique for the realization of reconfigurable systems suitable to trap and manipulate microparticles. In particular, dielectrophoretic (DEP forces produced by OET represent a valid alternative to micro-fabricated metal electrodes, as strong and spatially reconfigurable electrical fields can be induced in a photoconductive layer by means of light-driven phenomena. In this paper we report, and compare with the experimental data, the results obtained by analyzing the spatial configurations of the DEP-forces produced by a 532 nm laser beam, with Gaussian intensity distribution, impinging on a Fe-doped Lithium Niobate substrate. Furthermore, we also present a promising preliminary result for water-droplets trapping, which could open the way to the application of this technique to biological samples manipulation.

  6. Evaluation of domain randomness in periodically poled lithium niobate by diffraction noise measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik

    2013-12-16

    Random duty-cycle errors (RDE) in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) devices not only affect the frequency conversion efficiency, but also generate non-phase-matched parasitic noise that can be detrimental to some applications. We demonstrate an accurate but simple method for measuring the RDE in periodically poled lithium niobate. Due to the equivalence between the undepleted harmonic generation spectrum and the diffraction pattern from the QPM grating, we employed linear diffraction measurement which is much simpler than tunable harmonic generation experiments [J. S. Pelc, et al., Opt. Lett.36, 864-866 (2011)]. As a result, we could relate the RDE for the QPM device to the relative noise intensity between the diffraction orders.

  7. Photorefractive lithium niobate crystals for applications in photonics; Photorefraktive Lithiumniobatkristalle fuer Anwendungen in der Photonik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, U.

    2006-12-15

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO{sub 3}) generally show a photorefractive response, i.e., light-induced refractive index changes. Crystals are investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. As a result 'classical' photorefractive holographic volume-phase gratings, originating from space charge fields and the electro-optic effect, and 'non-classical' photorefractive volume-phase gratings, which can be traced back to strong absorption gratings, emerge. Single domain and periodically poled crystals (PPLN) are investigated. PPLN is typically used in non-linear optics for frequency conversion. The crystals also show non-linear photorefractive response during holographic recording with isotropically polarized light beams of equal intensity and, in the case of PPLN, by mixing of domain and holographic gratings. The results are important for applications combining the photorefractive and non-linear optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3}. (orig.)

  8. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost. PMID:26927022

  9. Formation of 2D bright spatial solitons in lithium niobate with photovoltaic response and incoherent background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustozerov, A.; Shandarov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of incoherent background illumination produced by light-emitting diodes (LED's) of different average wavelengths and laser diode emitting in blue region of visible on diffraction characteristics of narrow coherent light beams of He-Ne laser due to refractive index changes of Fe-doped lithium niobate sample are studied. It has been experimentally demonstrated that nonlinear diffraction of red beams with wavelength 633 nm and diameters on full width of half maximum (FWHM) near to 15 μm may be totally compensated using background light with average wavelengths 450 - 465 nm. To provide the necessary intensity of incoherent background, the combinations of spherical and cylindrical concave lenses with blue LED and laser diode module without focusing its beam have been used.

  10. Ferroelectric domain inversion and its stability in lithium niobate thin film on insulator with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Bai, Yu-hang; Cui, Guo-xin; Li, Chen; Qiu, Xiang-biao; Wu, Di; Lu, Yan-qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Geng, De-qiang [Jinan Jingzheng Electronics Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Ferroelectric domain inversion and its effect on the stability of lithium niobate thin films on insulator (LNOI) are experimentally characterized. Two sets of specimens with different thicknesses varying from submicron to microns are selected. For micron thick samples (∼28 μm), domain structures are achieved by pulsed electric field poling with electrodes patterned via photolithography. No domain structure deterioration has been observed for a month as inspected using polarizing optical microscopy and etching. As for submicron (540 nm) films, large-area domain inversion is realized by scanning a biased conductive tip in a piezoelectric force microscope. A graphic processing method is taken to evaluate the domain retention. A domain life time of 25.0 h is obtained and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our study gives a direct reference for domain structure-related applications of LNOI, including guiding wave nonlinear frequency conversion, nonlinear wavefront tailoring, electro-optic modulation, and piezoelectric devices.

  11. Cascading second-order nonlinear processes in a lithium niobate-on-insulator microdisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-09-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microcavities are very important in both fundamental science and practical applications, among which on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators play an important role in integrated photonic functionalities. Here we demonstrate resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) and cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG) in a lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) microdisk resonator. Efficient SHG in the visible range was obtained with only several mW input powers at telecom wavelengths. THG was also observed through a cascading process, which reveals simultaneous phase matching and strong mode coupling in the resonator. Cascading of second-order nonlinear processes gives rise to an effectively large third-order nonlinearity, which makes on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators a promising frequency converter for integrated nonlinear photonics.

  12. Enhancement of Lithium Niobate nanophotonic structures via spin-coating technique for optical waveguides application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Makram A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to investigation of temperature effects in Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 nanostructures. The LiNbO3 nanostructures were deposited on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. LiNbO3 was set down at 3000 rpm for 30 sec and annealed from 100 to 600 °C. The structures were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectrophotometer. The measured results have showed that by increasing annealing temperatures, the structures start to be more crystallized and be more homogenized until the optimum arrangement was achieved. Once this was accomplished, it's applicable for optical waveguides development. Eventually, it starts to be less crystallization and non-homogeneous. Energy gap was recorded to be at average value of 3.9 eV.

  13. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals

  14. Nanotechnology in lithium niobate for integrated optic frequency conversion in the UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Alessandro C.; Santini, Claudia; Oliveri, Luigi; Riva-Sanseverino, Stefano; Parisi, Antonino; Cino, Alfonso C.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    In the domain of Earth Explorer satellites nanoengineered nonlinear crystals can optimize UV tunable solid-state laser converters. Lightweight sources can be based on Lithium Niobate (LN) domain engineering by electric field poling and guided wave interactions. In this Communication we report the preliminary experimental results and the very first demonstration of UltraViolet second-harmonic generation by first-order quasi-phase-matching in a surface-periodically-poled proton-exchanged LN waveguide. The pump source was a Ti-Sapphire laser with a tunability range of 700- 980 nm and a 40 GHz linewidth. We have measured UV continuous-wave light at 390 nm by means of a lock-in amplifier and of a photodiode with enhanced response in the UV. Measured conversion efficiency was about 1%W-1cm-2. QPM experiments show good agreement with theory and pave the way for a future implementation of the technique in materials less prone to photorefractive damage and wider transparency in the UV, such as Lithium Tantalate.

  15. Influence of heat treatment on structure and some physical properties of lithium boro-niobate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, I.; Sakr, E. M.; Soliman, A. A.; Ratep, A.

    2012-08-01

    The glass composition (90 mol% Li2B4O7-10 mol% Nb2O5) was prepared by the melt quenching technique. The quenched sample was heat treated at 480°C, 545°C and 630°C for 5 h and heat treated at 780°C with different time. The times were 5, 10, 15, 20, 28, and 36 h. The glass and glass ceramics were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dc conductivity as a function of temperature. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium diborate (Li2B4O7) were the main phases in glass ceramic addition to traces from LiNb3O8. Crystallite size of the main phases determined from the X-ray diffraction peaks are in the range <100 nm. The fraction of crystalline (LiNbO3) phase increases with increase the heat treatment temperature and time. The relation between physical properties and structure were studied.

  16. Effect of powder processing conditions on the electromechanical properties of lithium doped potassium sodium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensur-Alkoy, E.; Berksoy-Yavuz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Lithium doped potassium sodium niobate ceramics with (K0.50−x/2Na0.50−x/2Lix)NbO3 composition where x=0.04 and 0.07 were fabricated by solid state calcination and pressureless sintering methods. However, two different powder processing and calcination routes were used in this study and their effect on the structural and electrical properties were investigated and discussed. The routes were namely loose calcination and compact calcination. A general trend of decreasing grain size was observed in the sintered ceramics prepared from these powders. The most drastic effect was observed on the electromechanical properties of the samples, where the maximum strain of 7% lithium modified sample under an E-field of 50kV/cm was increased from 0.09% to 0.12% by changing processing route. Furthermore, hysteretic behavior of the strain was found to decrease. This tendency was also valid for ferroelectric hysteresis property, with remnant polarization (2Pr) increasing from 23μC/cm2 to 46μC/cm2. The improvements observed in the electrical properties were discussed on the basis of chemical homogeneity and uniform ionic distribution. (Author)

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigation of lattice defect structures in a series of Zn, Fe-doped nonstoichiometric lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fengyun; Lue Qiang; Sun Liang; Li Hongtao; Zhen Xihe; Xu Yuheng; Zhao Liancheng

    2006-01-01

    A series of the double doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 , LN) single crystals had been grown by Czochralski method. The Curie temperatures of various concentrations doped or [Li]/[Nb] ratio LN crystals measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) were discussed to investigate their defect structures with Safaryan et al. new approach about LN lattice defect structure using Curie temperatures calculated. Infrared transmission spectra of various concentrations doped were used to compare the investigation above. The results show that the lithium vacancy model is the more probable to describe the lattice defect structure of the doped LN single crystal

  18. Ion irradiation effects on lithium niobate etalons for tunable spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Ibarmia, S.; Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M.; Díaz, M.

    2017-11-01

    , coupled with the HV field, could trigger a dielectric breakdown in the Lithium Niobate. In this paper we present the electro-optical results obtained when exposing a set of LN samples and a lowquality full size etalon to different radiation conditions. In a first irradiation campaign, performed at the Centre for Micro Analysis of Materials (CMAM-Madrid) facilities, we were mainly focused on the long-term degradation effects with a series of high flux (109 cm-2 s-1) proton tests at an energy of 10 MeV. In order to study the possibility of a single ion breakdown, a second campaign was carried out, at the Texas A&M University (TAMU), exposing Lithium Niobate to high LET ion species (78Kr, 40Ar, 129Xe, 197Au) accelerated to the GeV energy range to penetrate or even pass through the entire Lithium Niobate thickness.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-15

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu{sup 1+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and Fe (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu{sup 1+}) and sixfold (Cu{sup 2+}) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  20. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia [Department of Applied Physics, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.

  1. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-01-01

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-01

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu 1+ and Cu 2+ ) and Fe (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu 1+ ) and sixfold (Cu 2+ ) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with 3 He 2+ ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of pyroelectric electron emission from monodomain lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Moon, Chang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Woon; Kyeong Yoo, In

    2006-01-01

    The behaviors of thermally stimulated electron emission from pyroelectric monodomain lithium niobate single crystal (LiNbO 3 ) were investigated by utilizing a Si p-n junction photodiode as electron detector and a receptive electron beam resist (E-beam resist) as electron collector. In high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), the pyroelectric electron emission (PEE) was found to depend on the exposed emitting polar crystal surface (+Z face or -Z face) and was significantly influenced by the emitter-electron receiver gap distances. Thus, the PEE from +Z face was detected during heating and was activated, in small gaps ( 2 mm) the emission was simply mastered by field emission effect. Whereas, The PEE from -Z face was detected during cooling and was solely due to the field ionization effect. Therewith, for small gaps ( 2 mm) PEE was governed by field ionization generating a soft and continuous plasma ambient atmosphere. Significant decrease of electron emission current was observed from +Z face after successive thermal cycles. A fast and fully emission recovery was established after a brief exposure of crystal to a poor air vacuum of 10 -1 Torr

  4. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  5. Inscription of type I and depressed cladding waveguides in lithium niobate using a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, S; Mittholiya, K; Bhatnagar, A; Bernard, R; Dharmadhikari, J A; Mathur, D; Dharmadhikari, A K

    2017-07-10

    We describe two types of waveguides (type I and depressed cladding) inscribed in lithium niobate using a variable repetition rate (200 kHz-25 MHz), 270 fs duration fiber laser. The type I modification-based waveguides have propagation losses in the range from 1.2 to 10 dB/cm at 1550 nm, depending on experimental parameters. These waveguides are not permanent; they deteriorate over time. Such deterioration of waveguides can be slowed down from 30 days to 100 days by pre-annealing the samples and by writing at a 720 kHz laser repetition rate. The propagation losses measured at 1550 nm show significant improvement for pre-annealed samples. The depressed cladding-inscribed waveguides are permanent, but the propagation loss depends on the number of damage tracks. A track separation of ∼1  μm between adjacent damage tracks yields the lowest propagation loss of 0.5 dB/cm at 1550 nm for a 40 μm diameter waveguide. We observe multimode guidance for sizes in the range of 20-80 μm in these waveguide structures at 1550 nm. Their crystalline nature is found to remain intact, as inferred from second-harmonic generation within the waveguide region.

  6. Iron doping of lithium niobate by thermal diffusion from thin film: study of the treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, Maria Vittoria; Zaltron, Annamaria; Bazzan, Marco; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia [Universita di Padova (Italy); CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Mignoni, Sabrina; Fontana, Marc [Universite de Metz et Supelec, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Metz (France)

    2011-07-15

    Thermal diffusion from thin film is one of the most widespread approaches to prepare iron doped regions in lithium niobate with limited size for photorefractive applications. In this work, we investigate the doping process with the aim of determining the best process conditions giving a doped region with the characteristics required for photorefractive applications. Six samples were prepared by changing the atmosphere employed in the diffusion treatment in order to obtain different combination of diffusion profiles and reduction degrees and also to check the effect of employing a wet atmosphere. The compositional, optical, and structural properties are then extensively characterized by combining Secondary ion Mass Spectrometry, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometry, High Resolution X-Rays Diffraction, and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Moreover, the sample topography was checked by Atomic Force Microscopy. An analysis of all our data shows that the best results are obtained performing a double step process, i.e. diffusion in oxidizing atmosphere and subsequent reduction at lower temperature in an hydrogen-containing atmosphere. (orig.)

  7. Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.

  8. Complex capacitance in the representation of modulus of the lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Batra, A.K.; Bhattacharjee, Sudip; Aggarwal, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 or LN) single crystal is grown in-house. The ac small-signal electrical characterization is conducted over a temperature range 35≤T≤150 o C as a function of measurement frequency (10≤f≤10 6 Hz). Meaningful observation is noted only in a narrow temperature range 59≤T≤73 o C. These electrical data when analyzed via complex plane formalisms revealed single semicircular relaxation both in the complex capacitance (C * ) and in the modulus (M * ) planes. The physical meaning of this kind of observation is obtained on identifying the relaxation type, and then incorporating respective equivalent circuit model. The simplistic non-blocking nature of the equivalent circuit model obtained via M * -plane is established as the lumped relaxation is identified in the C * -plane. The feature of the eventual equivalent circuit model allows non-blocking aspect for the LN crystal attributing to the presence of the operative dc conduction process. Identification of this leakage dc conduction via C * -plane is portrayed in the M * -plane where the blocking nature is removed. The interacting interpretation between these two complex planes is successfully presented.

  9. Label-free investigation of the effects of lithium niobate polarization on cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, M.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of contact area is pivotal to understand how biomaterials properties influence cell adhesion. In particular, the influence of surface charges is well-known but still controversial, especially when new functional materials and methods are introduced. Here, we use for the first time Holographic Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (HoloTIRM) to study the influence of the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) on the adhesion properties of fibroblast cells. The selective illumination of a very thin region directly above the substrate, achieved by Total Internal Reflection, provides high-contrast images of the contact regions. Holographic recording, on the other hand, allows for label-free quantitative phase imaging of the contact areas between cells and LN. Phase signal is more sensitive in the first 100nm and, thus more reliable in order to locate focal contacts. This work shows that cells adhering on negatively polarized LN present a significant increase of the contact area in comparison with cells adhering on the positively polarized LN substrate, as well as an intensification of contact vicinity. This confirms the potential of LN as a platform for investigating the role of charges on cellular processes. The similarity of cell adhesion behavior on negatively polarized LN and glass control also confirms the possibility to use LN as an active substrate without impairing cell behavior.

  10. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  11. High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Jeremy D.; Valery, Joseph A.; Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Sarabalis, Christopher J.; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2017-04-01

    Future quantum networks, in which superconducting quantum processors are connected via optical links, will require microwave-to-optical photon converters that preserve entanglement. A doubly-resonant electro-optic modulator (EOM) is a promising platform to realize this conversion. Here, we present our progress towards building such a modulator by demonstrating the optically-resonant half of the device. We demonstrate high quality (Q) factor ring, disk and photonic crystal resonators using a hybrid silicon-on-lithium-niobate material system. Optical Q factors up to 730,000 are achieved, corresponding to propagation loss of 0.8 dB/cm. We also use the electro-optic effect to modulate the resonance frequency of a photonic crystal cavity, achieving a electro-optic modulation coefficient between 1 and 2 pm/V. In addition to quantum technology, we expect that our results will be useful both in traditional silicon photonics applications and in high-sensitivity acousto-optic devices.

  12. Effect of the structure and mechanical properties of the near-surface layer of lithium niobate single crystals on the manufacture of integrated optic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Ponomarev, R. S.; Yur'ev, V. A.; Volyntsev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the near-surface layer of a lithium niobate single layer 15 μm in depth is essentially different from the rest of the volume of the material from the standpoint of composition, structure, and mechanical properties. The pointed out differences are due to the effect of cutting, polishing, and smoothing of the lithium niobate plates, which increase the density of point defects and dislocations. The increasing density of the structural defects leads to uncontrollable changes in the conditions of the formations of waveguides and the drifting of characteristics of integrated optical circuits. The results obtained are very important for the manufacture of lithium niobate based integrated optical circuits.

  13. Iron site location in Fe-diffused lithium niobate crystals by combined RBS-PIXE-NRA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltron, A. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N., E-mail: nicola.argiolas@unipd.it [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Bazzan, M. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ciampolillo, M.V.; Bacci, L.; Sada, C. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Iron diffused x-cut lithium niobate samples have been studied from a structural point of view by ion beam analysis techniques in channeling conditions. The aim of this work is to determine the most probable position of iron atoms after high temperature diffusion treatment in pure oxygen atmosphere and to verify their location after an additional full reducing annealing at low temperature. The results are compared with the bulk doping case that can be considered the final equilibrium state of the diffusion process. By comparing the iron signal with niobium and lithium counterparts in angular scans along proper crystallographic directions, we demonstrate that iron occupies in any case the lithium site or a very close position regardless of the reduction degree, just as in the case of bulk doped samples.

  14. Linear diffraction of light waves on periodically poled domain structures in lithium niobate crystals: collinear, isotropic, and anisotropic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarov, S M; Mandel, A E; Akylbaev, T M; Borodin, M V; Savchenkov, E N; Smirnov, S V; Akhmatkhanov, A R; Shur, V Ya

    2017-01-01

    The possible variants of experimental observation of light diffraction on periodically poled domain structures (PPDS) in the lithium niobate crystal with 180-degree domain Y-walls are considered. We experimentally investigated isotropic and anisotropic diffraction of coherent light (λ = 655nm) on the PPDS with spatial period Λ = 8.79 μm produced by poling method in a LiNbO 3 : 5% MgO crystal. The central wavelength of irradiation experiencing a collinear diffraction on these PPDS is estimated as λ c = 455 nm. (paper)

  15. The compact converter of Bessel beams of zero and second orders on the basis of z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranin, V D; Karpeev, S V; Khonina, S N; Tukmakov, K N

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of zero-order Bessel beams into a second-order vortex beam in the process of propagation in a c-cut of lithium niobate LiNbO 3 crystal has been investigated experimentally. The possibility of controlling beam transformation by means of changing the curve radius of the illuminating beam is shown. The possibility of Bessel beam transforming by compact devices on the basis of thin c-cuts of uniaxial crystals with a diffraction mask formed on their surface is proved. (paper)

  16. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  17. Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Volet, Nicolas; Zervas, Michael; Peters, Jon D; Manganelli, Costanza L; Stanton, Eric J; Li, Yifei; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Bowers, John E

    2017-02-15

    An ideal photonic integrated circuit for nonlinear photonic applications requires high optical nonlinearities and low loss. This work demonstrates a heterogeneous platform by bonding lithium niobate (LN) thin films onto a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide layer on silicon. It not only provides large second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients, but also shows low propagation loss in both the Si3N4 and the LN-Si3N4 waveguides. The tapers enable low-loss-mode transitions between these two waveguides. This platform is essential for various on-chip applications, e.g., modulators, frequency conversions, and quantum communications.

