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Sample records for near-neutral ph soil

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of X70 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, B.Y.; Wang, J.Q.; Han, E.H.; Zhu, Z.Y.; Ke, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang (China). State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Inst. of Metal Research

    2004-07-01

    Near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is characterized by wide transgranular cracks with quasi-cleavage on the fracture surface, and there is usually little evidence of general or lateral corrosion. Near-neutral pH SCC is related to dissolution and hydrogen ingress into steel pipes because discharged atomic hydrogen can enter the steel so that cracks are initiated or grown by a combination of dissolution and hydrogen-embrittlement. In this study, the SCC cracking behaviour of an X70 pipeline was investigated using slow strain rate tests (SSRT) and cyclic loading at high R and low frequency in a near-neutral pH soil solution saturated with 5 per cent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and 95 per cent nitrogen (N{sub 2}). Potentiodynamic polarization analyses and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) analyses were also conducted in order to examine the effect of the concentration of bicarbonate, bubbled gas and the addition of chloride ions on polarization behaviour. Results of the SSRT tests showed that transgranular SCC occurred in the soil solution. Crack initiation was associated with pitting. The pipe's susceptibility to SCC increased with decreases in applied electrochemical potential and strain rate. Cyclic loading tests showed that crack propagation processes were dominated by SCC. At high R and low frequencies, SCC was observed on fatigued, pre-cracked specimens. Results of the electrochemical tests showed that polarization behaviours were influenced by the concentrations of bicarbonate, bubbled gas, and the addition of chloride ions. It was concluded that the addition of chloride ion can influence film stability on pipeline specimen surfaces. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Near-neutral pH Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation under Simulated Coating Disbondment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Abdoulmajid

    This research is aimed at understanding near-neutral pH SCC initiation under disbonded coatings of pipeline steels, and the effect of different environmental and operational factors on crack initiation. Understanding near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) could answer many of the primary questions on crack initiation of SCC which have not yet been answered. It could also assist the development of effective mitigative measures dealing with thousands of kilometer of pipelines containing this form of cracking, in addition to preventive action for future pipeline installations. Near-neutral pH SCC usually occurs under polyethylene tape (PE tape) coated pipelines, at locations where the coating becomes disbonded and/or damaged. Ground water can then penetrate under the damaged/disbonded coating, become trapped and form a suitable environment for corrosion and cracking. Despite extensive studies on this topic the details of crack initiation mechanisms in addition to the exact role of environmental and operational factors on crack initiation are not thoroughly understood. Most previous laboratory tests have been done in aggressive loading conditions and ignored the effect of coatings and cathodic protections (CP). In order to simulate the conditions responsible for crack initiation, a novel testing setup capable of simulating the synergistic effects of coating disbondment, cathodic protection and cyclic loading was implemented. Using this setup and long term laboratory tests near-neutral pH SCC initiation mechanisms and the effect of some environmental and operational factors on crack initiation were investigated. It was found that near-neutral pH SCC initiation does not necessarily occur in near-neutral pH environments as commonly believed. Depending on the level of CP and CO2 in the underground environment, different localized environments with varying pH values from near-neutral to high values above 10 can form under the disbonded coatings. This significantly

  3. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage.

  4. Formation of uranium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreissig, Isabell; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Bernhard, Gert; Zänker, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is provided by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation that uranium(IV) can form silicate-containing colloids of a size of ⩽20 nm. A concentration of up to 10 -3 M of colloid-borne U(IV) was observed. The particles are generated in near-neutral to slightly alkaline solutions containing background chemicals of geogenic nature (carbonate, silicate, sodium ions). They remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. Electrostatic repulsion due to a negative zeta potential in the near-neutral to alkaline pH range caused by the silicate stabilizes the U(IV) colloids. The isoelectric point of the nanoparticles is shifted toward lower pH values by the silicate. The mechanism of the colloidal stabilization can be regarded as "sequestration" by silicate, a phenomenon well known from heavy metal ions of high ion potential such as iron(III) or manganese(III,IV), but never reported for uranium(IV) so far. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that U-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the U-O-U bonds of the amorphous uranium(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silicate concentrations, make up the internal structure of the colloids. The next-neighbor coordination of U(IV) in the U(IV)-silica colloids is comparable with that of coffinite, USiO 4. The assessment of uranium behavior in the aquatic environment should take the possible existence of U(IV)-silica colloids into consideration. Their occurrence might influence uranium migration in anoxic waters.

  5. Anodic Dissolution Behavior of the Crack Tip of X70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhongyu; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the anodic dissolution behavior of the fresh metal surface at crack tip of X70 steel in near-neutral pH environment was investigated using galvanic corrosion simulation method. The solution environment, strain, strain rate, hydrogen enrichment, and fresh metal surface at the crack tip were considered. Corrosion current of the specimen during fast stretching increased linearly with plastic strain. The increment and increase rate of the corrosion current during plastic deformation stage were dependent on the strain rate. Combining Faraday's law and crack tip strain rate equation, the crack growth rate (CGR) induced by the anodic dissolution of the fresh metal surface was calculated. Results show that CGR caused by anodic dissolution was roughly one order lower than that measured on the compact tensile specimen under cyclic load. This finding indicated that hydrogen embrittlement may play a dominate role in stress corrosion crack propagation of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH environment.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour in welded X-70 linepipe steel under near-neutral pH conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeleke, A.H.; Luo, J.L.; Ivey, D.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between the near neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance and the yield strength of pipelines steels. In particular, double-edge-notched flat tensile samples of X70 steel were used for both slow strain-rate testing (SSRT) and cyclic loading testing with the notch located in the zone of interest. This included the weld metal (WM), base metal (BM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ). In all samples, the mode of failure was mostly transgranular with cleavage facets around the edges of the fracture surface. One of the objectives of this study was to better understand the microstructural effect of the relationship. The 3 main parameters that were used to assess the SCC susceptibility in a near-neutral pH environment were the elongation ratio, the estimated percentage of the fracture surface that showed brittle fractures, and the relative crack growth at a given exposure time. It was shown that resistance to near-neutral pH SCC depends greatly on the microstructure of the pipeline steels. Fine-grained bainite and ferrite structured steels were found to have a much better combination of strength and SCC resistance compared to ferrite and pearlite structures. The high-to-low sensitivity ranking of the X70 linepipe steel to SCC was established to be: WM is greater than HAZ which is greater than BM. 20 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  7. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  8. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  9. Experimental study on SCC susceptibility of X60 steel using full pipe sections in near-neutral pH environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.A. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Zheng, W.; Williams, G.; Laronde, M.; Gianetto, J.A.; Shen, G.; Tyson, W.R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab; Oguchi, N.; Hosokawa, Y. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Pipeline Dept.

    2004-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can occur in steel pipelines in near-neutral pH environments. The minimum stress levels required to initiate and grow SCC are not well understood. In this study, SCC tests were performed using a pipe section buried in a clay type of soil with a near-neutral pH value. The aim of the study was to aid in safety assessments of existing pipelines buried where large ground subsidences may occur. Pipe specimens with various sizes of fatigue pre-cracks were subjected to cyclic loading tests. The maximum hoop stress level was 105 per cent SMYS with an R-value of 0.5. Crack growth rates from fatigue crack tips were estimated at 10-15 mm/s. Fractographic and metallographic examinations were then conducted to determine the quasi-cleavage character of the transgranular SCC. A direct current potential drop (DCPD) was used to monitor the crack depth during the SCC test. The technique was based on the measurement of local-field electrical resistance of a crack site. The metallographic studies revealed the existence of micro-cracks associated with MnS inclusions in the highly strained field ahead of the initial crack tips. Results of the studies suggested that the high crack growth rates were caused by MnS inclusions. The loading rate was then calculated for each individual crack condition in order to correlate crack growth rates with loading rates. Non-linear finite element method analyses for semi-elliptical cracks based on stress-strain relationships obtained from tensile tests of an X60 steel specimen were then conducted to obtain J-integrals. Results of the study showed that there was a linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the loading rate. It was also concluded that cracking initiation was related to MnS inclusions. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 25 figs.

  10. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Cracking Behaviour of X-70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao GUO; Guangfu LI; Xun CAI; Ruipeng YANG; Wu YANG

    2005-01-01

    The cracking behaviour of X-70 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH solutions was studied under different modes of cyclic loading. The crack propagation process of X-70 pipeline steel under low frequency cyclic loading condition was controlled mainly by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanism. Under mixed-mode cyclic loading, both higher tensile stress and shear stress made cracks easier to propagate. Applied cathodic potentials and high content of carbon dioxide in solutions also promoted the propagation of cracks. The propagation directions of cracks were different under different cyclic loading conditions. Under mode I (pure tensile stress) cyclic loading condition, cracks were straight and perpendicular to the tensile stress axis, while under mixed-mode Ⅰ/Ⅲ (tensile/shear stress) cyclic loading,cracks were sinuous and did not propagate in the direction perpendicular to the main tensile stress axis. Under the mixed-mode cyclic loading, cracks were much easier to propagate, suggesting that shear stress intensified the role of tensile stress. In addition, shear stress promoted the interaction between cracks, resulting in easier coalescence of cracks.

  11. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-04-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  12. Electrolyte Engineering Toward Efficient Hydrogen Production Electrocatalysis with Oxygen-crossover Regulation under Densely Buffered Near-neutral pH Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-12-30

    This study tackles the core issues associated with near-neutral pH water splitting, particularly regarding electrolyte engineering in the electrocatalysis and product cross-over. We demonstrate that solute engineering has a major impact on water splitting electrocatalysis because the diffusion component, often not well integrated into performance descriptions, largely determines the overall performance. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigated on Pt, Ni and NiMo catalysts in various concentrations of cations (Li+, K+, Na+) and anions (H2PO4−, HPO42−, PO43− and HCO3−) to describe its performance by quantifying kinetics, diffusion and solution resistance. In fact, the choice of electrolyte in terms of its identity and activity drastically altered the HER rate and oxygen mass-transport flux at near-neutral pH. Electrolyte properties (activity coefficient, kinematic viscosity and diffusion coefficient) accurately described the diffusion contribution, which can be easily isolated when a highly active Pt catalyst was used for the HER. By analyzing these properties, we maximized the HER rate on the Pt by tuning the solute concentration (typically 1.5 – 2.0 M). Moreover, the kinematic viscosity and oxygen solubility in such densely buffered conditions governed the oxygen mass-transport flux in the electrolyte, which in turn tuned the cross-over flux. At near-neutral pH, as high as 90 % selectivity toward the HER was achieved even under an oxygen saturated condition, where only a 40 mV overpotential was needed to achieve 10 mA cm−2 for the HER. This information can be regarded as an important milestone for achieving a highly efficient water splitting system at near-neutral pH.

  13. New Insight into the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction under Buffered Near-Neutral pH Conditions: Enthalpy and Entropy of Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2016-10-06

    Electrochemical conversion of thermodynamically stable chemicals of water and carbon dioxide is regarded as a core technology for achieving sustainability in our society. In both cases, the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a key reaction, particularly at near-neutral pH. This study addresses the kinetic aspects of the HER in buffered near-neutral pH conditions using a variety of electrode materials (W, Ni, Pt, Au, and Cu) over a wide temperature range (299–346 K). When the overall performance was summarized with respect to the binding energy of the reaction intermediate species, a classic volcano-shaped relationship was obtained. Interestingly, the temperature sensitivity analysis disclosed that smaller activation energies did not always lead to higher performance in 1.5 mol L–1 K-phosphate solution (pH 5.8). Detailed analysis of the temperature- and potential-dependent parameters revealed that smaller activation energies coincided with smaller values of the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius’ equation (associated with the entropy of activation). Due to the trade-off relationship of enthalpy–entropy compensation in the current system, the conventional approach of mixing elements of lower and higher binding energies to the intermediate species failed: even though Ni–Cu showed lower apparent activation energy, its activity toward the HER was between that of Ni and Cu due to the lowered entropy of activation. This study demonstrates the unrevealed fundamental aspects of the HER in buffered near-neutral condition, which contributes to the rational development of efficient energy and material conversion systems.

  14. Stress Corrosion Cracking of X80 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment under Constant Load Tests with and without Preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Jia; J.Q. Wang; E.H. Han; W. Ke1

    2011-01-01

    Constant load tests in NS4 solution purged with N2-5%CO2 gas mixture were conducted on American Petroleum Institute (API) X80 pipeline steel applied in the 2nd West-East (;as Pipeline project with and without preload. The results show that cracks could initiate and propagate in X80 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH environment under a constant load condition. The life of crack initiation and propagation increased with decreasing applied stress. Preload did not change its corrosion behavior obviously. However, preload reduced the time for crack initiation.

  15. Optimizing buffering chemistry to maintain near neutral pH of broiler feed during pre-enrichment for Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Cosby, D E; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, K E

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a human pathogen that can accompany live broilers to the slaughter plant, contaminating fully processed carcasses. Feed is one potential source of Salmonella to growing broilers. Monitoring feed for the presence of Salmonella is part of good agricultural practice. The first step in culturing feed for Salmonella (which may be at low numbers and sub-lethally stressed) is to add it to a pre-enrichment broth which is incubated for 24 h. During the course of pre-enrichment, extraneous bacteria metabolize carbohydrates in some feed and excrete acidic byproducts, causing the pH to drop dramatically. An acidic pre-enrichment pH can injure or kill Salmonella resulting in a failure to detect, even if it is present and available to infect chickens. The objective of this study was to test an array of buffering chemistries to prevent formation of an injurious acidic environment during pre-enrichment of feed in peptone water. Five grams of feed were added to 45 mL of peptone water buffered with carbonate, Tris pH 8, and phosphate buffering ingredients individually and in combination. Feed was subjected to a pre-enrichment at 35°C for 24 h; pH was measured at 0, 18, and 24 h. Standard phosphate buffering ingredients at concentrations up to 4 times the normal formulation were unable to fully prevent acidic conditions. Likewise, carbonate and Tris pH 8 were not fully effective. The combination of phosphate, carbonate, and Tris pH 8 was the most effective buffer tested. It is recommended that a highly buffered pre-enrichment broth be used to examine feed for the presence of Salmonella.

  16. Common Distribution of gad Operon in Lactobacillus brevis and its GadA Contributes to Efficient GABA Synthesis toward Cytosolic Near-Neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Law, Yee-Song; Khafipour, Ehsan; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2017-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have exhibited strain-specific capacity to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via their glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system, which is one of amino acid-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems in bacteria. However, the linkage between bacterial AR and GABA production capacity has not been well established. Meanwhile, limited evidence has been provided to the global diversity of GABA-producing LAB and bifidobacteria, and their mechanisms of efficient GABA synthesis. In this study, genomic survey identified common distribution of gad operon-encoded GAD system in Lactobacillus brevis for its GABA production among varying species of LAB and bifidobacteria. Importantly, among four commonly distributed amino acid-dependent AR systems in Lb. brevis, its GAD system was a major contributor to maintain cytosolic pH homeostasis by consuming protons via GABA synthesis. This highlights that Lb. brevis applies GAD system as the main strategy against extracellular and intracellular acidification demonstrating its high capacity of GABA production. In addition, the abundant GadA retained its activity toward near-neutral pH (pH 5.5–6.5) of cytosolic acidity thus contributing to efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. This is the first global report illustrating species-specific characteristic and mechanism of efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. PMID:28261168

  17. Propagated fixed-bed mixed-acid fermentation: effect of volatile solid loading rate and agitation at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Kristina W; Golub, Stacey R; Meysing, Daniel M; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    To increase conversion and product concentration, mixed-acid fermentation can use a countercurrent strategy where solids and liquids pass in opposite directions through a series of fermentors. To limit the requirement for moving solids, this study employed a propagated fixed-bed fermentation, where solids were stationary and only liquid was transferred. To evaluate the role of agitation, continuous mixing was compared with periodic mixing. The periodically mixed fermentation had similar conversion, but lower yield and selectivity. Increasing volatile solid loading rate from 1.5 to 5.1g non-acid volatile solids/(L(liq)·d) and increasing liquid retention time decreased yield, conversion, selectivity, but increased product concentrations. Compared to a previous study at high pH (~9), this study achieved higher performance at near neutral pH (~6.5) and optimal C-N ratios. Compared to countercurrent fermentation, propagated fixed-bed fermentations have similar selectivities and produce similar proportions of acetic acid, but have lower yields, conversion, productivities, and acid concentrations.

  18. Methods for accelerating nitrate reduction using zerovalent iron at near-neutral pH: effects of H2-reducing pretreatment and copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y H; Lo, S L; Lin, C I; Hu, C Y; Kuan, W H; Weng, S C

    2005-12-15

    Both surface treatments, H2-reducing pretreatment at 400 degrees C and the deposition of copper as a catalyst, were attempted to enhance the removal of nitrate (40 (mg N) L(-1)) using zerovalent iron in a HEPES buffered solution at a pH of between 6.5 and 7.5. After the iron surface was pretreated with hydrogen gas, the removal of the passive oxide layers that covered the iron was indicated by the decline in the oxygen fraction (energy dispersive X-ray analysis) and the overlap of the cyclic polarization curves. The reaction rate was doubled, and the lag of the early period disappeared. Then, the deposition of copper onto freshly pretreated iron promoted nitrate degradation more effectively than that onto a nonpretreated iron surface, because of the high dispersion and small size of the copper particles. An optimum of 0.25-0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe accelerated the rate by more than six times that of the nonpretreated iron. The aged 0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe with continual dipping in nitrate solution for 20 days completely restored its reactivity by a regeneration process with H2 reduction. Hence, these two iron surface treatments considerably promoted the removal of nitrate from near-neutral water; the reactivity of Cu/Fe was effectively recovered.

  19. Crack Growth Modeling and Life Prediction of Pipeline Steels Exposed to Near-Neutral pH Environments: Stage II Crack Growth and Overall Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaxi; Chen, Weixing; Yu, Mengshan; Chevil, Karina; Eadie, Reg; Been, Jenny; Van Boven, Greg; Kania, Richard; Keane, Sean

    2017-04-01

    This investigation was initiated to provide governing equations for crack initiation, crack growth, and service life prediction of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH (NNpH) environments. This investigation develops a predictive model considering loading interactions occurring during oil and gas pipeline operation with underload-type variable pressure fluctuations. This method has predicted lifetimes comparable to the actual service lives found in the field. This is in sharp contrast with the predictions made by existing methods that are either conservative or inconsistent with the field observations. It has been demonstrated that large slash loads ( R-ratio is 0.05), often seen during gas pipeline operation, are a major life-limiting factor and should be avoided where possible. Oil pipelines have shorter lifetime because of their more frequent pressure fluctuations and larger amplitude load cycles. The accuracy of prediction can be improved if pressure data with appropriate sampling intervals are used. The sampling interval error is much larger in the prediction of oil pipelines than gas pipelines because of their different compressibility but is minimized if the pressure sampling rate for the data is at or less than one minute.

  20. Thermolytic release of covalently linked DNA oligonucleotides and their conjugates from controlled-pore glass at near neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajkowski, Andrzej; Cieślak, Jacek; Kauffman, Jon S; Duff, Robert J; Norris, Scott; Freedberg, Darón I; Beaucage, Serge L

    2008-08-01

    The functionalization of long chain alkylamine controlled-pore glass (CPG) with a 3-hydroxypropyl-(2-cyanoethyl)thiophosphoryl linker and its conversion to the support 7 has led to the synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides and their 3'- or (3',5')-conjugates. Indeed, CPG support 7 has been successfully employed in the synthesis of both native and fully phosphorothioated DNA 20-mers. Unlike conventional succinylated CPG supports, this distinctively functionalized support allows oligonucleotide deprotection and removal of the deprotection side products to proceed without releasing the oligonucleotide into the aqueous milieu. When freed from deprotection side products, the DNA oligonucleotide is thermolytically released from the support within 2 h under nearly neutral conditions (pH 7.2, 90 degrees C). The quality of these oligonucleotides is comparable to that of identical oligonucleotides synthesized from succinylated CPG supports in terms of shorter than full length oligonucleotide contaminants and overall yields. The versatility of the thermolytic CPG support 7 is further demonstrated by the synthesis of a DNA oligonucleotide (20-mer) and its conjugation with an azido and alkynyl groups at both 5'-and 3'-termini, respectively. The functionality of the (3',5')-heteroconjugated oligonucleotide 18 is verified by its circularization to the DNA oligonucleotide 19 under "click" chemistry conditions.

  1. Enhanced Al and Zn removal from coal-mine drainage during rapid oxidation and precipitation of Fe oxides at near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Jill E.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Net-alkaline, anoxic coal-mine drainage containing ∼20 mg/L FeII and ∼0.05 mg/L Al and Zn was subjected to parallel batch experiments: control, aeration (Aer 1 12.6 mL/s; Aer 2 16.8 mL/s; Aer 3 25.0 mL/s), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to test the hypothesis that aeration increases pH, FeII oxidation, hydrous FeIII oxide (HFO) formation, and trace-metal removal through adsorption and coprecipitation with HFO. During 5.5-hr field experiments, pH increased from 6.4 to 6.7, 7.1, 7.6, and 8.1 for the control, Aer 1, Aer 2, and Aer 3, respectively, but decreased to 6.3 for the H2O2 treatment. Aeration accelerated removal of dissolved CO2, Fe, Al, and Zn. In Aer 3, dissolved Al was completely removed within 1 h, but increased to ∼20% of the initial concentration after 2.5 h when pH exceeded 7.5. H2O2 promoted rapid removal of all dissolved Fe and Al, and 13% of dissolved Zn.Kinetic modeling with PHREEQC simulated effects of aeration on pH, CO2, Fe, Zn, and Al. Aeration enhanced Zn adsorption by increasing pH and HFO formation while decreasing aqueous CO2 available to form ZnCO30 and Zn(CO3)22− at high pH. Al concentrations were inconsistent with solubility control by Al minerals or Al-containing HFO, but could be simulated by adsorption on HFO at pH pH where Al(OH)4− was predominant. Thus, aeration or chemical oxidation with pH adjustment to ∼7.5 could be effective for treating high-Fe and moderate-Zn concentrations, whereas chemical oxidation without pH adjustment may be effective for treating high-Fe and moderate-Al concentrations.

  2. Crack Growth Modeling and Life Prediction of Pipeline Steels Exposed to Near-Neutral pH Environments: Dissolution Crack Growth and Occurrence of Crack Dormancy in Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaxi; Chen, Weixing; Yu, Mengshan; Chevil, Karina; Eadie, Reg; Van Boven, Greg; Kania, Richard; Been, Jenny; Keane, Sean

    2017-04-01

    This investigation was initiated to provide governing equations for crack initiation, crack growth, and service life prediction of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH (NNpH) environments. This investigation has focused on the crack initiation and early-stage crack growth. The investigation considered a wide range of conditions that could lead to crack initiation, crack dormancy, and crack transition from a dormant state to active growth. It is concluded that premature rupture caused by stress cracking at a service life of about 20 to 30 years previously observed during field operation could take place only when the worst conditions responsible for crack initiation and growth have been realized concurrently at the site of rupture. This also explains the reason that over 95 pct of NNpH cracks remain harmless, while about 1 pct of them become a threat to the integrity of pipeline steels.

  3. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowires at near-neutral pH conditions without hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA): understanding the role of HMTA in ZnO nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Kevin M; Le, Thinh P; Britton, Nathan G; Nickolov, Zhorro S; Elabd, Yossef A; Baxter, Jason B

    2011-04-05

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is an inexpensive and reproducible method for depositing ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas. The aqueous Zn(NO(3))(2)-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) chemistry is one of the most common CBD chemistries for ZnO nanowire synthesis, but some details of the reaction mechanism are still not well-understood. Here, we report the use of in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to study HMTA adsorption from aqueous solutions onto ZnO nanoparticle films and show that HMTA does not adsorb on ZnO. This result refutes earlier claims that the anisotropic morphology arises from HMTA adsorbing onto and capping the ZnO {10 1 0} faces. We conclude that the role of HMTA in the CBD of ZnO nanowires is only to control the saturation index of ZnO. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first deposition of ZnO nanowire arrays at 90 °C and near-neutral pH conditions without HMTA. Nanowires were grown using the pH buffer 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) and continuous titratation with KOH to maintain the same pH conditions where growth with HMTA occurs. This semi-batch synthetic method opens many new opportunities to tailor the ZnO morphology and properties by independently controlling temperature and pH.

  4. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  5. Soil redox and pH effects on methane production in a flooded rice soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.P.; DeLaune, R.D.; Masscheleyn, P.H.; Patrick, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Methane formation in soil is a microbiological process controlled by many factors. Of them soil redox potential (Eh) and soil pH are considered as critical controls. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to study the critical initiation soil Eh, the optimum soil pH, and the interaction of Eh and pH on methane production. A small decrease in pH resulting from the introduction of acidic materials significantly decreased methane production. However, a slight increase in soil pH (about 0.2 unit higher than the natural soil suspension pH) resulted in an enhancement of methane production by 11-20 percent and 24-25 percent at controlled Eh of -250 mV and -200 mV, respectively. Results suggest that decrease in methane emission could be obtained by a small reduction in soil pH in Crowley soil.

  6. Mapping Soil pH Buffering Capacity of Selected Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, A. R.; Kissel, D. E.; Chen, F.; West, L. T.; Adkins, W.; Rickman, D.; Luvall, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity, since it varies spatially within crop production fields, may be used to define sampling zones to assess lime requirement, or for modeling changes in soil pH when acid forming fertilizers or manures are added to a field. Our objective was to develop a procedure to map this soil property. One hundred thirty six soil samples (0 to 15 cm depth) from three Georgia Coastal Plain fields were titrated with calcium hydroxide to characterize differences in pH buffering capacity of the soils. Since the relationship between soil pH and added calcium hydroxide was approximately linear for all samples up to pH 6.5, the slope values of these linear relationships for all soils were regressed on the organic C and clay contents of the 136 soil samples using multiple linear regression. The equation that fit the data best was b (slope of pH vs. lime added) = 0.00029 - 0.00003 * % clay + 0.00135 * % O/C, r(exp 2) = 0.68. This equation was applied within geographic information system (GIS) software to create maps of soil pH buffering capacity for the three fields. When the mapped values of the pH buffering capacity were compared with measured values for a total of 18 locations in the three fields, there was good general agreement. A regression of directly measured pH buffering capacities on mapped pH buffering capacities at the field locations for these samples gave an r(exp 2) of 0.88 with a slope of 1.04 for a group of soils that varied approximately tenfold in their pH buffering capacities.

  7. Data on soil PH of Barddhaman district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanta Bid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PH (Puissance de Hydrogen is an essential ingredient of soil that effects on fertility and productivity of dirt. Barddhaman district is a part of Lower Gangetic Plain fully covered by alluvial soil and popularly known as ‘rice bowl of West Bengal’ owing to its lofty production. This data article provides a block level data on soil PH that is essential for further investigation of the relationship among soil ph, plant growth, plant health and productivity. This data is valuable in the field of soil geography and soil science. Soil PH data is more relevant in the ground of plant biology, agricultural geography and agricultural science. It helps to explain the acidic and alkaline nature of alluvial soil. The data consist of 195 samples (n=195 taken from the entire district. Samples have been collected from March, 2014 to March, 2015 and experimented in the laboratory. Theoretically PH value is limited within 0–14. Experiment result exemplifies the highest value 8.5 found in Khandaghosh block whereas lowest value is 4.5 and the samples which result in lowest value are gathered from 4 different blocks like Manteswar, Burdwan - II, Barabani and Salanpur.

  8. Continuous Mapping of Soil pH Using Digital Soil Mapping Approach in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro Gardi; Yusuf Yigini

    2012-01-01

    Soil pH is one of the most important chemical parameters of soil, playing an essential role on the agricultural production and on the distribution of plants and soil biota communities. It is the expression of soil genesis that in turns is a function of soil forming factors and influences all the chemical, physical and biological processes that occur in the soil. Thus it shapes the entire soil ecosystem. Due to any of the above reasons, mapping of soil pH becomes very important to provide harm...

  9. Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanna, Sathish; Peacock, Caroline L.; Schäffner, Franziska; Grawunder, Anja; Merten, Dirk; Kothe, Erika; Büchel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides at acidic pH is rarely reported and poorly understood, compared to biogenic Mn oxide precipitation at near neutral conditions. Here we identified and investigated the precipitation of biogenic Mn oxides in acidic soil, and studied their role in the retention of heavy metals, at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, Germany. The site is characterized by acidic pH, low carbon content and high heavy metal loads including rare earth elements. Specifically, the Mn oxides were present in layers identified by detailed soil profiling and within these layers pH varied from 4.7 to 5.1, Eh varied from 640 to 660 mV and there were enriched total metal contents for Ba, Ni, Co, Cd and Zn in addition to high Mn levels. Using electron microprobe analysis, synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we identified poorly crystalline birnessite (δ-MnO2) as the dominant Mn oxide in the Mn layers, present as coatings covering and cementing quartz grains. With geochemical modelling we found that the environmental conditions at the site were not favourable for chemical oxidation of Mn(II), and thus we performed 16S rDNA sequencing to isolate the bacterial strains present in the Mn layers. Bacterial phyla present in the Mn layers belonged to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and from these phyla we isolated six strains of Mn(II) oxidizing bacteria and confirmed their ability to oxidise Mn(II) in the laboratory. The biogenic Mn oxide layers act as a sink for metals and the bioavailability of these metals was much lower in the Mn layers than in adjacent layers, reflecting their preferential sorption to the biogenic Mn oxide. In this presentation we will report our findings, concluding that the formation of natural biogenic poorly crystalline birnessite can occur at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of a biogeochemical barrier which, in turn, can control the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in

  10. Soil pH effect on phosphate induced cadmium precipitation in Arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang Oh; Owens, Vance N; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Hyean Cheal; Kim, Keun Ki; Son, Hong Joo; Suh, Jeong Min; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine soil pH conditions that allow cadmium (Cd) to precipitate as Cd minerals in phosphate (P) amended soil. Cadmium immobilization could be attributed primarily to Cd adsorption due to increase in pH and negative charge. Soil pH might not affect Cd precipitation as Cd3(PO4)2 by direct reaction of Cd and P in the studied soil, even when soil pH increased up to 9.0. However, Cd might precipitate as CdCO3 with increasing pH up to 9.0 in P untreated soil and up to 8.0 in P treated soil depending on CO2 level.

  11. Biochar contribution to soil pH buffer capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Krebstein, Kadri; Utso, Maarius; Rodima, Ako; Kolli, Raimo; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    Biochar as ecologically clean and stable form of carbon has complex of physical and chemical properties which make it a potentially powerful soil amendment (Mutezo, 2013). Therefore during the last decade the biochar application as soil amendment has been a matter for a great number of investigations. For the ecological viewpoint the trend of decreasing of soil organic matter in European agricultural land is a major problem. Society is faced with the task to find possibilities to stabilize or increase soil organic matter content in soil and quality. The availability of different functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic, acidic, alcoholic, amine, amide) allows soil organic matter to buffer over a wide range of soil pH values (Krull et al. 2004). Therefore the loss of soil organic matter also reduces cation exchange capacity resulting in lower nutrient retention (Kimetu et al. 2008). Biochar can retain elements in soil directly through the negative charge that develops on its surfaces, and this negative charge can buffer acidity in the soil. There are lack of investigations about the effect of biochar to soil pH buffering properties, The aim of our investigation was to investigate the changes in soil pH buffer capacity in a result of addition of carbonizated material to temperate region soils. In the experiment different kind of softwood biochars, activated carbon and different soil types with various organic matter and pH were used. The study soils were Albeluvisols, Leptosols, Cambisols, Regosols and Histosols . In the experiment the series of the soil: biochar mixtures with the biochar content 0 to 100% were used. The times of equiliberation between solid and liquid phase were from 1 to 168 hours. The suspension of soil: biochar mixtures was titrated with HCl solution. The titration curves were established and pH buffer capacities were calculated for the pH interval from 3.0 to 10.0. The results demonstrate the dependence of pH buffer capacity from soil type

  12. Effect of soil pH on sorption of salinomycin in clay and sandy soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Full Length Research Paper. Effect of ... In this study, sorption of salinomycin was measured in four agricultural soils, a clay soil with low organic ... Key words: Salinomycin, sorption, pH, desorption, environmental pollution, phosphate buffer.

  13. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in the near neutral media by blends of tannin and calcium gluconate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahodny-Sarc, O.; Kapor, F. [Mining, Geology and Petrol. Eng. Dept., Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-04-01

    The efficiency of tannin/calcium gluconate blends, as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in near neutral water media, have been studied. Synergistic behaviour of two components blend of different concentrations has been demonstrated in solutions prepared with distilled and a tap water. The anodic character of the inhibitor was recognised by the shift of corrosion potential to more positive values and a decrease of the passivation current on potentiodynamic polarisation curves. The cathodic inhibition was also recognised by slowing down the cathodic current of the polarisation run. Soluble iron tannate chelate has been observed as a dark blue flux flowing down from the metal surface into solution of tannin in the tap water, resulting in a corrosion process. Tannin decreases the pH of tap water. Calcium gluconate added in tannin solutions increases the pH maintaining it in the near neutral region enabling the precipitation of a low soluble protective iron tannate and metal gluconate. (orig.)

  14. Simulation of pyrite oxidation in fresh mine tailings under near-neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakangas, Lena; Lundberg, Angela; Nason, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Sulphidic residual products from ore processing may produce acid rock drainage, when exposed to oxygen and water. Predictions of the magnitude of ARD and sulphide oxidation rates are of great importance in mine planning because they can be used to minimize or eliminate ARD and the associated economic and environmental costs. To address the lack of field data of sulphide oxidation rate in fresh sulphide-rich tailings under near-neutral conditions, determination and simulation of the rate was performed in pilot-scale at Kristineberg, northern Sweden. The quality of the drainage water was monitored, along with oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. The chemical composition of the solid tailings was also determined. The field data were compared to predictions from simulations of pyrite oxidation using a 1-D numerical model. The simulations' estimates of the amount of Fe and S released over a seven year period (52 kg and 178 kg, respectively) were in reasonably good agreement with those obtained by analysing the tailings (34 kg and 155 kg, respectively). The discrepancy is probably due to the formation of secondary precipitates such as iron hydroxides and gypsum; which are not accounted for in the model. The observed mass transport of Fe and S (0.05 and 1.0 kg per year, respectively) was much lower than expected on the basis of the simulations and the core data. Neutralization reactions involving carbonates in the tailings result in a near-neutral pH at all depths except at the oxidation front (pH < 5), indicating that the dissolution of carbonates was too slow for the acid to be neutralized, which instead neutralized deeper down in the tailings. This was also indicated by the reduced abundance of solid Ca at greater depths and the high levels of carbon dioxide both of which are consistent with the dissolution of carbonates. It could be concluded that the near-neutral pH in the tailings has no decreasing effect on the rate of sulphide oxidation, but does reduce the

  15. Effect of Soil pH on Nematicide Efficacy on Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of selected nematicides under different soil pH regimes in a sandy soil, soil pH ranges were achieved by adding lime or sulfur. Nematicides increased soybean yields, and their efficacy was generally not influenced by soil pH. Belonolaimus longicaudatus was negatively correlated (r = -0.58, P = 0.01) with yield in 1977.

  16. Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplain, V.; Défossez, P.; Delarue, G.; Dexter, A. R.; Richard, G.; Tessier, D.

    2009-04-01

    Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties ? V. Chaplain1, P. Défossez2, G. Delarue1, A.R. Dexter3, G. Richard3 and D. Tessier1. 1 UR INRA PESSAC RD 10, F-78026 Versailles cedex 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 3 UR INRA Sols 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin - CS 40001 ARDON F-45075 Orléans Cedex 2 Corresponding author : chaplain@versailles.inra.fr Structure of soils and its dynamic, physico-chemistry of the interface are of a great importance in the fate of organic pollutants because it governs the accessibility of pollutants to micro-organisms. The soil structure of soils is related to physical parameters (texture, density, water content) but the physico-chemical properties of the interface is not considered. In this study we performed hydro-mechanical measurements on soil samples taken from the 42-plot long-term experiment in Versailles. Indeed six plots were selected to cover a large range of pH values from acid (3.5) to alkaline (8.2) due to the repeated application of fertilizers. Soils were taken in the 0-20 cm and in the 30-35 cm layer out of the ploughed zone. All soils had similar texture and composition with low organic carbon. Therefore pH changes the surface charges and hydrophobicity that are implied in aggregation process. The two layers had the same pH values. The precompression stress Pc and the compression index Cc were derived from confined compression tests performed on remoulded soil samples (density 1.45 g/cm3) at saturation. Results shows that the precompression stress increased at pH lower than 4. In acid case, precompression stress was higher in subsoil. This increase of Pc was attributed to the hydrophobicity due in part to the condensation of charges probably sensitive to the humectation/dessication processes.

  17. Soil bacterial and fungal communities across a pH gradient in an arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Bååth, Erland; Brookes, Philip C; Lauber, Christian L; Lozupone, Catherine; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2010-10-01

    Soils collected across a long-term liming experiment (pH 4.0-8.3), in which variation in factors other than pH have been minimized, were used to investigate the direct influence of pH on the abundance and composition of the two major soil microbial taxa, fungi and bacteria. We hypothesized that bacterial communities would be more strongly influenced by pH than fungal communities. To determine the relative abundance of bacteria and fungi, we used quantitative PCR (qPCR), and to analyze the composition and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities, we used a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique. Both the relative abundance and diversity of bacteria were positively related to pH, the latter nearly doubling between pH 4 and 8. In contrast, the relative abundance of fungi was unaffected by pH and fungal diversity was only weakly related with pH. The composition of the bacterial communities was closely defined by soil pH; there was as much variability in bacterial community composition across the 180-m distance of this liming experiment as across soils collected from a wide range of biomes in North and South America, emphasizing the dominance of pH in structuring bacterial communities. The apparent direct influence of pH on bacterial community composition is probably due to the narrow pH ranges for optimal growth of bacteria. Fungal community composition was less strongly affected by pH, which is consistent with pure culture studies, demonstrating that fungi generally exhibit wider pH ranges for optimal growth.

  18. Interaction of NPK Fertilizers During Their Transformation in Soils:I.Dynamic Changes of Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HUOYAN; ZHOU JIANMIN; CHEN XIAOQIN; LI SHOUTIAN; DU CHANGWEN; DONG CAIXIA

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic changes of soil pH as influenced by ammonium sulfate (AS), monocalcium phosphate (MCP),potassium chloride (KCl) and their interaction in soils were evaluated in incubation experiments. Applyingthese fertilizers significantly reduced soil pH values in all cases and followed sequences of AS > MCP >KCl, MCP > KCl > AS and KCl > AS > MCP for the paddy, calcareous and red soils, respectively. TheAS-induced reduction of pH in the three soils followed the sequence of red soil > paddy soil > calcareous soil,while in MCP and KCl systems the reduction of pH followed the sequences of calcareous soil > paddy soil >red soil and red soil > calcareous soil > paddy soil, respectively. The interactions of the NPK fertilizers on pHwere significant. MCP plus KCl or MCP plus AS reduced pH values more than the fertilizers applied solelyin the paddy soil, but AS partly counteracted the effect of MCP on pH in the 1 d sample of the calcareoussoil. The effect of MCP on pH was trivial when MCP was applied in combination with KCl or AS in the redsoil. When applied in combination with AS, KCl did not affect soil pH initially, but suppressed the reductionof pH at the later incubation stage, which was related to inhibition of nitrification by KCl in the soils.

  19. Impact of pH on Microbial Biomass Carbon and Microbial Biomass Phosphorus in Red Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-Chao; HE Zhen-Li; WANG Yi-Jun

    2004-01-01

    The impact of pH changes on microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and microbial biomass phosphorus (Pmic)were examined for 3 red soils under citrus production with different lengths of cultivation. Soil pH significantly affected Cmic and Pmic. The Cmic and Pmic changes, as a function of soil pH, appeared to follow a normal distribution with the original soil pH value at the apex and as pH increased or decreased compared to the original soil pH, Cmic and Pmic declined. Moreover, there were critical pH values at both extremes (3.0 on the acidic side and 8.0 to 8.5 on the alkaline side), beyond which most of microorganisms could never survive.The effect of pH on Cmic and Pmic was also related to the original soil pH. The higher the original soil pH was, the less Cmic or Pmic were affected by pH change. It is suggested that soil microorganisms that grow in a soil environment with a more neutral soil pH range (I.e. pH 5.5-7.5) may have a greater tolerance to pH changes than those growing in more acidic or more alkaline soil pH conditions.

  20. Effect of pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Yol; Huwe, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effect of solution pH and soil structure on transport of sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in combination with batch sorption tests and column experiments. Sorption isotherms properly conformed to Freundlich model, and sorption potential of the antibiotics is as follows; sulfadimethoxine > sulfamethoxazole > sulfamethazine. Decreasing pH values led to increased sorption potential of the antibiotics on soil material in pH range of 4.0-8.0. This likely resulted from abundance of neutral and positive-charged sulfonamides species at low pH, which electrostatically bind to sorption sites on soil surface. Due to destruction of macropore channels, lower hydraulic conductivities of mobile zone were estimated in the disturbed soil columns than in the undisturbed soil columns, and eventually led to lower mobility of the antibiotics in disturbed column. The results suggest that knowledge of soil structure and solution condition is required to predict fate and distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in environmental matrix.

  1. Direct-mode glucose fuel cells with near-neutral-state electrolytes : anode electrode studies with different catalysts and electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spets, J.P.; Noponen, T.; Kuosa, M.A.; Lampinen, M.J.; Saari, K. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Sahkomiehentie (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics; Kiros, Y. [Royal Inst. of Technology-KTH, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Rantanen, J. [Hydrocell Ltd, Jarvenpaa (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Interest in direct-mode glucose fuel cells is growing because glucose can be readily produced by hydrolysis of complex storage carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose. This paper reported on the testing of a direct-mode glucose anode half-cell with three different catalyst materials. A direct-mode glucose cathode half-cell was also tested with one catalyst material. The purpose of the study was to produce both effective and simple direct-mode glucose fuel cell either with a neutral or near-neutral-state electrolyte, which could operate with a moderate electric power production capacity. The paper discussed the experiment with particular reference to the chemical compositions of the near-neutral state electrolytes in the anode half cell tests; comparison of test methods to an earlier test method; and the limitations of the scope of the results. Results were presented in terms of properties of the aqueous electrolytes before the operation in the anode half cell; polarization curves for glucose in an anode half-cell in two concentrations and in two electrolytes at pH value of 7.4 using anode catalyst material Raney-Nickel; polarization curves for glucose in an anode half-cell in two concentrations and in two electrolytes at pH value of 7.4 using anode catalyst material Nickel-Porphyrin; and polarization curves with glucose in two concentrations in the Krebs-Ringer electrolyte for the anode and cathode direct-mode half-cells at RT. It was concluded that one target for future research could be the development of new electrocatalysts, which enable the use of direct-mode fuel cells with the near-neutral-state electrolyte for bio-organics. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  3. Evaluation of soil pH and moisture content on in-situ ozonation of pyrene in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, S; Ubaka-Blackmoore, N; Masten, S J

    2009-08-15

    In this study, pyrene spiked soil (300 ppm) was ozonated at pH levels of 2, 6, and 8 and three moisture contents. It was found that soil pH and moisture content impacted the effectiveness of PAH oxidation in unsaturated soils. In air-dried soils, as pH increased, removal increased, such that pyrene removal efficiencies at pH 6 and pH 8 reached 95-97% at a dose of 2.22 mg O(3)/mg pyrene. Ozonation at 16.2+/-0.45 mg O(3)/ppm pyrene in soil resulted in 81-98% removal of pyrene at all pH levels tested. Saturated soils were tested at dry, 5% or 10% moisture conditions. The removal of pyrene was slower in moisturized soils, with the efficiency decreasing as the moisture content increased. Increasing the pH of the soil having a moisture content of 5% resulted in improved pyrene removals. On the contrary, in the soil having a moisture content of 10%, as the pH increased, pyrene removal decreased. Contaminated PAH soils were stored for 6 months to compare the efficiency of PAH removal in freshly contaminated soil and aged soils. PAH adsorption to soil was found to increase with longer exposure times; thus requiring much higher doses of ozone to effectively oxidize pyrene.

  4. Aging of nickel added to soils as predicted by soil pH and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yibing; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike J; Oliver, Ian W; Nolan, Annette L; Oorts, Koen; Smolders, Erik

    2013-08-01

    Although aging processes are important in risk assessment for metals in soils, the aging of Ni added to soils has not been studied in detail. In this study, after addition of water soluble Ni to soils, the changes over time in isotopic exchangeability, total concentrations and free Ni(2+) activity in soil pore water, were investigated in 16 European soils incubated outdoors for 18 months. The results showed that after Ni addition, concentrations of Ni in soil pore water and isotopic exchangeability of Ni in soils initially decreased rapidly. This phase was followed by further decreases in the parameters measured but these occurred at slower rates. Increasing soil pH increased the rate and extent of aging reactions. Semi-mechanistic models, based on Ni precipitation/nucleation on soil surfaces and micropore diffusion, were developed and calibrated. The initial fast processes, which were attributed to precipitation/nucleation, occurred over a short time (e.g. 1h), afterwards the slow processes were most likely controlled by micropore diffusion processes. The models were validated by comparing predicted and measured Ni aging in three additional, widely differing soils aged outdoors for periods up to 15 months in different conditions. These models could be used to scale ecotoxicological data generated in short-term studies to longer aging times.

  5. [Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Li-Li; Gong, Ping; Dong, Xin-Xin; Nie, Yan-Xia

    2012-10-01

    A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity), pH (4, 7 and 10), and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  6. In situ measurements reveal extremely low pH in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2017-01-01

    We measured pH in situ in the top organic soil horizons in heathland and pine forest and found values between 2.6 and 3.2. This was 0.5e0.8 units lower than concurrent laboratory pH measurements of the same soil, which raises questions about the interpretation of pH measurements. We propose...... that the higher pH recorded by standard laboratory methods may be due to buffering ions from soil biota released from drying, grinding and rewetting of soil samples, whereas the in situ pH reflects the correct level of acidification....