  18. Domain wall kinetics of lithium niobate single crystals near the hexagonal corner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Won [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Do-Kyeong [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Nan Ei, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ro, Jung Hoon, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A mesospheric approach based on a simple microscopic 2D Ising model in a hexagonal lattice plane is proposed to explain macroscopic “asymmetric in-out domain wall motion” observation in the (0001) plane of MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate. Under application of an electric field that was higher than the conventional coercive field (E{sub c}) to the ferroelectric crystal, a natural hexagonal domain was obtained with walls that were parallel to the Y-axis of the crystal. When a fraction of the coercive field of around 0.1E{sub c} is applied in the reverse direction, this hexagonal domain is shrunk (moved inward) from the corner site into a shape with a corner angle of around 150° and 15° wall slopes to the Y-axis. A flipped electric field of 0.15E{sub c} is then applied to recover the natural hexagonal shape, and the 150° corner shape changes into a flat wall with 30° slope (moved outward). The differences in corner domain shapes between inward and outward domain motion were analyzed theoretically in terms of corner and wall site energies, which are described using the domain corner angle and wall slope with respect to the crystal Y-axis, respectively. In the inward domain wall motion case, the energy levels of the evolving 150° domain corner and 15° slope walls are most competitive, and could co-exist. In the outward case, the energy levels of corners with angles >180° are highly stable when compared with the possible domain walls; only a flat wall with 30° slope to the Y-axis is possible during outward motion.

  19. Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng

    2009-10-01

    A range of ion beam techniques have been used to fabricate a variety of photonic guiding structures in the well-known lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LN) crystals that are of great importance in integrated photonics/optics. This paper reviews the up-to-date research progress of ion-beam-processed LiNbO3 photonic structures and reports on their fabrication, characterization, and applications. Ion beams are being used with this material in a wide range of techniques, as exemplified by the following examples. Ion beam milling/etching can remove the selected surface regions of LiNbO3 crystals via the sputtering effects. Ion implantation and swift ion irradiation can form optical waveguide structures by modifying the surface refractive indices of the LiNbO3 wafers. Crystal ion slicing has been used to obtain bulk-quality LiNbO3 single-crystalline thin films or membranes by exfoliating the implanted layer from the original substrate. Focused ion beams can either generate small structures of micron or submicron dimensions, to realize photonic bandgap crystals in LiNbO3, or directly write surface waveguides or other guiding devices in the crystal. Ion beam-enhanced etching has been extensively applied for micro- or nanostructuring of LiNbO3 surfaces. Methods developed to fabricate a range of photonic guiding structures in LiNbO3 are introduced. Modifications of LiNbO3 through the use of various energetic ion beams, including changes in refractive index and properties related to the photonic guiding structures as well as to the materials (i.e., electro-optic, nonlinear optic, luminescent, and photorefractive features), are overviewed in detail. The application of these LiNbO3 photonic guiding structures in both micro- and nanophotonics are briefly summarized.

  20. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  1. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO 3 with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO 3 . Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO 3 . This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [de

  2. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-14

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg:LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the “up” to the “down” state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg:LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original “up” state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg:LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg:LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg:LN boundary. These alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg:LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.

  3. Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH - bands under H + ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A. K.; Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G. O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, A. K.; Raman, R.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 10 15, 10 16 and 10 17 protons/cm 2 is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 10 16 protons/cm 2. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti 3+/Ti 4+ and ligand oxygen for implantation with 10 15 protons/cm 2, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH - stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH - ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

  4. Enhanced Cherenkov phase matching terahertz wave generation via a magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate ridged waveguide crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takeya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When combined with a nonlinear waveguide crystal, Cherenkov phase matching allows for highly effective generation of high power and broadband terahertz (THz waves. Using a ridged Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 waveguide coupled with a specially designed silicon lens, we successfully generated THz waves with intensity of approximately three orders of magnitude stronger than those from conventional photoconductive antenna. The broadband spectrum was from 0.1 THz to 7 THz with a maximum dynamic range of 80 dB. The temporal shape of time domain pulse is a regular single cycle which could be used for high depth resolution time of flight tomography. The generated THz wave can also be easily monitored by compact room-temperature THz camera, enabling us to determine the spatial characteristics of the THz propagation.

  5. Using a helium--neon laser to convert infrared radiation to visible emission on lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurtyunyan, E.A.; Kostanyan, R.B.; Mkrtchyan, V.S.; Mkrtchyan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The conversion of infrared emission to the visible region was investigated by mixing with helium-neon laser emission in lithium niobate crystals. The infrared source was a Globar, and the laser was the LG-75. Emission of the sum frequencies was filtered out. The spectral composition of the converted radiation was analyzed by the ISP-51 spectrograph with an FEU-79 photomultiplier at the output. The amplified photomultiplier signal was recorded by the ChZ-33 frequency meter. By varying the angle between the optical axis of the crystal and the incident emission, infrared radiation in the 1.75 to 3.3 ..mu..m wavelength band could be converted to visible emission. It is suggested that measurement of the wavelength of converted emission might be used to study the distribution of concentration nonhomogeneities in crystals.

  6. Hysteresis-free high-temperature precise bimorph actuators produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Baturin, I. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Zorikhin, D. V.; Udalov, A. R.; Greshnyakov, E. D. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave., 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-02

    The current paper presents a piezoelectric bimorph actuator produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers with the mirrored Y and Z axes. Direct bonding technology allowed to fabricate bidomain plate with precise positioning of ideally flat domain boundary. By optimizing the cutting angle (128° Y-cut), the piezoelectric constant became as large as 27.3 pC/N. Investigation of voltage dependence of bending displacement confirmed that bimorph actuator has excellent linearity and hysteresis-free. Decrease of the applied voltage down to mV range showed the perfect linearity up to the sub-nm deflection amplitude. The frequency and temperature dependences of electromechanical transmission coefficient in wide temperature range (from 300 to 900 K) were investigated.

  7. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  8. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Siegel, Jan; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  9. Dual-wavelength green laser with a 4.5 THz frequency difference based on self-frequency- doubling in Nd3+ -doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Rico, M L; Capmany, J

    2008-05-01

    We report a dual-wavelength continuous-wave laser at 542.4 and 546.8 nm based on an Nd(3+)-doped aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Two fundamental infrared (IR) wavelengths at 1084.8 and 1093.6 nm are simultaneously oscillated and self-frequency-doubled to green. The aperiodic domain distribution patterned in the crystal allows for quasi-phase matched self-frequency-doubling of both IR fundamentals while avoiding their sum-frequency mixing.

  10. Multiwatt-level continuous-wave midwave infrared generation using difference frequency mixing in periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Shekhar; Barnes, Jacob O; Gonzalez, Leonel P

    2014-09-01

    Over 3.5 W of continuous-wave power at 3.4 μm was obtained by single-pass difference frequency mixing of 1.064 and 1.55 μm fiber lasers in a 5 cm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Good agreement was obtained between the observed temperature dependence of the generated power and the prediction from focused Gaussian beam theory.

  11. Distribution of the solute in the lithium niobate crystal grown by the Stepanov method in a periodically changing external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.; Nikolayeva, L.; Red'kin, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Iithium niobate crystals with the periodic domain structure are characterised by the capacity for the light frequency adoption of the laser light. Consequently, they are promising for the development of compact light sources. There are several methods of producing periodic ferroelectric domain structures of the lithium niobate crystals in the growth process. It is evident that the main method of production of the periodic structures in the lithium niobate is the Stepanov method. The development of the mathematical model of the variation of the concentration of the alloying solute with the periodic variation of the conditions of growth of the crystal in the growth of the crystal by the Stepanov methods in the conditions of periodic changes of the drawing rate of the crystal V and the temperature of the thermal junction T have been investigated elsewhere. The formation of the domain structure is also possible in the case of the periodic variation of the electric field, during the supply of the alternating voltage between the shaper and the seed. In this work, we proposed mathematical model discounting the process of formation of the domain structure in the alternating electric field during the growth of the lithium niobate crystal by the Stepanov method. In the mathematical modelling we obtain the numerical solutions of the unidimensional nonstationary problem of the Stepanov type, the diffusion equation for concentration, and the Laplace capillary equation. The proposed mathematical model is at the present and the most complete and accurate description of the variation of the concentration of the solute in the growing crystal. The semi-discrete Galerkin method was used for the equations

  12. Tip-induced domain growth on the non-polar cuts of lithium niobate single-crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikin, D. O.; Ievlev, A. V.; Turygin, A. P.; Lobov, A. I.; Kalinin, S. V.; Shur, V. Ya.

    2015-05-01

    Currently, ferroelectric materials with designed domain structures are considered as a perspective material for new generation of photonic, data storage, and data processing devices. Application of external electric field is the most convenient way of the domain structure formation. Lots of papers are devoted to the investigation of domain kinetics on polar surface of crystals while the forward growth remains one of the most mysterious stages due to lack of experimental methods allowing to study it. Here, we performed tip-induced polarization reversal on X- and Y-non-polar cuts in single-crystal of congruent lithium niobate which allows us to study the forward growth with high spatial resolution. The revealed difference in the shape and length of domains induced on X- and Y-cuts is beyond previously developed theoretical approaches used for the theoretical consideration of the domains growth at non-polar ferroelectric surfaces. To explain experimental results, we used kinetic approach with anisotropy of screening efficiency along different crystallographic directions.

  13. Noise Analysis of Second-Harmonic Generation in Undoped and MgO-Doped Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise characteristics of second-harmonic generation (SHG in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN using the quasiphase matching (QPM technique are analyzed experimentally. In the experiment, a0.78 μm second-harmonic (SH wave was generated when a 1.56 μm fundamental wave passed through a PPLN crystal (bulk or waveguide. The time-domain and frequency-domain noise characteristics of the fundamental and SH waves were analyzed. By using the pump-probe method, the noise characteristics of SHG were further analyzed when a visible light (532 nm and an infrared light (1090 nm copropagated with the fundamental light, respectively. The noise characterizations were also investigated at different temperatures. It is found that for the bulk and waveguide PPLN crystals, the SH wave has a higher relative noise level than the corresponding fundamental wave. For the same fundamental wave, the SH wave has lower noise in a bulk crystal than in a waveguide, and in MgO-doped PPLN than in undoped PPLN. The 532 nm irradiation can lead to higher noise in PPLN than the 1090 nm irradiation. In addition, increasing temperature of device can alleviate the problem of noise in conjunction with the photorefractive effect incurred by the irradiation light. This is more significant in undoped PPLN than in MgO-doped one.

  14. Material modifications in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals by ion irradiation; Materialmodifikationen in Lithiumniobat- und Lithiumtantalat-Kristallen durch Ionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeth, Niels Lennart

    2017-02-17

    The artificially produced crystals lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and the closely related lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) are proven starting materials for producing active and passive devices that can guide, amplify, switch and process light. For this purpose, it is often necessary to be able to influence the refractive index of the substrate targeted, which is possible in addition to other methods by irradiation of the materials with fast light ions. In this work, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals are irradiated with alpha particles, {sup 3}He ions, deuterons, and protons at projectile energies of up to 14 MeV / nucleon. Energy and crystal thickness are chosen so that the projectiles penetrate the entire sample and are not implanted. All isotopes responsible for the unwanted nuclear activation of the crystals due to the irradiation are relatively short-lived and overall the activation decreases fast enough to allow the safe handling of the irradiated samples after a storage period of a few days to a few weeks. The refractive index changes produced in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate by irradiation with the different projectiles are determined interferometrically and can also be measured by suitable choice of the sample geometry as a function of the ion penetration depth: In LiNbO{sub 3} the ordinary refractive index decreases, the extraordinary increases equally. In LiTaO{sub 3}, both the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices decrease as a result of the irradiation; the ordinary refractive index change is many times stronger than the extraordinary one. There is an enormous long-term stability at room temperature for both crystal systems: Even after eleven (LiNbO{sub 3}) or three (LiTaO{sub 3}) years, no decrease in the ion beam-induced refractive index change can be observed. The ion beam-induced refractive index changes are probably the result of atomic displacements such as vacancies, defect clusters or ''latent tracks

  15. Thermal plasma fabricated lithium niobate-tantalate films on sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinich, S.A.; Yoshida, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Terashima, K.

    2003-01-01

    We report the deposition of LiNb 1-x Ta x O 3 (0≤x≤1) films on (001) sapphire substrates in soft vacuum using a radio frequency thermal plasma. The growth rate, crystallinity, c-axis orientation, and surface roughness were examined as functions of substrate temperature, precursor feed rate, and substrate surface condition. The film Nb/Ta ratio was well controlled by using an appropriate uniform mixture of lithium-niobium and lithium-tantalum alkoxide solutions. The epitaxy and crystallinity of the films were much improved when the film growth rate was raised from 20 to 180-380 nm/min, where the films with the (006) rocking curve full width at half maximum values as low as 0.12 deg. -0.2 deg. could be produced. The film roughness could be reduced by using a liquid precursor with higher metal concentrations, achieving the root-mean-square value on the order of 5 nm. The refractive indices of the films are in good correspondence with their composition and crystallinity

  16. Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH{sup -} bands under H{sup +} ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Moorthy Babu, S., E-mail: smoorthybabu@yahoo.co [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A.K. [LMDD Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G.O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg 110067, New Delhi (India); Pandey, A.K.; Raman, R. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur 110 054, New Delhi (India)

    2010-01-15

    A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 10{sup 15}, 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} protons/cm{sup 2} is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} and ligand oxygen for implantation with 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH{sup -} stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH{sup -} ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

  17. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate; Bestrahlungsinduzierte Modifikation der Materialparameter in Magnesiumdotiertem Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with {sup 3}He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10{sup -3}, which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 {mu}m could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  18. Atomic scale imaging of structural changes in solid electrolyte lanthanum lithium niobate upon annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiaobing; Fisher, Craig A.J.; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Hoshikawa, Keigo; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kohama, Keiichi; Iba, Hideki; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    La (1-x)/3 Li x NbO 3 (LLNbO) is a promising electrolyte material for solid-state lithium-ion batteries because it is stable in contact with Li metal and contains a high concentration of intrinsic Li-ion vacancies. One strategy for improving its ionic conductivity and making it more competitive with other solid-state Li-ion electrolytes is to disorder the Li-ion vacancies by appropriate post-synthesis heat treatment, e.g., annealing. In this study, we examine the effects of annealing on single crystals of LLNbO with Li contents x = 0.07 and 0.13 based on simultaneous atomic resolution high angle annular dark field and annular bright field imaging methods using state-of-the-art aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes. It is found that La modulation within A1 layers of the cation-deficient layered perovskite structure becomes more diffuse after annealing. In addition, some La atoms move to A-site positions and O4 window positions in the nominally vacant A2 layer, while O atom columns in this layer become rumpled in the [001] p direction, indicating that the NbO 6 octahedra are more heavily distorted after annealing. The observed crystal structure differences between as-prepared and annealed single crystals explain the drop in Li-ion conductivities of LLNbO single crystals after heat treatment.

  19. Field induced modification of defect complexes in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nadège; Granzow, Torsten [Department of Materials Research and Technology, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Nataf, Guillaume F., E-mail: nataf@lippmann.lu [Department of Materials Research and Technology, Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); CEA, DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-12-28

    Dielectric constant, thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), and conductivity of undoped and 5% Mg-doped LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals between −100 °C and 200 °C have been investigated. A Debye-like dielectric relaxation with an activation energy of 135 meV is observed in the Mg-doped material, but not in undoped crystals. On heating this relaxation disappears near 140 °C and does not reappear after cooling. Anomalies observed in TSDC around this temperature are attributed to the motion of lithium vacancies, in agreement with conductivity measurements. It is proposed that in thermal equilibrium the electrons from the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donors are trapped in (4Mg{sub Li}{sup •}+4V{sub Li}{sup ′}) defect complexes. High-temperature poling breaks these defect complexes. The transition of the liberated electrons between the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donor centers and the Nb{sub Nb} forming the conduction band gives rise to the observed dielectric relaxation.

  20. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  1. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment

  2. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun, E-mail: lijuna@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Yang [Department of chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Zhongxiang [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S. [Multifunctional Electronic Materials and Device Research Lab, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  3. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO{sub 3}) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria, E-mail: paula.vilarinho@ua.pt; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed. - Highlights: • LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} are bioactive ferroelectrics. • Cauliflower apatite type structures indicative of in-vitro bioactivity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3.} • Negative surface charges anchor Ca{sup 2+} to which PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} attracts forming apatite structure nuclei. • Use of ferroelectrics as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ is new and holds great promise.

  4. Pulsed Traveling-wave Quadrature Squeezing Using Quasi-phase Matched Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    Interests in generating higher quantum noise squeezing in order to develop methods to enhance optical measurement below the shot-noise limit in various applications has grown in recent years. The noise suppression from squeezing can improve the SNR in coherent optical systems when the returning signal power is weak, such as optical coherence tomography, LADAR, confocal microscopy and low-light coherent imaging. Unlike the generation of squeezing with a continuous wave, which is currently developed mainly for gravitational wave detection in LIGO project, the study of pulsed-traveling waves is focused on industrial, medical and other commercial interests. This dissertation presents the experimental results of pulsed traveling wave squeezing. The intention of the study is to explore the possibility of using quasi-phase matched crystals to generate the highest possible degree of quadrature squeezing. In order to achieve this goal, efforts to test the various effects from spatial Gaussian modes and relative beam waist placement for the second-harmonic pump were carried out in order to further the understanding of limiting factors to pulsed traveling wave squeezing. 20mm and 30mm-long periodically poled lithium noibate (PPLN) crystals were used in the experiment to generate a squeezed vacuum state. A maximum of 4.2+/-0.2dB quadrature squeezing has been observed, and the measured anti-squeezing exceeds 20dB.The phase sensitive amplification (PSA) gain and de-gain performance were also measured to compare the results of measured squeezing. The PPLN crystals can produce high conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) without a cavity. When a long PPLN crystal is used in a squeezer, the beam propagation in the nonlinear medium does not follow the characteristics in thin crystals. Instead, it is operated under the long-crystal criteria, which the crystal length is multiple times longer than the Rayleigh range of the injected beam i n the crystals. Quasi

  5. Coercivity enhancement in HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Fangming; Han, Jingzhi; Zhang, Yinfeng; Wang, Changsheng; Liu, Shunquan; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang; Sun, Aizhi; Yang, Fuqiang; Song, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. The coercivity of the powders was improved from 208.6 to 980.1 kA/m by the subsequent diffusion treatment using the Pr–Cu alloy. For comparison, Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 alloy, in which Pr and Cu elements were directly added into the original Nd–Fe–B alloy, was also treated by the same HDDR process and the coercivity was only 557.3 kA/m. Microstructural investigations showed that a large area of (Nd, Pr)-rich phases concentrated at triangle regions in the HDDR Nd 11.5 Fe 80.7 B 6.1 Pr 1.2 Cu 0.5 powders, while the (Nd, Pr)-rich phases distributed uniformly in the diffusion treated powders. The uniform grain boundary layer can pin the motion of domain wall more effectively, resulting in a higher coercivity in diffusion treated HDDR Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • Anisotropic HDDR near-stoichiometric ternary Nd–Fe–B powders have been prepared. • The coercivity of the powders was improved from 2.62 to 12.31 kOe by the diffusion of Pr–Cu alloy. • The uniform grain boundary layer leads to a higher coercivity in diffusion treated powders

  6. Numerical analysis of continuous charge of lithium niobate in a double-crucible Czochralski system using the accelerated crucible rotation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashima, Tomonori; Liu, Lijun; Kitamura, Kenji; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2004-05-01

    The transport mechanism of supplied raw material in a double-crucible Czochralski system using the accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) was investigated by three-dimensional and time-dependent numerical simulation. The calculation clarified that use of the ACRT resulted in enhancement of the mixing effect of the supplied raw material. It is, therefore, possible to maintain the composition of the melt in an inner crucible during crystal growth by using the ACRT. The effect of the continuous charge of the raw material on melt temperature was also investigated. Our results showed that the effect of feeding lithium niobate granules on melt temperature was small, since the feeding rate of the granules is small. Therefore, solidification of the melt surface due to the heat of fusion in this system is not likely.