  7. Methodologically controlled variations in laboratory and field pH measurements in waterlogged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    using a solid-state pH electrode pushed into the soil from the surface. Comparisons between in situ and laboratory methods revealed differences of more than 1 pH unit. The content of dissolved ions in soil solution and field observations of O2 and CO2 concentrations were used in the speciation model...... PHREEQE in order to predict gas exchange processes. Changes in pH in soil solution following equilibrium in the laboratory could be explained mainly by CO2 degassing. Only soil pH measured in situ using either calomel or solid-state probes inserted directly into the soil was not affected by gas exchange......We have tested the reliability and consistency of conventional pH measurements made on water-soil mixtures with respect to sieving, drying, ratio of water to soil, and time of shaking prior to measurement. The focus is on a waterlogged soil where the preservation potential of archaeological...

  8. Competitive and synergistic effects in pH dependent phosphate adsorption in soils: LCD modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weng, L.P.; Vega, F.A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The pH dependency of soluble phosphate in soil was measured for six agricultural soils over a pH range of 3–10. A mechanistic model, the LCD (ligand charge distribution) model, was used to simulate this change, which considers phosphate adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides in soils under the influence o

  9. Community structure and soil pH determine chemoautotrophic carbon dioxide fixation in drained paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi-En; Yao, Huaiying; Wang, Juan; Huang, Ying; Singh, Brajesh K; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Previous studies suggested that microbial photosynthesis plays a potential role in paddy fields, but little is known about chemoautotrophic carbon fixers in drained paddy soils. We conducted a microcosm study using soil samples from five paddy fields to determine the environmental factors and quantify key functional microbial taxa involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation. We used stable isotope probing in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and molecular approaches. The amount of microbial (13)CO2 fixation was determined by quantification of (13)C-enriched fatty acid methyl esters and ranged from 21.28 to 72.48 ng of (13)C (g of dry soil)(-1), and the corresponding ratio (labeled PLFA-C:total PLFA-C) ranged from 0.06 to 0.49%. The amount of incorporationof (13)CO2 into PLFAs significantly increased with soil pH except at pH 7.8. PLFA and high-throughput sequencing results indicated a dominant role of Gram-negative bacteria or proteobacteria in (13)CO2 fixation. Correlation analysis indicated a significant association between microbial community structure and carbon fixation. We provide direct evidence of chemoautotrophic C fixation in soils with statistical evidence of microbial community structure regulation of inorganic carbon fixation in the paddy soil ecosystem.

  10. Tropical soil bacterial communities in Malaysia: pH dominates in the equatorial tropics too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Singh, Dharmesh; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Ainuddin, A N; Go, Rusea; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Husni, M H A; Chun, Jongsik; Adams, Jonathan M

    2012-08-01

    The dominant factors controlling soil bacterial community variation within the tropics are poorly known. We sampled soils across a range of land use types--primary (unlogged) and logged forests and crop and pasture lands in Malaysia. PCR-amplified soil DNA for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene targeting the V1-V3 region was pyrosequenced using the 454 Roche machine. We found that land use in itself has a weak but significant effect on the bacterial community composition. However, bacterial community composition and diversity was strongly correlated with soil properties, especially soil pH, total carbon, and C/N ratio. Soil pH was the best predictor of bacterial community composition and diversity across the various land use types, with the highest diversity close to neutral pH values. In addition, variation in phylogenetic structure of dominant lineages (Alphaproteobacteria, Beta/Gammaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria) is also significantly correlated with soil pH. Together, these results confirm the importance of soil pH in structuring soil bacterial communities in Southeast Asia. Our results also suggest that unlike the general diversity pattern found for larger organisms, primary tropical forest is no richer in operational taxonomic units of soil bacteria than logged forest, and agricultural land (crop and pasture) is actually richer than primary forest, partly due to selection of more fertile soils that have higher pH for agriculture and the effects of soil liming raising pH.

  11. Effect of iron oxide on nitrification in two agricultural soils with different pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueru; Zhu-Barker, Xia; Horwath, William R.; Faeflen, Sarwee J.; Luo, Hongyan; Xin, Xiaoping; Jiang, Xianjun

    2016-10-01

    Iron (Fe) affects soil nitrogen (N) cycling processes both in anoxic and oxic environments. The role of Fe in soil N transformations including nitrification, mineralization, and immobilization, is influenced by redox activity, which is regulated by soil pH. The effect of Fe minerals, particularly oxides, on soil N transformation processes depends on soil pH, with Fe oxide often stimulating nitrification activity in the soil with low pH. We conducted lab incubations to investigate the effect of Fe oxide on N transformation rates in two subtropical agricultural soils with low pH (pH 5.1) and high pH (pH 7.8). 15N-labeled ammonium and nitrate were used separately to determine N transformation rates combined with Fe oxide (ferrihydrite) addition. Iron oxide stimulated net nitrification in low-pH soil (pH 5.1), while the opposite occurred in high-pH soil (pH 7.8). Compared to the control, Fe oxide decreased microbial immobilization of inorganic N by 50 % in low-pH soil but increased it by 45 % in high-pH soil. A likely explanation for the effects at low pH is that Fe oxide increased NH3-N availability by stimulating N mineralization and inhibiting N immobilization. These results indicate that Fe oxide plays an important role in soil N transformation processes and the magnitude of the effect of Fe oxide is dependent significantly on soil pH.

  12. Cell culturability of Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 depends on soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Fabio; Hase, Carsten; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-02-01

    Pseudomonas inoculants may lose colony-forming ability in soil, but soil properties involved are poorly documented. Here, we tested the hypothesis that soil acidity could reduce persistence and cell culturability of Pseudomonas protegens CHA0. At 1 week in vitro, strain CHA0 was found as culturable cells at pH 7, whereas most cells at pH 4 and all cells at pH 3 were noncultured. In 21 natural soils of contrasted pH, cell culturability loss of P. protegens CHA0 took place in all six very acidic soils (pH soils (5.0 pH soils at 2 weeks and 2 months. No correlation was found between total cell counts of P. protegens CHA0 and soil composition data, whereas colony counts of the strain correlated with soil pH. Maintenance of cell culturability in soils coincided with a reduction in inoculant cell size. Some of the noncultured CHA0 cells were nutrient responsive in Kogure's viability test, both in vitro and in soil. Thus, this shows for the first time that the sole intrinsic soil composition factor triggering cell culturability loss in P. protegens CHA0 is soil acidity.

  13. Effect of the Soil pH on the Alkaloid Content of Lupinus angustifolius

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Jansen; Hans-Ulrich Jürgens; Edgar Schliephake; Frank Ordon

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in growing seasons 2004, 2005, and 2010 to investigate the effect of different soil pH values on the alkaloid content in seeds of Lupinus angustifolius. Two-year experiments with eleven cultivars were carried out in acid soils with an average of pH=5.8 (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) and on calcareous soils with an average pH of 7.1 (Bavaria), respectively. In addition, in 2010, eight cultivars were grown in field experiments in soils with pH values varying betwee...

  14. Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slessarev, E. W.; Lin, Y.; Bingham, N. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Dai, Y.; Schimel, J. P.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil pH regulates the capacity of soils to store and supply nutrients, and thus contributes substantially to controlling productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. However, soil pH is not an independent regulator of soil fertility—rather, it is ultimately controlled by environmental forcing. In particular, small changes in water balance cause a steep transition from alkaline to acid soils across natural climate gradients. Although the processes governing this threshold in soil pH are well understood, the threshold has not been quantified at the global scale, where the influence of climate may be confounded by the effects of topography and mineralogy. Here we evaluate the global relationship between water balance and soil pH by extracting a spatially random sample (n = 20,000) from an extensive compilation of 60,291 soil pH measurements. We show that there is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH that occurs at the point where mean annual precipitation begins to exceed mean annual potential evapotranspiration. We evaluate deviations from this global pattern, showing that they may result from seasonality, climate history, erosion and mineralogy. These results demonstrate that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale; they also reveal conditions under which soils maintain pH out of equilibrium with modern climate.

  15. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica land was the most obvious among them, with soil pH increasing by 0.43. The effects of fertilization and vegetation type on pH and exchangeable acidity decreased with the

  16. Effects of pH and phosphate on glyphosate adsorption to Argentina soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective, post-emergence herbicide that is widely used in Argentina. Due to the similar molecular structures, glyphosate and phosphate compete for the same adsorption sites in soil. Soil pH has a strong influence in glyphosate and phosphate adsorption since it modifies the net charge of the molecules and, consequently, the force of the electrostatic interaction between these molecules and soil components. Glyphosate adsorption generally decreases as the soil pH was increased, although there were exceptions. In this work, we study the effects of pH and the presence of phosphate on the adsorption of glyphosate on six different types of Argentina soils. Batch equilibrium technique was employed to study the adsorption of glyphosate onto soils at different pH values (from 3 to 9) and phosphate content (0.5 and 1 mM). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was applied to obtain a relationship between the sorption parameters and soil properties. The results indicated that Freundlich equations used to simulate glyphosate adsorption isotherms gave high correlation coefficients with Kf values range from 24.9 to 397.4. Clay contents and soil pH were found to be the most significant soil factors affecting the glyphosate adsorption process. The presence of phosphate significantly decreased the adsorption of glyphosate to soils. The Kf values obtained for all six soils decreased a 40% at 0.5 mM of phosphate and a 55% at 1 mM of phosphate. On the other hand, the affinity parameters of glyphosate to soils varied with changes in pH. A general trend of decrease in glyphosate adsorption with increase in pH was observed for all six studied soils. In turn, there appears to be a maximum glyphosate adsorption at pH close to 6 for most soils when the net charge of the molecule at this pH was approximately -1.7.

  17. Competitive and synergistic effects in pH dependent phosphate adsorption in soils: LCD modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Vega, Flora Alonso; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H

    2011-10-01

    The pH dependency of soluble phosphate in soil was measured for six agricultural soils over a pH range of 3-10. A mechanistic model, the LCD (ligand charge distribution) model, was used to simulate this change, which considers phosphate adsorption to metal (hydr)oxides in soils under the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) and polyvalent cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), and Fe(3+)). For all soils except one, the description in the normal pH range 5-8 is good. For some soils at more extreme pH values (for low P-loading soils at low pH and for high P-loading soils at high pH), the model over predicts soluble P. The calculation shows that adsorption is the major mechanism controlling phosphate solubility in soils, except at high pH in high P-loading soils where precipitation of calcium phosphate may take place. NOM and polyvalent cations have a very strong effect on the concentration level of P. The pattern of pH dependency of soluble P in soils differs greatly from the pH effects on phosphate adsorption to synthetic metal (hydr)oxides in a monocomponent system. According to the LCD model, the pH dependency in soil is mainly caused by the synergistic effects of Ca(2+) adsorption to oxides. Adsorption of Al(3+) to NOM adsorbed plays an important role only at a pH < 4.5. Presence of NOM coating strongly competes with phosphate for the adsorption and is an important factor to consider in modeling phosphate adsorption in natural samples.

  18. Impacts of soil organic matter, pH and exogenous copper on sorption behavior of norfloxacin in three soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LI Zhaojun; GE Gaofei; SUN Wanchun; LIANG Yongchao; WU Laosheng

    2009-01-01

    Norfloxacin (Nor) sorption and the factors (soil organic matter (SOM), pH, and exogenous copper (Cu) influencing the sorption were investigated in a black soil (soil B), a fluvo-aquic soil (soil F), and a red soil (soil R). With increasing of Nor concentrations, sorption amount of norfloxacin increased in both the bulk soils and their SOM-removed soils, but the sorption capacity in SOM-removed soils was higher than that of their corresponding bulk soils, indicating that the process of norfloxacin sorption in soil was influenced by the soil properties including SOM. The sorption data in all bulk soils and SOM-removed soils were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir models. The correlation coefficients suggested that the experimental data fitted better to Freundlich equation than to Langmuir equation. Furthermore, the data from soil F and SOM-removed F could not be described by Langmuir equation. The norfloxacin sorption amount decreased in soil B and soil F, whereas it increased in soil R as solution pH increased. The maximum KD and KOC were achieved in soil R when the equilibrium solution pH was 6. And the norfloxacin sorption was also influenced by the exogenous Cu2+ ions, which depended on the soil types and Cu2+ concentrations. With increasing of Cu2+ concentrations in solution, generally, sorption amount, KD and KOC for norfloxacin in soils increased and were up to a peak at 100 mg/L Cu2+, and then the sorption amount decreased regardless of norfloxacin levels.

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions from black soils with different pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfeng Wang; Huachao Du; Zuoqiang Han; Xilin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    N2O fluxes as a function of incubation time from soil with different available N contents and pH were determined.Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were measured to indicate soil respiration.A 144-hr incubation experiment was conducted in a slightly acidic agricultural soil (pHH2o 5.33) after the pH was adjusted to four different values (3.65,5.00,6.90 and 8.55).The experiments consisted of a control without added N,and with NH+4-N and NO-3-N fertilization.The results showed that soil pH contributed significantly to N2O flux from the soils.There were higher N2O emissions in the period 0-12 hr in the four pH treatments,especially those enhanced with Nfertilization.The cumulative N2O-N emission reached a maximum at pH 8.55 and was stimulated by NO-3-N fertilization (70.4 tg/kg).The minimum emissions appeared at pH 3.65 and were not stimulated by NO-3-N or NH+4-N fertilization.Soil respiration increased significantly due to N-fertilization.Soil respiration increased positively with soil pH (R2 =0.98,P < 0.01).The lowest CO2-C emission (30.2 mg/kg) was presented in pH 3.65 soils without N-fertilization.The highest CO2-C emissions appeared in the pH 8.55 soils for NH+4-N fertilization (199 mg/kg).These findings suggested that N2O emissions and soil respiration were significantly influenced by low pH,which strongly inhibits soil microbial nitrification and denitrification activities.The content of NO-3-N in soil significantly and positively affected the N2O emissions through denitrification.

  20. Soil pH determines microbial diversity and composition in the park grass experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; Dias, Raquel; de Quadros, Patricia Dörr; Davis-Richardson, Austin; Camargo, Flavio A O; Clark, Ian M; McGrath, Steve P; Hirsch, Penny R; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-02-01

    The Park Grass experiment (PGE) in the UK has been ongoing since 1856. Its purpose is to study the response of biological communities to the long-term treatments and associated changes in soil parameters, particularly soil pH. In this study, soil samples were collected across pH gradient (pH 3.6-7) and a range of fertilizers (nitrogen as ammonium sulfate, nitrogen as sodium nitrate, phosphorous) to evaluate the effects nutrients have on soil parameters and microbial community structure. Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing was used to determine the relative abundances and diversity of bacterial and archaeal taxa. Relationships between treatments, measured soil parameters, and microbial communities were evaluated. Clostridium, Bacteroides, Bradyrhizobium, Mycobacterium, Ruminococcus, Paenibacillus, and Rhodoplanes were the most abundant genera found at the PGE. The main soil parameter that determined microbial composition, diversity, and biomass in the PGE soil was pH. The most probable mechanism of the pH impact on microbial community may include mediation of nutrient availability in the soil. Addition of nitrogen to the PGE plots as ammonium sulfate decreases soil pH through increased nitrification, which causes buildup of soil carbon, and hence increases C/N ratio. Plant species richness and plant productivity did not reveal significant relationships with microbial diversity; however, plant species richness was positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Plants responded to the nitrogen treatments with an increase in productivity and a decrease in the species richness.

  1. Soil pH and electrical conductivity are key edaphic factors shaping bacterial communities of greenhouse soils in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Roh, An-Sung; Choi, Seung-Chul; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Moon-Tae; Ahn, Byung-Koo; Kim, Sun-Kuk; Lee, Young-Han; Joa, Jae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Shin Ae; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Soil microorganisms play an essential role in soil ecosystem processes such as organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling, and plant nutrient availability. The land use for greenhouse cultivation has been increasing continuously, which involves an intensive input of agricultural materials to enhance productivity; however, relatively little is known about bacterial communities in greenhouse soils. To assess the effects of environmental factors on the soil bacterial diversity and community composition, a total of 187 greenhouse soil samples collected across Korea were subjected to bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis. A total of 11,865 operational taxonomic units at a 97% similarity cutoff level were detected from 847,560 sequences. Among nine soil factors evaluated; pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+)), available P2O5, organic matter, and NO3-N, soil pH was most strongly correlated with bacterial richness (polynomial regression, pH: R(2) = 0.1683, P pH: R(2) = 0.1765, P pH and EC (Mantel test, pH: r = 0.2672, P 1%), the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were also more strongly correlated with pH and EC values, compared with other soil cation contents, such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), and K(+). Our results suggest that, despite the heterogeneity of various environmental variables, the bacterial communities of the intensively cultivated greenhouse soils were particularly influenced by soil pH and EC. These findings therefore shed light on the soil microbial ecology of greenhouse cultivation, which should be helpful for devising effective management strategies to enhance soil microbial diversity and improving crop productivity.

  2. Effect of organic carbon and pH on soil sorption of sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertpaitoonpan, Warisara; Ong, Say Kee; Moorman, Thomas B

    2009-07-01

    Batch sorption of sulfamethazine was conducted using five soils with organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.1% to 3.8% and solution pHs ranging from 5.5 to 9. Sorption of sulfamethazine was found to be impacted by OC, soil surface area and soil solution pH, with higher K(d) values for soils with higher OC and lower K(d) values as the pH increased. However, OC was found to be the more dominant parameter. Linear partition coefficients at pH 5.5 were found to be 0.58+/-0.17 Lkg(-1) for soil with 0.1% OC and 3.91+/-0.36 Lkg(-1) for soil with 3.8% OC. At pH 9, the K(d) values were found to decrease by more than 50% to 0.23+/-0.06 Lkg(-1) (soil with 0.1% OC) and 1.16+/-0.05 Lkg(-1) (soil with 3.8% OC). Hydrophobic sorption was probably involved for pHpH>7.4 due to the ionized form of sulfamethazine. This was confirmed by regressing the estimated sorption coefficients of cationic, uncharged, and anionic species against the soil properties. A stepwise linear regression model incorporating the anionic fraction of sulfamethazine ionization and soil properties were developed and were found to estimate the K(d) values of other studies using soils of different pH and soil properties.

  3. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    -neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and sporeforming bacteria combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to valuate soil bacterial responses to wood ash application. Results showed that wood ash addition strongly increased soil pH and electrical conductivity. Soil pH increased from acidic through neutral at 22 t ha(-1) to alkaline at 167 t ha......Recirculation of wood ash from energy production to forest soil improves the sustainability of this energy production form as recycled wood ash contains nutrients that otherwise would be lost at harvest. In addition, wood-ash is beneficial to many soils due to its inherent acid...

  4. Teaching Plant-Soil Relationships with Color Images of Rhizosphere pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, J. R.; Strick, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that uses a simple imaging technique to illustrate the profound effects that living roots exert on the pH of the surrounding soil environment. Achieves visually stimulating results that can be used to reinforce lectures on rhizosphere pH, nutrient availability, plant tolerance of soil acidity, microbial activity, and…

  5. Effects of Soil Oxygen Conditions and Soil pH on Remediation of DDT-contaminated Soil by Laccase from White Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Yuechun Zhao; Xiaoyun Yi

    2010-01-01

    High residues of DDT in agricultural soils are of concern because they present serious threats to food security and human health. This article focuses on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil using laccase under different soil oxygen and soil pH conditions. The laboratory experiment results showed significant effects of soil oxygen conditions and soil pH on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by laccase at the end of a 25-d incubation period. This study found the positive correlation between ...

  6. pH Effect on kinetics of Heavy Metal Sorption in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYU-SUO; XUEJIA-HUA

    1994-01-01

    The pH effect on the sorption kinetics of heavy metals in soils was studied using a constant flow leaching method.The soil samples were red soil collected from Yingtan,Jiangxi,and yellow-brown soil from Nanjing,Jiansu,The heavy metals tested were zinc and cadmium.Assuming that the experimental data diffed to the following kinetic rate equation:1/c.dx/dt=kx∞-kx,the rate constant k of sorption could be determined from the slope of the straight line by plotting of 1/c,dx/dt vs.x.The results showed that the pH effect on the rate constants of heavy mental sorption in soils was very significant.The values of k decreased with increasing pH.The sorptions were more sensitive to pH in red soil than in yellow-brown soil.

  7. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    and sporeforming bacteria combined with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to valuate soil bacterial responses to wood ash application. Results showed that wood ash addition strongly increased soil pH and electrical conductivity. Soil pH increased from acidic through neutral at 22 t ha(-1) to alkaline at 167 t ha......-neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...... and the available results are ambiguous and remain at a general taxonomic level. Here we investigate the response of bacterial communities in a spruce forest soil to wood ash addition corresponding to 0, 5, 22, and 167 t wood ash ha(-1). We used culture-based enumerations of general bacteria, Pseudomonas...

  8. pH dominates variation in tropical soil archaeal diversity and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Kim, Mincheol; Lai-Hoe, Ang; Shukor, Nor A A; Rahim, Raha A; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-11-01

    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities.

  9. pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, V; Alling, V; Nurida, N L

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of ...

  10. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  11. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)]. E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Alshawabkeh, Akram N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Chen Haifeng [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2007-04-02

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary.

  12. [Effects of thiourea on pH and availability of metal ions in acid red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Wen; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Zhou, Xi-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Through the simulation research, the effects of application of thiourea and urea on pH and availability of metal ions in acid red soil were studied, and the results showed that after applying urea, the soil pH increased in the first experimental stage and then reduced gradually to a low level, however, decreased trends of soil pH values were inhibited by the application of thiourea, especially when the concentration of thiourea reached to 5.0 mmol x kg(-1) dry soil, the soil pH was stable at high level, which exceeded to 6.0. It proved that the application of thiourea could inhibit the soil acidification due to urea application. After applying urea with different concentrations of thiourea, the available contents of Zn and Al decreased with the increasing concentration of thiourea, nevertheless, when the concentration of thiourea reached to 5.0 mmol x kg(-1), the available content of Mn was stable at high level which was over 110 mg x kg(-1). In addition, the results showed a highly significant negative correlation between the soil pH and the available content of Cu, Zn and Al, but for Mn, no discipline was found between the soil pH and the availability after applying thiourea. Moreover, the soil pH became higher after applying urea with thiourea compared to add urea only, which led to the decreasing of available content of Al, and it was benefited for the control of the phytotoxic effect of Al. The available content of Mn in the soil not only depended on soil pH but also the content of thiourea due to its redox and complexing reaction with Mn.

  13. Reduction of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in soil with increasing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Mário

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted with soil samples and synthetic solutions to investigate possible mechanisms related with reduction in KCl exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Increasing soil pH over 5.3 with CaCO3 added to the soil and with NaOH solution added to soil/KCl suspension increased adsorptions of Ca and Mg. The reduction of Mg was greater than Ca and was related to the concentration of soil exchangeable Al. The decreases of soluble Ca and Mg following addition of Al in synthetic solution were at pH > 7.5. The isomorphic coprecipitation reaction with Al compounds may be the most possible mechanism responsible for the decrease of exchangeable Ca and Mg with increasing pH. Possible chemical reactions are presented.

  14. Effect of soil pH on as hyperaccumulation capacity in fern species, Pityrogramma calomelanos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, B T Kim; Kim, D D; Kuschk, P; Tua, T V; Hue, N T; Minh, N N

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic uptake by hyperaccumulator plant species depends on many different environmental factors. Soil pH is one of the most important factors due to its combined effect on both chemical and biological processes. In greenhouse experiment, the effect of pH (within the pH range 3.6 - 8.9) on As uptake as well as biomass of Pityrogramma calomelanos was evaluated. The plants were grown in mining soil containing 645.6 mg As kg(-1) for 14 weeks. Within this time, the plant biomass growth was 3.78 - 8.64 g d. wt. per plant and the removal amounted 6.3-18.4 mg As per plant. Translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to roots) of the fern was 3.6 - 9.7, indicating its potential in phytoremediation of As contaminated soil. Influence of pH on As bioavailability was visible as the available As concentration was higher in acidic soil compared to alkaline soil. Furthermore, it was found that As accumulation by Pityrogramma calomelanos was optimum in the soil of pH 3.6. Nevertheless, the results of this study demonstrate that remediation of As-contaminated mining soils, by this fern, can be improved by changing the soil pH from 4.6 to 6.8.

  15. Influences of biochar addition on vegetable soil nitrogen balance and pH buffering capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Odindo, AO; Xue, L.; Yang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Leaching is a major path for chemical nitrogen fertilizer loss from in vegetable soil, which would destroy soil pH buffering capacity soil and result in acidification. It has been a common phenomenon in Tai Lake Region, China. However, few study focused on the change soil pH buffering capacity, especially the effect of soil amendment on pH buffering capacity. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to research the effects of biochar addition to a vegetable soil on nitrogen leaching and pH buffering capacity with pakchoi (B.chinensis L.) growth as the experimental crop. The results showed that biochar could significantly increase the pakchoi nitrogen utilization efficiency, decrease 48%-65% nitrogen loss from leaching under the urea continuous applied condition. Biochar also could effectively maintain the content of soil organic matter and base cations. Therefore, it rose up soil pH buffering capacity by 9.4%-36.8% and significantly slowed down acidification rate. It was suggested that 1%-2% addition ratio was recommended from this study when used as similar soil condition.

  16. Soil pH regulates the abundance and diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtovirta, Laura E; Prosser, James I; Nicol, Graeme W

    2009-12-01

    Archaeal communities in many acidic forest soil systems are dominated by a distinct crenarchaeal lineage Group 1.1c. In addition, they are found consistently in other acidic soils including grassland pasture, moorland and alpine soils. To determine whether soil pH is a major factor in determining their presence and abundance, Group 1.1c community size and composition were investigated across a pH gradient from 4.5 to 7.5 that has been maintained for > 40 years. The abundances of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota, total Crenarchaeota and total bacteria were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes and the diversity of Group 1.1c crenarchaeal community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. The abundance of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota declined as the pH increased, whereas total Crenarchaeota and Bacteria showed no clear trend. Community diversity of Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota was also influenced with different DGGE bands dominating at different pH. Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota were also quantified in 13 other soils representing a range of habitats, soil types and pH. These results exhibited the same trend as that shown across the pH gradient with Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota representing a greater proportion of total Crenarchaeota in the most acidic soils.

  17. Effect of pH on saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, D.L.; Roades, J.D.; Lavado, R.; Grieve, C.M.

    The adverse effects of exchangeable sodium on soil hydraulic conductivity (K) are well known, but at present only sodicity and total electrolyte concentration are used in evaluating irrigation water suitability. In arid areas, high sodicity is often associatd with high dissolved carbonate and thus high pH, but in humid areas high sodicity may be associated with low pH. To evaluate the effect of pH (as an independent variable) on K, solutions with the same SAR and electrolyte level were prepared at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9. Saturated K values were determined at constant flux in columns packed at a bulk density of 1.5 Mg m/sup -3/. At pH 9, saturated K values were lower than at pH 6 for a montmorillonitic and kaolinitic soil. For a vermiculitic soil with lower organic carbon and higher silt content, pH changes did not cause large K differences. Decreases in K were not reversible on application of waters with higher electrolyte levels. The results from the K experiments were generally consistent with optical transmission measurements of dispersion. Although anion adsorption was at or below detection limits and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was only slightly dependent on pH, differences in pH effects on K among soils are likely due to differences in quantities of variable-charge minerals and organic matter.

  18. Nestedness in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Soil pH Gradients in Early Primary Succession: Acid-Tolerant Fungi Are pH Generalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Ai; An, Gi-Hong; Miyakawa, Sachie; Sonoda, Jun; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Soil acidity is a major constraint on plant productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi support plant colonization in acidic soil, but soil acidity also constrains fungal growth and diversity. Fungi in extreme environments generally evolve towards specialists, suggesting that AM fungi in acidic soil are acidic-soil specialists. In our previous surveys, however, some AM fungi detected in strongly acidic soils could also be detected in a soil with moderate pH, which raised a hypothesis that the fungi in acidic soils are pH generalists. To test the hypothesis, we conducted a pH-manipulation experiment and also analyzed AM fungal distribution along a pH gradient in the field using a synthesized dataset of the previous and recent surveys. Rhizosphere soils of the generalist plant Miscanthus sinensis were collected both from a neutral soil and an acidic soil, and M. sinensis seedlings were grown at three different pH. For the analysis of field communities, rhizosphere soils of M. sinensis were collected from six field sites across Japan, which covered a soil pH range of 3.0-7.4, and subjected to soil trap culture. AM fungal community compositions were determined based on LSU rDNA sequences. In the pH-manipulation experiment the acidification of medium had a significant impact on the compositions of the community from the neutral soil, but the neutralization of the medium had no effect on those of the community from the acidic soil. Furthermore, the communities in lower -pH soils were subsets of (nested in) those in higher-pH soils. In the field communities a significant nestedness pattern was observed along the pH gradient. These observations suggest that the fungi in strongly acidic soils are pH generalists that occur not only in acidic soil but also in wide ranges of soil pH. Nestedness in AM fungal community along pH gradients may have important implications for plant community resilience and early primary succession after disturbance in acidic soils.

  19. Effects of Soil Oxygen Conditions and Soil pH on Remediation of DDT-contaminated Soil by Laccase from White Rot Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuechun Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available High residues of DDT in agricultural soils are of concern because they present serious threats to food security and human health. This article focuses on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil using laccase under different soil oxygen and soil pH conditions. The laboratory experiment results showed significant effects of soil oxygen conditions and soil pH on remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by laccase at the end of a 25-d incubation period. This study found the positive correlation between the concentration of oxygen in soil and the degradation of DDT by laccase. The residue of DDTs in soil under the atmosphere of oxygen decreased by 28.1% compared with the atmosphere of nitrogen at the end of the incubation with laccase. A similar pattern was observed in the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by laccase under different flooding conditions, the higher the concentrations of oxygen in soil, the lower the residues of four DDT components and DDTs in soils. The residue of DDTs in the nonflooding soil declined by 16.7% compared to the flooded soil at the end of the incubation. The residues of DDTs in soils treated with laccase were lower in the pH range 2.5–4.5.

  20. [Short-term changes of pH value and Al activity in acid soils after urea fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingru; Liao, Bohan; Jiang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xihong; Tang, Can; Zhong, Ning

    2005-02-01

    Acidic soils are widely distributed in South China, and their acidity is the major environmental stress factor limiting the growth of most crops. It is well known that soil Al solubilized at low pH is a main toxic factor for plant growth. Our study with three acidic soils showed that soil pH increased quickly, while soil exchangeable Al decreased sharply with the increasing concentrations of applied urea. The time-course experiment revealed that the increase of soil pH was short-lived, with a subsequently slow drop after reached its maximum. Urea fertilization caused a drastic change of soil pH during 2-4 weeks of the experimental period. There was a negative relationship between soil pH and soil exchangeable Al. Biological toxicity test demonstrated that applying urea to acidic soils could obviously decrease the aluminum toxicity of maize in a short-term period.

  1. Denitrification at pH 4 by a soil-derived Rhodanobacter-dominated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, R N; van der Biezen, E; Jetten, M S M; Hefting, M M; Kartal, B

    2010-12-01

    Soil denitrification is a major source of nitrous oxide emission that causes ozone depletion and global warming. Low soil pH influences the relative amount of N₂O produced and consumed by denitrification. Furthermore, denitrification is strongly inhibited in pure cultures of denitrifying microorganisms below pH 5. Soils, however, have been shown to denitrify at pH values as low as pH 3. Here we used a continuous bioreactor to investigate the possibility of significant denitrification at low pH under controlled conditions with soil microorganisms and naturally available electron donors. Significant NO₃⁻ and N₂O reduction were observed for 3 months without the addition of any external electron donor. Batch incubations with the enriched biomass showed that low pH as well as low electron donor availability promoted the relative abundance of N₂O as denitrification end-product. Molecular analysis of the enriched biomass revealed that a Rhodanobacter-like bacterium dominated the community in 16S rRNA gene libraries as well as in FISH microscopy during the highest denitrification activity in the reactor. We conclude that denitrification at pH 4 with natural electron donors is possible and that a Rhodanobacter species may be one of the microorganisms involved in acidic denitrification in soils.

  2. Effect of organic matter and pH on mercury release from soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the effect of organic matter (OM) and pH on mercury (Hg) release from soils. Hg release flux was measured using the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) combined with the Lumex(r) multifunctional mercury analyzer in both laboratory experiment and field monitoring. The results showed that Hg emission from the OM-added soils was apparently low because of the high affinity of OM to Hg, resulting in the reverse order as the amount of OM addition. Meanwhile, Hg release flux from different pH value soils exhibited the same trend for both Hg2+ and Hg22+ treatment, increasing the Hg flux with pH value of soils increasing. The trend of Hg release in the pH dependence experiment has been well in agreement with that from the field test. In addition, Hg release seemed to be related to its species in the soil, the flux from Hg2+-added soil was obviously higher than that of Hg22+-added soil in both the OM and pH laboratory experiment.

  3. Influence of pH on wetting kinetics of a pine forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ahmad; Schaumann, Gabriele; Diehl, Dörte

    2014-05-01

    Water repellent properties of organic matter significantly alter soil water dynamics. Various environmental factors control appearance and breakup of repellency in soil. Beside water content and temperature also pH exerts an influence on soil water repellency although investigations achieved partly ambiguous results; some found increasing repellency with increasing pH (Terashima et al. 2004; Duval et al. 2005), other with decreasing pH (Karnok et al. 1993; Roper 2005) and some found repellency maxima at intermediate pH and an increase with decreasing and with increasing pH (Bayer and Schaumann 2007; Diehl et al. 2010). The breakup of repellency may be observed via the time dependent sessile drop contact angle (TISED). With water contact time, soil-water contact angle decreases until complete wetting is reached. Diehl and Schaumann (2007) calculated the activation energy of the wetting process from the rate of sessile drop wetting obtained at different temperatures and draw conclusions on chemical or physical nature of repellency. The present study aims at the influence of pH on the wetting kinetics of soil. Therefore, TISED of soil was determined as a function of pH and temperature. We used upper soil samples (0 - 10 cm) from a pine forest in the southwest of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). Samples were air-dried, sieved Contact Angle Meter (Dataphysics, Germany) on three replications for each soil sample. Apparent work of adhesion was calculated, plotted vs. time and mathematically fitted using double exponential function. Rate constants of wetting were used to determine the activation energy by Arrhenius equation. First results indicated that despite comparable initial contact angles, pH alteration strongly changed the wetting rate suggesting maximum wetting resistance at the natural pH of 4.3 and decreasing wetting resistance at lower and at higher pH. The poster will present further current results of the ongoing study and discuss the activation energy of the

  4. Depth Matters: Soil pH and dilution effects in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plans (NGP), surface sampling depths of 0-15.2 cm or 0-20.3 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near-surface (e.g., pH measurements and the...

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Extending its application to soil pH measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina, E-mail: edilene@iq.unesp.br [São Paulo State University – UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni 55, CEP 14800-060, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Gomes Neto, José A. [São Paulo State University – UNESP, Analytical Chemistry Department, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni 55, CEP 14800-060, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Milori, Débora M.B.P.; Ferreira, Ednaldo José [Embrapa Agricultural Instrumentation, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Anzano, Jesús Manuel [Laser Laboratory & Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, C/. Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Acid–base equilibria are involved in almost all the processes that occur in soil. The bioavailability of nutrients for plants, for instance, depends on the solubilization of mineral nutrients in the soil solution, which is a pH-dependent process. The determination of pH in soil solutions is usually carried out by potentiometry using a glass membrane electrode, after extracting some of the soil components with water or CaCl{sub 2} solution. The present work describes a simple method for determining the pH of soil, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Sixty samples presenting different textural composition and pH (previously determined by potentiometry) were employed. The samples were divided into a calibration set with fifty samples and a validation set with ten samples. LIBS spectra were recorded for each pelleted sample using laser pulse energy of 115 mJ. The intensities of thirty-two emission lines for Al, Ca, H, and O were used to fit a partial least squares (PLS) model. The model was validated by prediction of the pH of the validation set samples, which showed good agreement with the reference values. The prediction mean absolute error was 0.3 pH units and the root mean square error of the prediction was 0.4. These results highlight the potential of LIBS for use in other applications beyond elemental composition determinations. For soil analysis, the proposed method offers the possibility of determining pH, in addition to nutrients and contaminants, using a single LIBS measurement. - Highlights: • Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil are influenced by pH. • The pH of mineral soils is normally determined in slurries of water and soil sample by potentiometric measurements. • The association of LIBS elemental emissions with multivariate strategies of analysis has become LIBS a powerful technique. • LIBS was unprecedentedly applied for direct pH determination in different kinds of soil sample. • The clean and fast proposed

  6. Effects of soil pH on the Vicia-micronucleus genotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyèvre, Adrien; Foltête, Anne Sophie; Aran, Delphine; Muller, Serge; Cotelle, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    In the field of contaminated sites and soil management, chemical analyses only bring typological data about pollution. As far as bioavailability and effects on organisms are concerned, we need ecotoxicology tools. In this domain, among many existing tests, we chose to study genotoxicity because it is a short-term endpoint with long-term consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of soil pH on the results of the Vicia faba root tip micronucleus test for the two following reasons: (i) to define the pH range within which the test can be performed without modifying the soil to be tested, within the framework of the ISO standard of the test and (ii) to provides information about the effects of the pH on the genotoxic potential of soils. In this context, we modified the pH of a standard soil with HCl or NaOH and we spiked the matrix with copper (2, 4 and 8 mmol kg(-1) dry soil) or with maleic hydrazide, an antigerminative chemical (5, 10 and 20 μmol kg(-1) dry soil). We concluded that the pH had no effect on the mitotic index or micronucleus frequency in the root cells of the negative controls: extreme pH values did not induce micronucleus formation in root cells. Moreover, according to our results, the Vicia-micronucleus test can be performed with pH values ranging between 3.2 and 9.0, but in the ISO 29200 "Soil quality--assessment of genotoxic effects on higher plants--V. faba micronucleus test" we recommended to use a control soil with a pH value ranging between 5 and 8 for a more accurate assessment of chemical genotoxicity. We also found that acid pH could increase the genotoxic potential of pollutants, especially heavy metals. With hydrazide maleic spiked soil, plants were placed in a situation of double stress, i.e. toxicity caused by extreme pH values and toxicity induced by the pollutant.

  7. [Distribution characteristics of soil pH, CEC and organic matter in a small watershed of the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Rong; Shao, Ming-An

    2009-11-01

    Soil chemical properties play important roles in soil ecological functioning. In this study, 207 surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from different representative landscape units in a gully watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the distribution characteristics of soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter, and their relations to land use type, landform, and soil type. The soil pH, CEC and organic matter content ranged from 7.7 to 8.6, 11.9 to 28.7 cmol x kg(-1), and 3.0 to 27.9 g x kg(-1), and followed normal distribution, log-normal distribution, and negative binomial distribution, respectively. These three properties were significantly affected by land use type, landform, and soil type. Soil CEC and organic matter content were higher in forestland, grassland and farmland than in orchard land, and soil pH was lower in forestland than in other three land use types. Soil pH, CEC and organic matter content were higher in plateau land and sloping land than in gully bottom and terrace land. Soil CEC and organic matter content were higher in dark loessial soil and rebified soil, while soil pH was higher in yellow loessial soil. Across all the three landscape factors, soil CEC and organic matter content showed the similar distribution pattern, but an opposite distribution pattern was observed for soil pH.

  8. Lead forms in urban turfgrass and forest soils as related to organic matter content and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Yesilonis; Bruce R. James; Richard V. Pouyat; Bahram Momen

    2008-01-01

    Soil pH may influence speciation and extractability of Pb, depending on type of vegetation in urban soil environments. We investigated the relationship between soil pH and Pb extractability at forest and turf grass sites in Baltimore, Maryland. Our two hypotheses were: (1) due to lower pH values in forest soils, more Pb will be in exchangeable forms in forested than in...

  9. Influence of microsprinkler irrigation amount on water, soil, and pH profiles in a coastal saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Linlin; Kang, Yaohu; Wan, Shuqin

    2014-01-01

    Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  10. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  11. Role of Low-Molecule-Weight Organic Acids and Their Salts in Regulating Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-An; ZOU Bi; XIA Han-Ping; DING Yong-Zhen; TAN Wan-Neng; FU Sheng-Lei

    2008-01-01

    The process of organic materials increasing soil pH has not yet been fully understood.This study examined the role of cations and organic anions in regulating soil pH using organic compounds.Calcareous soil,acid soil,and paddy soil were incubated with different simple organic compounds,pH was determined periodically and CO2 emission was also measured.Mixing organic acids with the soil caused an instant decrease of soil pH.The magnitude of pH decrease depended on the initial soil acidity and dissociation degree of the acids.Decomposition of organic acids could only recover the soil pH to about its original level.Mixing organic salts with soil caused an instant increase of soil pH.Decomposition of organic salts of sodium resulted in a steady increase of soil pH,with final soil pH being about 2.7-3.2 pH units over the control.Organic salts with the same anions (citrate) but different cations led to different magnitudes of pH increase,while those having the same cations but different anions led to very similar pH increases.Organic salts of sodium and sodium carbonate caused very similar pH increases of soil when they were added to the acid soil at equimolar concentrations of Na+.The results suggested that cations played a central role in regulating soil pH.Decarboxylation might only consume a limited number of protons.Conversion of organic salts into inorganic salts (carbonate) was possibly responsible for pH increase during their decomposition,suggesting that only those plant residues containing high excess base cations could actually increase soil pH.

  12. Influence of soil pH in vegetative filter strips for reducing soluble nutrient transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmana, Atikur; Rahmana, Shafiqur; Cihacek, Larry

    2014-08-01

    Low efficacy of vegetative filter strips (VFS) in reducing soluble nutrients has been reported in research articles. Solubility of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds is largely affected by pH of soil. Changing soil pH may result in a decrease in soluble nutrient transportation through VFS. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pH levels of VFS soil on soluble nutrient transport reduction from manure-borne runoff. Soil (loamy sand texture; bulk density 1.3 g cm-3) was treated with calcium carbonate to change pH at different pH treatment levels (5.5-6.5, 6.5-7.5, and 7.5-8.5), soil was packed into galvanized metal boxes, and tall fescue grasses were established in the boxes to simulate VFS. Boxes were placed in an open environment, tilted to a 3.0% slope, and 44.0 L manure-amended water was applied through the VFS by a pump at a rate of 1.45 L min-1. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet as well as from the leachate. Samples were analysed for ortho-phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and potassium. Highest transport reductions in ortho-phosphorus (42.4%) and potassium (20.5%) were observed at pH range 7.5-8.5. Ammonium nitrogen transport reduction was the highest at pH level of 6.5-7.5 and was 26.1%. Surface transport reduction in nitrate nitrogen was 100%, but leachate had the highest concentration of nitrate nitrogen. Mass transport reduction also suggested that higher pH in the VFS soil are effective in reducing some soluble nutrients transport.

  13. Life History Traits, Protein Evolution, and the Nearly Neutral Theory in Amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Nabholz, Benoît; Bonneau, Manon; Mas Carrio, Eduard; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small populations should accumulate deleterious mutations at a faster rate than large populations. The analysis of nonsynonymous (dN) versus synonymous (dS) substitution rates in birds versus mammals, however, has provided contradictory results, questioning the generality of the nearly neutral theory. Here we analyzed the impact of life history traits, taken as proxies of the effective population size, on molecular evolutionary and population genetic processes in amniotes, including the so far neglected reptiles. We report a strong effect of species body mass, longevity, and age of sexual maturity on genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and divergence across the major groups of amniotes, in agreement with the nearly neutral theory. Our results indicate that the rate of protein evolution in amniotes is determined in the first place by the efficiency of purifying selection against deleterious mutations-and this is true of both radical and conservative amino acid changes. Interestingly, the among-species distribution of dN/dS in birds did not follow this general trend: dN/dS was not higher in large, long-lived than in small, short-lived species of birds. We show that this unexpected pattern is not due to a more narrow range of life history traits, a lack of correlation between traits and Ne, or a peculiar distribution of fitness effects of mutations in birds. Our analysis therefore highlights the bird dN/dS ratio as a molecular evolutionary paradox and a challenge for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Fluctuations in ammonia oxidizing communities across agricultural soils are driven by soil structure and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele C ePereira e Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The milieu in soil in which microorganisms dwell is never constant. Conditions such as temperature, water availability, pH and nutrients frequently change, impacting the overall functioning of the soil system. To understand the effects of such factors on soil functioning, proxies (indicators of soil function are needed that, in a sensitive manner, reveal normal amplitude of variation. Thus, the so-called normal operating range (NOR of soil can be defined. In this study we determined different components of nitrification by analyzing, in eight agricultural soils, how the community structures and sizes of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB and AOA, respectively, and their activity, fluctuate over spatial and temporal scales. The results indicated that soil pH and soil type are the main factors that influence the size and structure of the AOA and AOB, as well as their function. The nitrification rates varied between 0.11 ± 0.03 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and 1.68 ± 0.11 µgN.h-1.gdw-1, being higher in soils with higher clay content (1.09 ± 0.12 µgN.h-1.gdw-1 and lower in soils with lower clay percentages (0.27 ± 0.04 µgN.h-1.gdw-1. Nitrifying activity was driven by soil pH, mostly related to its effect on AOA but not on AOB abundance. Regarding the influence of soil parameters, clay content was the main soil factor shaping the structure of both the AOA and AOB communities. Overall, the potential nitrifying activities were higher and more variable over time in the clayey than in the sandy soils. Whereas the structure of AOB fluctuated more (62.7 ± 2.10% the structure of AOA communities showed lower amplitude of variation (53.65 ± 3.37%. Similar trends were observed for the sizes of these communities. The present work represents a first step towards defining a NOR for soil nitrification. Moreover, the clear effect of soil texture established here suggests that the NOR should be defined in a soil-type-specific manner.