  7. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  8. Nonlinear excitations and charge transport in lithium niobate crystals investigated using femtosecond-light gratings; Nichtlineare Anregungen und Ladungstransport in Lithiumniobatkristallen untersucht mit Femtosekunden-Lichtgittern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxein, Karl Dominik

    2009-12-15

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a widely employed material in nonlinear optics and photonics. Its usage is hampered by the photorefractive effect, which can destroy beam profiles and phase matching conditions. Existing methods to suppress photorefraction fail for the interesting regime of very high intensities and short pulses. Therefore, the photorefractive effect is investigated using femtosecond laser pulses: By utilizing so-called 2K holography, the occupation of energetically shallow traps is observed to occur in less than 100 fs after a two-photon excitation. Writing of photorefractive gratings into oxidized iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3} is much faster with pulses than with cw light. This is explained by the sensitization of the crystal due to charge trapping in photorefractive centers after nonlinear excitations. Finally, light-induced scattering of pulse light is suppressed compared to the scattering of cw light due to the small coherence length of pulses. (orig.)

  9. Initial stages of oxidation of near-stoichiometric titanium carbide at low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, I.L.; Vishnyakov, V.M.; Bull, D.J.; Keens, S.G.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Shabalin, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to the oxidation mechanism of near-stoichiometric TiC is presented. It is confirmed by consideration of solid-state chemical kinetics model and electron microscopy observations in parallel. At low oxygen pressures and moderate temperatures the initial step of the process is connected with the dissolution of oxygen and subsequent decomposition of oxygen-oversaturated oxycarbide, which ultimately results in the nucleation of oxide phase, in particular anatase, belike stabilised by residual carbon. An anatase-rutile transformation is concurrent with deeper carbon burn-off in the oxide scale, which sinters at higher temperatures. This mechanism shifts the process to a gas diffusion regime, governed by the scale permeability, but determined by solid-state diffusion that is reflected in the kinetics, as further temperature increase is accompanied by a decrease of the oxidation rate, so in general the process is characterised by the negative value of apparent activation energy

  10. Sub-nanosecond periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator and amplifier pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Wang, H. Y.; Ning, Y.; Shen, C.; Si, L.; Yang, Y.; Bao, Q. L.; Ren, G.

    2017-05-01

    A sub-nanosecond seeded optical parametric generator (OPG) based on magnesium oxide-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal is presented. Pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped 1 kHz, 1064 nm, Nd:YAG microlaser and seeded with a low power distributed feedback (DFB) diode continuous-wave (CW) laser, the OPG generated an output energy of 41.4 µJ and 681 ps pulse duration for the signal at 1652.4 nm, achieving a quantum conversion efficiency of 61.2% and a slope efficiency of 41.8%. Signal tuning was achieved from 1651.0 to 1652.4 nm by tuning the seed-laser current. The FWHM of the signal spectrum was approximately from 35 nm to 0.5 nm by injection seed laser. The SHG doubled the frequency of OPG signal to produce a output energy of 12 µJ with the energy conversion efficiency of 29.0% and tunanble wavelength near 826 nm.

  11. Characterization and control of the electro-optic phase dispersion in lithium niobate modulators for wide spectral band interferometry applications in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, S; Ulliac, G; Courjal, N; Martin, G

    2017-05-10

    Mid-infrared wideband modulation (3.2-3.7 μm) is achieved in an electro-optic Y-junction using lithium niobate waveguides in TE polarized light. Comparison between external (scanning mirror) and internal (electro-optical) modulation allows studying the chromatic polynomial dependence of the relative phase. Internal modulation consists on a V AC ramp up to 370 V at 0.25 Hz, applied over 14 mm long electrodes with 14 μm separation. The overall V π L π obtained is 17.5 V·cm, meaning that using a 300 V generator we can actively scan and track the whole L-band (3.4-4.1 μm) wideband fringes. We observe a dramatic reduction of the coherence length under electro-optic modulation, which is attributed to a strong nonlinear dependence of the electro-optic effect on the wavelength upon application of such high voltages. We study the effect of applying a V DC offset, from -50  V to 200 V (50 V step). We characterize this dispersion and propose an improved dispersion model that is used to show active dispersion compensation in wideband fringe modulation in the mid-infrared. This can be useful for long baseline interferometry or pulse compression applications when light propagates along fibers, in order to compensate for chromatic effects that induce differential dispersion or pulse spreading, respectively.

  12. Magnetic properties of nearly stoichiometric CeAuBi2 heavy fermion compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, C.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Grant, T.; Fisk, Z.; Garcia, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the interesting magnetic anisotropy found in the heavy fermion family CeTX 2 (T = transition metal and X = pnictogen), here, we study the novel parent compound CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y by combining magnetization, pressure dependent electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. The magnetic properties of our nearly stoichiometric single crystal sample of CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y (x = 0.92 and y = 1.6) revealed an antiferromagnetic ordering at T N  = 12 K with an easy axis along the c-direction. The field dependent magnetization data at low temperatures reveal the existence of a spin-flop transition when the field is applied along the c-axis (H c  ∼ 7.5 T and T = 5 K). The heat capacity and pressure dependent resistivity data suggest that CeAu 0.92 Bi 1.6 exhibits a weak heavy fermion behavior with strongly localized Ce 3+ 4f electrons. Furthermore, the systematic analysis using a mean field model including anisotropic nearest-neighbors interactions and the tetragonal crystalline electric field (CEF) Hamiltonian allows us to extract a CEF scheme and two different values for the anisotropic J RKKY exchange parameters between the Ce 3+ ions in this compound. Thus, we discuss a scenario, considering both the anisotropic magnetic interactions and the tetragonal CEF effects, in the CeAu 1−x Bi 2−y compounds, and we compare our results with the isostructural compound CeCuBi 2

  13. Enhanced electrochemical properties of vanadium-doped titanium niobate as a new anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Ma, Chenxiang; Du, Chenqiang; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinhe; Qu, Deyang; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The Vanadium-doped TiNb 2 O 7 (TNO) samples have been investigated as novel anode active materials for application in lithium-ion batteries. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The XRD results indicate that V-doping expands the lattice parameters of TiNb 2 O 7 samples and facilitates the enhanced lithium ion diffusion. SEM and TEM results show that lattice expansion caused by V-doping doesn’t significantly change the particle size distribution of TiNb 2 O 7 samples. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 anode material displays a highly reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. The initial discharge capacities of TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 are 298.48 mAh g −1 and 171.99 mAh g −1 at 0.3C and 10C, respectively, indicating that the TiNb 1.98 V 0.02 O 7 material can be utilized as a promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium; Sintesis y caracterizacion termoluminiscente de niobato de litio impurificado con erbio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Munoz, I. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz Z, E., E-mail: imunoz@polimeros.uson.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO{sub 4}). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  15. Studies on electrochemical lithium insertion in isostructural titanium niobate and tantalate phases with shear ReO3 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritha, D.; Varadaraju, U.V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical lithium insertion into ReO 3 type phases TiNb 2 O 7 , TiTa 2 O 7 is feasible. • TiNb 2 O 7 exhibits good cycling behavior and high reversible capacity of 212 mAh g −1 . • TiTa 2 O 7 exhibits reversible capacity of 100 mAh g −1 . - Abstract: TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases are synthesized by solid-state reaction method and are investigated for electrochemical Li insertion/extraction. The electrochemical insertion of Li in these phases is characterized by both solid solution and two-phase regimes. The structure is stable toward Li insertion/extraction. The first cycle discharge capacity values are 307 mAh g −1 and 215 mAh g −1 in the voltage range of 3.0–1.0 V for TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 phases, respectively. The discharge capacities of TiNb 2 O 7 and TiTa 2 O 7 are 212 mAh g −1 and 100 mAh g −1 , respectively, after 20 cycles

  16. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part I; Isothermal Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This two-part paper is the first published report on the long term, low temperature creep of hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted on hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi at 300, 373 and 473 K under initial applied stresses varying between 200 and 350 MPa as long as 15 months. These temperatures corresponded to the martensitic, two-phase and austenitic phase regions, respectively. Normal primary creep lasting several months was observed under all conditions indicating dislocation activity. Although steady-state creep was not observed under these conditions, the estimated creep rates varied between 10(exp -10) and 10(exp -9)/s. The creep behavior of the two phases showed significant differences. The martensitic phase exhibited a large strain on loading followed by a primary creep region accumulating a small amount of strain over a period of several months. The loading strain was attributed to the detwinning of the martensitic phase whereas the subsequent strain accumulation was attributed to dislocation glide-controlled creep. An "incubation period" was observed before the occurrence of detwinning. In contrast, the austenitic phase exhibited a relatively smaller loading strain followed by a primary creep region, where the creep strain continued to increase over several months. It is concluded that the creep of the austenitic phase occurs by a dislocation glide-controlled creep mechanism as well as by the nucleation and growth of deformation twins.

  17. Visualization of ferroelectric domain structures in lithium niobate by means of confocal nonlinear microscopy; Visualisierung ferroelektrischer Domaenenstrukturen in Lithiumniobat mittels konfokaler nichtlinearer Mikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berth, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    In the field of integrated optics nonlinear-optical effects play a central role. A typical example for the commercial use of such phenomena is the frequency conversion. A deciding parameter is here the phase matching, which determines the quantity of the constructive interaction range of contributing optical fields. In view of a high efficiency of such processes the dispersion of a crystal must be balanced for the contributing frequencies. In nonlinear components on the base of optical waveguides the principle of the ''quasi-phase matching'' is applied, which uses the microdomain inversion. Phase jumps occuring at the domain boundaries compensate in the mean the different phase velocities. The application range of such periodical structures depends essentially on sharpness, homogeneity, depth extent, and period of the domain structure. The nonlinear confocal laser scanning microscopy makes a mapping of this transferred ferroelectric domain structure possible. Primary aim of this thesis is the characterization and mapping of the transferred ferroelectric domain structure in lithium niobate. A modularly kept confocal microscope makes here a nonlinear analysis in reflection and transmission geometry possible. In both geometries systematic studies as function of important process parameters were performed. It was shown that because of the larger nonlinear coherence length in the transmission modus the SHG ensues above all in forward direction. By depth-resolved studies at Z-cut PPLN structured between the surface region and the volume crystal a flippling of the SHG contrast could be observed. In samples with circular pole structure additionally in the crystal a transition to a hexagonal structure took place. In the Ti:PPLN strip waveguide a strong and specific increasement of the nonlinear signal of the domain walls was discovered. Here also the usual SHG surface contrast between dhe domains and the boundaries is inverted. Also differently processed

  18. Microscope Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction study of near-stoichiometric Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, De-Long; Siu, G.G.; Pun, E.Y.B.

    2005-01-01

    The crystalline phase within guiding layers of near-stoichiometric strip and planar Ti:LiNbO 3 wave-guides, prepared by the method of simultaneous work of vapour transport equilibration (VTE) treatment and indiffusion of Ti film, was studied by combined confocal microscope Raman scattering and X-ray powder diffraction. The results show that the strip and planar waveguide layers still retain the LiNbO 3 phase and no other non-LiNbO 3 phases can be identified within the guiding layer. Li/Nb ratios inside and outside the strip and planar waveguide layers were determined from the microscope Raman scattering results and compared to those obtained from the measured optical absorption edge. It is shown that the Li/Nb ratios are homogeneous within the waveguide layer and are close inside and outside the waveguide layer. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Realizing near stoichiometric and highly transparent CdS:Mo thin films by a low-cost improved SILAR technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur 613503, Tamil Nadu (India); Nisha Banu, N. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM Sri Pushpam College (Autonomous), Poondi, Thanjavur 613503, Tamil Nadu (India); Research Department of Physics, Kunthavai Naachiyaar Government Arts College for Women (Autonomous), Thanjavur 613007, Tamil Nadu (India); Baneto, M. [CUER-UL, Universite de Lome, BP 1515, Lome (Togo); Senthamil Selvi, V. [Research Department of Physics, Kunthavai Naachiyaar Government Arts College for Women (Autonomous), Thanjavur 613007, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-02-15

    Undoped and molybdenum doped CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using Improved Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (ISILAR) technique. The Mo doping level was varied from 0 to 15 at.% in steps of 5 at.%. The XRD analysis shows that all the films are polycrystalline with cubic structure and grow preferentially along the (111) plane. The crystallite size increases gradually with the increase in Mo doping level up to 10 at.% and decreases with further doping. The morphological studies reveal that Mo doping significantly affects the grains size. Qualitative and quantitative compositional analysis show that near stoichiometric undoped and Mo doped CdS thin films can be achieved using this ISILAR technique. All the films exhibit high transparency in the visible region with an average transmittance in the range of 85-95%. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Growth and holographic data storage properties of near-stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} crystals doped with Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tao [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: tzhang_hit02@yahoo.com; Dong Yantang; Geng Tao; Dai Qiang [College of Science, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu Yuheng [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A series of Mn-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} crystals were grown from a Li-rich (Li/Nb = 1.38, atomic ratio) and varying level of Mn-doping melt using a Cz furnace equipped with a radio frequency generator. The etching experiment reveals that as-grown polarized Mn:SLN has single ferroelectric domain structures under optical microscope. By two-beam coupling experiment, we measured and systematically analyzed the photorefractive properties such as the dynamic range, the sensitivity and the loss of signal-to-noise-ratio coefficient. Based on Mn (0.05 wt%):SLN crystal, a big capacity storage of 100 holograms in a coherent volume of 0.085 cm{sup 3} have been fulfilled successfully and the storage density arrived 0.93 Gbits cm{sup -3}.

  1. The effect of gadolinium content on the thermal conductivity of near-stoichiometric (U,Gd)O2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, S.; Ohmichi, T.; Maeda, A.; Watanabe, H.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of near-stoichiometric (U, Gd)O 2 solid solutions containing CdOsub(1.5) up to 15 mol% were determined in the temperature range 700 to 2000 K from thermal diffusivities measured by the laser flash method. Temperature dependence of the thermal conductivities up to around 1600 K could be expressed by the phonon conduction equation K = (A + BT) -1 . The thermal conductivity decreased gradually with an increase of gadolinium content. Thermal resistivities caused by lattice defects were calculated from a theoretical model considering U 4+ , U 5+ and Gd 3+ ions as phonon scattering centers. It was found that this model was in good agreement with the experimental results. The calculation based on this model indicates that the lattice strain effect on the lattice defect thermal resistivity is much larger than the mass effect. (orig.)

  2. Optical properties of nanocrystalline potassium lithium niobate in the glass system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, M Niyaz; Varma, K B R

    2009-08-01

    Optically clear glasses of various compositions in the system (100-x) TeO2-x(1.5K2O-Li2O-2.5Nb2O5) (2 glasses comprising potassium lithium niobate (K3Li2Nb5O15) microcrystallites on the surface and nanocrystallites within the glass were obtained by controlled heat-treatment of the as-quenched glasses just above the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The optical transmission spectra of these glasses and glass-crystal composites of various compositions were recorded in the 200-2500 nm wavelength range. Various optical parameters such as optical band gap, Urbach energy, refractive index were determined. Second order optical non-linearity was established in the heat-treated samples by employing the Maker-Fringe method.

  3. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate; Ionenstrahlverstaerktes Aetzen fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-12

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO{sub 3} with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO{sub 3}. Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO{sub 3}. This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit der Ausnutzung des ionenstrahlverstaerkten Aetzens (IBEE: Ion Beam Enhanced Etching) fuer die 3D-Strukturierung von

  4. Récuperation d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s transmis sur 50 km par boucle à verrouillage de phase opto-électronique utilisant un dispositif en Niobate de Lithium à inversion de domaines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, F.; Ware, Agis C.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2008-01-01

    L'extraction d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s, transmis sur 50 km, à partir d'une boucle à verrouillage de phase utilisant l'effet non-linéaire de mélange à trois ondes dans un composant de niobate de lithium à inversion de domaines a été mise en oeuvre.......L'extraction d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s, transmis sur 50 km, à partir d'une boucle à verrouillage de phase utilisant l'effet non-linéaire de mélange à trois ondes dans un composant de niobate de lithium à inversion de domaines a été mise en oeuvre....

  5. Refractive Indices in Undoped and MgO-Doped Near-Stoichiometric LiTaO3 Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaru; Higuchi, Shinji; Takekawa, Shunji; Terabe, Kazuya; Furukawa, Yasunori; Kitamura, Kenji

    2002-04-01

    Undoped and MgO (0.5 and 1.0-mol%)-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO3 (SLT) crystals were grown from off-congruent Li-rich solutions (Li˜ 60 mol%) by the double-crucible Czochralski method using a continuous SLT ceramic grain charging system. Curie temperatures of the undoped and MgO (0.5 and 1.0-mol%)-doped SLT crystals are 688, 694 and 695°C, respectively. The ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices (no, ne) of these crystals were measured by the prism coupling technique in the wavelength range from 0.440 to 1.050 μm at room temperature, and the temperature-independent Sellmeier equations for each crystal were derived from the measured refractive index data. no of the SLT crystal was almost the same as that of a congruent-melt LiTaO3 (CLT) crystal, while ne of the SLT crystal was lower than that of the CLT crystal. ne was lower than no for the SLT crystal, similar to as in the case of the LiNbO3 crystal. The refractive indices of the SLT crystal, no and ne, were found to be almost independent of MgO concentration at the doping level of 0.5 and 1.0 mol%.