  15. Effect of pH on boron adsorption in some soils of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Steiner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporary B deficiency can be triggered by liming of acid soils because of increased B adsorption at higher soil pH. Plants respond directly to the activity of B in soil solution and only indirectly to B adsorbed on soil constituents. Because the range between deficient and toxic B concentration is relatively narrow, this poses difficulty in maintaining appropriate B levels in soil solution. Thus, knowledge of the chemical behavior of B in the soil is particularly important. The present study investigated the effect of soil pH on B adsorption in four soils of Paraná State, and to correlate these values with the physical and chemical properties of the soils. Surface samples were taken from a Rhodic Hapludox, Arenic Hapludalf, Arenic Hapludult, and one Typic Usthorthent. To evaluate the effect of pH on B adsorption, subsamples soil received the application of increasing rates of calcium carbonate. Boron adsorption was accomplished by shaking 2.0 g soil, for 24 h, with 20 mL of 0.01 mol L¹ NaCl solution containing different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 4.0 mg B L-1. Sorption was fitted to non-linear form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Boron adsorption increased as concentration increased. Boron adsorption was dependent on soil pH, increasing as a function of pH in the range between 4.6 and 7.4, although the bonding energy has decreased. Maximum adsorption capacity (MAC of B was observed in the Arenic Hapludalf (49.8 mg B kg-1 soil followed by Arenic Hapludult (22.5 mg kg-1, Rhodic Hapludox (17.4 mg kg-1, and Typic Usthorthent (7.0 mg kg-1. The organic matter content, clay content, and aluminum oxide content (Al2O3 were the soils properties that affecting the B adsorption on Paraná soils.

  16. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielak, Anna M; Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Semenov, Alexander V; Sørensen, Søren J; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Chitin amendment is a promising soil management strategy that may enhance the suppressiveness of soil toward plant pathogens. However, we understand very little of the effects of added chitin, including the putative successions that take place in the degradative process. We performed an experiment in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chiA genes showed structural changes of the phylogenetically and functionally based bacterial communities following chitin addition and pH alteration. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated (i) that the diversity of chiA gene types in soil is enormous and (i) that different chiA gene types are selected by the addition of chitin at different prevailing soil pH values. Interestingly, a major role of Gram-negative bacteria versus a minor one of Actinobacteria in the immediate response to the added chitin (based on 16S rRNA gene abundance and chiA gene types) was indicated. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes.

  17. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by photochemical reaction of ferrioxalate at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min; Lee, Yunho; Chung, Hyenmi; Yoon, Jeyong

    2004-02-01

    Fenton chemistry, which is known to play an effective role in degrading toxic chemicals, is difficult to apply to disinfection in water treatment, since its reaction is effective only at the acidic pH of 3. The presence of oxalate ions and UV-visible light, which is known as a photoferrioxalate system, allows the Fe(III) to be dissolved at slightly acidic and near-neutral pHs and maintains the catalytic reaction of iron. This study indicates that the main oxidizing species in the photoferrioxalate system responsible for microorganism inactivation is OH radical. Escherichia coli was used as an indicator microorganism. The CT value (OH radical concentration x contact time; used to indicate the effect of the combination of the concentration of the disinfectant and the contact time on inactivation) for a 2-log inactivation of E. coli was approximately 1.5 x 10(-5) mg/liter/min, which is approximately 2,700 times lower than that of ozone as estimated by the delayed Chick-Watson model. Since the light emitted by the black light blue lamp is similar to sunlight in the specific wavelength range of 300 to 420 nm, the photoferrioxalate system, which can have a dual function, treating water for both organic pollutants and microorganisms simultaneously, shows promise for the treatment of water or wastewater in remote or rural sites. However, the photoferrioxalate disinfection system is slower in inactivating microorganisms than conventional disinfectants are.

  18. Bacterial chitinolytic communities respond to chitin and pH alteration in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielak, Anna; Cretoiu, Mariana; Semenov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    in moderately acid soil in which the level of chitin, next to the pH, was altered. Examination of chitinase activities revealed fast responses to the added crude chitin, with peaks of enzymatic activity occurring on day 7. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA and chi...... understanding of the response of the soil bacterial communities to chitin and are of use for both the understanding of soil suppressiveness and the possible mining of soil for novel enzymes....

  19. Effects of pH and soil texture on the adsorption and transport of Cd in soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the adsorption and transport of Cd2+ in soils, column experiments were conducted with various soils and inflow solutions with different pH values. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the column tests were fitted using both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium models installed in the program of CXTFIT. Results showed that the equilibrium model fitted most of BTCs reasonably well. Values of the retardation factor (R) and the distribution coefficient (kd) for Cd2+ adsorption and transport increased with increasing pH values of the inflow solution and of the soil. However, the clay content was not a key factor to affect R and kd for Cd2+ adsorption and transport. The average dispersivity values and the variance values of dispersivity increased with increasing clay content of the soils.

  20. Inlfuence of Soil pH and Temperature on Atrazine Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahla Andleeb; Zhao Jiang; Khalil ur Rehman; Erinle Kehinda Olajide; Zhang Ying

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to clarify soil pH and temperature influence on different atrazine bioremediation techniques. For this purpose, sodium citrate,Arthrobactorsp. strain DNS10, sawdust and animal manure were selected to clarify their atrazine remediation efficiency under pH 5, 7 and 9 and temperatures 20, 30 and 40℃, respectively. Results showed that atrazine remediation was generally optimized at pH 7 and 30℃ for all the treatments except sodium citrate as soil treated with sawdust was not temperature dependant, but at pH 5 remediation process was determined slower. Atrazine remediation in soil with no additional amendment was only 34%, while in soil treated with sawdust, DNS10, sodium citrate and animal manure were 75.17%, 89%, 74.17% and 76.83% at optimized pH and temperature. Overall atazine removal rate was significantly (≥0.01) higher with increasing in temperature at all the selected pH.

  1. Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals: modeling advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Antonio; Fu, Wenjing; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-03-01

    The soil-water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (K(d)) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific K(d) values normalized to organic carbon (K(OC)) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the K(OC) of monovalent organic acids and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pK(a)) and the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log P(n)). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid-water interface, the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of pH on the total sorption is contrasting. In fact, the shortcomings of the model assumptions affect the predictive power for acids and for bases differently. We evaluated accuracy and limitations of the regressions for their use in the environmental fate assessment of ionizable chemicals.

  2. Phylogenetic and functional potential links pH and N2O emissions in pasture soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, M. D. Sainur; Biswas, Ambarish; Bakken, Lars R.; Clough, Timothy J.; de Klein, Cecile A. M.; Richards, Karl G.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Morales, Sergio E.

    2016-10-01

    Denitrification is mediated by microbial, and physicochemical, processes leading to nitrogen loss via N2O and N2 emissions. Soil pH regulates the reduction of N2O to N2, however, it can also affect microbial community composition and functional potential. Here we simultaneously test the link between pH, community composition, and the N2O emission ratio (N2O/(NO + N2O + N2)) in 13 temperate pasture soils. Physicochemical analysis, gas kinetics, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, metagenomic and quantitative PCR (of denitrifier genes: nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII) analysis were carried out to characterize each soil. We found strong evidence linking pH to both N2O emission ratio and community changes. Soil pH was negatively associated with N2O emission ratio, while being positively associated with both community diversity and total denitrification gene (nir & nos) abundance. Abundance of nosZII was positively linked to pH, and negatively linked to N2O emissions. Our results confirm that pH imposes a general selective pressure on the entire community and that this results in changes in emission potential. Our data also support the general model that with increased microbial diversity efficiency increases, demonstrated in this study with lowered N2O emission ratio through more efficient conversion of N2O to N2.

  3. Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Fu, Wenjing; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The soil-water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (K-d) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific K-d values normalized to organic carbon (K-OC) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the K-OC of monovalent organic acids...... and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pK(a)) and the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log P-n). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid-water interface......, the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of pH...

  4. Soil pH Mapping with an On-The-Go Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Seidel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH is a key parameter for crop productivity, therefore, its spatial variation should be adequately addressed to improve precision management decisions. Recently, the Veris pH ManagerTM, a sensor for high-resolution mapping of soil pH at the field scale, has been made commercially available in the US. While driving over the field, soil pH is measured on-the-go directly within the soil by ion selective antimony electrodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Veris pH ManagerTM under farming conditions in Germany. Sensor readings were compared with data obtained by standard protocols of soil pH assessment. Experiments took place under different scenarios: (a controlled tests in the lab, (b semicontrolled test on transects in a stop-and-go mode, and (c tests under practical conditions in the field with the sensor working in its typical on-the-go mode. Accuracy issues, problems, options, and potential benefits of the Veris pH ManagerTM were addressed. The tests demonstrated a high degree of linearity between standard laboratory values and sensor readings. Under practical conditions in the field (scenario c, the measure of fit (r2 for the regression between the on-the-go measurements and the reference data was 0.71, 0.63, and 0.84, respectively. Field-specific calibration was necessary to reduce systematic errors. Accuracy of the on-the-go maps was considerably higher compared with the pH maps obtained by following the standard protocols, and the error in calculating lime requirements was reduced by about one half. However, the system showed some weaknesses due to blockage by residual straw and weed roots. If these problems were solved, the on-the-go sensor investigated here could be an efficient alternative to standard sampling protocols as a basis for liming in Germany.

  5. Sorption and pH determine the long-term partitioning of cadmium in natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The bioavailability of metals in soil is a dynamic process. For a proper extrapolation to the field of laboratory studies on fate and effects, it is important to understand the dynamics of metal bioavailability and the way it is influenced by soil properties. The aim of this study was to assess the parallel (concurrent) effect of pH and aging time on the partitioning of cadmium in natural LUFA 2.2 soil. Cadmium nitrate-spiked pH-amended LUFA 2.2 soils were incubated under laboratory conditions for up to 30 weeks. Measured pHpw was lower after 3 weeks and decreased only slightly toward the end of the test. Cadmium concentrations in the pore water increased with time for all soil pH levels, while they decreased with increasing pH. Freundlich kf values ranged between 4.26 and 934 L kg(-1) (n = 0.79 to 1.36) and were highest at the highest pH tested (pH = 6.5). Multiple linear regression analysis, based on a soil ligand modeling approach, resulted in affinity constants of 2.61 for Ca(2+) (log KCa-SL) and 5.05 for H(+) (log KH-SL) for their binding to the active sites on the soil surface. The results showed that pH and aging time are two important factors which together affect cadmium partitioning and mobility in spiked natural soils.

  6. Microbial colonisation of sterilised soils across a pH gradient in a full factorial re-inoculation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas Moreno, Gema; Bååth, Erland; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    We compared the influence of community and environmental conditions for the functioning (fungal and bacterial growth and respiration) and trait distribution (bacterial pH-tolerance) of soil microorganisms across a pH gradient. A reciprocal inoculation experiment, including pHs 4.1, 5.2, 6.7, and 8.3, was used. Sterilised soil microcosms with added plant material were inoculated with fresh soil (communities) and monitored for two months. Respiration was dominated by bacteria at high and by fungi at low pHs. The bacterial pH-tolerance of all inoculated communities (initial trait distribution) converged with the pH of the soil (environment). There were also differences between inocula, resulting in suboptimal pH-tolerance when the inoculum pH did not correspond to soil pH; low pH inocula had lower than optimal pH-tolerance in high pH soils and vice versa. Bacterial communities misaligned to their environment had impaired functioning (growth in all soils and respiration in high pH soils). The inoculum effect on bacterial pH tolerance and functioning could be detected within one week and remained for two months. Fungal communities emanating from low pH inocula consistently resulted in higher fungal growth and biomass (all soils) and respiration (low pH soils). This suggested that variation in fungal pH-tolerance did not influence their performance, in contrast with bacteria. It is likely that a larger fungal sample in low pH inocula explained these results. Consequently, respiration was characterised by the alignment of the bacterial trait distribution to the environment for high pH soils, while it was characterised by larger fungal inoculum for low pH soils.

  7. [Soil pH buffer capacity of tea garden with different planting years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-Jian; Wang, Ye-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Li; Luo, Yi; Sun, Li; Song, Li; Liao, Wan-You

    2014-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of long-term tea planting on soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC), the variation of pHBC and its influence factors were investigated in tea gardens of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 years in Langxi and Qimen of Anhui Province. The results showed that the acid-base titration method was suitable for the determination of soil pHBC of tea gardens. The amount of acid-base added had approximate linear relationship with soil pH value in specific section (pH 4.0-6.0) of acid-base titration curves, so the soil pHBC could be calculated by linear regression equation. Soil pHBC in the tea gardens from the two regions showed a downward trend with increasing the planting years, which decreased at rates of 0.10 and 0.06 mmol · kg(-1) · a(-1) in Langxi and Qimen tea gardens, respectively. Soil pHBC had significant positive correlation with CEC, soil organic matter, base saturation and physical clay content, and significant negative correlation with exchangeable acid and exchange H+.

  8. Soil pH controls the environmental availability of phosphorus: Experimental and mechanistic modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devau, Nicolas [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Cadre, Edith Le [Supagro, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Hinsinger, Philippe; Jaillard, Benoit [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Gerard, Frederic, E-mail: gerard@supagro.inra.fr [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols - Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2009-11-15

    Inorganic P is the least mobile major nutrient in most soils and is frequently the prime limiting factor for plant growth in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, the extraction of soil inorganic P with CaCl{sub 2} (P-CaCl{sub 2}) and geochemical modelling were combined in order to unravel the processes controlling the environmentally available P (EAP) of a soil over a range of pH values (pH {approx} 4-10). Mechanistic descriptions of the adsorption of cations and anions by the soil constituents were used (1-pK Triple Plane, ion-exchange and NICA-Donnan models). These models are implemented into the geochemical code Visual MINTEQ. An additive approach was used for their application to the surface horizon of a Cambisol. The geochemical code accurately reproduced the concentration of extracted P at the different soil pH values (R{sup 2} = 0.9, RMSE = 0.03 mg kg{sup -1}). Model parameters were either directly found in the literature or estimated by fitting published experimental results in single mineral systems. The strong agreement between measurements and modelling results demonstrated that adsorption processes exerted a major control on the EAP of the soil over a large range of pH values. An influence of the precipitation of P-containing mineral is discounted based on thermodynamic calculations. Modelling results indicated that the variations in P-CaCl{sub 2} with soil pH were controlled by the deprotonation/protonation of the surface hydroxyl groups, the distribution of P surface complexes, and the adsorption of Ca and Cl from the electrolyte background. Iron-oxides and gibbsite were found to be the major P-adsorbing soil constituents at acidic and alkaline pHs, whereas P was mainly adsorbed by clay minerals at intermediate pH values. This study demonstrates the efficacy of geochemical modelling to understand soil processes, and the applicability of mechanistic adsorption models to a 'real' soil, with its mineralogical complexity and the additional

  9. Effect of pH on bacteriophage transport through sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takashi; Bales, Roger C.; Maguire, Kimberley M.; Gerba, Charles P.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of pH and hydrophobicity on attachment and detachment of PRD-1 and MS-2 in three different sandy soils were investigated in a series of laboratory-column experiments. Concentrations of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 decreased 3–4 orders of magnitude during passage through the 10–15-cm-long columns. Attachment of the lipid-containing phage PRD-1 was insensitive to pH and was apparently controlled by hydrophobic interactions in soil media. The less-hydrophobic phage MS-2 acted conservatively; it was not removed in the columns at pH's 5.7–8.0. The sticking efficiency (α) in a colloid-filtration model was between 0.1 and 1 for PRD-1, indicating a relatively high removal efficiency. Phage attachment was reversible, but detachment under steady-state conditions was slow. An increase in pH had a moderate effect on enhancing detachment. Still, these soils should continue to release phage to virus-free water for days to weeks following exposure to virus-containing water. In sandy soils with a mass-fraction organic carbon as low as a few hundredths of a percent, pH changes in the range 5.7–8.0 should have little effect on retention of more-hydrophobic virus (e.g., PRD-1), in that retardation will be dominated by hydrophobic effects. Sharp increases in pH should enhance detachment and transport of virus previously deposited on soil grains. A more hydrophilic virus (e.g., MS-2) will transport as a conservative tracer in low-carbon sandy soil.

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Extending its application to soil pH measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José A.; Milori, Débora M. B. P.; Ferreira, Ednaldo José; Anzano, Jesús Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Acid-base equilibria are involved in almost all the processes that occur in soil. The bioavailability of nutrients for plants, for instance, depends on the solubilization of mineral nutrients in the soil solution, which is a pH-dependent process. The determination of pH in soil solutions is usually carried out by potentiometry using a glass membrane electrode, after extracting some of the soil components with water or CaCl2 solution. The present work describes a simple method for determining the pH of soil, using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Sixty samples presenting different textural composition and pH (previously determined by potentiometry) were employed. The samples were divided into a calibration set with fifty samples and a validation set with ten samples. LIBS spectra were recorded for each pelleted sample using laser pulse energy of 115 mJ. The intensities of thirty-two emission lines for Al, Ca, H, and O were used to fit a partial least squares (PLS) model. The model was validated by prediction of the pH of the validation set samples, which showed good agreement with the reference values. The prediction mean absolute error was 0.3 pH units and the root mean square error of the prediction was 0.4. These results highlight the potential of LIBS for use in other applications beyond elemental composition determinations. For soil analysis, the proposed method offers the possibility of determining pH, in addition to nutrients and contaminants, using a single LIBS measurement.

  11. Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Fu, Wenjing; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The soil-water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (K-d) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific K-d values normalized to organic carbon (K-OC) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the K-OC of monovalent organic acids...... and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pK(a)) and the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log P-n). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid-water interface......, the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of p...

  12. Analysis Of Soil NPK Ph And Electrical Conductivity At Adham Area- Renk Upper Nile State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubaker Haroun Mohamed Adam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to investigate soil type potentiality and reaction in relation to the scattered remaining vegetation species and to quantify soil suitability for growing field crops. Adham area witnessed serious land degradation due to the rapid expansion of Rain-fed Mechanized Farming and overgrazing. Consequently the low crop yield enforced the local communities to shift to the alternative sources of income generating activities particularly those related to forest products like charcoal making firewood production logging and tree lobbing. By using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with emphasizes on Macro nutrients particularly the Nitrogen Phosphorous and potassium NPK in addition to soil pH and Electrical Conductivity EC. random soil samples each with three levels of depths 0 - 15 15 - 30 30 - 45 cm. were collected. All collected data were analyzed in the laboratory. The result of revealed several types of soils including the cracking and non -cracking clay sandy and red soils. The result of statistical analysis depicted variability in NPK pH and EC between the different locations and soil depths. Furthermore the result showed an association between some studied soil attributes and the spatial distribution of the vegetation species. Rational use through participatory approach is recommended for natural resources management conservation and sustainability. Moreover further study using space technology also recommended.

  13. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, Søren; Groot, Gerard Arjen de; Mortensen, Louise Hindborg; Skov, Simon; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2017-05-01

    Application of bioash from biofuel combustion to soil supports nutrient recycling, but may have unwanted and detrimental ecotoxicological side-effects, as the ash is a complex mixture of compounds that could affect soil invertebrates directly or through changes in their food or habitat conditions. To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, and the enchytraeid worm Enchytraeus crypticus. We used ash concentrations spanning 0-75 g kg(-1) soil. As ash increases pH we compared bioash effects with effects of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, the main liming component of ash. Only high ash concentrations above 15 g kg(-1) agricultural soil or 17 t ha(-1) had significant effects on the collembolans. The wood ash neither affected H. aculeifer nor E. crypticus. The estimated osmolalities of Ca(OH)2 and the wood ash were similar at the LC50 concentration level. We conclude that short-term chronic effects of wood ash differ among different soil types, and osmotic stress is the likely cause of effects while high pH and heavy metals is of minor importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulfamethazine Sorption to Soil: Vegetative Management, pH, and Dissolved Organic Matter Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bei; Goyne, Keith W; Anderson, Stephen H; Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating veterinary antibiotic interactions with soil is important for assessing and mitigating possible environmental hazards. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of vegetative management, soil properties, and >1000 Da dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sulfamethazine (SMZ) behavior in soil. Sorption experiments were performed over a range of SMZ concentrations (2.5-50 μmol L) using samples from three soils (Armstrong, Huntington, and Menfro), each planted to one of three vegetation treatments: agroforestry buffers strips (ABS), grass buffer strips (GBS), and row crops (RC). Our results show that SMZ sorption isotherms are well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model (log = 0.44-0.93; Freundlich nonlinearity parameter = 0.59-0.79). Further investigation of solid-to-solution distribution coefficients () demonstrated that vegetative management significantly ( GBS > RC). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that organic carbon (OC) content, pH, and initial SMZ concentration were important properties controlling SMZ sorption. Study of the two most contrasting soils in our sample set revealed that increasing solution pH (pH 6.0-7.5) reduced SMZ sorption to the Armstrong GBS soil, but little pH effect was observed for the Huntington GBS soil containing 50% kaolinite in the clay fraction. The presence of DOM (150 mg L OC) had little significant effect on the Freundlich nonlinearity parameter; however, DOM slightly reduced SMZ values overall. Our results support the use of vegetative buffers to mitigate veterinary antibiotic loss from agroecosystems, provide guidance for properly managing vegetative buffer strips to increase SMZ sorption, and enhance understanding of SMZ sorption to soil.

  15. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  16. Persistence of spiromesifen in soil: influence of moisture, light, pH and organic amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, Ch Jamkhokai; Mukherjee, Irani; Das, Shaon Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Persistence of spiromesifen in soil as affected by varying moisture, light, compost amendment, soil sterilization and pH in aqueous medium were studied. Degradation of spiromesifen in soil followed the first-order reaction kinetics. Effect of different moisture regimes indicated that spiromesifen dissipated faster in submerged soil (t 1/2 14.3-16.7 days) followed by field capacity (t 1/2 18.7-20.0 days), and dry soil (t 1/2 21.9-22.9 days). Dissipation was faster in sterilized submerged (t 1/2 17.7 days) than in sterilized dry (t 1/2 35.8 days). Photo spiromesifen metabolite was not detected under different moisture regimes. After 30 days, enol spiromesifen metabolite was detected under submerged condition and was below detectable limit (Soil amendment compost (2.5 %) at field capacity enhanced dissipation of the insecticide, and half-life value was 14.3 against 22.4 days without compost amendment. Under different pH condition, residues persisted in water with half-life values 5.7 to 12.5 days. Dissipation in water was faster at pH 9.0 (t 1/2 5.7 days), followed by pH 4.0 (t 1/2 9.7 days) and pH 7.2 (t 1/2 12.5 days). Exposure of spiromesifen to different light conditions indicated that it was more prone to degradation under UV light (t 1/2 3-4 days) than sunlight exposure (t 1/2 5.2-8.1 days). Under sunlight exposure, photo spiromesifen metabolite was detected after 10 and 15 days as compared to 3 and 5 days under UV light exposure.