  6. The role of the Mg2+ ions in Cr3+ spectroscopy for near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T P J; Jaque, F; Bermudez, V; Dieguez, E

    2003-01-01

    The optical spectroscopy of Cr 3+ ions doped into near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 crystals, pure and co-doped with MgO, has been investigated. In the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Cr(0.2 mol%):Mg(2 mol%) crystal, the optical spectra resemble those previously observed for congruent LiNbO 3 :Cr:MgO samples when the total MgO content exceeds the 4.6 mol% threshold. The coexistence of two types of Cr 3+ centre ([Cr] Li and [Cr] Nb ) characterized the optical and luminescence spectra of this sample. The concentration equilibrium between the two types of centre is strongly displaced towards the [Cr 3+ ] Nb centre, permitting us to obtain with accuracy the parameters of the broad bands. The R-line associated with the [Cr] Nb centre is only observable in the low-temperature emission spectrum. The Fano anti-resonance lines present have been observed to be more pronounced for the near-stoichiometric samples than for congruent ones

  7. The role of the Mg sup 2 sup + ions in Cr sup 3 sup + spectroscopy for near-stoichiometric LiNbO sub 3 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Han, T P J; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    The optical spectroscopy of Cr sup 3 sup + ions doped into near-stoichiometric LiNbO sub 3 crystals, pure and co-doped with MgO, has been investigated. In the near-stoichiometric LiNbO sub 3 :Cr(0.2 mol%):Mg(2 mol%) crystal, the optical spectra resemble those previously observed for congruent LiNbO sub 3 :Cr:MgO samples when the total MgO content exceeds the 4.6 mol% threshold. The coexistence of two types of Cr sup 3 sup + centre ([Cr] sub L sub i and [Cr] sub N sub b) characterized the optical and luminescence spectra of this sample. The concentration equilibrium between the two types of centre is strongly displaced towards the [Cr sup 3 sup + ] sub N sub b centre, permitting us to obtain with accuracy the parameters of the broad bands. The R-line associated with the [Cr] sub N sub b centre is only observable in the low-temperature emission spectrum. The Fano anti-resonance lines present have been observed to be more pronounced for the near-stoichiometric samples than for congruent ones.

  8. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  9. Design of high-temperature piezoelectric acceleration sensor based lithium niobate%基于铌酸锂的高温压电加速度传感器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾宝龙; 赵振平; 陈浩远; 闫旭; 陈佳璧; 郭子昂

    2017-01-01

    设计一种耐高温、高稳定性、高可靠性的加速度传感器,针对航空发动机高温恶劣的振动测试环境,传感器选用高居里温度的铌酸锂晶体作为压电元件,整体采用剪切式结构,利用特征系数最大的压电晶体切型,确定特征系数最大的压电晶体切向,以获得铌酸锂晶体较强的压电效应.研制双层铠装高温低噪声电缆,采用高温合金及矿物绝缘等耐高温材料,可在高温环境下长期使用,有效解决传感器小信号高温传输可靠性问题.优化设计传感器结构、封装工艺和测量系统,传感器频响、动态协议性能大为改善.通过对传感器的频率和温度响应、电容损耗等试验表明该传感器在550℃高温环境下能够保持高的可靠性和稳定性,提升航空发动机振动测试的技术能力.%This paper aims to develop and design a high-temperature resistant acceleration sensor with excellent stability and reliability. Considering the harsh and high-temperature environment of aero-engine vibration test, the sensor employs lithum niobate crystal with high Curie temperature as the piezoelectric element and adopts a shear-type configuration. The cutting pattern and direction of piezoelectric crystal that allow for the maximum characteristic coefficient are utilized and identified to obtain a strong piezoelectric effect for the lithium niobate crystal. Besides, a double-layer armoured high-temperature and low-noise cable is also developed using high-temperature alloy, mineral-insulated and other heat-resisting materials, which can be used in high-temperature environment for a long time, addressing effectively the reliability problem of small signals transmitted by sensor at high temperatures. Sensor structure, packaging technology and measuring system are also optimized and designed, which improves the frequency response and dynamic protocol performance of the sensor significantly. The testing on frequency and temperature

  10. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  11. Energy scaling and extended tunability of terahertz wave parametric oscillator with MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuye; Tang, Longhuang; Xu, Degang; Yan, Chao; He, Yixin; Shi, Jia; Yan, Dexian; Liu, Hongxiang; Nie, Meitong; Feng, Jiachen; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-04-17

    A widely tunable, high-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator based on 1 mol. % MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal has been demonstrated with 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed laser pumping. The tunable range of 1.16 to 4.64 THz was achieved. The maximum THz wave output energy of 17.49 μJ was obtained at 1.88 THz under the pump energy of 165 mJ/pulse, corresponding to the THz wave conversion efficiency of 1.06 × 10-4 and the photon conversion efficiency of 1.59%, respectively. Moreover, under the same experimental conditions, the THz output energy of TPO with MgO:SLN crystal was about 2.75 times larger than that obtained from the MgO:CLN TPO at 1.60 THz. Based on the theoretical analysis, the THz energy enhancement mechanism in the MgO:SLN TPO was clarified to originate from its larger Raman scattering cross section and smaller absorption coefficient.

  12. Lithium niobate. Defects, photorefraction and ferroelectric switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Tatyana [Russian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation); Woehlecke, Manfred [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2008-07-01

    The book presents the current state of studies of point defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurities, radiation centers, etc.), in LiNbO{sub 3}. The contribution of intrinsic defects to photoinduced charge transport, i.e. to the photorefraction, is explained. The photorefractive and optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with different stoichiometry and of those doped with so-called ''optical-damage resistant'' impurities controlling the intrinsic defect structure are described in detail. Applications included are to the problem of non-erasable recording of photorefractive holograms in LiNbO{sub 3} and the current situation of studies in the ferroelectric switching and domain structure of LiNbO{sub 3}, as well as the creation of periodically-poled structures for the optical frequency conversion. (orig.)

  13. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part 2; Effect of Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report on the effect prior low temperature creep on the thermal cycling behavior of NiTi. The isothermal low temperature creep behavior of near-stoichiometric NiTi between 300 and 473 K was discussed in Part I. The effect of temperature cycling on its creep behavior is reported in the present paper (Part II). Temperature cycling tests were conducted between either 300 or 373 K and 473 K under a constant applied stress of either 250 or 350 MPa with hold times lasting at each temperature varying between 300 and 700 h. Each specimen was pre-crept either at 300 or at 473 K for several months under an identical applied stress as that used in the subsequent thermal cycling tests. Irrespective of the initial pre-crept microstructures, the specimens exhibited a considerable increase in strain with each thermal cycle so that the total strain continued to build-up to 15 to 20 percent after only 5 cycles. Creep strains were immeasurably small during the hold periods. It is demonstrated that the strains in the austenite and martensite are linearly correlated. Interestingly, the differential irrecoverable strain, in the material measured in either phase decreases with increasing number of cycles, similar to the well-known Manson-Coffin relation in low cycle fatigue. Both phases are shown to undergo strain hardening due to the development of residual stresses. Plots of true creep rate against absolute temperature showed distinct peaks and valleys during the cool-down and heat-up portions of the thermal cycles, respectively. Transformation temperatures determined from the creep data revealed that the austenitic start and finish temperatures were more sensitive to the pre-crept martensitic phase than to the pre-crept austenitic phase. The results are discussed in terms of a phenomenological model, where it is suggested that thermal cycling between the austenitic and martensitic phase temperatures or vice versa results in the deformation of the austenite and

  14. Alloying in an Intercalation Host: Metal Titanium Niobates as Anodes for Rechargeable Alkali-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Swain, Diptikanta; Araujo, Rafael B; Shi, Songxin; Ahuja, Rajeev; Row, Tayur N Guru; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-02-02

    We discuss here a unique flexible non-carbonaceous layered host, namely, metal titanium niobates (M-Ti-niobate, M: Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Sb 3+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ), which can synergistically store both lithium ions and sodium ions via a simultaneous intercalation and alloying mechanisms. M-Ti-niobate is formed by ion exchange of the K + ions, which are specifically located inside galleries between the layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO 6 and NbO 6 octahedral units in the sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO 5 ). Drastic volume changes (approximately 300-400 %) typically associated with an alloying mechanism of storage are completely tackled chemically by the unique chemical composition and structure of the M-Ti-niobates. The free space between the adjustable Ti/Nb octahedral layers easily accommodates the volume changes. Due to the presence of an optimum amount of multivalent alloying metal ions (50-75 % of total K + ) in the M-Ti-niobate, an efficient alloying reaction takes place directly with ions and completely eliminates any form of mechanical degradation of the electroactive particles. The M-Ti-niobate can be cycled over a wide voltage range (as low as 0.01 V) and displays remarkably stable Li + and Na + ion cyclability (>2 Li + /Na + per formula unit) for widely varying current densities over few hundreds to thousands of successive cycles. The simultaneous intercalation and alloying storage mechanisms is also studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. DFT expectedly shows a very small variation in the volume of Al-titanium niobate following lithium alloying. Moreover, the theoretical investigations also conclusively support the occurrence of the alloying process of Li ions with the Al ions along with the intercalation process during discharge. The M-Ti-niobates studied here demonstrate a paradigm shift in chemical design of electrodes and will pave the way for the development of a multitude of improved electrodes

  15. Macroscopic polarization and thermoluminescence of barium niobate - sodium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', I.S.; Gumenyuk, A.F.; Omel'yanenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of initial and thermally treated purposely undoped crystals of barium niobate - sodium has been studied within 85-400 K. The TL intensity is found to depend on the temperature to which the sample has been heated. A conclusion is drawn that nonstationarity of the TL properties is due to slowly occuring processes of compensation of pyrocharge, which depend on the temperatural prehistory of the sample. A mechanism of the traps transformation in a strong pyrofield of high-impedance crystals is discussed

  16. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  17. Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO2 laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, N. M.; Costa, F. M.; Nogueira, R. N.; Graça, M. P. F.

    2012-09-01

    The crystallization induced by laser radiation is a very promising technique to promote glass/ceramic transformation, being already used to produce crystalline patterns on glass surfaces. In this work, a SiO2-Li2O-Nb2O5 glass, prepared by the sol-gel route, was submitted to CO2 laser radiation and conventional heat-treatments in order to induce the LiNbO3 crystallization. The structure and morphology of the samples prepared by both routes was analyzed as a function of exposure time, radiation power and heat-treatment temperatures by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The results reveal a correlation between the crystallization degree of LiNbO3 particles and glass matrix with the heat treatment type and experimental parameters. An heat-treatment at 650 °C/4 h was necessary to induce crystallization in heat treatments samples while 4 W/500 s was enough for laser radiation ones, corresponding a reduction time processing of ˜14 000 s.

  18. Piezo-optic surfaces of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mytsyk, B. G.; Dem'yanyshyn, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    A method of construction of the spatial distribution of the piezo-optic effect in crystals is proposed. A particular case of this method is the known technique of construction of indicator surfaces of the piezo-optic effect. The essence of the proposed method consists in determining the difference in the radius vectors of the optical indicatrix perturbed by stress and the free optical indicatrix. It is shown that this difference in the radius vectors is mathematically identical to the law of transformation of the piezo-optic tensor during the rotation of the coordinate system

  19. ERDA study of H incorporated into lithium niobate optical layers

    CERN Document Server

    Budnev, N M; Pelicon, P; Spirkova-Hradilova, J; Kolarova-Nekvindova, P; Turcicova, H

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen concentration depth profiles in the proton-exchange treated LiNbO/sub 3/ samples were determined by means of the ERDA (elastic recoil detection analysis) method. The ERDA measurements with 1.8 MeV helium ions were performed using reflection geometry with Al foils used for the separation of the recoiled nuclei from the scattered projectiles. The study clearly showed that the substitutional (H:Li) mechanism, which prevails in the Z-cuts, is accompanied by interstitial diffusion of H into the substrates for the X-cuts. It was also confirmed that the post-exchange annealing not only stabilized the optical properties of the samples, but enlarged the differences between both crystallographically different types of the wafers, leading to more diffused H-profiles for the Z-cuts than for the X-cuts. Plasma treatment of the Z-cut leads to shallower hydrogen containing layers than those in the APE (annealed proton exchange) ones. (7 refs).

  20. Macroscopic polarization and thermoluminescence of barium niobate - sodium niobate. Makroskopicheskaya polyarizatsiya i termolyuminestsentsiya niobata bariya - natriya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorban' , I S; Gumenyuk, A F; Omel' yanenko, V A [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukrainian SSR)

    1989-11-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of initial and thermally treated purposely undoped crystals of barium niobate - sodium has been studied within 85-400 K. The TL intensity is found to depend on the temperature to which the sample has been heated. A conclusion is drawn that nonstationarity of the TL properties is due to slowly occuring processes of compensation of pyrocharge, which depend on the temperatural prehistory of the sample. A mechanism of the traps transformation in a strong pyrofield of high-impedance crystals is discussed.

  1. Optical properties of calcium barium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, Urs; Betzler, Klaus [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Burianek, Manfred; Muehlberg, Manfred [Institute of Crystallography, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on optical measurements on the novel tungsten bronze type calcium barium niobate. [001]-oriented transparent and colorless single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method with dimensions of 12 mm in diameter and about 80 mm in length. With its relatively high Curie temperature of about 538 K for the congruently melting composition of 28.1 mole% calcium and its high nonlinear coefficients, CBN is a promising material for future applications. Recent experiments revealed, that the application of an external electric field of several kV/cm to CBN at room temperature leads to an increasing opacity of the sample. This might be a drawback considering the future usability of CBN in optical systems. We present investigations on the transmittance behaviour of CBN under external electric fields, demonstrating the erasement of the clouding without affecting the polarization. Experiments have been performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to approximately 480 K. When heating up the sample, its colorless appearance changes to a light yellow, which can be attributed to a shift of the band edge to longer wavelengths with increasing temperature. To further investigate the transmittance properties of CBN, measurements of the band edge under various temperatures up to the ferroelectric phase transition have been performed.

  2. Lithium tantalate single crystal for pyroelectricity-based laser energy-meter: growth, application and phase transition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaumik, Indranil; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium tantalate have been grown. Dielectric-spectroscopy study reveals phase transition in congruent lithium tantalate (CLT) single crystal is diffusive and frequency dependent in contrast to that in near stoichiometric lithium tantalate where it is sharper. The ac conductivity measurements show that the conductivity is lower for 0.5Mg-SLT as compared to 1.0Mg-SLT. This is explained in terms of a Li-vacancy model. Calculation of activation energy from the lnσ vs. 1000/T plot reveals that hopping of Li + ions becomes difficult for 0.5 Mg-SLT. The pyroelectric response of CLT for pulsed Nd:YAG laser output has been tested. (author)

  3. Nanostructured sodium lithium niobate and lithium niobium tantalate solid solutions obtained by controlled crystallization of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radonjic, L.; Todorovic, M.; Miladinovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Transparent, nanostructured glass ceramics based on ferroelectric solid solutions of the type Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 (in very narrow composition regions for x = 0.12 and 0.93) and LiNb 1-y Ta y O 3 (y = 0.5 unlimited solid solubility), can be obtained by controlled crystallization of glass. The parent glass samples were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. Heat-treatment of the parent glasses was performed at the various temperatures, for the same time. The glass structure evolution during the controlled crystallization was examined by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM was used for microstructure characterization. Densities of the crystallized glasses were measured by Archimedean principle. The capacitance and dielectric loss tangent were measured at a frequency of 1 kHz, at the room temperature. It was found that in the all investigated systems crystallize solid solutions Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 and LiNb 1-y Ta y O 3 in the glassy matrix, have crystal size on nanoscale (less than 100 nm), which is one of requirements to get a transparent glass ceramic that could be a good ferroelectric material regarding to the measured properties

  4. The use of one-dimensional Niobate to improve MgH{sub 2} hydrogen sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, M.C., E-mail: mbrum@metalmat.ufrj.br; Conceição, M.O.T. da; Jardim, P.M.; Santos, D.S. dos

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The 1-D Niobate W and Niobate C catalysts were synthesized. • The composites MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% catalysts were obtained by 20 min of mechanical milling. • The synthesized wired-like material 1-D Niobate W showed to be a promising catalyst. • A desorption capacity of 6.0 wt.%. of H{sub 2} was attained in 10 min with MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% 1-D Niobate W. - Abstract: A study was performed on the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties of MgH{sub 2} with the addition of Niobates synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in 10 M NaOH. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate their synthesis and show the morphological and crystallographic differences between Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} used as a precursor and the Niobates produced, the one-dimensional wired type, 1-D Niobate W and the cuboid one, Niobate C. The ball milling of MgH{sub 2} with the Niobates was performed within only 20 min and afterwards the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) examination of MgH{sub 2} + 1-D Niobate W and MgH{sub 2} + Niobate C showed the shifting of the peaks for both composites in comparison to pure MgH{sub 2}. The influence of the two different types of Niobates and also the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hydrogen absorption/desorption capacity was evaluated at 350 °C. The higher absorption and desorption values were attained by the MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% 1-D Niobate W composite, reaching, in 10 min, approximately 5.0 wt.% and 6.0 wt.%, respectively. The possible mechanism involved in such property improvement upon adding niobium based catalysts with different morphology and structure was discussed.

  5. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  6. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  7. The effects of dopants on the electrical resistivity in lead magnesium niobate multilayer ceramic capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.D.; Ling, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical resistivity studies were performed on multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLC) based on lead magnesium niobate and containing dopants of lead titanate, lead zinc niobate, and lead cobalt niobate. The results showed that lead titanate and/or lead zinc niobate had no effect on the electrical resistivity while lead cobalt niobate decreased the resistivity. In samples without lead cobalt niobate, we observed a conduction mechanism with an activation energy of --1 eV, which is commonly observed in barium titanate based dielectrics. This is attributed to ionic conduction via the motion of oxygen vacancies. The increase in conductivity (or decrease in resistivity) resulting from the addition of lead cobalt niobate was rationalized as due to electronic conduction through charge hopping among the cations. This conduction mechanism was characterized by an activation energy of --0.5 eV. Since the activation energy associated with the long-term failure was previously determined by a matrix of temperature and voltage accelerated life tests to be -- 1 eV, they conclude that conduction through charge hopping is not affecting the long-term reliability of these devices

  8. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  9. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kalabin, I.E.; Kesler, V.G.; Pervukhina, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d 5/2 and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values measured with XPS for Nb 5+ -niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values possible in Nb 5+ -niobates has been defined. An energy gap ∼1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values reasonable for Nb 5+ and Nb 4+ states in niobates

  10. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Kalabin, I.E. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Technical Center, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pervukhina, N.V. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d{sub 5/2} and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values measured with XPS for Nb{sup 5+}-niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values possible in Nb{sup 5+}-niobates has been defined. An energy gap {approx}1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values reasonable for Nb{sup 5+} and Nb{sup 4+} states in niobates.

  11. Rare-Earth Tantalates and Niobates Single Crystals: Promising Scintillators and Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqin Dou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth tantalates, with high density and monoclinic structure, and niobates with monoclinic structure have been paid great attention as potential optical materials. In the last decade, we focused on the crystal growth technology of rare-earth tantalates and niobates and studied their luminescence and physical properties. A series of rare-earth tantalates and niobates crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method successfully. In this work, we summarize the research results on the crystal growth, scintillation, and laser properties of them, including the absorption and emission spectra, spectral parameters, energy levels structure, and so on. Most of the tantalates and niobates exhibit excellent luminescent properties, rich physical properties, and good chemical stability, indicating that they are potential outstanding scintillators and laser materials.

  12. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  13. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression of high-power femtosecond fiber lasers in Lithium Niobate crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Moses, Jeffrey; Wise, Frank W.

    2008-01-01

    The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs.......The output of a high-power femtosecond fiber laser is typically 300 fs with a wavelength around $\\lambda=1030-1060$ nm. Our numerical simulations show that cascaded quadratic soliton compression in bulk LiNbO$_3$ can compress such pulses to below 100 fs....

  14. Radiation from 39 and 45 MEV electrons channeled in lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diedrich, E.; Kufner, W.; Buschhorn, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Inst. fuer Physik)

    1991-12-01

    Channeling radiation from 39 and 45 MeV electrons channeled along the (0001) axis, the (0110) plane and the (1210) plane of a 30 {mu}m thick LiNbO{sub 3} crystal has been measured. Calculations of the planar crystal potentials were performed by means of the many-beam formalism. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained for the planar channeling radiation. Associated with channeling, additional radiation lines have been observed, which may be explained by a periodic perturbation of the continuum potential. (author).