  17. Revisiting the Kinetics and Mechanism of the Tetrathionate-Hypochlorous Acid Reaction in Nearly Neutral Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Dénes; Horváth, Attila K.

    2009-11-01

    The tetrathionate-hypochlorous acid reaction has been investigated in nearly neutral medium at I = 0.5 M ionic strength and T = 25.0 ± 0.1 °C in dihydrogen-phosphate-hydrogen-phosphate buffer by UV-vis spectrophotometry. In excess of hypochlorous acid, the stoichiometry was found to be S4O62- + 7HOCl + 3H2O → 4SO42- + 7Cl- + 13H+, but in excess of tetrathionate colloidal sulfur precipitates. On the basis of the simultaneous evaluation of the kinetic curves, a nine-step kinetic model with four fitted and five fixed rate coefficients is proposed. Analogous oxidation reactions of tetrathionate are also compared and discussed.

  18. Soil flushing of cresols contaminated soil: application of nonionic and ionic surfactants under different pH and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Narenjkar, Khadijeh; Sanati Farvash, Emad; Asghari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the viability of soil flushing on the removal of cresols (meta-, ortho-, and para-cresols) from contaminated soil has been investigated. High production and distribution of cresols in the environment indicate their potential for a widespread exposure to humans. The presence of these compounds in soil could cause a significant threat to environment, as they are toxic and refractory in nature. Cresols are persistent chemicals which are classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) as Group C, possible human carcinogens. Soil flushing is one of the soil remediation technologies which could by applied for treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Flushing of the contaminated soil samples was carried out by using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 surfactant solutions at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4% (W/W). Three acidic, neutral, and alkaline environments were utilized by adjusting pH of the washing solutions at 3, 7 and 12 to evaluate the effect of washing environment in removing cresols. The results of this research denote that the highest removal efficiencies of 79.6% and 83.51% were achieved for m-cresol and total o- and p-cresols, respectively, under the alkaline environment of pH12 at 0.4% (W/W) SDS concentration. Regarding performance of Triton X-100, the removal efficiencies of 80.26% and 80.14% for the above cresols were attained under similar conditions. Hence, illustrating the effectiveness of surfactants in soil flushing remediation of cresols contaminated soil.

  19. Organic Ligand, Competing Cation, and pH Effects on Dissolution of Zinc in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of an organic ligand,a competing cation,and pH on the dissolution of zinc(Zn)from three California soils,Maymen sandy loam,Merced clay,and Yolo clay loam.The concentrations of soluble Zn of the three soils were low in a background solution of Ca(NO3)2.Citric acid,a common organic ligand found in the rhizosphere,was effective in mobilizing Zn in these soils; its presence enhanced the concentration of Zn in soil solution by citrate forming a complex with Zn.The ability of Zn to form a complex with citric acid in the soil solution was dependent on the concentration of citric acid,pH,and the concentration of the competing cation Ca2+.The pH of the soil solution determined the extent of desorption of Zn in solid phase in the presence of citric acid.The amounts of Zn released from the solid phase were proportional to the concentration of citric acid and inversely proportional to the concentration of Ca(NO3)2 background solution,which supplied the competing cation Ca2+ for the formation of a complex with citrate.When the soil suspension was spiked with Zn,the adsorption of Zn by the soils was retarded by citric acid via the formation of the soluble Zn-citrate complex.The dissolution of Zn in the presence of citric acid was pH dependent in both adsorption and desorption processes.

  20. [Effect of different N, P and K fertilizers on soil pH and available Cd under waterlogged conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ka-La-Tie; Yu, Hua; Feng, Wen-Qiang; Qin, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Jing; Liao, Ming-Lan; Wang, Chang-Quan; Tu, Shi-Hua

    2009-11-01

    In order to tackle the problem of Cd pollution in paddy soils and investigate soil available Cd as affected by different fertilizers, incubation experiments were carried out to study the effects of different N, P and K fertilizers and pH by adding acid or base on soil available Cd under waterlogged conditions. Results revealed that soil pH increased sharply after the soil was flooded, especially at the beginning of incubation, and gradually decreased with incubation time and finally tended to approach the neutral values. The patterns of soil pH change were just opposite to those of soil available Cd, a negative correlation observed between the two. Soil flooding made the soil available Cd drop by 58.2%-84.1%. There were significant differences between different fertilizer types/varieties on soil available Cd, being most complex with N fertilizers and followed by K and P fertilizers. Among the fertilizers studied, ammonium chloride showed the unique ability in reducing soil pH and enhancing soil available Cd, and urea, single super phosphate and potassium chloride also promoted to a less extent amounts of Cd extracted from the soil. Ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate significantly decreased soil available Cd compared to the CK treatment. Whether or not the soil was flooded, soil available Cd was highly negatively correlated with soil pH after adding acid or base (R = - 0.994 without incubation and R = - 0.919 after incubation for 60 d). The results further suggest that in the Cd polluted paddy soil, use of ammonium chloride should be avoided, S bearing fertilizers in combination with alkaline materials can be adopted, and the rice field should be flooded all the time during growing season, all the these practices can effectively lower soil available Cd.

  1. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Luo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC, carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  2. [Effects of root-knot nematodes on cucumber leaf N and P contents, soil pH, and soil enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ruan, Wei-Bin; Gao, Yu-Bao; Song, Xiao-Yan; Wei, Yu-Kun

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculation with root-knot nematodes on the cucumber leaf N and P contents, and the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil pH and enzyme activities. The rhizospheric soil pH didn't have a significant decrease until the inoculation rate reached 6000 eggs per plant. With the increase of inoculation rate, the leaf N and P contents, rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity, and rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil polyphenol oxidase activity all decreased gradually, rhizospheric soil catalase activity was in adverse, non-rhizospheric soil pH decreased after an initial increase, and non-rhizospheric soil catalase activity had no regular change. After inoculation, rhizospheric soil urease activity decreased significantly, but rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil phosphatase activity and non-rhizospheric soil peroxidase activity only had a significant decrease under high inoculation rate. In most cases, there existed significant correlations between rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents; and in some cases, there existed significant correlations between non-rhizospheric soil pH, enzyme activities, and leaf N and P contents.

  3. Zn Adsorption by Variable Charge Soils in Relation to pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNHAN-YUAN

    1993-01-01

    Zn adsorption by pure oxides or in the presence of a high concentration of inner electrolyte has been extensively studied.But,in studies on Zn adsorption in the complicated soil system,especially in variable charge soils,profound knowledge about the absorption mechanism still lacks.In this paper,taking Zn ion adsorption by two typical variable charge soils as the object of the study,author discusses the relation between Zn adsorption and pH and possible adsorption mechanisms.The results showed that in the low pH range where the amount of Zn adsorbed did not exceed 50% of Zn added,the specific adsorption was the diminant mechanism.The species of Zn specifically adsorbed was free Zn2+ ion.In the middle and high pH ranges,the mechanisms of specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,accounting for about 70% and 30%,respectively.Noteworthily,in the high pH range,the hydroxyl Zn ion (ZnOH+) from Zn2+ hydrolysis probably was a preferable species for specific absorption.

  4. Mycorrhizal fungal communities respond to experimental elevation of soil pH and P availability in temperate hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrino-Kyker, Sarah R; Kluber, Laurel A; Petersen, Sheryl M; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Hewins, Charlotte R; DeForest, Jared L; Smemo, Kurt A; Burke, David J

    2016-03-01

    Many forests are affected by chronic acid deposition, which can lower soil pH and limit the availability of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), but the response of mycorrhizal fungi to changes in soil pH and P availability and how this affects tree acquisition of nutrients is not well understood. Here, we describe an ecosystem-level manipulation in 72 plots, which increased pH and/or P availability across six forests in Ohio, USA. Two years after treatment initiation, mycorrhizal fungi on roots were examined with molecular techniques, including 454-pyrosequencing. Elevating pH significantly increased arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization and total fungal biomass, and affected community structure of AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi, suggesting that raising soil pH altered both mycorrhizal fungal communities and fungal growth. AM fungal taxa were generally negatively correlated with recalcitrant P pools and soil enzyme activity, whereas EcM fungal taxa displayed variable responses, suggesting that these groups respond differently to P availability. Additionally, the production of extracellular phosphatase enzymes in soil decreased under elevated pH, suggesting a shift in functional activity of soil microbes with pH alteration. Thus, our findings suggest that elevating pH increased soil P availability, which may partly underlie the mycorrhizal fungal responses we observed.

  5. Bioamendment of petroleum contaminated ultisol:effect on oil content, heavy metals and pH of tropical soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of organic amendments on the oil content,heavy metals concentration and pH of petroleum contaminated sandy loam ultisol obtained from Rumuekpe oil field in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was determined. Petroleum contaminated soils were treated with wood ash, compost and sawdust. The addition of organic amendments resulted in a significant(at 95% probability level) decrease in oil content by 92% for composting,81% for soil treated with sawdust and 58% for soil with ash supplementation, over 6 months. The effect of treatments on the iron(Fe), copper(Cu) and lead(Pb) concentration was significant at P<0.001. The remediation also affected the pH of soil. This initial pH of 5.6 was depressed by the application of compost and sawdust supplements respectively to a final pH of 5.2 and 5.3. On the other hand, amending the soil with wood ash raised the pH from 5.6 to 6.2. Increased acidity caused a decrease in the heavy metals concentration in the contaminated soil. Soil treatment with compost generally gave the best remediation results, followed by sawdust and then ash. Adjusting the pH of oil contaminated soil to high acidic levels may promote the availability and migration of heavy metals in remediated soils and not necessarily the rate of oil mineralization.

  6. A statistically based mapping of the influence of geology and land use on soil pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstrøm, Thomas; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Krüger, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the geographical distribution of pH values in Danish soils of different ages representing the main Saalian and Weichselian ice advances. The investigation is based on soil sampling from top- and subsoils in soil profiles located in a nationwide 7-km gri...

  7. A statistically based mapping of the influence of geology and land use on soil pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstrøm, Thomas; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Krüger, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the geographical distribution of pH values in Danish soils of different ages representing the main Saalian and Weichselian ice advances. The investigation is based on soil sampling from top- and subsoils in soil profiles located in a nationwide 7-km gri...

  8. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Daniel S; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Heggelund, Laura; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2016-03-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied the effects of nanoparticulate, non-nanoparticulate and ionic zinc (in the form of zinc chloride) on the composition of bacterial communities in soil with a modified pH range (from pH 4.5 to pH 7.2). We observed strong pH-dependent effects on the interaction between bacterial communities and all forms of zinc, with the largest changes in bacterial community composition occurring in soils with low and medium pH levels (pH 4.8 and 5.9). The high pH soil (pH 7.2) was less susceptible to the effects of zinc exposure. At the highest doses of zinc (2500 mg/kg dw soil), both nano and non-nano particulate zinc applications elicited a similar response in the soil bacterial community, and this differed significantly to the ionic zinc salt treatment. The results highlight the importance of considering soil pH in nanotoxicology studies, although further work is needed to determine the exact mechanisms controlling the toxicity and fate and interactions of nanoparticles with soil microbial communities.

  9. Reactions of Ni-B on printed Ag pattern by using nearly neutral electroless bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Kim, Hyung Chul; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of a nearly neutral Ni source solution including dimethylamine borane (DMAB) used to develop the metal PCB (printed circuit board) of high power LED (light-emitting diode) package. In accordance with the bath temperature ranging from 50 degrees C to 75 degrees C, an electroless Ni-B plating on a screen-printed Ag pattern with an anodized Al substrate was carried out. The depositon rate of the electroless plated Ni-B film at bath temperature ranging from 50 degrees C to 75 degrees C was estimated by measurements of the thickness and the mass. The deposition rates by change of thickness and mass of the electroless plated Ni-B film at 50 degrees C were - 58 nm/min and 0.113 mg/min respectively. The activation energy obtained from slope of Arrhenius plot using these deposition rates was - 59 kJ/mol. Finally, selectively the film growth was achieved at all plating temperatures, without a damage of anodized Al substrate.

  10. Effect of organic matter and pH on the adsorption of metalaxyl and penconazole by soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondar, Dora; López, Rocío [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antelo, Juan [Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fiol, Sarah, E-mail: sarah.fiol@usc.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Arce, Florencio [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The adsorption of non-ionic pesticides on soils is affected by pH. • At pH < 5, the C{sub s}{sup OC}/C{sub e} ratio increased as the pH of the medium decreased. • The effect of pH on adsorption is related to the ionization of carboxylic groups. • SOM charge had similar effect on C{sub s}{sup OC}/C{sub e} in the four soils under study. -- Abstract: Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be the primary adsorbent of non-ionic pesticides, and it is therefore thought to determine the concentration of such pesticides in the soil solution and how they are transported throughout the medium. It is generally assumed that the sorption capacity of different soils is the same per unit mass of SOM; however, the reactivity also depends on the SOM composition and the pH of the medium. We carried out experiments to study the effects of pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of the non-ionic fungicides metalaxyl and penconazole on four soils containing different amounts of organic carbon. The adsorption isotherms fitted a Freundlich equation. For pH > 5, partitioning of the fungicides between the solid phase and the soil solution did not vary with the pH, while at lower pH, the fraction adsorbed on the solid phase increased as the pH decreased. The response was related to the effect of pH on the ionization of the carboxylic groups of the SOM and therefore to the hydrophilic nature of the SOM. Analysis of the charge effect on the partitioning of both fungicides revealed a common response in all four soils. Adsorption appears to be related to the magnitude of the charge developed at the SOM due to ionization of the carboxylic acid groups.

  11. Formation of neptunium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral and slightly alkaline pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, Richard; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Hübner, René; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Zänker, Harald

    2015-01-06

    The reducing conditions in a nuclear waste repository render neptunium tetravalent. Thus, Np is often assumed to be immobile in the subsurface. However, tetravalent actinides can also become mobile if they occur as colloids. We show that Np(IV) is able to form silica-rich colloids in solutions containing silicic acid at concentrations of both the regions above and below the "mononuclear wall" of silicic acid at 2 × 10(-3) M (where silicic acid is expected to start polymerization). These Np(IV)-silica colloids have a size of only very few nanometers and can reach significantly higher concentrations than Np(IV) oxyhydroxide colloids. They can be stable in the waterborne form over longer spans of time. In the Np(IV)-silica colloids, the actinide--oxygen--actinide bonds are increasingly replaced by actinide--oxygen--silicon bonds due to structural incorporation of Si. Possible implications of the formation of such colloids for environmental scenarios are discussed.

  12. Soluble organic carbon and pH of organic amendments affect metal mobility and chemical speciation in mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Vargas, Carmen; Moliner, Ana

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of pH and soluble organic carbon affected by organic amendments on metal mobility to find out the optimal conditions for their application in the stabilization of metals in mine soils. Soil samples (pH 5.5-6.2) were mixed with 0, 30 and 60 th a(-1) of sheep-horse manure (pH 9.4) and pine bark compost (pH 5.7). A single-step extraction procedure was performed using 0.005 M CaCl2 adjusted to pH 4.0-7.0 and metal speciation in soil solution was simulated using NICA-Donnan model. Sheep-horse manure reduced exchangeable metal concentrations (up to 71% Cu, 75% Zn) due to its high pH and degree of maturity, whereas pine bark increased them (32% Cu, 33% Zn). However, at increasing dose and hence pH, sheep-horse manure increased soluble Cu because of higher soluble organic carbon, whereas soluble Cu and organic carbon increased at increasing dose and correspondingly decreasing pH in pine bark and non-amended treatments. Near the native pH of these soils (at pH 5.8-6.3), with small doses of amendments, there was minimum soluble Cu and organic carbon. Pine bark also increased Zn solubility, whereas sheep-horse manure reduced it as soluble Zn always decreased with increasing pH. Sheep-horse manure also reduced the proportion of free metals in soil solution (from 41% to 4% Cu, from 97% to 94% Zn), which are considered to be more bioavailable than organic species. Sheep-horse manure amendment could be efficiently used for the stabilization of metals with low risk of leaching to groundwater at low doses and at relatively low pH, such as the native pH of mine soils.

  13. The effect of pH modification on wetting kinetics of a naturally water repellent coniferous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ahmad; Diehl, Dörte; Schaumann, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The interfacial dynamics of soil-water interactions are significantly affected by the hydrophobic properties of organic matter. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of soil water repellency (SWR) are still under discussion. Various environmental factors control the appearance and degree of SWR. The wetting of soil greatly depends on the physicochemical characteristics of soil surfaces which in turn depends on pH. In this contribution, we propose a mechanism for the change in SWR that is observed upon the artificial change in soil pH. Wetting kinetics were studied by the time dependent sessile drop measurements (TISED) of the contact angle, the work of spreading and the drop base diameter as time elapsed under controlled relative humidity. Modification of pH strongly affected the wetting kinetics, suggesting maximum wetting resistance at the control pH (3.60) and with decreased wetting resistance as pH was changed in either direction. The enhancement of the wetting kinetics by artificial modification of soil pH can be attributed to the chemical modification in organic materials coating soil particles based on the magnitude of spreading activation energy and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic moieties ratio of treated soil samples measured by (XPS & MIR spectroscopy). On the basis of our current state of knowledge, we propose that acid and base catalyzed hydrolysis-condensation reactions as dominant processes responsible for the chemical nature of SWR.

  14. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10......% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments...

  15. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system.

  16. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    W. T. Luo; Nelson, P N; Li, M.-H.; J. P. Cai; Zhang, Y.Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; S. Yang; R. Z. Wang; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; X. G. Han; Y. Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils ...

  17. Effect of organic matter and pH on the adsorption of metalaxyl and penconazole by soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondar, Dora; López, Rocío; Antelo, Juan; Fiol, Sarah; Arce, Florencio

    2013-09-15

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be the primary adsorbent of non-ionic pesticides, and it is therefore thought to determine the concentration of such pesticides in the soil solution and how they are transported throughout the medium. It is generally assumed that the sorption capacity of different soils is the same per unit mass of SOM; however, the reactivity also depends on the SOM composition and the pH of the medium. We carried out experiments to study the effects of pH and ionic strength on the adsorption of the non-ionic fungicides metalaxyl and penconazole on four soils containing different amounts of organic carbon. The adsorption isotherms fitted a Freundlich equation. For pH>5, partitioning of the fungicides between the solid phase and the soil solution did not vary with the pH, while at lower pH, the fraction adsorbed on the solid phase increased as the pH decreased. The response was related to the effect of pH on the ionization of the carboxylic groups of the SOM and therefore to the hydrophilic nature of the SOM. Analysis of the charge effect on the partitioning of both fungicides revealed a common response in all four soils. Adsorption appears to be related to the magnitude of the charge developed at the SOM due to ionization of the carboxylic acid groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An assessment of the association between soil pH and ovine Johne's disease using Australian abattoir surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowled, Brendan D; Stevenson, Mark A; Madin, Ben

    2016-04-01

    There has long been discussion in the literature about the role of soil on ovine Johnes disease (OJD). This is especially true of soil pH, however there is very little research to support an association between pH and OJD prevalence. The primary objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that there is an association between soil pH and OJD. Several additional hypotheses were also assessed. Sheep properties that were surveyed by the Australian National Sheep Health Monitoring Project where classified as OJD reactor positive or otherwise. A variety of explanatory variables such as soil (especially soil pH), environmental and management factors were examined. Spatial regression models were assessed using information theory to examine support for various hypotheses and to examine associations; especially that soil pH is associated with OJD. A total of 1213 properties from 10,578 were classified as OJD positive (11.5%, 95% CI: 10.9-12.1). Within the limitations of the study, only modest support was found for an association between soil pH and the presence or absence of OJD. Instead, OJD prevalence was affected by several factors concurrently, a so called multi-factorial model (hypothesis). In this supported multifactorial hypothesis soil pH was marginally associated with OJD (p=0.04) and had a relatively weak effect (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00). OJD was strongly associated with a number of biosecurity and environmental factors such as the time since infection arrived in a region, absence of biosecurity programs (such as regional biosecurity programs or state based programs) and, to a lesser extent, solar irradiation. Soil pH may play a relatively small role in explaining OJD prevalence when evaluated as part of a multifactorial model. Biosecurity and other environmental factors appear to be more strongly associated with the presence of OJD in Australia.

  19. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  20. Mechanism of anodic oxidation of molybdenum in nearly-neutral electrolytes studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, Manuela [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Bojinov, Martin, E-mail: martin@uctm.edu [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zanna, Sandrine; Marcus, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS-ENSCP (UMR7045), 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-09-30

    Anodic oxidation of molybdenum in weakly acidic, nearly neutral and weakly alkaline electrolytes was studied by voltammetric and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a wide potential and pH range. Current vs. potential curves were found to exhibit two pseudo-Tafel regions suggesting two parallel pathways of the dissolution process. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated the presence of at least two reaction intermediates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) results pointed to the formation of an oxide containing Mo(IV), Mo(V) and Mo(VI), the exact ratio between different valence states depending on potential and pH of the solution. A physico-chemical model of the processes is proposed and a set of kinetic equations for the steady-state current vs. potential curve and the impedance response are derived. The model is found to reproduce quantitatively the current vs. potential curves and impedance spectra at a range of potentials and pH and to agree qualitatively with the XPS results. Subject to further improvement, the model could serve as a starting point for the optimization of the electrochemical fabrication of functional molybdenum oxide coatings.