  15. Lithium niobate bulk crystallization promoted by CO{sub 2} laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.M., E-mail: nmferreira@ua.pt [i3N - Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Costa, F.M. [i3N - Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, R.N. [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Graca, M.P.F. [i3N - Aveiro, Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization of LiNbO{sub 3} nanocrystals in a SiO{sub 2} matrix by CO{sub 2} laser irradiation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Samples heat-treated at 650 Degree-Sign C (4 h) and laser treated (4 W/500 s) show similar morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass-ceramics produced by laser process requires a very low processing time. - Abstract: The crystallization induced by laser radiation is a very promising technique to promote glass/ceramic transformation, being already used to produce crystalline patterns on glass surfaces. In this work, a SiO{sub 2}-Li{sub 2}O-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass, prepared by the sol-gel route, was submitted to CO{sub 2} laser radiation and conventional heat-treatments in order to induce the LiNbO{sub 3} crystallization. The structure and morphology of the samples prepared by both routes was analyzed as a function of exposure time, radiation power and heat-treatment temperatures by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The results reveal a correlation between the crystallization degree of LiNbO{sub 3} particles and glass matrix with the heat treatment type and experimental parameters. An heat-treatment at 650 Degree-Sign C/4 h was necessary to induce crystallization in heat treatments samples while 4 W/500 s was enough for laser radiation ones, corresponding a reduction time processing of {approx}14 000 s.

  16. Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in periodically poled lithium niobate with 1-W average output power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, T.; McConnell, G.; Ferguson, A.I.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Burns, D.; Dawson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a rugged all-solid-state laser source of near-IR radiation in the range of 1461–1601 nm based on a high-power Nd:YVO4 laser that is mode locked by a semiconductor saturable Bragg reflector as the pump source of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator with a periodically

  17. Ar-ion etching effects on the XPS spectra of the ferroelectric potassium lithium niobate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Byeong-Eog; Kim, Chung-Sik; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Kim, Jung-Nam; Hwang, Yoon-Hwae; Chae, Jong-Suk

    2005-01-01

    Ar + -ion-sputtered surface of KLN crystal was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to investigate the oxidation states and chemical environments of K, Li, Nb and O ions. As Ar + -sputtering time increased, the decreasing binding energy of Nb 3d and the peak broadening of mixed Nb 4s and Li 1s (namely Nb* 4s) levels were observed. Also, the binding-energy difference between O 1s and Nb* 4s increased as Ar + -ion-sputtering time increased. The broad peak of Nb* 4s was considered to be related to the site occupancy of Li ion in A1 and C in tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure.

  18. Laser induced Erasable Patterns in a N* Liquid Crystal on an Iron Doped Lithium Niobate (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-12

    4685; Clearance Date: 22 Sep 2017. This document contains color . Journal article published in Optics Express, Vol. 25, No. 21, 22 Sep 2017. © 2017...be applied selectively to erase these patterns. Thus, a promising method is reported to generate reconfigurable patterns, photonic motives , and...erase these patterns. Thus, a promising method is reported to generate reconfigurable patterns, photonic motives , and touch sensitive devices in a

  19. High-efficiency holograms fixed in lithium niobate after recording using a digital fringe stabilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Luis; Ambite, Emilio J

    2012-02-20

    We used a digital feedback control loop system to produce reproducible fixed volume transmission holograms of high diffraction efficiency. Different strategies were investigated to obtain holograms of good quality and the highest refractive index modulation depth. Using this control system, we were able to record holograms with stationary fringes. Additionally to using the stationary fringe recording, a double recording-fixing schedule resulted in being the most appropriate one to produce reproducible holograms of better characteristics. This strategy is discussed and compared with other already established ones. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  20. Effect of Fe Doping by Thermal in-Diffusion on the Defect Structure of Lithium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignoni, S; Zaltron, A; Ciampolillo, M V; Bazzan, M; Argiolas, N; Sada, C; Fontana, M D, E-mail: zaltronam@padova.infm.it

    2010-11-15

    In this work we investigate the iron incorporation in thermally diffused Fe doped LN, by combining two experimental techniques, i.e. micro-Raman spectroscopy and proton induced X rays emission. Our results point out that in substituting for Li, Fe ions induces a decrease of Nb{sub Li} antisite defects and rearrangement of the Nb sublattice.

  1. Characterization of lithium niobate monocrystals doped with iron (Li Nb O3:Fe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastelaro, V.R.; Terrile, N.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Nicolo, I.

    1988-01-01

    LiNbO 3 :Fe Crystals were analised using EPR Optical absorption spectroscopy and holographic techniques. The site occupied by Fe 3+ is discused and the effect of thermal treatments on Fe 2+ and OH - concentration is studied. The high diffraction efficiency, measure by holographic techniques shows that crystals are particularly good for holographic applications. (author) [pt

  2. New ways for the optimization of the photorefractive response of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luennemann, M.

    2003-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis three different approaches for the increasement of the photorefractive response of LiNbO 3 crystals are pursued: First an extremely large external electric field is applied as additional charge driver in order to support the photorefractive process and to improve the characteristic quantities. Furthermore the photorefractive properties of LiNbO 3 crystals doped with manganese are studied, because iron-doped crystals exhibit a relatively low practical upper limit of the doping concentration. The third approach for the optimization of the photorefractive response in LiNbO 3 crystals is the sensibilization of LiNbO 3 :Fe for infrared light by a temperature-dependent absorption change

  3. Near-field imaging of femtosecond laser ablated sub-λ/4 holes in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas, Airan; Lamela, Jorge; Jaque, Daniel; Lifante, Gines; Jaque, Francisco; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Zhou Guangyong; Gu Min

    2009-01-01

    We report on the direct femtosecond laser ablation of sub-λ/4 (80-250 nm) holes in LiNbO 3 crystals and on its local near-field imaging. We show that the near-field transmission of holes can feature an attenuation of ∼75% at hole central position, and a ∼20% transmission enhancement at its sides. This high-contrast ring-shaped near-field distribution is found to be in agreement with simulations, suggesting the surface relief as the main contrast mechanism.

  4. Integrated optical electric field sensor based on a Bragg grating in lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runde, D.; Brunken, S.; Rüter, C. E.; Kip, D.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a new sensor concept for the measurement of oscillating electric fields that is based on Bragg gratings in LiNbO3:Ti channel waveguides. This miniaturized sensor that works in a retroreflective scheme does not require metallic electrodes and can be directly immersed in an oscillating electric field. The electric field induces a shift of the Bragg wavelength of the reflection grating that is due to the electro-optic effect. The operating point of the sensor is chosen by adjusting the laser wavelength to the slope of the spectral reflectivity function of the grating. In this way the magnitude of an external electric field is measured precisely as the amplitude of modulated reflected light intensity by using a lock-in amplifier. The sensor principle is demonstrated by detecting low-frequency electric fields ranging from 50 V/cm to 5 kV/cm without any conducting parts of the sensor head. Furthermore, the ability of the sensor to determine the three-dimensional orientation of an external electric field by a single rotation along the waveguide direction is demonstrated.

  5. Refractive-index changes in lithium niobate crystals by radiation damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-01-01

    For the study in this thesis 3 He 2+ ions with the energy of about 40 MeV were applied. The results of these studies show a timely very stable anisotrope refractive-index change in the range of some 10 -3 . The radiation damages caused by ions cause a decreasement of the ordinary refractive index n o and an increasement of the extra-ordinary refractive index n e . While the absolute values for Δn o and Δn e are nearly equal the birefringence of the material (n e -n o ) smaller. The generated refractive-index change is dose dependent and the curve Δn has at increasing dose a strongly nonlinear slope with a characteristic stage at the radiation dose of about 2 x 10 20 ions/m 2

  6. Curie temperature variation in polycrystalline sodium-lithium niobate with various thermodynamic prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakova, I.V.; Reznichenko, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Curie temperature T C in the samples obtained by various methods is measured with the purpose of establishing the effect of the structure formation conditions (thermal prehistory) of the Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 ceramic samples by 0.015 ≤ x ≤ 0.0275 on the behavior of solid solutions in the external electrical field. It is established that essential dependence of the transition temperature shift in the electrical field and also in T C on the conditions of the solid solution preparation is observed in the (NaLi)NbO 3 system. The conclusion is made that hot pressing with increased high-temperature seasoning is the best method for obtaining the ceramics of the given composition in the area of antiferro-ferroelectrical transition [ru

  7. High-temperature thermal conductivity of uranium chromite and uranium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoseev, D.V.; Varshavskaya, I.G.; Lavrent'ev, A.V.; Oziraner, S.N.; Kuznetsova, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of determining thermal conductivity coefficient of uranium niobate and uranium chromite on heating with laser radiation is described. Determined is the coefficient of free-convective heat transfer (with provision for a conduction component) by means of a standard specimen. The thermal conductivity coefficients of uranium chromite and niobate were measured in the 1300-1700 K temperature range. The results are presented in a diagram form. It has been calculated, that the thermal conductivity coefficient for uranium niobate specimens is greater in comparison with uranium chromite specimens. The thermal conductivity coefficients of the materials mentioned depend on temperature very slightly. Thermal conductivity of the materials considerably depends on their porosity. The specimens under investigation were fabricated by the pressing method and had the following porosity: uranium chromite - 30 %, uranium niobate - 10 %. Calculation results show, that thermal conductivity of dense uranium chromite is higher than thermal conductivity of dense uranium niobate. The experimental error equals approximately 20 %, that is mainly due to the error of measuring the temperature equal to +-25 deg, with a micropyrometer

  8. New, dense, and fast scintillators based on rare-earth tantalo-niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshyna, O.V.; Boiaryntseva, I.A.; Baumer, V.N.; Ivanov, A.I.; Korjik, M.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of undoped yttrium and gadolinium tantalo-niobates with common formulae RE(Nb x Ta 1−x )O 4 , where RE=Y or Gd and x=0–1, have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Systematic study of structural, luminescent, and scintillation properties of these compounds was carried out. Lattice parameters and space groups of the mixed compounds were identified. UV- and X-ray luminescence spectra, as well as relative light outputs and scintillation decay times are measured. Gadolinium tantalo-niobate with the formulae GdNb 0.2 Ta 0.8 O 4 showed the light output around 13 times larger than PbWO 4 and fast decay with time constant 12 ns without additional slow component. Gadolinium tantalo-niobates may be considered as promising materials for high energy physics due to extremely high density, substantial light output, and fast decay. -- Highlights: •Structural, optical and scintillation properties of the rare earth tantalo-niobates were studied. •Light output shows about gradual increase with Nb content in GdTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •Light output increases by 2–7 times relatively to yttrium tantalate and niobate in YTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •GdTa 0.8 Nb 0.2 O 4 demonstrates the most promising scintillation parameters

  9. Effect of Ion Irradiation in Cadmium Niobate Pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been performed for cadmium niobate pyrochlore (CdNb2O) single crystals at both 150 and 300 K using 1.0 MeV Au ions over fluences ranging from 0.01 to 0.10 ions/nm. In-situ 3.0 MeV He Rutherford backscattering spectrometry along the -axial channeling direction (RBS/C) has been applied to study the damage states ranging from small defect concentrations to a fully amorphous state. Results show that the crystal can be readily amorphized under the irradiation conditions. Room-temperature recovery of the defects produced at 150 K has been observed, while the defects produced at 300 K are thermally stable at room temperature. Results also indicate that the RBS/C analysis used in this study induced negligible damage in the near-surface regime. In addition, irradiation at and below room temperature using He and C3 ions leads to surface exfoliation at the corresponding damage peaks

  10. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlore nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlores Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (alpha-BZN, and Bi2(Zn1/3Nb2/32O 7 (beta-BZN have been synthesized by chemical method based on the polymeric precursors. The pyrochlore phase was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X ray diffraction. Powder and sintered pellets morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The study of alpha-BZN phase formation reveals that, at 500 °C, the pyrochlore phase was already present while a single-phased nanopowder was obtained after calcination at 700 °C. The crystallization mechanism of the beta-BZN is quite different, occurring through the crystallization of alpha-BZN and BiNbO4 intermediary phases. Both compositions yielded soft agglomerated powders. alpha-BZN pellets, sintered at 800 °C for 2 hours, presented a relative density of 97.3% while those of beta-BZN, sintered at 900 °C for 2 hours, reached only 91.8%. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss, measured at 1 MHz, were 150 and 4 x/10-4 for a-BZN, and 97 and 8 x 10-4 for beta-BZN.

  11. Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

    2014-02-19

    Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ∼490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33∼390-490 pC/N and TC∼217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last".

  12. Crystallization of Reduced Strontium and Barium Niobate Perovskites from Borate Fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, B.; Sunshine, S.A.; Siegrist, T.; Jimenez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Single crystals of three AxNbO3 (A = Sr, Ba) reduced niobate cubic perovskites have been obtained by recrystallization of reduced ternary ceramic precursors from borate fluxes under high-vacuum. Product formation could be influenced by variation of the alkaline-earth metal oxide content of the flux,

  13. Safe disposal of radioactive iodide ions from solutions by Ag2O grafted sodium niobate nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Liu, Guoping; Yu, Qianhong; Xie, Xiang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2016-01-14

    Radioactive iodine isotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials, and have negative effects on organisms living within the ecosystem. Thus, safe disposal of radioactive iodine is necessary and crucial. For this reason, the uptake of iodide ions was investigated in Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate nanofibers, which were prepared by forming a well-matched phase coherent interface between them. The resulting composite was applied as an efficient adsorbent for I(-) anions by forming an AgI precipitate, which also remained firmly attached to the substrates. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be easily dispersed in liquids and readily separated after purification. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The change in structure from the pristine sodium niobate to Ag2O anchored sodium niobate and to the used adsorbent was examined by using various characterization techniques. The effects of Ag(+) concentration, pH, equilibration time, ionic strength and competing ions on the iodide ion removal ability of the composite were studied. The Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate adsorbent showed a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for I(-) anions in basic solutions. Our results are useful for the further development of improved adsorbents for removing I(-) anions from basic wastewater.

  14. Flexible Piezoelectric Touch Sensor by Alignment of Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate Microcubes in PDMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; de Leeuw, D.M.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by

  15. Properties of complex tungstates, niobates, translated with fluorite-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetkina, S.N.; Zolin, V.F.; Sirotinkin, V.P.; Smirnov, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of ternary tungstates, niobates and tantalates (MeLa 2 WO 7 , La 3 TO 7 ; Me=Ba, Sr; T=Ta, Nb) related to the layered fluorite group are analyzed. The laser pumping and time resolved luminescence are used for selecting spectra of unequivalent centers. The symmetry of the first center is near to the distorted cubic one. The vibrational spectra of europium in Eu 3 NbO 7 and SrLa 2 WO 7 are due to the chain-like structure of niobates and to the net-like structure of tantalates. The stimulated emission of Nd 3+ in powders of BaLa 2 WO 7 and La 3 NbO 7 is observed at wavelengths of 1.07 and 1.063 μm, respectively

  16. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  17. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  20. Steering Charge Kinetics of Tin Niobate Photocatalysts: Key Roles of Phase Structure and Electronic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shushu; Wang, Chunyan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Su, Yiguo

    2018-05-23

    Tin niobate photocatalysts with the phase structures of froodite (SnNb 2 O 6 ) and pyrochlore (Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 ) were obtained by a facile solvothermal method in order to explore the impact of phase structure and electronic structure on the charge kinetics and photocatalytic performance. By employing tin niobate as a model compound, the effects of phase structure over electronic structure, photocatalytic activity toward methyl orange solution and hydrogen evolution were systematically investigated. It is found that the variation of phase structure from SnNb 2 O 6 to Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 accompanied with modulation of particle size and band edge potentials that has great consequences on photocatalytic performance. In combination with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transient photocurrent responses, transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), and the analysis of the charge-carrier dynamics suggested that variation of electronic structure has great impacts on the charge separation and transfer rate of tin niobate photocatalysts and the subsequent photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the existent of Sn 4+ species in Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 could result in a decrease in photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic test demonstrated that the SnNb 2 O 6 (froodite) catalyst possesses a higher photocatalytic activity toward MO degradation and H 2 evolution compared with the sample of Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 (pyrochlore). On the basis of spin resonance measurement and trapping experiment, it is expected that photogenerated holes, O 2 -• , and OH • active species dominate the photodegradation of methyl orange.

  1. Growth of potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets with monoclinic phase and its excellent piezoelectric property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jingyun; Wang, Ye; Yang, Yefeng; Wu, Yongjun; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-09-01

    Potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets were synthesized through hydrothermal reaction with KOH, H2O and Nb2O5 as source materials by using a polycrystalline Al2O3 as substrate. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and selected area electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the tablets exhibit monoclinic phase structure and are highly crystallized. Meanwhile, piezoelectric property of the micro-hexagonal tablets was investigated. The as-synthesized tablets exhibit excellent piezoactivities in the experiments, and an effective piezoelectric coefficient of around 80 pm/V was obtained. The tablets have huge potential applications in micro/nano-integrated piezoelectric and optical devices.

  2. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Sola, I. [Grupo de Investigación en Óptica Extrema (GIOE), Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Krolikowski, W. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Science Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Sheng, Y. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.

  3. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  4. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, S; Mase, Y; Shimizu, S; Maeda, K; Fujii, I; Nakashima, K; Pulpan, P; Miyajima, N, E-mail: swada@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO{sub 3}, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  5. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Krolikowski, W.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system

  6. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, S; Mase, Y; Shimizu, S; Maeda, K; Fujii, I; Nakashima, K; Pulpan, P; Miyajima, N

    2011-01-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO 3 , KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic property of potassium niobate K6Nb10.8O30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaoke; Zou Xi; Gong Jie; He Fangsheng; Zhang Hao; Zhang Qiang; Liu Ying; Yang Xia; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    The TB-type potassium niobate K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 was synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst. The photocatalyst K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 shows high photocatalytic activity to photodegrade acid red G under UV irradiation. The influences of catalyst dosage, initial concentration of acid red G on the photocatalytic reaction were investigated. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of acid red G follows the first order kinetics

  8. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium–potassium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Politova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free sodium–potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1−x(K0.5Na0.5NbO3–xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  9. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  10. Holographic recording in a doubly doped lithium niobate crystal with two wavelengths: a blue laser diode and a green laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2010-08-01

    A doubly-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystal has been well used as a nonvolatile two-wavelength recording material. By using two levels of the crystal, two-kind holograms can be recorded on one crystal; a hologram is recorded with a 405-nm blue laser diode (LD) for a deep Mn level, and another hologram is with a 532-nm green laser for a shallow Fe level. The recording capacity doubles. A 780-nm LD is non-volatile reconstructing source since the LD line is insensitive to both levels. Multiplexed reconstructed images are demonstrated by using a sharp angular selectivity of a volume LN crystal keeping Bragg condition with spherical reconstructions.

  11. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  12. Refractive-index changes in lithium niobate crystals by radiation damages; Brechungsindexaenderungen in Lithiumniobat-Kristallen durch Strahlenschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-12-18

    For the study in this thesis {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions with the energy of about 40 MeV were applied. The results of these studies show a timely very stable anisotrope refractive-index change in the range of some 10{sup -3}. The radiation damages caused by ions cause a decreasement of the ordinary refractive index n{sub o} and an increasement of the extra-ordinary refractive index n{sub e}. While the absolute values for {delta}n{sub o} and {delta}n{sub e} are nearly equal the birefringence of the material (n{sub e}-n{sub o}) smaller. The generated refractive-index change is dose dependent and the curve {delta}n has at increasing dose a strongly nonlinear slope with a characteristic stage at the radiation dose of about 2 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2}.

  13. Theoretical analysis of surface acoustic wave propagating properties of Y-cut nano lithium niobate film on silicon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface acoustic wave (SAW propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO3 (LN film on SiO2/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K2 owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K2 achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.

  14. Theoretical analysis of surface acoustic wave propagating properties of Y-cut nano lithium niobate film on silicon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing, E-mail: jingchen0408@hotmail.com; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Han, Tao; Zhou, Liu; Tang, Gongbin; Liu, Boquan; Ji, Xiaojun [Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-08-15

    The surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) film on SiO{sub 2}/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH) SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K{sup 2} owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ) of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K{sup 2} achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.

  15. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300–500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO3....... However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed......, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects...

  16. In situ investigation of formation of self-assembled nanodomain structure in lithium niobate after pulse laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Yakunina, E. M.; Lobov, A. I.; Ievlev, A. V. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Ural State University, Lenin Ave. 51, Ekaterinburg 620083 (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-22

    The evolution of the self-assembled quasi-regular micro- and nanodomain structures after pulse infrared laser irradiation was studied by in situ optical observation. The average periods of the structures are much less than the sizes of the laser spots. The polarization reversal occurs through covering of the whole irradiated area by the nets of the spatially separated nanodomain chains and microdomain rays--''hatching effect.'' The main stages of the anisotropic nanodomain kinetics: nucleation, growth, and branching, have been singled out. The observed abnormal domain kinetics was attributed to the action of the pyroelectric field arising during cooling after laser heating.

  17. Elastic (stress-strain) halo associated with ion-induced nano-tracks in lithium niobate: role of crystal anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, A; Garcia, G; Olivares, J; Crespillo, M L; Agulló-López, F

    2011-01-01

    The elastic strain/stress fields (halo) around a compressed amorphous nano-track (core) caused by a single high-energy ion impact on LiNbO 3 are calculated. A method is developed to approximately account for the effects of crystal anisotropy of LiNbO 3 (symmetry 3m) on the stress fields for tracks oriented along the crystal axes (X, Y or Z). It only considers the zero-order (axial) harmonic contribution to the displacement field in the perpendicular plane and uses effective Poisson moduli for each particular orientation. The anisotropy is relatively small; however, it accounts for some differential features obtained for irradiations along the crystallographic axes X, Y and Z. In particular, the irradiation-induced disorder (including halo) and the associated surface swelling appear to be higher for irradiations along the X- or Y-axis in comparison with those along the Z-axis. Other irradiation effects can be explained by the model, e.g. fracture patterns or the morphology of pores after chemical etching of tracks. Moreover, it offers interesting predictions on the effect of irradiation on lattice parameters.

  18. Textured and tungsten-bronze-niobate-doped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O3 piezoceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soller, Thomas; Bathelt, Robert; Benkert, Katrin; Bodinger, Hermann; Schuh, Carsten; Schlenkrich, Falko

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an alkaline-earth niobate doping in tungsten-bronze (TB) stoichiometry on the piezoelectric properties and the phase transition temperatures of lead-free (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O 3 ceramics were investigated. In particular, the TB compounds barium niobate (BN), barium sodium niobate (BNN) and strontium calcium sodium niobate (SCNN) were investigated. The TB-modified ceramics show promising piezoelectric properties with large-signal piezo coefficients, d 33 * lose to 400 pm/V, planar coupling coefficients, k p , up to 0.45 and Curie temperatures of approximately 310 .deg. C. In addition, the effect of texturing on the undoped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O 3 base composition via templated grain growth (TGG) with microcrystalline NaNbO 3 templates was examined. Lotgering factors up to 81% and strain enhancements by a factor 1.5 with large-signal values of d 33 * up to 550 pm/V could be achieved in the textured samples.

  19. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Electrodeposition of near stoichiometric CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Ramkumar; Mallik, Archana

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates on the single step electrodeposition of quality CuInSe2 (CIS) thin film absorber layer for photovoltaics applications. The electrodeposition was carried using an aqueous acidic solution with a pH of 2.25. The deposition was carried using a three electrode system in potentiostatic conditions for 50 minutes. The as-deposited and nitrogen (N2) annealed films were characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and Raman spectroscopy. It has been observed that the SDS has the tendency to suppress the copper selenide (CuxSe) secondary phase which is detrimental to the device performance.

  1. Growth of GaMnAs under near-stoichiometric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrutin, V.; Humienik, D.; Frank, S.; Koeder, A.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Sauer, R.; Waag, A.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effect of the V/III flux ratio and substrate temperature on magnetotransport properties and lattice parameters of Ga 0.96 Mn 0.04 As grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. For all the substrate temperatures, the conductivities and Curie temperatures of the layers were found to increase as the V/III flux ratio approaches 1. A Curie temperature as high as 95 K was achieved for the Ga 0.96 Mn 0.04 As samples grown at 240 deg. C and a V/III ratio of about 1.5. The lattice parameter of Ga 0.96 Mn 0.04 As increased with decreasing V/III ratio and/or increasing growth temperature. Possible reasons for the effect of the V/III ratio on the magnetotransport properties and lattice parameter of GaMnAs are discussed

  2. Evaluation of neutron irradiated near-stoichiometric silicon carbide fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Katoh, Y.; Kohyama, A.; Bailey, J.L.; Vaughn, N.L.; Lowden, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Composites have been fabricated by chemical vapor infiltration of silicon carbide (SiC) into SiC-based fiber preforms. Fibers were Ceramic Grade Nicalon TM , Hi-Nicalon TM and Hi-Nicalon TM Type-S. Results are presented for two parallel studies on the effects of neutron irradiation on these materials. In the first study, neutron irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties, as measured by bend testing, for Hi-Nicalon TM fiber materials of varied interphase structures is measured. Results indicate that both the Ceramic Grade Nicalon TM and Hi-Nicalon TM materials degrade substantially under irradiation, though the higher oxygen content Ceramic Grade fiber degrades more rapidly and more substantially. Of the three interfaces studied in the Hi-Nicalon TM system, the multilayer SiC is the most radiation resistant. At a dose of ∼1 dpa the mechanical property degradation of the Hi-Nicalon TM composite is consistent with a fiber densification-induced debonding. At a dose of 10 dpa the properties continue to degrade raising the question of degradation in the CVD SiC matrix as well. Low-dose results on the Hi-Nicalon TM Type-S fabricated material are encouraging, as they appear to not lose, and perhaps slightly increase, in ultimate bend strength. This result is consistent with the supposition that as the oxygen content in SiC-based fibers is reduced, the irradiation stability and hence composite performance under irradiation will improve

  3. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  4. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  5. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  6. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  7. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  8. Thermal stability of Dion-Jacobson mixed-metal-niobate double-layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Andrew T.; Wiley, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability and decomposition pathways of six Dion-Jacobson-related double-layered perovskites, ALaNb 2 O 7 (A = H, Li, Na, Ag) and (ACl)LaNb 2 O 7 (A = Fe, Cu), are investigated. These compounds are made by low temperature ( 2 O 7 . All the compounds are low temperature phases with some of them exhibiting decomposition exotherms consistent with metastability. Decomposition temperatures and reactions pathways vary with the identity of A with most decompositions resulting in the formation of a niobate (containing A) and LaNbO 4 . Results from differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction studies are presented and structural parameters pertinent to compound stability discussed

  9. Conical light scattering in strontium barium niobate crystals related to an intrinsic composition inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastwoeste, K; Sander, U; Imlau, M

    2007-01-01

    Conical light scattering is uncovered in poly- and mono-domain, nominally pure and Eu-doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystals over a wide temperature regime. The appearance of two scattering cones, a scattering line and a corona is observed and can be explained comprehensively within the Ewald sphere concept. Photorefraction, scattering from domain boundaries or from growth striations can be excluded from explaining the origin of the scattering. It is shown that the temperature-persistent scattering process is related to a growth-induced seeding rod, i.e. a composition inhomogeneity primarily localized at the centre of the SBN sample. The rod is directed parallel to the c axis and yields a refractive-index inhomogeneity with spatial frequencies on the micro-scale

  10. Luminescence life time and time-resolved spectroscopy of Cr3+ ions in strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.P.J.; Jaque, F.; Jaque, D.; Garcia-Sole, J.; Ivleva, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the photo-luminescence spectroscopic results of congruent strontium-barium-niobate (SBN) crystals doped with Cr 2 O, at cryogenic temperature (20 K). The experimental results reveal the need of re-assignment of the Cr 3+ ions defect centres in this material. For first time, a broad emission band in the near infrared region centred at ca. 950 nm is reported. This emission band has micro-seconds decaytime constant and a band-width full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) larger than 1700 cm -1 and has been ascribed to the vibronically assisted 4 T 2 →4 A 2 transition. A much narrower emission band centred at ca. 764 nm with milli-seconds decaytime constant and a FWHM band-width of ca. 170 cm -1 is correlated to the 2 E →4 A 2 radiative transition (R-line)

  11. Phase decomposition in niobate glasses and the electrooptical effect in materials based on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, I.P.; Karapetyan, G.O.; Korolov, Y.G.; Maksimov, L.V.

    1986-10-01

    This paper studies the effect of the composition and heat treatment on the dielectric, electrooptical, and structural-physical proprties of niobium-containing glasses. The appearance and intensification of fluctuations of the niobium concentration accompanying an increase in the niobium content in the samples is characteristic for glasses in the system Na/sub 2/O-K/sub 2/O-Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/-SiO/sub 2/. The presence of insignificant quantities of NaNbO/sub 3/ microcrystals in niobate glasses gives rise to a significant growth of the dielectric constant (by a factor of 508) and the appearance of a quadratic electrooptical effect.

  12. Electronic and Optical Properties of Sodium Niobate: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fritsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much effort has been devoted to replace the most commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate Pb[ZrxTi1−x]O3 (PZT with a suitable lead-free alternative for memory or piezoelectric applications. One possible alternative to PZT is sodium niobate as it exhibits electrical and mechanical properties that make it an interesting material for technological applications. The high-temperature simple cubic perovskite structure undergoes a series of structural phase transitions with decreasing temperature. However, particularly the phases at room temperature and below are not yet fully characterised and understood. Here, we perform density functional theory calculations for the possible phases at room temperature and below and report on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the different phases in comparison to experimental findings.

  13. Ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals for ultrasonic hydrophone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.T.; Lam, K.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Luo, H.S.; Yin, Q.R.; Yin, Z.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystals with a composition around the rhombohedral-tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary (65 mol% of PMN) were used to fabricate single-element needle-type hydrophones for measuring the spatial and temporal characteristics of medical ultrasonic transducers. PMN-PT single crystal was grown by a modified Bridgman method. Discs (0.5 mm thick) with normal along the direction were cut and then poled by a dc field in the thickness direction. The single crystal has a high relative permittivity (ε r ∼4000) making it appropriate for small area hydrophone applications. Single-element needle-type hydrophones with this material as the sensing element have been fabricated and characterized. The hydrophones have flat frequency response and good receiving sensitivity over certain frequency range in the megahertz region

  14. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  15. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  16. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  17. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  18. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  19. Silver niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.; Rozhenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    By means of determination of residual concentrations and pH measurements investigated are the AgNO 3 -KNbO 3 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 3 NbO 4 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 8 Nb 16 O 19 -H 2 O systems and established is formation of meta-, ortho-and hexaniobates of silver. AgNbO 3 x H 2 O, Ag 8 Nb 6 O 19 x 6H 2 O and Ag 3 NbO 3 x 2.5H 2 O are separated from aqueous solution. Using the methods of differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and X-ray-phase analyses it is shown that silver metaniobate transforms into the crystal state at 530 deg C. Ortho- and hexaniobate of silver decompose at 500 deg C with formation of silver metaniobate and metal silver

  20. PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ENHANCEMENT OF RARE-EARTH DOPED-POTASSIUM SODIUM NIOBATE (KNN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Mat Harttat Maziati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline niobate mainly potassium sodium niobate, (KxNa1-x NbO3 (abreviated as KNN has long attracted attention as piezoelectric materials as its high Curie temperature (Tc and piezoelectric properties. The volatility of alkaline element (K, Na is, however detrimental to the stoichiometry of KNN, contributing to the failure to achieve high-density structure and lead to the formation of intrinsic defects. By partially doping of several rare-earth elements, the inherent defects could be improved significantly. Therefore, considerable attempts have been made to develop doped-KNN based ceramic materials with high electrical properties. In this paper, these research activities are reviewed, including dopants type and doping role in KNN perovskite structure.

  1. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  2. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  3. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  4. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  5. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  6. Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, S.; Feinberg, J.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured the low-frequency (''unclamped'') electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients in undoped BaTiO/sub 3/ and Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (chi - 0.61) crystals using interferometric techniques. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the Pockels measurement is discussed. For an applied ac electric field in the range 0.1-200 V/cm, the electrooptic and piezoelectric effects are linear in the magnitude of of the applied field and independent of its frequency in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz. The unclamped electrooptic coefficients of poled BaTiO/sub 3/ single crystals are r/sub 13/ = 19.5 +- 1 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 97 +- 7 pm/V, and for strontium barium niobate are r/sub 13/ = 47 +- 5 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 235 +- 21 pm/V, all measured at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and at T = 23 0 C. For the barium titanate samples the measured Pockels coefficient r/sub c/ identical to r/sub 33/ - (n/sub 1//n/sub 3/)/sup 3/r/sub 13/ = 79 +- 6 pm/V in good agreement with the value r/sub c/ = 76 +- 7 pm/V computed from the above values of r/sub 13/ and r/sub 33/, where n/sub 1/ and n/sub 3/ are the ordinary and extraordinary indexes of refraction, respectively. The measured piezoelectric coefficient is d/sub 23/ = +28.7 +- 2 pm/V for barium titanate, and is d/sub 23/ = +24.6 +- 2 pm/V for strontium barium niobate. They also measured the photoreflective coupling of two optical beams in the crystals, and they show that the dependence of the coupling strength on beam polarization is in fair agreement with the measured values of the Pockels coefficients

  7. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  8. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  9. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Rev. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std 239.18 298-102 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLASSIRCTIO OF THIS PAGE (Whun Data Entered) Lade Form 296 ledk (Row. 2-49...did not burn spontaneously in water, and the hydrogen formed did not ignite in air. When a pea-sized piece of lithium was dropped into a container of...Lithium metal flowed through the cracks in the coating and started to burn brilliantly. The LiOH coating was initially protective; but, as it became

  10. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  11. Synthesis, structure and electrical properties of Mg-, Ni-codoped bismuth niobates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Koroleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mg-, Ni-codoped bismuth niobates Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ (x = 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 were obtained by conventional solid-state reaction method. It was shown that the Mg atoms are distributed at the Nb sites while the Ni atoms are distributed over the Bi- and the Nb-sites, according to the results of comparison of pycnometric and X-ray density of the Bi1.6Mg0.4Ni0.4Nb1.6O7-δ pyrochlore. In this case, about 15–20% of the vacancies are formed at the Bi sites. The obtained compounds are stable up to their melting point based on the DSC analysis data. Real dielectric permittivity ε' of the Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ samples decreases from 80 to 65 with the temperature decrease from 25 to 700 °C and practically does not depend on frequency in the range of 1–1000 kHz. Oxides Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ behave like insulators up to 280 °C, their conductivity increases with temperature (Ea,dc ≈ 1.3 eV, dc and with the Ni content at a given temperature.

  12. Phase transition characteristics and associated piezoelectricity of potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyu; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Hui

    2015-08-14

    To achieve high piezoelectric activity and a wide sintering temperature range, the ceramic system concerning (1 - x)(K(0.48)Na(0.52))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3)-x[Bi(0.5)(Na(0.7)Ag(0.3))(0.5)](0.90) Zn(0.10)ZrO(3) was designed, and the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can drive a high d(33). Phase transition characteristics as well as their effects on the electrical properties were investigated systematically. The R-T coexistence phase boundary (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) can be driven via modification with BNAZZ, and has been confirmed by XRD and temperature-dependent dielectric constants as well as Raman analysis, and the ceramics possess enhanced piezoelectric properties (d(33) ∼ 425 pC N(-1) and k(p) ∼ 0.43) and a high unipolar strain (∼0.3%). In addition, a wide sintering temperature range of 1050-1080 °C can warrant a large d(33) of 400-430 pC N(-1), which can benefit practical applications. As a result, the addition of BNAZZ is an effective method to improve the electrical properties (piezoelectricity and strain) and sintering behavior of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics.

  13. Phenomenological theory of the dielectric response of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the random field effects originating from charges chemical defects and non-domain textures of the formation and dynamics of polar clusters is analyzed. The spatial distribution of the local fields is not totally random but contains some correlations in direction and strength. Polar clusters are classified to be dynamic or frozen according to their dynamic characteristics in the random fields. The relaxation formula of a dipolar moment in an anisotropic double-well potential is deduced. Two percolation models are introduced, one to account for frustration effects associated with multiple orientations of polar clusters, which results in a broad diffuse dielectric response and the second to account for the case whereby there may be a phase transition to a ferroelectric state. The dielectric permittivity and dissipation factor of the typical relaxors lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate are predicted as a function of both temperature and frequency, which results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. 30 refs., 9 figs

  14. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  15. Effect of chemical pressure on competition and cooperation between polar and antiferrodistortive distortions in sodium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Mrinal; Mishra, S. K.; Mittal, R.; Sastry, P. U.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present results obtained from a combination of dielectric and x-ray diffraction measurements for compositional design of (1 -x )NaNb O3-x BaTi O3(NNBT x ) , which can induce interferroelectric phase transitions. Anomalies are observed in dielectric measurements performed for various compositions at 300 K, as well as at different temperatures for NNBT03. We observed the appearance(disappearance) of the superlattice reflections along with change in the intensities of the main perovskite peaks in the powder x-ray diffraction data, which provide clear evidences for structural phase transitions with composition and temperature. We found that increasing the concentration of BaTi O3 leads to the suppression of out-of-phase rotation of octahedra and an increment in tetragonality (c /a ratio), which promotes the polar mode at room temperature. The temperature-dependent powder diffraction study shows that the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase of pure sodium niobate gets suppressed for the composition x =0.03 , and the monoclinic phase C c gets stabilized at low temperature. The monoclinic phase is believed to provide for a flexible polarization rotation and is considered to be directly linked to the high-performance piezoelectricity in materials due to presence of more easy axes for spontaneous polarizations than the rhombohedral phase.

  16. Temperature dependent dielectric relaxation and ac-conductivity of alkali niobate ceramics studied by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhinav; Mantry, Snigdha Paramita; Fahad, Mohd.; Sarun, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) ceramics is prepared by conventional solid state reaction method at sintering temperature 1150 °C for 4 h. The structural information of the material has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD analysis of NaNbO3 ceramics shows an orthorhombic structure. The FE-SEM micrograph of NaNbO3 ceramics exhibit grains with grain sizes ranging between 1 μm to 5 μm. The surface coverage and average grain size of NaNbO3 ceramics are found to be 97.6 % and 2.5 μm, respectively. Frequency dependent electrical properties of NaNbO3 is investigated from room temperature to 500 °C in wide frequency range (100 Hz-5 MHz). Dielectric constant, ac-conductivity, impedance, modulus and Nyquist analysis are performed. The observed dielectric constant (1 kHz) at transition temperature (400 °C) are 975. From conductivity analysis, the estimated activation energy of NaNbO3 ceramics is 0.58 eV at 10 kHz. The result of Nyquist plot shows that the electrical behavior of NaNbO3 ceramics is contributed by grain and grain boundary responses. The impedance and modulus spectrum asserts that the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior and non-Debye type relaxation in NaNbO3.