  1. Sorption-desorption of fipronil in some soils, as influenced by ionic strength, pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Srivastava, Anjana; Srivastava, Prakash C

    2016-08-01

    The sorption-desorpion of fipronil insecticide is influenced by soil properties and variables such as pH, ionic strength, temperature, etc. A better understanding of soil properties and these variables in sorption-desorption processes by quantification of fipronil using liquid chromatography may help to optimise suitable soil management to reduce contamination of surface and groundwaters. In the present investigation, the sorption-desorption of fipronil was studied in some soils at varying concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures and pH values, and IR specta of fipronil sorbed onto soils were studied. The sorption of fipronil onto soils conformed to the Freundlich isotherm model. The sorption-desorption of fipronil varied with ionic strength in each of the soils. Sorption decreased but desorption increased with temperature. Sorption did not change with increasing pH, but for desorption there was no correlation. The cumulative desorption of fipronil from soil was significantly and inversely related to soil organic carbon content. IR spectra of sorbed fipronil showed the involvement of amino, nitrile, sulfone, chloro and fluoro groups and the pyrazole nucleus of the fipronil molecule. The sorption of fipronil onto soils appeared to be a physical process with the involvement of hydrogen bonding. An increase in soil organic carbon may help to reduce desorption of fipronil. High-temperature regimes are more conducive to the desorption. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The nearly neutral and selection theories of molecular evolution under the fisher geometrical framework: substitution rate, population size, and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeto-Barry, Pablo; Díaz, Javier; Vásquez, Rodrigo A

    2012-06-01

    The general theories of molecular evolution depend on relatively arbitrary assumptions about the relative distribution and rate of advantageous, deleterious, neutral, and nearly neutral mutations. The Fisher geometrical model (FGM) has been used to make distributions of mutations biologically interpretable. We explored an FGM-based molecular model to represent molecular evolutionary processes typically studied by nearly neutral and selection models, but in which distributions and relative rates of mutations with different selection coefficients are a consequence of biologically interpretable parameters, such as the average size of the phenotypic effect of mutations and the number of traits (complexity) of organisms. A variant of the FGM-based model that we called the static regime (SR) represents evolution as a nearly neutral process in which substitution rates are determined by a dynamic substitution process in which the population's phenotype remains around a suboptimum equilibrium fitness produced by a balance between slightly deleterious and slightly advantageous compensatory substitutions. As in previous nearly neutral models, the SR predicts a negative relationship between molecular evolutionary rate and population size; however, SR does not have the unrealistic properties of previous nearly neutral models such as the narrow window of selection strengths in which they work. In addition, the SR suggests that compensatory mutations cannot explain the high rate of fixations driven by positive selection currently found in DNA sequences, contrary to what has been previously suggested. We also developed a generalization of SR in which the optimum phenotype can change stochastically due to environmental or physiological shifts, which we called the variable regime (VR). VR models evolution as an interplay between adaptive processes and nearly neutral steady-state processes. When strong environmental fluctuations are incorporated, the process becomes a selection model

  3. Copper availability and bioavailability are controlled by rhizosphere pH in rape grown in an acidic Cu-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaignon, Valérie; Quesnoit, Marie; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    We evaluated how root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH varied and interacted with Cu availability and bioavailability in an acidic soil. Rape was grown on a Cu-contaminated acidic soil, which had been limed at 10 rates. Soil Cu bioavailability was not influenced by liming. However, liming significantly decreased CaCl(2)-extracted Cu for pH between 3.7 and 5.1. Little effect was found for pH above 5.1. For soil pH soil. Rhizosphere alkalisation occurred at pH pH. This explained the changes of CaCl(2)-Cu in the rhizosphere at low pH and the absence of pH dependency of Cu bioavailability to rape. In addition, apoplastic Cu in roots increased with increasing soil pH, most probably as a result of increased dissociation and affinity of cell wall compounds for Cu.

  4. Using a toxicokinetics approach to explain the effect of soil pH on cadmium bioavailability to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of metal bioavailability in soil by linking the biotic ligand approach with toxicokinetics modelling. We determined cadmium bioaccumulation kinetics in Folsomia candida (Collembola) as a function of soil pH. Animals were exposed for 21 days to LUFA 2.2 soil at 5 or 20 μg Cd g(-1) dry soil followed by 21 days elimination in clean soil. Internal cadmium concentrations were modelled using a first-order one-compartment model, relating uptake rate constants (k1) to total soil, water or 0.01 M CaCl2 extractable and porewater concentrations. Based on total soil concentrations, k1 was independent of soil pH while it strongly increased with increasing pH based on porewater concentrations explaining the reduced competition of H(+) ions making cadmium more bioavailable in pore water at high pH. This shows that the principles of biotic ligand modelling are applicable to predict cadmium accumulation kinetics in soil-living invertebrates.

  5. Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Wei, Ming-Li; Reddy, Krishna R; Liu, Zhao-Peng; Jin, Fei

    2014-04-30

    Cement stabilization is a practical approach to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of lead. However, the potential for leaching of lead out of these stabilized soils under variable acid rain pH conditions is a major environmental concern. This study investigates the effects of acid rain on the leaching characteristics of cement stabilized lead contaminated soil under different pH conditions. Clean kaolin clay and the same soil spiked with 2% lead contamination are stabilized with cement contents of 12 and 18% and then cured for 28 days. The soil samples are then subjected to a series of accelerated leaching tests (or semi-dynamic leaching tests) using a simulated acid rain leachant prepared at pH 2.0, 4.0 or 7.0. The results show that the strongly acidic leachant (pH ∼2.0) significantly altered the leaching behavior of lead as well as calcium present in the soil. However, the differences in the leaching behavior of the soil when the leachant was mildly acidic (pH ∼4.0) and neutral (pH ∼7.0) prove to be minor. In addition, it is observed that the lead contamination and cement content levels can have a considerable impact on the leaching behavior of the soils. Overall, the leachability of lead and calcium is attributed to the stability of the hydration products and their consequent influence on the soil buffering capacity and structure.

  6. Influence of initial pH on bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil employing indigenous Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Naresh; Nagendran, R

    2007-01-01

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil was carried out employing indigenous sulfur oxidizing bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Experiments were carried out to assess the influence of initial pH of the system on bioleaching of chromium, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium from metal contaminated soil. pH at the end of four weeks of bioleaching at different initial pH of 3-7 was between 0.9 and 1.3, ORP between 567 and 617mV and sulfate production was in the range of 6090-8418mgl(-1). Chromium, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium solubilization ranged from "59% to 98%" at different initial pH. A. thiooxidans was not affected by the increasing pH of the bioleaching system towards neutral and it was able to utilize elemental sulfur. The results of the present study are encouraging to develop the bioleaching process for decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soil.

  7. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    emissions is poorly studied for agricultural systems. The overall N2O dynamics during flooding of an agricultural soil and the effect of pH and NO3− concentration has been investigated based on a combination of the use of microsensors, stable isotope techniques, KCl extractions and modelling. This study...... within the soil. The magnitude of the emissions are, not surprisingly, positively correlated with the soil NO3− concentration but also negatively correlated with liming (neutral pH). The redox potential of the soil is found to influence N2O accumulation as the production and consumption of N2O occurs...... in narrow redox windows where the redox range levels are negatively correlated with the pH. This study highlights the potential importance of N2O bursts associated with flooding and infers that annual N2O emission estimates for tilled agricultural soils that are temporarily flooded will be underestimated...

  8. Spatial variability of soil carbon, pH, available phosphorous and potassium in organic farm located in Mediterranean Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Pereira, Paulo; Šeput, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), pH, available phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are some of the most important factors to soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, with implications to crop production. The aim of this work is study the spatial variability of SOC, pH, P and K in an organic farm located in river Rasa valley (Croatia). A regular grid (100 x 100 m) was designed and 182 samples were collected on Silty Clay Loam soil. P, K and SOC showed moderate heterogeneity with coefficient of variation (CV) of 21.6%, 32.8% and 51.9%, respectively. Soil pH record low spatial variability with CV of 1.5%. Soil pH, P and SOC did not follow normal distribution. Only after a Box-Cox transformation, data respected the normality requirements. Directional exponential models were the best fitted and used to describe spatial autocorrelation. Soil pH, P and SOC showed strong spatial dependence with nugget to sill ratio with 13.78%, 0.00% and 20.29%, respectively. Only K recorded moderate spatial dependence. Semivariogram ranges indicate that future sampling interval could be 150 - 200 m in order to reduce sampling costs. Fourteen different interpolation models for mapping soil properties were tested. The method with lowest Root Mean Square Error was the most appropriated to map the variable. The results showed that radial basis function models (Spline with Tension and Completely Regularized Spline) for P and K were the best predictors, while Thin Plate Spline and inverse distance weighting models were the least accurate. The best interpolator for pH and SOC was the local polynomial with the power of 1, while the least accurate were Thin Plate Spline. According to soil nutrient maps investigated area record very rich supply with K while P supply was insufficient on largest part of area. Soil pH maps showed mostly neutral reaction while individual parts of alkaline soil indicate the possibility of penetration of seawater and salt accumulation in the

  9. Influence of soil pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Lofts, Stephen; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2013-12-01

    The effects of soil pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) to the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus were evaluated. Isopods were exposed to a natural soil amended with CaCO3 to reach 3 different pH(CaCl2) levels (4.5, 6.2, and 7.3) and to standard LUFA 2.2 soil (pH 5.5) spiked with ZnO NPs (30 nm), non-nano ZnO (200 nm), and ionic Zn as ZnCl₂. Toxicity was expressed based on total Zn concentration in soil, as well as total Zn and free Zn²⁺ ion concentrations in porewater. Compared with ZnO-spiked soils, the ZnCl₂-spiked soils had lower pH and higher porewater Ca²⁺ and Zn levels. Isopod survival did not differ between Zn forms and soils, but survival was higher for isopods exposed to ZnO NPs at pH 4.5. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for biomass change showed similar trends for all Zn forms in all soils, with higher values at intermediate pH. Median lethal concentration (LC50) and EC50 values based on porewater Zn or free Zn ion concentrations were much lower for ZnO than for ionic zinc. Zn body concentrations increased in a dose-related manner, but no effect of soil pH was found. It is suggested not only that dissolved or free Zn in porewater contributed to uptake and toxicity, but also that oral uptake (i.e., ingestion of soil particles) could be an important additional route of exposure.

  10. Soil pH is a Key Determinant of Soil Fungal Community Composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), silicate silicon (SiO4 (2-)-Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2 (-)-N), phosphate phosphorus (PO4 (3-)-P), and nitrate nitrogen (NO3 (-)-N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>eight soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p = 0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soils of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.

  11. Soil pH is a key determinant of soil fungal community composition in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eZhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic. A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C, organic nitrogen (N, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, silicate silicon (SiO42--Si, nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N, phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N. A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were found. Of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>8 soil samples were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM revealed that soil pH (p=0.001 was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soil samples of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.

  12. Effects of Electrolyte Anions and pH on Adsortpion of Sulfate by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGANGYA; G.M.BRUEMMER; 等

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three electrolyte anions,ionic strength and pH on the adsorption of sulfate by two variable charge soils,with different surface charge properties were studied.Under the conditions of the same pH and ionic strength the effect of electrolyte anions on the adsorption of sulfate was in the order of Cl->NO3->ClO4-,indicating the difference of the nature among these three anions.For ferralsol in the same concentration of chloride and perchloride solutions,the two sulfate adsorption-pH curves could intersect at certain pH value.When pH was higher than the intersecting point.more sulfate was adsorbed in the perchloride solution,while when it was lower than the intersecting point,more sulfate was adsorbed in the chloride solution.In different concentratioins of electrolyte solution,the curves of the amount of oxy-acid anion adsorbed,which changed with pH,could intersect at a certain pH,which is termed point of zero salt effect(PZSE) on adsortpion.The nature of electrolyte anions influenced obviously the appearace of PZSE for sulfate adsorption.For ferralsol the curves of adsorption converged to about pH 7 in NaCl solution seemed to intersect in NaNO3 solution and to have a typical PZSE for sulfate adsorption in NaClO4 solution,For Acrisol the three curves of adsorption were nearly parallel in NaCl and NaNO3 solutions and converged to pH 6.5 in NaClO4 solution.

  13. Leaf pH as a plant trait: species-driven rather than soil-driven variation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; Florus Sibma; Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn; Rob A. Broekman; Ken Thompson

    2011-01-01

    .... But how robust is leaf pH as a species trait in the face of environmental variation? We hypothesized that inherent interspecific variation in leaf pH should be greater than phenotypic variation of given species in response to soil environments. 2...

  14. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Mustafa, Majid; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-11-15

    pH affects both soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The K(d) was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and K(d) values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log K(d)-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5-7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log K(d) values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  15. Enhanced-electrokinetic remediation of copper-pyrene co-contaminated soil with different oxidants and pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Long; Fan, Guang-Ping; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has potential to simultaneously remove heavy metals and organic compounds from soil, but the removal percent of these pollutants is very low in general if no enhancing treatment is applied. This study developed a new enhanced-EK remediation technology to decontaminate a heavy metal-organic compound co-contaminated soil by applying different oxidants and pH control. A red soil was used as a model clayed soil, and was spiked with pyrene and Cu at about 500 mg kg(-1) for both to simulate real situation. Bench-scale EK experiments were performed using four oxidants (H(2)O(2), NaClO, KMnO(4), and Na(2)S(2)O(8)) and controlling electrolyte pH at 3.5 or 10. After the treatments with 1.0 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 335 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity, and the concentrations and chemical fractionations of soil pyrene and Cu were analyzed. The results showed that there was significant migration of pyrene and Cu from the soil, and the removal percent of soil pyrene and Cu varied in the range of 30-52% and 8-94%, respectively. Low pH favoured the migration of soil Cu, while KMnO(4) was the best one for the degradation of pyrene among the tested oxidants, although it unfortunately prevented the migration of soil Cu by forming Cu oxide. Application of Na(2)S(2)O(8) and to control the catholyte pH at 3.5 were found to be the best operation conditions for decontaminating the Cu-pyrene co-contaminated soil.

  16. Effects of Humic Acid and Solution pH on Dispersion of Na—and Ca—Soil Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANYEQING; HUQIONGYING; 等

    1996-01-01

    Dispersed soil clays have a negative impact on soil structure and contribute to soil erosion and contaminant movement.In this study,two typical soils from the south of China were chosen for investigating roles of pH and humic acid(HA) on dispersion of soil clays.Critical flocculation concentration (CFC) of the soil clay suspension was determined by using light transmission at a wavelength of 600 nm.The results indicated that effects of pH and HA on dispersion of the soil clays were closely related to the type of the major minerals makin up the soil and to the valence of the exchangeable cations as well.At four rates of pH(4,6,8and 10),the CFC for the Na-yellow-brown soil treated with H2O2 was increased from 0.32 to 0.56,6.0 to 14.0,10.0 to 24.6 and 26.0 to 52.0mmol L-1 NaCl,respectively when Na-HA was added at the rate of from 0 to 40mgL-1,With the same Na-HA addition and three pH(6,8and 10)treatments,the CFC for the Na-red soil was incresed from 0.5 to 20.0,1.0 to 40.0 and 6.0 to 141.0mmol L-1 NaCl,respectively.Obviously,pH and HA has greater effects on clay dispersion of the red soil(dominated by 1:1 minerals and oxides) than on that of the yellow-brown soil(dominated by 2:1minerals).However,at three rates of pH(6,8and 10) and with the addition of Ca-HA from 0 to 40mg L-1,the CFC of the Ca-yellow-brown soil and Ca-red soil treated with H2O2 was increased from 0.55 to 0.81,0.75 to 1.28,0.55 to 1.45and 0.038 to 0.266.0.25 to 0.62,0.7to 1.6mmol CaCl2 L-1,respectively.So,Na-soil claye are more sensitive to pH and HA than Ca-soil clays.

  17. Effect of soil pH and amendments with dried fodder rape on mycophagous soil animals and Rhizoctonia stem canker of potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lootsma, M.; Scholte, K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of adding dried rape material to the soil and of soil pH on the ability of mycophagous springtails and nematodes to suppress stem canker on potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, were investigated in growth chambers. A bioassay was used with the springtail Folsomia fimetaria and the nematode

  18. Kinetics of the zinc anodic dissolution reaction in near neutral EDTA solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEDELJKO KRSTAJIC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Polarization curves of the anodic dissolution reaction of zinc were determined in EDTA solutions of different total molar concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20 mol dm-3, the pH values of which were systematically varied (pH 3.0 – 10.0. The Tafel slopes of the anodic polarization curves are close to 40 mV dec-1 at lower current densities (10-5 – 5x10-4 A cm-2, while at higher current densities (5x10-4 – 10-2 A cm-2 the slopes are in the range of 60 – 120 mV dec-1. The order of the anodic reaction determined from the anodic polarization curves at lower current densities are: z+ (H+ ~ –1/2 for pH 8, while z+(H4Y ~ 1 for all pH values of the examined EDTA solutions. On the basis of these results, two mechanisms of the zinc anodic dissolution reaction are proposed: at pH 8. In both cases the relevant EDTA species directly participate as reactants in the anodic reaction. The dependences of the corrosion potential on pH and on total molar EDTA concentration indicate that the relevant EDTA species take part as reactants in both the cathodic (hydrogen evolution and anodic (zinc dissolution reactions of the zinc corrosion process.

  19. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi.

  20. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    . It was evident that Cu, Pb, and Zn started to desorb at a higher pH from calcareous soils than from soils with low carbonate content. The mechanism responsible for this is co-precipitation of heavy metals in the carbonates. When the carbonates are dissolved at a relatively high pH of about 5, the co......Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10...

  1. Labile pools of Pb in vegetable-growing soils investigated by an isotope dilution method and its influence on soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Cao, Ying-Lan; Cai, Chao; Zeng, Xiang-Cheng; Li, Jian

    2012-08-01

    Pollution of Pb in the surface of agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to its serious impact on the plant growth and the human health through the food chain. However, the mobility, activity and bioavailability of Pb rely mainly on its various chemical species in soils. In the present study, E and L values, the labile pools of isotopically exchangeable Pb, were estimated using the method of isotope dilution in three vegetable-growing soils. The experiments involved adding a stable enriched isotope ((206)Pb > 96%) to a soil suspension and to soils in which plants are subsequently grown, the labile pools of Pb were then estimated by measuring the isotopic composition of Pb in soil solutions and in the plant tissues, respectively. In addition, the correlation of E values and soil pH was investigated at the ranges of pH 4.5-7.0. The amount of labile Pb in soils was also estimated using different single chemical extractants and a modified BCR approach. The results showed that after spiking the enriched isotopes of (206)Pb (>96%) for 24 hours an equilibration of isotopic exchanges in soil suspensions was achieved, and the isotope ratios of (208)Pb/(206)Pb measured at that time was used for calculating the E(24 h) values. The labile pools of Pb by %E(24 h) values, ranging from 53.2% to 61.7% with an average 57%, were found to be significantly higher (p EDTA and the Σ(BCR) values extracted with the modified BCR approach are helpful to detect the labile pools of Pb in soils. In addition, the negative correlation between soil pH and the labile pools of Pb in soils may be useful for further remediation to reduce the bioavailability of Pb in contaminated soils.

  2. How to examine soil sorption of ionizable organic compounds and avoid varying pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisover, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic organic compounds including new and emerging pollutants undergo ionization in aqueous solutions, and their sorption by soils and sediments is contributed by presence of both molecular and ionized species. Better understanding of environmental fate of organic chemicals requires taking into account interactions of molecular and ionized species with environmental sorbents. A "standard" (and undoubtedly important) procedure for differentiating contributions of molecular and ionized species into the overall soil sorption of an organic compound involves varying pH of solution in batch sorption experiments. However, varying pH is (1) often not possible, without destroying a sorbent, e.g., due to the buffer capacity of soils containing carbonates, (2) difficult for further interpretation, since it changes not only the ionization status of a solute in a solution but also the sorbent structure, e.g., a conformation of organic matter, and/or ionization of surface functional groups, (3) making difficult (or even impossible) to explicitly evaluate the role of dissolved species-bulk water interactions, directly affecting the affinity of a sorbate to distribute between water and a sorbent. Indeed, both molecular and ionized species undergo interactions with the solvent bulk and, at least in the case of the ionized ones, there was no a simple way to quantify organic ion-water interactions and their role in organic ion distribution between soil and water phases. This paper presents a "counter-intuitive" approach to examine sorption interactions of an ionizable compound, without experimenting with varied pH. The approach is based on an idea of replacing an initial state in sorption transfer of an ionizable compound from the solvent bulk to a solvated (hydrated) sorbed state: a traditional coefficient describing distribution of a partially ionized compound between a hydrated sorbent and a co-equilibrated aqueous phase is converted to the coefficient

  3. Effect of Long-term Drip Fertigation on Root Growth of Lychee and Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through field experiment,we explore the impact of long-term drip fertigation on growth and distribution of lychee root and changes of soil pH in different layers of soil in lychee garden.The results show that drip fertigation can significantly promote the growth of lychee roots,and increase the contact area of root and soil;if it experiences six years of drip fertigation successively,the dry weight of root,root length and surface area of root in soil in drip fertigation area,will be 2.29 times,2.17 times and 2.25 times that in non-drip fertigation area,respectively.The lychee root is mainly distributed in 0-40 cm layer of soil,but there is conspicuous difference between drip fertigation area and non-drip fertigation area in terms of root distribution in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layer of soil.Drip fertigation is more favorable for the root to go deep inside the soil.Under long-term drip fertigation,the soil acidification in lychee garden is prominent,and in comparison with non-drip fertigation area,there is the greatest decline in soil pH in 10-20 cm layer of soil in drip fertigation area,reaching 1.47 units.

  4. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com; Mustafa, Majid; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-11-15

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (K{sub d}) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The K{sub d} was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and K{sub d} values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log K{sub d}-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log K{sub d} values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7. - Highlights: • The log K{sub d}-values of 11 selected PCBs were investigated in pH static leaching tests • The log K{sub d}-values of all PCBs decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units • The de-protonation of humics may explain why K{sub d}-values fell as pH rose from 5 to 7.

  5. Soil pH management by calcareous and siliceous minerals: effect on N2O yield in nitrification and denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Amelioration of soil pH by liming is necessary and common practice in vast areas of crop production. It is well known that pH is one of the most pervasive factors controlling rates and product stoichiometries in microbially mediated N transformations, including N2O emissions. While liming of acid soils appears to increase N2O reductase activity in denitrification (resulting in less N2O relative to N2), sudden pH raise may boost nitrification and hence N2O emission from ammonia oxidation. Thus, the net effect of liming on N2O emissions is not straightforward, which probably explains why soil pH management has not been embraced as a strategy for mitigating N2O emissions so far. Here we report laboratory incubations in which we determined potential rates and N2O yields in soils from an ongoing field experiment, comparing traditional calcareous limes (calcite, dolomite) with mafic minerals (olivine, different types of plagioclase). The experiment is in its second year, and shows strong pH increase (0.7-1.5, units) in plots with calcareous limes, a weak pH increase (~ 0.2 unit) in the olivine treatment and no measurable pH increase with the plagioclases. Potential nitrification rates correlated positively with effective soil pH as did the N2O yield, measured as N2O accumulation rate over NO2- + NO3- accumulation rate. The N2O yield increased in the order, control automated field flux robot (using fast box technique) in the same liming experiment.

  6. Urea Hydrolysis Rate in Soil Toposequences as Influenced by pH, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Soluble Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kristin A; Meisinger, John J; James, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    A simultaneous increase in the use of urea fertilizer and the incidence of harmful algal blooms worldwide has generated interest in potential loss pathways of urea from agricultural areas. The objective of this research was to study the rate of urea hydrolysis in soil profile toposequences sampled from the Coastal Plain (CP) and Piedmont (PM) regions of Maryland to understand native urea hydrolysis rates (UHRs) as well as the controls governing urea hydrolysis both across a landscape and with depth in the soil profile. A pH-adjustment experiment was conducted to explore the relationship between pH and urea hydrolysis because of the importance of pH to both agronomic productivity and microbial communities. Soils were sampled from both A and B horizons along transects containing an agricultural field (AG), a grassed field border (GB), and a perennially vegetated zone adjacent to surface water. On average, the A-horizon UHRs were eight times greater than corresponding B-horizon rates, and within the CP, the riparian zone (RZ) soils hydrolyzed urea faster than the agricultural soils. The pH adjustment of these soils indicated the importance of organic-matter-related factors (C, N, extractable metals) in determining UHR. These results suggest that organic-matter-rich RZ soils may be valuable in mitigating losses of urea from neighboring fields. Additional field-scale urea hydrolysis studies would be valuable to corroborate the mechanisms described herein and to explore the conditions affecting the fate and transport of urea in agroecosystems.