  17. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X D

    1995-10-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO{sub 3}. Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  18. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X.D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO 3 . Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  19. Microwave-assisted sintering of non-stoichiometric strontium bismuth niobate ceramic: Structural and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rajveer [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Atmaram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Tandon, R.P., E-mail: ram_tandon@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the microwave sintering has been utilized for the synthesis of materials in enhancement of the properties. In this paper strontium bismuth niobate (Sr{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 2.2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}:SBN) bulk ceramic has been synthesized by microwave reactive sintering and conventional heating techniques. A relative density of 99.6% has been achieved for microwave sintered SBN, which is higher than that of (98.81%) conventionally sintered SBN. The phase formation of SBN synthesized by both processes has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of SBN was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure was found to be more uniform in case of SBN sintered by microwave sintering. The dielectric properties of SBN were studied as a function of frequency in the temperature range of 30–500 °C. Both the samples synthesized by two different processes were found to follow Curie–Weiss law above the transition temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN. The dielectric constant and the transition temperature were observed to be higher for SBN ceramic synthesized by microwave sintering technique. The ac and dc activation energy values were also found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN as compared to conventional sintering technique.

  20. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 °C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 °C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 °C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 °C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  1. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 deg. C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 deg. C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO 3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 deg. C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 deg. C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  2. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  3. Determination of g-tensors of low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers in LiNbO{sub 3} by rectification of angular dependence of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, V., E-mail: grachev@physics.montana.edu; Malovichko, G. [Physics Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States); Munro, M. [Quantel Laser, Bozeman, Montana 59715 (United States); Kokanyan, E. [Institute of Physical Researches, Ashtarak (Armenia)

    2015-07-28

    Two procedures for facilitation of line tracing and deciphering of complicated spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were developed: a correction of microwave frequencies for every orientation of external magnetic field on the base of known values of g-tensor components for a reference paramagnetic center and followed rectification of measured angular dependences using plots of effective deviation of g{sup 2}-factors of observed lines from effective g{sup 2}-factors of the reference center versus angles or squared cosines of angles describing magnetic field orientations. Their application to EPR spectra of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals doped with neodymium allowed identifying two axial and six different low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers, to determine all components of their g-tensors, and to propose common divacancy models for a whole family of Nd{sup 3+} centers.

  4. Drive frequency dependent phase imaging in piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Huifeng; Kan Yi; Lu Xiaomei; Liu Yunfei; Peng Song; Wang Xiaofei; Cai Wei; Xue Ruoshi; Zhu Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    The drive frequency dependent piezoresponse (PR) phase signal in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. It is clearly shown that the local and nonlocal electrostatic forces have a great contribution to the PR phase signal. The significant PR phase difference of the antiparallel domains are observed at the contact resonances, which is related to the electrostatic dominated electromechanical interactions of the cantilever and tip-sample system. Moreover, the modulation voltage induced frequency shift at higher eigenmodes could be attributed to the change of indention force depending on the modulation amplitude with a piezoelectric origin. The PR phase of the silicon wafer is also measured for comparison. It is certificated that the electrostatic interactions are universal in voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy and could be extended to other phase imaging techniques.

  5. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  6. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  7. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  8. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  9. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  12. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  13. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  14. X-ray analysis of phase coexistence and electric poling processing in alkaline niobate-based compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jian; Zuo Ruzhong; Liu Yi

    2010-01-01

    The characteristic and origin of two-phase coexistence and the content of each phase in typical alkaline niobate-based lead-free compositions were investigated through the refinement of X-ray diffraction peaks and the measurement of dielectric constant versus temperature curves. The diffuse nature of polymorphic phase transition has resulted in the coexistence of two ferroelectric phases within a wide composition and temperature range. As a result, the optimum piezoelectric properties appear in the composition rich in tetragonal phases and there is a remarkable poling temperature effect. Discussions on the difference between morphotropic phase boundary and polymorphic phase boundary were made in combination with the variation of electrical properties.

  15. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  17. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  18. Electromechanical properties of engineered lead free potassium sodium niobate based materials =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Asif

    vacancies whose concentration increases with Mn doping. Single crystals of potassium sodium niobate (KNN) were grown by a modified high temperature flux method. A boron-modified flux was used to obtain the crystals at a relatively low temperature. XRD, EDS and ICP analysis proved the chemical and crystallographic quality of the crystals. The grown KNN crystals exhibit higher dielectric permittivity (29,100) at the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition temperature, higher remnant polarization (19.4 ?C/cm2) and piezoelectric coefficient (160 pC/N) when compared with the standard KNN ceramics. KNN single crystals domain structure was characterized for the first time by piezoforce response microscopy. It could be observed that - oriented potassium sodium niobate (KNN) single crystals reveal a long range ordered domain pattern of parallel 180° domains with zig-zag 90° domains. From the comparison of KNN Single crystals to ceramics, It is argued that the presence in KNN single crystal (and absence in KNN ceramics) of such a long range order specific domain pattern that is its fingerprint accounts for the improved properties of single crystals. These results have broad implications for the expanded use of KNN materials, by establishing a relation between the domain patterns and the dielectric and ferroelectric response of single crystals and ceramics and by indicating ways of achieving maximised properties in KNN materials. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  19. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  20. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  1. Composition-Driven Phase Boundary and Piezoelectricity in Potassium-Sodium Niobate-Based Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2015-09-16

    The piezoelectricity of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics strongly depends on the phase boundary types as well as the doped compositions. Here, we systematically studied the relationships between the compositions and phase boundary types in (K,Na) (Nb,Sb)O3-Bi0.5Na0.5AO3 (KNNS-BNA, A=Hf, Zr, Ti, Sn) ceramics; then their piezoelectricity can be readily modified. Their phase boundary types are determined by the doped elements. A rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can be driven in the compositions range of 0.035≤BNH≤0.040 and 0.035≤BNZ≤0.045; an orthorhombic-tetragonal (O-T) phase boundary is formed in the composition range of 0.005≤BNT≤0.02; and a pure O phase can be only observed regardless of BNS content (≤0.01). In addition, the phase boundary types strongly affect their corresponding piezoelectricities. A larger d33 (∼440-450 pC/N) and a higher d33* (∼742-834 pm/V) can be attained in KNNS-BNA (A=Zr and Hf) ceramics due to the involvement of R-T phase boundary, and unfortunately KNNS-BNA (A=Sn and Ti) ceramics possess a relatively poor piezoelectricity (d33≤200 and d33*piezoelectricity and phase boundary types were also discussed. We believe that comprehensive research can design more excellent ceramic systems concerning potassium-sodium niobate.

  2. Effect of excess bismuth on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of strontium bismuth niobate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Maya; Tanwar, Amit; Sreenivas, K.

    2013-01-01

    Excess Bismuth Strontium Bismuth Niobate (Sr 2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 + x wt% Bi 2 O 3 ) ceramics were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method by varying x in the range (x=0%wt - 20%wt). X-ray diffraction studies reveal no significant shift in the peak positions as the Bi content increases from 0.0 to 5%wt. However, at a higher content of Bi beyond x = 5wt% secondary phases relating to Bi 2 O 3 are identified. The c-axis orientation is found to be minimum for SBN ceramic prepared with 5% excess bismuth whereas with further increase in excess Bi 2 O 3 addition during processing, SBN ceramics show a much stronger c-axis orientation. Room temperature dielectric constant measured at 100 KHz is found to increase from 117 to 130 with increase in Bi content from x = 0 to 10wt% suggesting Bi addition has make up for the bismuth losses at higher sintering temperature (1200℃), however with further increase in Bi content (x > 10wt%), the dielectric constant decreases, and could be due to the increased probability of segregation of Bi on the grains of SBN ceramics. The improvement in ferroelectric properties were obtained when the bismuth excess is increased from 0% to 5%. It may be observed that on increasing the excess bismuth to 5%, the transition temperature increases from 424 to 450℃, while further increasing to 10%, transition becomes slightly diffused and phase transition temperature gets decreased to 398℃, which may be due to the formation of secondary phase. 5% excess Bi is found to enhance the dielectric and ferroelectricity properties, and any further increase of Bi in excess (>10%) during processing is found to degrade the electrical and functional properties of SBN. (author)

  3. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  4. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  5. Influence of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Lead Indium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, A.S.; Kumar, V., E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Prepared phase-pure Fe{sup 3+}-substituted Lead Indium Niobate, Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method. • Spontaneous Relaxor (R) → Ferroelectric (FE) transition observed for the composition with x = 0.20. • Local structural rearrangement responsible for R → FE transition has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: Lead Indium Niobate, Pb(In{sub 0.50}Nb{sub 0.50})O{sub 3} (PIN) is a complex perovskite that exhibits Relaxor (R) characteristics. In this study, we report the synthesis of phase-pure compositions in the system Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method and discuss the influence of isovalent substitution of Indium by Iron on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. Spontaneous transition to the Ferroelectric (FE) phase has been observed for the composition having x = 0.20. Local structural rearrangements responsible for R → FE transition have also been studied by Raman spectroscopy and are discussed in detail.

  6. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  8. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  9. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  10. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  11. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  12. Hierarchical nitrogen doped bismuth niobate architectures: Controllable synthesis and excellent photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jungang; Cao, Rui; Wang, Zheng; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts of peony-like nitrogen doped Bi 3 NbO 7 hierarchical architectures and silver-layered Bi 3 NbO 7−x Nx heterostructures were successfully synthesized in this discovery. Highlights: ► N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were synthesized via two-step hydrothermal process. ► Electronic structure calculations indicated that N replaced O in samples. ► Growth mechanism is proposed for transformation of nanoparticles to microflowers. ► Excellent activities of N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were obtained for degradation. ► Enhanced photocatalytic performance was observed for Ag/N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures. - Abstract: Nitrogen doped bismuth niobate (N-Bi 3 NbO 7 ) hierarchical architectures were synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal process. XRD patterns revealed that the defect fluorite-type crystal structure of Bi 3 NbO 7 remained intact upon nitrogen doping. Electron microscopy showed the N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architecture has a unique peony-like spherical superstructure composed of numerous nanosheets. UV–vis spectra indicated that nitrogen doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge from 450 nm to 470 nm. XPS indicated that [Bi/Nb]-N bonds were formed by inducing nitrogen to replace a small amount of oxygen in Bi 3 NbO 7−x N x , which is explained by electronic structure calculations including energy band and density of states. Based on observations of architectures formation, a possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the transformation of polyhedral-like nanoparticles to peony-like microflowers via an Ostwald riping mechanism followed by self-assembly. The N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures due to the large specific surface area and nitrogen doping exhibited higher photocatalytic activities in the decomposition of organic pollutant under visible-light irradiation than Bi 3 NbO 7 nanoparticles. Furthermore, an enhanced photocatalytic performance was also observed for Ag

  13. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  14. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  15. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  16. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  17. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Consistent Atomic Geometries and Electronic Structure of Five Phases of Potassium Niobate from Density-Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comprehensive theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of potassium niobate (KNbO3 in the cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and rhombohedral phase, based on density-functional theory. The influence of different parametrizations of the exchange-correlation functional on the investigated properties is analyzed in detail, and the results are compared to available experimental data. We argue that the PBEsol and AM05 generalized gradient approximations as well as the RTPSS meta-generalized gradient approximation yield consistently accurate structural data for both the external and internal degrees of freedom and are overall superior to the local-density approximation or other conventional generalized gradient approximations for the structural characterization of KNbO3. Band-structure calculations using a HSE-type hybrid functional further indicate significant near degeneracies of band-edge states in all phases which are expected to be relevant for the optical response of the material.

  19. Instrinsic defect energies of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the defect structure of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride. A potential model is obtained describing the statics and dynamics of these crystals. Intrinsic defect energies are calculated using the Harwell HADES program which is based on a generalised Mott-Littleton method. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and suggest that the vacancy and interstitial migration mechanisms of anions and cations are all comparable in their contribution to ionic conduction. (author)

  20. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  1. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  2. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  3. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  4. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  5. FTU cooled liquid lithium upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrati, M., E-mail: matteo.iafrati@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of the liquid lithium limiter experiment in Frascati a new auxiliary system was developed in order to provide a better control of the energy fluid vector. The cooled liquid lithium system (CLL) was installed for the first time at the end of 2013, it uses overheated water to heat the lithium and to extract, at the same time, the heat from the metal surface when it gets wet by the plasma. A first version of the system, developed and presented in previous papers, has been modified to optimize the heat flux measurement on the liquid lithium surface. The changes include a new power supply logic for the heating system, new sensors and new read-out electronics compatible with the implementation of a real time control system. The prototype was updated with the aim of achieving a low cost and versatile control system.

  6. Probing quantum effects in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemyad, Shanti; Zhang, Rong

    2018-05-01

    In periodic table lithium is the first element immediately after helium and the lightest metal. While fascinating quantum nature of condensed helium is suppressed at high densities, lithium is expected to adapt more quantum solid behavior under compression. This is due to the presence of long range interactions in metallic systems for which an increase in the de-Boer parameter (λ/σ, where σ is the minimum interatomic distance and λ is the de-Broglie wavelength) is predicted at higher densities [1,2]. Physics of dense lithium offers a rich playground to look for new emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter and has been subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations. In this article recent progress in studying the quantum nature of dense lithium will be discussed.

  7. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  8. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  9. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  10. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  11. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  12. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  13. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  14. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  15. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  16. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  17. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  18. Properties of complex tungstates, niobates, translated with fluorite-like structure. Svojstva slozhnykh vol'framatov, niobatov, tantalatov s flyuoritopodobnoj strukturoj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetkina, S N; Zolin, V F; Sirotinkin, V P; Smirnov, S A

    1989-04-01

    Spectra of ternary tungstates, niobates and tantalates (MeLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7}, La{sub 3}TO{sub 7}; Me=Ba, Sr; T=Ta, Nb) related to the layered fluorite group are analyzed. The laser pumping and time resolved luminescence are used for selecting spectra of unequivalent centers. The symmetry of the first center is near to the distorted cubic one. The vibrational spectra of europium in Eu{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and SrLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7} are due to the chain-like structure of niobates and to the net-like structure of tantalates. The stimulated emission of Nd{sup 3+} in powders of BaLa{sub 2}WO{sub 7} and La{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} is observed at wavelengths of 1.07 and 1.063 {mu}m, respectively.

  19. Beam Switching of an Nd:YAG Laser Using Domain-Engineered Prisms in Magnesium-Oxide-Doped Congruent Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    explicitly: (2.45) The equalities shown in (2.45) are known as the “ Manley -Rowe relations” for the nonlinear process. These equalities...this discussion, O ve ra ll Tr an sl at io n 36 but it can be seen from Snell’s Law that these structures are equivalent as beam deflectors...an EOBS channel. Figure 3.15 shows that for nearly all values of , the most optimal beam diameter for which to design is 160  . O ve ra ll Tr an

  20. Complete sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of pure and MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrushchak, A. S.; Laba, H. P.; Yurkevych, O. V.; Mytsyk, B. G.; Solskii, I. M.; Kityk, A. V.; Sahraoui, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ultrasonic measurements of LiNbO 3 and LiNbO 3 :MgO crystals. The tensors of piezoelectric coefficients, elastic stiffness constants, and elastic compliances are determined for both crystals at room temperature. Combining these data with the results of piezo-optical measurements, a complete set of photoelastic tensor coefficients is also calculated. Doping of LiNbO 3 crystals by MgO does not lead to a considerable modification of their elastic and photoelastic properties. However, LiNbO 3 :MgO is characterized by a considerably higher resistance with respect to powerful light radiation, making it promising for future application in acousto-optic devices that deal with superpowerful laser radiation. Presented here are the complete tensor sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of LiNbO 3 and LiNbO 3 :MgO crystals that may be used for a geometry optimization of acousto-optical interaction providing the best diffraction efficiency of acousto-optical cells made of these materials.

  1. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J.R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H 2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La 0.05 Li 0.85 NbO 3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10 −3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm 2 , coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO 3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO 6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  2. Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetic and optical second harmonic properties in lanthanum lithium niobate (La0.05Li0.85NbO3) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Moreno, Carlos A.; Ding, Yu; Li, Chunqiang; Portelles, Jorge; Heiras, J.; Hurtado-Macias, A.; Farias, J. R.; González-Hernández, J.; Yacamán, M. J.; López, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    Relaxor ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and Second Harmonic Generation properties were founded and studied as a function of a reduction heat treatment at 650 °C in a Ar-5%H2 atmosphere in stoichiometric La0.05Li0.85NbO3 nanoparticles of 40 nm. A diffuse dielectric anomaly related with relaxor behavior from 25 °C to 800 °C in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz was founded. It also shows ferromagnetic anhysterestic type and ferroelectric hysteresis loops at room temperature with a magnetic spin remnant of 2.5 × 10-3 emu/g and polarization saturation of 0.235 μC/cm2, remnant polarization of 0.141 μC/cm2, coercive field of 1.35 kV/cm, respectively. It shows very good second harmonic generation signal at 450 nm and 500 nm. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, indicate an ABO3 perovskite structure, new electronic binding energy structure for La (5s, 4d), Li (1s), Nb (4s, 3d, 4p) and oxygen (1s, 2s) and new vibrations modes on octahedron NbO6 related to multiferroic single phase nanoparticles, respectively.

  3. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  4. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  5. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  6. Spectral evolution of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} niobate induced by temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K-Y.; Durand, A. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Heintz, J-M.; Veillere, A. [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Bordeaux INP, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Jubera, V., E-mail: veronique.jubera@u-bordeaux.fr [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France)

    2016-03-15

    A Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} niobate powder was synthetized using a polymerizable complex route. It gave rise to nanometric particles that crystallized in the fluorine structure, corresponding to the Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} phase. The thermal evolution of this powder was followed up to 1600 °C, using X-ray diffraction and optical characterizations. The fluorine structure was maintained in the whole temperature range. However, spectral evolution of the samples calcined above 900 °C showed a more complex situation. Emission spectra of powders heat treated at different temperatures showed an evolution of the emission lines that can be attributed first to a better crystallization of the niobate phase and second to its partial decomposition in favor of the formation of YNbO{sub 4} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Although the Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} phase appeared stable up to 1650 °C, from X-ray diffraction analysis, spectral analysis showed that the local environment of the doping element is modified from 1100 °C. - Graphical abstract: Spectral evolution of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} niobate induced by temperature.

  7. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  8. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  9. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  10. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  11. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  12. Study of LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films used as anodes in lithium micro-batteries; Etude de couches minces de type LiNiVO{sub 4} utilisables en tant qu'electrode negative dans des microbatteries au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, V.

    2003-03-01

    Since fifteen years, considerable effort has been invested in developing thin film solid state micro-batteries as possible integrated components in microelectronics. The recent technological improvement concerning miniaturized systems opens a large field of applications for the future use of micro-batteries. LiNiVO{sub 4} thin films are promising materials as anodes for lithium micro-batteries. All the thin films have been prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using a LiNiVO{sub 4} target. The discharge gas was either pure argon or a mixture of argon and oxygen. We have studied the influence of some experimental parameters such as the oxygen partial pressure, the sputtering power, the target-substrate distance, the total pressure and the substrate temperature on the composition, the microstructure and the electrochemical properties. The chemical composition of the thin films has been determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with nuclear reaction analysis. Among all experimental parameters investigated, only the partial pressure of oxygen has a considerable influence on the thin film composition. Auger spectroscopy has revealed a good homogeneity of the thin films. X-ray diffraction shows that the as-deposited thin films are amorphous. The near-stoichiometric composition Li{sub 1.12}NiV{sub 1.02}O{sub 4}.11 has highlighted good electrochemical properties in the potential range [3 V - 0.02 V]. This particular composition displays a high capacity of 1000 mAh/g which is enhanced when the film is annealed at 300 degrees C. (author)

  13. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  14. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  15. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  16. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  17. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  18. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  19. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  20. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  1. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  2. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  3. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  4. Optimized Wavelength-Tuned Nonlinear Frequency Conversion Using a Liquid Crystal Clad Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optimized wavelength-tuned nonlinear frequency conversion process using a liquid crystal clad waveguide. The process includes implanting ions on a top surface of a lithium niobate crystal to form an ion implanted lithium niobate layer. The process also includes utilizing a tunable refractive index of a liquid crystal to rapidly change an effective index of the lithium niobate crystal.

  5. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  6. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  7. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  8. Linear Thermal Expansion Measurements of Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) Electroceramic Material for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlmann, Paul B.; Halverson, Peter G.; Peters, Robert D.; Levine, Marie B.; VanBuren, David; Dudik, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Linear thermal expansion measurements of nine samples of Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN) electroceramic material were recently performed in support of NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph (TPF-C) mission. The TPF-C mission is a visible light coronagraph designed to look at roughly 50 stars pre- selected as good candidates for possessing earth-like planets. Upon detection of an earth-like planet, TPF-C will analyze the visible-light signature of the planet's atmosphere for specific spectroscopic indicators that life may exist there. With this focus, the project's primary interest in PMN material is for use as a solid-state actuator for deformable mirrors or compensating optics. The nine test samples were machined from three distinct boules of PMN ceramic manufactured by Xinetics Inc. Thermal expansion measurements were performed in 2005 at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in their Cryogenic Dilatometer Facility. All measurements were performed in vacuum with sample temperature actively controlled over the range of 270K to 3 10K. Expansion and contraction of the test samples with temperature was measured using a JPL developed interferometric system capable of sub-nanometer accuracy. Presented in this paper is a discussion of the sample configuration, test facilities, test method, data analysis, test results, and future plans.

  9. Optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals obtained by thermal treatment in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: patharo@ull.es; Lahoz, F. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Platas, J. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Caceres, J.M. [Dep. of Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Perez, S. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dep. of Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Capuj, N. [Dep. of Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Measurements of the optical properties of Er{sup 3+} ions in strontium barium niobate glass and glass ceramics have been carried out. The glasses have been fabricated using a melt-quenching method, and the glass ceramic samples have been obtained from the glass precursor by a thermal treatment. The ceramic samples formed by a glassy phase, and a crystalline phase contains nanocrystals of Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) doped with Er{sup 3+} ions with a mean size of {approx}50 nm, as confirmed with XRD. Green up-conversion emission has been obtained under excitation at 800 nm, and the temporal evolution of this emission has been reported with the purpose of determining the involved up-conversion mechanism. These optical measures have confirmed that the Er{sup 3+} ions have been incorporated into the SBN matrix, after a thermal treatment, which produced an increment of the up-conversion efficiency.

  10. Enhancement of Dielectric Breakdown Strength and Energy Conversion Efficiency of Niobate Glass-Ceramics by Sc2O3 Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi; Xiu, Shaomei; Yang, Ke; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2018-01-01

    Niobate glass-ceramics K2O-SrO-Nb2O5-B2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (KSN-BAS) doped with different amounts of Sc2O3 have been prepared through a melt quenching/controlled crystallization method, and the influence of the Sc2O3 content on their phase composition, microstructure, dielectric performance, and charge-discharge properties investigated. X-ray powder diffraction results showed that the peak positions of the KSr2Nb5O15 phase shifted to higher angle and the glass-ceramic microstructures were significantly improved by Sc2O3 addition. Based on these results, 0.5 mol.% Sc2O3 doping was found to achieve remarkable enhancement in energy storage density, which reached 9.63 ± 0.39 J/cm3 at dielectric breakdown strength of 1450.38 ± 29.01 kV/cm with high conversion efficiency of ˜ 92.1%. For pulsed power applications, discharge speed of 17 ns and power density of 0.48 MW/cm3 were obtained in the glass-ceramic with 0.5 mol.% Sc2O3. These results could provide a new design strategy for high-performance dielectric capacitors.

  11. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  12. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  13. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  14. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  15. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  16. Lithium target simulation in TECHNOFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, C.; Arino, X.; Reig, J.; Aleman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to build a facility where testing, under neutronic irradiation, the necessary materials for the construction of future fusion reactors. The intention is produced irradiation in a controlled way by deuterons bombing on a high speed lithium surface specially designed for that.

  17. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  18. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  19. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  20. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tun Tun Moe

    2011-12-01

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  1. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  2. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  3. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  4. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  5. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking

  6. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  7. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  8. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  9. Abundance of lithium in Pleiades F stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Booth, J.; Hobbs, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of lithium has been determined for 18 stars in the Pleiades cluster with spectral types from A7V to G0V. The pronounced dip in the lithium abundance among the mid-F stars which has been reported for other, older star clusters is not present in the Pleiades. The removal of lithium from the surfaces of middle-F dwarfs therefore occurs principally after about 100 Myr on the main sequence. 25 references

  10. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  11. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  12. Determination of temperature dependency of material parameters for lead-free alkali niobate piezoceramics by the inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ogo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium potassium niobate (NKN piezoceramics have been paid much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials in high temperature devices because of their high Curie temperature. The temperature dependency of their material parameters, however, has not been determined in detail up to now. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called Inverse Method denoting a simulation-based characterization approach. Compared with other characterization methods, the Inverse Method requires only one sample shape of the piezoceramic material and has further decisive advantages. The identification of material parameters showed that NKN is mechanically softer in shear direction compared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT at room temperature. The temperature dependency of the material parameters of NKN was evaluated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 150 °C. As a result, we figured out that dielectric constants and piezoelectric constants show a monotonous and isotropic increment with increasing temperature. On the other hand, elastic stiffness constant c 44 E of NKN significantly decreased in contrast to other elastic stiffness constants. It could be revealed that the decrement of c 44 E is associated with an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition. Furthermore, ratio of elastic compliance constants s 44 E / s 33 E exhibited similar temperature dependent behavior to the ratio of piezoelectric constants d15/d33. It is suspected that mechanical softness in shear direction is one origin of the large piezoelectric shear mode of NKN. Our results show that NKN are suitable for high temperature devices, and that the Inverse Method should be a helpful approach to characterize material parameters under their practical operating conditions for NKN.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Ca{sup 2+} substituted barium niobate nanopaticles for photocatalytic and luminescence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudhe, C.M. [Department of Physics, Government Institute of science, Nagpur 440001 (India); Nagdeote, S.B. [Department of Physics, Amolakchand Mahavidhyalaya, Yavatmal 445001 (India); Palikundwar, U.A., E-mail: chandraguptadudhe@gmail.com [Department of Physics, R. T. M. Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Ca{sup 2+} (30 mol%) substituted BaNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} were synthesized. • Ca{sup 2+} ions occupy newer 8d Wyckoff positions rather than 4c. • Self-activated photoluminescence was observed. • Excellent H{sub 2} generation tendency from pure water under UV light was also observed. - Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} substituted barium niobate i.e. Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (x = 0.3) compound in nanoparticles form was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method for the first time and its structural characterization has been done by using powder X-ray diffraction data. Other characterizations were done by using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (x = 0.3) compound stabilizes in the orthorhombic phase (Pbcn space group) with the lattice parameters a = 14.984 Å, b = 5.761 Å and c = 5.216 Å. A representative TEM image shows the irregular sphere like morphology of the synthesized particles with the size ranging from 70 to 120 nm. The optical band gap energy was found to be 3.74 eV. It was observed that the synthesized nanoparticles exhibit excellent H{sub 2} evolution tendency and self–activated photoluminescence under the excitation of UV light. These activities were assigned to the nanocrystalline nature of the synthesized material.

  14. Evidence for existence of functional monoclinic phase in sodium niobate based solid solution by powder neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jauhari, Mrinal; Mittal, R.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, V. R.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out systematic temperature-dependent neutron diffraction measurements in conjunction with dielectric spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K for sodium niobate based compounds (1-x) NaNbO3-xBaTiO3 (NNBTx). The dielectric constant is measured as a function of both temperature and frequency. It shows an anomaly at different temperatures in cooling and heating cycles and exhibits a large thermal hysteresis of ˜150 K for the composition x = 0.03. The dielectric constant is found to be dispersive in nature and suggests a relaxor ferroelectric behavior. In order to explore structural changes as a function of temperature, we analyzed the powder neutron diffraction data for the compositions x = 0.03 and 0.05. Drastic changes are observed in the powder profiles near 2θ ˜ 30.6°, 32.1°, and 34.6° in the diffraction pattern below 200 K during cooling and above 190 K in heating cycles, respectively. The disappearance of superlattice reflection and splitting in main perovskite peaks provide a signature for structural phase transition. We observed stabilization of a monoclinic phase (Cc) at low temperature. This monoclinic phase is believed to provide a flexible polarization rotation and considered to be directly linked to the high performance piezoelectricity in materials. The thermal hysteresis for composition x = 0.03 is larger than that for x = 0.05. This suggests that the addition of BaTiO3 to NaNbO3 suppresses the thermal hysteresis. It is also observed that the structural phase transition temperature decreases upon increasing the dopant concentration.

  15. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  16. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  17. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  19. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  20. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Palacios G, O.; Bosch G, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  1. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  2. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  3. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  4. Influence of electrical boundary conditions on profiles of acoustic field and electric potential of shear-horizontal acoustic waves in potassium niobate plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, I E; Nedospasov, I A; Kolesov, V V; Qian, Z; Wang, B; Zhu, F

    2018-05-01

    The profiles of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward shear-horizontal (SH) acoustic waves of a higher order propagating in X-Y potassium niobate plate have been theoretically investigated. It has been shown that by changing electrical boundary conditions on a surface of piezoelectric plates, it is possible to change the distributions of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward acoustic waves. The dependencies of the distribution of a mechanical displacement and electrical potential over the plate thickness for electrically open and electrically shorted plates have been plotted. The influence of a layer with arbitrary conductivity placed on a one or on the both plate surfaces on the profiles under study, phase and group velocities of the forward and backward acoustic waves in X-Y potassium niobate has been also investigated. The obtained results can be useful for development of the method for control of a particle or electrical charge movement inside the piezoelectric plates, as well a sensor for definition of the thin film conductivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lithium Pharmacogenetics: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Melis, Carla; Squassina, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 0.8-1.2% in the general population. Although lithium is considered the first-line treatment, a large percentage of patients do not respond sufficiently. Moreover, lithium can induce severe side effects and has poor tolerance and a narrow therapeutic index. The genetics of lithium response has been largely investigated, but findings have so far failed to identify reliable biomarkers to predict clinical response. This has been largely determined by the highly complex phenotipic and genetic architecture of lithium response. To this regard, collaborative initiatives hold the promise to provide robust and standardized methods to disantenagle this complexity, as well as the capacity to collect large samples of patietnts, a crucial requirement to study the genetics of complex phenotypes. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently published the largest study so far on lithium response reporting significant associations for two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This result provides relevant insights into the pharmacogenetics of lithium supporting the involvement of the noncoding portion of the genome in modulating clinical response. Although a vast body of research is engaged in dissecting the genetic bases of response to lithium, the several drawbacks of lithium therapy have also stimulated multiple efforts to identify new safer treatments. A drug repurposing approach identified ebselen as a potential lithium mimetic, as it shares with lithium the ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase. Ebselen, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase mimetic, represents a valid and promising example of new potential therapeutic interventions for BD, but the paucity of data warrant further investigation to elucidate its potential efficacy and safety in the management of BPD. Nevertheless, findings provided by the growing field of pharmacogenomic

  6. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  7. A consideration of lithium cell safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

  8. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  9. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  10. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  12. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  13. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  15. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  16. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use

  17. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  18. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  19. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  20. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  1. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  2. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  3. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid

  4. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  5. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  6. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  7. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  8. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  9. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  10. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  11. Suicide risk in patients treated with lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...

  12. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  13. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  14. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6 Li undergoes transmutation by the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7 Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  15. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  16. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  17. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    in which we developed an algorithm based on a 2-compartment distribution without elimination. The GFR estimate led to plasma concentrations 3-4 times lower than those anticipated. In contrast, the estimates based on V(d) and the algorithm derived from pharmacokinetic modeling led to comparable loading dose...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  18. Lithium concentration dependence of implanted helium retention in lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szocs, D.E., E-mail: szocsd@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szilagyi, E.; Bogdan, Cs.; Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Helium ions of 500 keV were implanted with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} into various lithium silicates to investigate whether a threshold level of helium retention exists in Li-containing silicate ceramics similar to that found in SiO{sub x} in previous work. The composition and phases of the as prepared lithium silicates were determined by proton backscattering spectrometry (p-BS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods with an average error of {+-}10%. Electrostatic charging of the samples was successfully eliminated by wrapping the samples in Al foil. The amounts of the retained helium within the samples were determined by subtracting the non-implanted spectra from the implanted ones. The experimental results show a threshold in helium retention depending on the Li concentration. Under 20 at.% all He is able to escape from the material; at around 30 at.% nearly half of the He, while over 65 at.% all implanted He is retained. With compositions expressed in SiO{sub 2} volume percentages, a trend similar to those reported of SiO{sub x} previously is found.

  19. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium?sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium?sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  20. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  1. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu.; Kuteev, Boris V.; Bykov, Aleksey S.; Krylov, Sergey V.; Skokov, Viacheslav G.; Timokhin, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 10 21 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 10 21 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  5. CRITIC-I: Instrumented lithium oxide irradiation: Part 1, Lithium oxide fabrication and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, D.S.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1987-06-01

    Fine-grained, sinterable lithium oxide powder was prepared by high-temperature vacuum calcination of molten lithium carbonate. The product was ball milled, cold pressed, and fired in an oxygen atmosphere. The fired density, grain size, and surface roughness varied widely with firing schedule. Most variations were attributed to moisture content. Rings of high-density, sintered lithium oxide will be used in an in-reactor experiment to measure tritium release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Thermochemical investigation of lithium-vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, S.E.; Kesler, Ya.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Gordeev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical investigation was carried out of lithium-vanadium bronzes. The enthalpies of solution and the standard enthalpies of formation of the bronzes β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5) were determined. Investigated was the dependence of the enthalpy of mixing bronzes on the composition; a linear character of the dependence evidences of negligibly small, as compared to the experimental error, energy variations of the matrix V 2 O 5 on introduction of lithium. The variation was calculated of the partial molar enthalpy of lithium in the formation of β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5)

  7. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  8. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  9. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  10. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  12. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  13. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  14. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  15. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted...... to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. RESULTS: Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non...

  16. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  17. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  18. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  19. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  20. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  1. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  2. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  3. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  4. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  5. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  6. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.) [pt

  7. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  8. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  10. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  11. Multiphoton Ionization of Laser Cooled Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmann, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    Reaction microscopes enable kinematically complete measurements of atomic and molecular fragmentation. An ultracold atomic target is usually provided by a supersonic gas jet. The apparatus developed in the course of this thesis for the first time combines the principle of the reaction microscope with a magneto-optical trap. This allows for the preparation of lithium atoms in the sub-mK range. Being a three-electron system, its simple atomic structure makes lithium a model system of great topi...

  12. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline wastewater * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metal s * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  13. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  15. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  16. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  17. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  18. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  19. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  20. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  1. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  2. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  3. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: akram@comp.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Shubhchintak, E-mail: shub.shubhchintak@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  4. Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Ishii, Y.; Fukai, K.; Watanabe, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Matsui, H.; Vollath, D.

    1993-11-01

    Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate (Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4]) and Al-doped Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] (Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4]) irradiated with oxygen ions was studied with ionic conductivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR PAS) and transmission electron microscopy. It was seen from the ionic conductivity measurements that lithium-ion vacancies were introduced as irradiation defects for Li-ions sites in both materials due to the irradiation. By the Raman spectroscopy, oxygen atoms in SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra were considered to be preferentially displaced due to the irradiation for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4], although only a decrease of the number of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra occurred for Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by displacement of both silicon and oxygen atoms. Decomposition of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra and formation of some new phases having Si-O-Si and Si-O bonds were found to take place for both Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] and Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by FT-IR PAS. In the electron microscopy, damage microstructure consisting of many voids or cavities and amorphization were observed for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] irradiated with oxygen ions. The recovery behavior of radiation damage mentioned above was also investigated. (author).

  5. Electron-stimulated desorption of lithium ions from lithium halide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of positive lithium ions from thin layers of lithium halides deposited onto Si(1 1 1) are investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The determined values of isotope effect of the lithium ( 6 Li + / 7 Li + ) are 1.60 ± 0.04, 1.466 ± 0.007, 1.282 ± 0.004, 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.33 ± 0.01 for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively. The observed most probable kinetic energies of 7 Li + are 1.0, 1.9, 1.1, 0.9 and 0.9 eV for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively, and seem to be independent of the halide component mass. The values of lithium ion emission yield, lithium kinetic energy and lithium isotope effect suggest that the lattice relaxation is only important in the lithium ion desorption process from the LiH system. In view of possible mechanisms and processes involved into lithium ion desorption the obtained results indicate that for LiH, LiCl, LiBr and LiI the ions desorb in a rather classical way. However, for LiF, ion desorption has a more quantum character and the modified wave packet squeezing model has to be taken into account

  6. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 224 0 C and 843 0 C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 327 0 C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 350 0 C and 600 0 C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  8. In 2015 Lithium Price Tripled,Lithium Battery is In a Draught of the Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    According to'Report on Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategy Analysis of China Power Lithium Battery Industry'of the Qianzhan Industry Institute,currently lithium demand is mainly concentrated in mobile battery and glass,lubricating oil markets,whose percentage is up to 85%,market share of electric vehicle and ESS energy backup system

  9. An improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  10. Improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-01-15

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  11. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  12. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  13. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge to perform a harmful action), and certain mental illnesses in children. Talk to your doctor ... for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  14. Effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W P; Hampson, N A; Packer, R K

    1988-09-01

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 C and at 70 C at a rate of 50 mA/sq cm. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples. 25 references.

  15. Application of neutron radiography to visualize the distribution of lithium in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Sigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have tried to visualize the motion of lithium ions in lithium ion conductors such as Li 1.33 Ti 1.67 O 4 at high temperatures using neutron radiography (NR) technique and confirmed that NR is very effective to the 6 Li containing systems. This means NR may be used as a non-destructive investigating method to study the electrode reactions and the mass transfer in lithium batteries. Here in this work, it was tried to visualize the distribution of lithium in commercial lithium batteries before and after discharge using NR technique. Obtained NR images will be presented with brief explanation on NR method. Further explanations on the principle of NR and on the NR facilities were presented elsewhere. (J.P.N.)

  16. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  17. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  18. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  19. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  20. Lithium- an update on the mechanisms of action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    rons depending on the level of their activity.4 Lithium thus seems to .... clear that MARCKS is crucial in neuronal growth and brain ... lithium's activity is predominantly confined to the left fron- ... This ranges from neurotransmitter production right.