  7. Effects of some organic materials on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content of soils having different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of rice husk compost (RC, town waste compost (TW and tobacco waste (TB on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content (P in soils having different pH levels under greenhouse conditions. Soil samples used in this study were taken from surfaces (0-20 cm of agricultural fields around Samsun, Northern Anatolia. The experiment was conducted according to split plot design with four doses of organic matterials (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5, %. After a month of mixing organic matterials into soils, lettuce were grown in the medias. According to the results, RC, TW and TB applications into acidic (Tepecik, neutral (Kampüs and alkaline (Çetinkaya soils increased extractable P content. It was observed that effectiveness of organic matterials changed depend on soil reaction, type and dose of organic matterials. All organic wastes were more effective on increment of bicarbonate extractable phosphate content in neutral soil pH when compared the other soil pH levels.

  8. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierpińska Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii on sterilized wheat grain in control of Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries, established on acidic soils (with pH analogous to that of forest soils as well as on those alkaline. The active substance of Bovecol was 108 fungal conidia per 1g of the product. Study plots were established in 3 bareroot nurseries, situated in the areas with different soil reaction values and abundant populations of Melolontha spp. white grubs (assessed before Bovecol treatments. The product was applied against L1 larvae (rates in the Czerniawka and Bałtów nurseries: 120 kg/ha and 240 kg/ha and against L2 larvae (the Iłki nursery: 240 kg/ha. Grub population numbers were assessed 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatments. Application of Bovecol against L1 into the soil with neutral reaction (pH 6.8 caused the reduction of white grub numbers in 2 months, down to the threshold recommended by the Instruction of the protection of forests (mandatory guidelines for the protection of Poland’s State Forests, i.e. less than 1 grub/sampling pit. Bovecol treatment against L1 cockchafer larvae into acidic soil (pH 4.8 had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of grub population numbers, even 4 months after product application. Bovecol treatment against L2 larvae applied into the soil with medium pH value (5.3 gave poorer results when compared to the soil with pH 6.8, but considerably better – when compared to the soil with pH 4.8. The selection of a fungal strain

  9. Soil lime level (pH) and VA-Mycorrhiza effects on growth responses of sweetgum seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.A.; Young, J.L.; Linderman, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Sequential greenhouse experiments limed a strongly acid surface and subsurface horizons of phosphorus-deficient Jory clay loam with increments of calcium carbonate to attain a range in soil pH from 5.0 to 8.1. In the absence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM), neither the organic matter-rich surface nor the organic matter-poor subsurface horizon supported growth of sweetgum seedlings at any pH despite regular nutrient supplements. The effects of pH, VAM, and soil horizon on nutrient accumulation and plant nutrient concentrations were variable. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally higher in the VAM than in control seedlings, which suggests that host plant should be matched with VAM species adapted to particular soil and climate conditions to obtain maximum benefit from a mycorrhizal association. 18 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Decreased N2O reduction by low soil pH causes high N2O emissions in a riparian ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heuvel, R N; Bakker, S E; Jetten, M S M; Hefting, M M

    2011-05-01

    Quantification of harmful nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soils is essential for mitigation measures. An important N(2)O producing and reducing process in soils is denitrification, which shows deceased rates at low pH. No clear relationship between N(2)O emissions and soil pH has yet been established because also the relative contribution of N(2)O as the denitrification end product decreases with pH. Our aim was to show the net effect of soil pH on N(2)O production and emission. Therefore, experiments were designed to investigate the effects of pH on NO(3)(-) reduction, N(2)O production and reduction and N(2) production in incubations with pH values set between 4 and 7. Furthermore, field measurements of soil pH and N(2)O emissions were carried out. In incubations, NO(3)(-) reduction and N(2) production rates increased with pH and net N(2)O production rate was highest at pH 5. N(2)O reduction to N(2) was halted until NO(3)(-) was depleted at low pH values, resulting in a built up of N(2)O. As a consequence, N(2)O:N(2) production ratio decreased exponentially with pH. N(2)O reduction appeared therefore more important than N(2)O production in explaining net N(2)O production rates. In the field, a negative exponential relationship for soil pH against N(2)O emissions was observed. Soil pH could therefore be used as a predictive tool for average N(2)O emissions in the studied ecosystem. The occurrence of low pH spots may explain N(2)O emission hotspot occurrence. Future studies should focus on the mechanism behind small scale soil pH variability and the effect of manipulating the pH of soils.

  11. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  12. Distribution and function of carbamate hydrolase genes cehA and mcd in soils: the distinct role of soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousidou, Constantina; Karaiskos, Dionysis; Myti, Despoina; Karanasios, Evangelos; Karas, Panagiotis A; Tourna, Maria; Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic carbamates constitute a significant pesticide group with oxamyl being a leading compound in the nematicide market. Oxamyl degradation in soil is mainly microbially mediated. However, the distribution and function of carbamate hydrolase genes (cehA, mcd, cahA) associated with the soil biodegradation of carbamates is not yet clear. We studied oxamyl degradation in 16 soils from a potato monoculture area in Greece where oxamyl is regularly used. Oxamyl showed low persistence (DT50 2.4-26.7 days). q-PCR detected the cehA and mcd genes in 10 and three soils, respectively. The abundance of the cehA gene was positively correlated with pH, while both cehA abundance and pH were negatively correlated with oxamyl DT50. Amongst the carbamates used in the study region, oxamyl stimulated the abundance and expression only of the cehA gene, while carbofuran stimulated the abundance and expression of both genes. The cehA gene was also detected in pristine soils upon repeated treatments with oxamyl and carbofuran and only in soils with pH ≥7.2, where the most rapid degradation of oxamyl was observed. These results have major implications regarding the maintenance of carbamate hydrolase genes in soils, have practical implications regarding the agricultural use of carbamates, and provide insights into the evolution of cehA. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sorption of lead in soil as a function of pH: a study case in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villegas, N; Flores-Vélez, L Ma; Domínguez, O

    2004-12-01

    Reactions of lead sorption onto soil are largely affected by properties and composition of soil and its solution. In this study, the lead sorption onto regosol eutric soil from Francisco I. Madero, Zacatecas, Mexico is evaluated at different pH values. Soil samples were suspended in lead solutions of 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, and 400 mg/l (as Pb(NO3)2). The pH was adjusted at 2, 3, 4, and 5.5 with nitric acid for each of the lead solution concentrations. In all the cases the ionic strength was I=0.09 M with calcium nitrate. The solid-liquid-ratios were fixed in 1:100 and 1:200 g/ml. The results show that lead sorption increases when pH increases. Experimental isotherms were adjusted by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir affinity parameter, K, indicates that the lead sorption capacity of Francisco I. Madero soils is largely perceptible to pH changes.

  14. Mobilisation of arsenic from bauxite residue (red mud) affected soils: Effect of pH and redox conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Cindy L.; Mortimer, Robert J. G.; Stewart, Douglas I.; Mayes, William M.; Peacock, Caroline L.; Polya, David A.; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Lehoux, Alizée P.; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    The tailings dam breach at the Ajka alumina plant, western Hungary in 2010 introduced ~1 million m3 of red mud suspension into the surrounding area. Red mud (fine fraction bauxite residue) has a characteristically alkaline pH and contains several potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Aerobic and anaerobic batch experiments were prepared using soils from near Ajka in order to investigate the effects of red mud addition on soil biogeochemistry and arsenic mobility in soil–water experim...

  15. Adsorption of tetracycline on soil and sediment: effects of pH and the presence of Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheyun; Sun, Ke; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Guixiang; Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Ye

    2011-06-15

    Tetracycline (TC) is frequently detected in the environment, however, knowledge on the environmental fate and transport of TC is still limited. Batch adsorption experiments of TC by soil and sediment samples were conducted. The distribution of charge and electrostatic potential of individual atoms of various TC species in the aqueous solution were determined using MOPAC version 0.034 W program in ChemBio3D Ultra software. Most of the adsorption isotherms on the soil, river and marine sediments were well fitted with the Freundlich and Polanyi-Manes (PMM) models. The single point organic carbon (OC)-normalized adsorption distribution coefficients (K(OC)) and PMM saturated adsorption capacity (Q(OC)(0)) values of TC were associated with the mesopore volume and clay content to a greater extent, indicating the mesopore volume of the soil and sediments and their clay content possibly influenced the fate and transport of TC in the natural environment. The adsorption of TC on soil and sediments strongly depended on the pH and presence of Cu(II). The presence of Cu(II) facilitated TC adsorption on soil and sediments at low pH (pHsoil and sediments. The cation exchange interaction, metallic complexation and Coulombic interaction of mechanisms for adsorption of TC to soils and sediments were further supported by quantum chemical calculation of various TC species in different pH.

  16. Nutrient leaching, soil pH and changes in microbial community increase with time in lead-contaminated boreal forest soil at a shooting range area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-02-01

    Despite the known toxicity of lead (Pb), Pb pellets are widely used at shotgun shooting ranges over the world. However, the impacts of Pb on soil nutrients and soil microbes, playing a crucial role in nutrient cycling, are poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unknown whether these impacts change with time after the cessation of shooting. To shed light on these issues, three study sites in the same coniferous forest in a shooting range area were studied: an uncontaminated control site and an active and an abandoned shooting range, both sharing a similar Pb pellet load in the soil, but the latter with a 20-year longer contamination history. Soil pH and nitrate concentration increased, whilst soil phosphate concentration and fungal phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased due to Pb contamination. Our results imply that shooting-derived Pb can influence soil nutrients and microbes not only directly but also indirectly by increasing soil pH. However, these mechanisms cannot be differentiated here. Many of the Pb-induced changes were most pronounced at the abandoned range, and nutrient leaching was increased only at that site. These results suggest that Pb disturbs the structure and functions of the soil system and impairs a crucial ecosystem service, the ability to retain nutrients. Furthermore, the risks of shooting-derived Pb to the environment increase with time.

  17. Sorption of vanadium (V) onto natural soil colloids under various solution pH and ionic strength conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiuhua; Yu, Lin; Wang, Changzhao; Yin, Xianqiang; Mosa, Ahmed; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Huimin

    2017-02-01

    Batch sorption kinetics and isothermal characteristics of V(V) were investigated on three natural soil colloids (manual loessial soil colloid (MSC), aeolian sandy soil colloid (ASC), and cultivated loessial soil colloid (CSC)) under various solution pH and ionic strength (IS) conditions. Colloids were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). AFM micrographs showed CSC with an aggregated shape with larger particle diameter as compared with ASC and MSC. XRD spectra revealed the presence of different minerals in natural soil colloids including biotite, kaolinite, calcite and quartz, which might contribute to sorption process. The sorption ability decreased with increase of colloidal particle size. The sorption was mainly attributed to complexation by active carboxylate and alcohol groups of colloidal components. Sorption kinetics and isotherms of V(V) onto natural soil colloids were best fitted with Pseudo-second-order and Freundlich models. Langmuir model indicated that sorption capacity of MSC and ASC was comparable (285.7 and 238.1 mg g(-1)); however, CSC exhibited the lowest sorption capacity (41.5 mg g(-1)) due to its larger particle diameter and aggregated shape. The maximum V(V) sorption capacity reached plateau values at a solution pH ranged between 5.0 and 9.0 for MSC and ASC, and 6.0-8.0 for CSC. Sorption capacity of V(V) onto natural soil colloids decreased with increasing IS. Based on result of this study we can conclude that sorption of V(V) onto natural soil colloids is pH- and IS-dependent. These findings provide insights on the remediation of vanadium-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sorption, desorption, and speciation of Cd, Ni, and Fe by four calcareous soils as affected by pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahervand, Samaneh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    The sorption, desorption, and speciation of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and iron (Fe) in four calcareous soils were investigated at the pH range of 2-9. The results indicated that sorption of Fe by four soils was higher than 80 % at pH 2, while in the case of Cd and Ni was less than 30 %. The most common sequence of metal sorption at pH 2-9 for four soils was in the order of Fe ≫ Ni > Cd. Cadmium and Ni sorption as a function of pH showed the predictable trend of increasing metal sorption with increase in equilibrium pH, while the Fe sorption trend was different and characterized by three phases. With regard to the order of Cd, Ni, and Fe sorption on soils, Cd and Ni showed high affinity for organic matter (OM), whereas Fe had high tendency for calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Results of metal desorption using 0.01 M NaCl demonstrated that metal sorption on soils containing high amounts of CaCO3 was less reversible in comparison to soils containing high OM. In general, Cd and Ni desorption curves were characterized by three phases; (1) the greatest desorption at pH 2, (2) the low desorption at pH 3-7, and (3) the least desorption at pH > 7. The MINTEQ speciation solubility program showed that the percentage of free metals declined markedly with increase of pH, while the percentage of carbonate and hydroxyl species increased. Furthermore, MINTEQ predicted that saturation index (SI) of metals increased with increasing pH.

  19. Arsenic release from flooded paddy soils is influenced by speciation, Eh, pH, and iron dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, N; Nakamura, T; Dong, D; Takahashi, Y; Amachi, S; Makino, T

    2011-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is highly mobilized when paddy soil is flooded, causing increased uptake of As by rice. We investigated factors controlling soil-to-solution partitioning of As under anaerobic conditions. Changes in As and iron (Fe) speciation due to flooded incubation of two paddy soils (soils A and B) were investigated by HPLC/ICP-MS and XANES. The flooded incubation resulted in a decrease in Eh, a rise in pH, and an increase in the As(III) fraction in the soil solid phase up to 80% of the total As in the soils. The solution-to-soil ratio of As(III) and As(V) (R(L/S)) increased with pH due to the flooded incubation. The R(L/S) for As(III) was higher than that for As(V), indicating that As(III) was more readily released from soil to solution than was As(V). Despite the small differences in As concentrations between the two soils, the amount of As dissolved by anaerobic incubation was lower in soil A. With the development of anaerobic conditions, Fe(II) remained in the soil solid phase as the secondary mineral siderite, and a smaller amount of Fe was dissolved from soil A than from soil B. The dissolution of Fe minerals rather than redox reaction of As(V) to As(III) explained the different dissolution amounts of As in the two paddy soils. Anaerobic incubation for 30 d after the incomplete suppression of microbial activity caused a drop in Eh. However, this decline in Eh did not induce the transformation of As(V) to As(III) in either the soil solid or solution phases, and the dissolution of As was limited. Microbial activity was necessary for the reductive reaction of As(V) to As(III) even when Eh reached the condition necessary for the dominance of As(III). Ratios of released As to Fe from the soils were decreased with incubation time during both anaerobic incubation and abiotic dissolution by sodium ascorbate, suggesting that a larger amount of As was associated with an easily soluble fraction of Fe (hydr) oxide in amorphous phase and/or smaller particles. Copyright

  20. NITROGEN VARIATION LOSS WITH SOIL pH VARIAÇÃO DE PERDA DE NITROGÊNIO COM pH DO SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    It is known that various factors influence the losses of soil ammonium by volatilization. However, in this work it was tried to study the loss of ammonium in soils of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. It was used the complete randomized design with three replications. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse in plastic pots. The pots were covered with a plastic screen and then a thin layer of glass cotton wetted on H2SO4 was placed above it. The four series of soil used were: Ecologia, Seropédica, Itaguai and Piranema. Nitrogen fertilization was of 200mg of N/Kg of soil. The statistical analysis with the soils of the series Itaguai, Seropédica and Ecologia showed a significant difference at the 5% level between the treatments. It was observed in these soils that when the pH became less acid there was an increase in the losses of ammonium by volatilization. In the experiment with the soil of the series Piranema there was no significant difference in the losses of ammonium in any of the three pH levels.

    Sabe-se que uma série de fatores influenciam as perdas de amônia do solo por volatilização. Não obstante, procurou-se através deste trabalho experimental estudar a variação de perda de amônia em diferentes níveis de pH e diversos tipos de solo da área da U.F.R.R. J. (Km 47. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 3 repetições. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação em potes de plástico. Os vasos plásticos com o solo, foram cobertos com tela de plástico sobre a qual colocou-se uma leve camada de algodão de vidro impregnado com ácido sulfúrico. As quatro séries de solo utilizadas foram: Ecologia, Seropédica, Itaguai e Piranema. A adubação nitrogenada constou de 200mg

  1. Influence of pH on the redox chemistry of metal (hydr)oxides and organic matter in paddy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Y.; Koopmans, G.F.; Bonten, L.T.C.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine how flooding and draining cycles affect the redox chemistry of metal (hydr)oxides and organic matter in paddy soils and how the pH influences these processes. Our secondary purpose was to determine to what extent a geochemical thermodynamic

  2. Influence of pH on the redox chemistry of metal (hydr)oxides and organic matter in paddy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Y.; Koopmans, G.F.; Bonten, L.T.C.; Song, J.; Luo, Y.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine how flooding and draining cycles affect the redox chemistry of metal (hydr)oxides and organic matter in paddy soils and how the pH influences these processes. Our secondary purpose was to determine to what extent a geochemical thermodynamic equilibr

  3. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-08-14

    Biochar is often considered a strong heavy metal stabilizing agent. However, biochar in some cases had no effects on, or increased the soluble concentrations of, heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the factors causing some biochars to stabilize and others to dissolve heavy metals in soil. Seven small arms range soils with known total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity, pH, and total Pb and Cu contents were first screened for soluble Pb and Cu concentrations. Over 2 weeks successive equilibrations using weak acid (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and acetate buffer (0.1 M at pH 4.9), Alaska soil containing disproportionately high (31.6%) TOC had nearly 100% residual (insoluble) Pb and Cu. This soil was then compared with sandy soils from Maryland containing significantly lower (0.5-2.0%) TOC in the presence of 10 wt % (i) plant biochar activated to increase the surface-bound carboxyl and phosphate ligands (PS450A), (ii) manure biochar enriched with soluble P (BL700), and (iii) unactivated plant biochars produced at 350 °C (CH350) and 700 °C (CH500) and by flash carbonization (corn). In weak acid, the pH was set by soil and biochar, and the biochars increasingly stabilized Pb with repeated extractions. In pH 4.9 acetate buffer, PS450A and BL700 stabilized Pb, and only PS450A stabilized Cu. Surface ligands of PS450A likely complexed and stabilized Pb and Cu even under acidic pH in the presence of competing acetate ligand. Oppositely, unactivated plant biochars (CH350, CH500, and corn) mobilized Pb and Cu in sandy soils; the putative mechanism is the formation of soluble complexes with biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon. In summary, unactivated plant biochars can inadvertently increase dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations of sandy, low TOC soils when used to stabilize other contaminants.

  4. Soil acidity affects distribution, behavior, and physiology of the salamander Plethodon cinereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, R.L.; Hawksley-Lescault, D.S.

    1987-12-01

    Censuses at two sites in Delaware County, New York from spring 1981 through spring 1985 indicated that the density and distribution of Plethodon cinereus were influenced by soil pH but not by soil temperature or moisture. Of 1044 1-m/sup 2/ quadrats of forest litter searched, 284 had a pH of 3.7 or less and only 25 of these (8.8%) contained salamanders. Of 760 quadrats with a pH 3.8 or more, 386 (50.8%) contained salamanders. Juvenile salamanders were never found on soils with a pH less than or equal to 3.7. Seasonal salamander density was correlated (r = -0.92) with the percentage of quadrats with a pH of 3.7 and less. Salamanders apparently were excluded from 27% of forest habitat because of low soil pH. In the laboratory, P. cinereus preferred to occupy substrates near neutral pH when given a choice among three levels of substrate acidity. The acutely lethal pH was between 2.5 and 3 and the 8-mo chronically lethal pH was between 3 and 4. Growth and respiration were reduced at low pHs. The influence of soil pH on salamander distribution might fundamentally change the forest floor decomposer food web of which P. cinereus is an upper-level consumer.

  5. Determining the power-law wind-profile exponent under near-neutral stability conditions at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. A.; Meindl, Eric A.; Gilhousen, David B.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of 30 samples from near-simultaneous overwater measurements by pairs of anemometers located at different heights in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, the mean and standard deviation for the exponent of the power-law wind profile over the ocean under near-neutral atmospheric stability conditions were determined to be 0.11 +/- 0.03. Because this mean value is obtained from both deep and shallow water environments, it is recommended for use at sea to adjust the wind speed measurements at different heights to the standard height of 10 m above the mean sea surface. An example to apply this P value to estimate the momentum flux or wind stress is provided.

  6. Determining the power-law wind-profile exponent under near-neutral stability conditions at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. A.; Meindl, Eric A.; Gilhousen, David B.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of 30 samples from near-simultaneous overwater measurements by pairs of anemometers located at different heights in the Gulf of Mexico and off the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, the mean and standard deviation for the exponent of the power-law wind profile over the ocean under near-neutral atmospheric stability conditions were determined to be 0.11 +/- 0.03. Because this mean value is obtained from both deep and shallow water environments, it is recommended for use at sea to adjust the wind speed measurements at different heights to the standard height of 10 m above the mean sea surface. An example to apply this P value to estimate the momentum flux or wind stress is provided.

  7. Importance of inoculum properties on the structure and growth of bacterial communities during Recolonisation of humus soil with different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Marie; Bååth, Erland

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between community structure and growth and pH tolerance of a soil bacterial community was studied after liming in a reciprocal inoculum study. An unlimed (UL) humus soil with a pH of 4.0 was fumigated with chloroform for 4 h, after which soil was experimentally limed (EL) to a pH of 7.6. Both the UL and the EL soil were then reciprocally inoculated with UL soil or field limed (FL) soil with a pH of 6.2. The FL soil was from a 15-year-old experiment. The structural changes were measured on both bacteria in soil and on bacteria able to grow on agar plates using phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The developing community pH tolerance and bacterial growth were also monitored over time using thymidine incorporation. The inoculum source had a significant impact on both growth and pH tolerance of the bacterial community in the EL soil. These differences between the EL soil inoculated with UL soil and FL soil were correlated to structural changes, as evidenced by both PLFA and DGGE analyses on the soil. Similar correlations were seen to the fraction of the community growing on agar plates. There were, however, no differences between the soil bacterial communities in the unlimed soils with different inocula. This study showed the connection between the development of function (growth), community properties (pH tolerance) and the structure of the bacterial community. It also highlighted the importance of both the initial properties of the community and the selection pressure after environmental changes in shaping the resulting microbial community.

  8. Using Digital Elevation Model to Improve Soil pH Prediction in an Alpine Doline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. BUTTAFU0C; R. COMOLLI; A. CASTRIGNAN(O)

    2011-01-01

    Among spatial interpolation techniques, geostatistics is generally preferred because it takes into account the spatial correlation between neighbouring observations in order to predict attribute values at unsampled locations. A doline of approximately 15 000 m2 at 1900 m above sea level (North Italy) was selected as the study area to estimate a digital elevation model (DEM) using geostatistics,to provide a realistic distribution of the errors and to demonstrate whether using widely available secondary data provided more accurate estimates of soil pH than those obtained by univariate kriging. Elevation was measured at 467 randomly distributed points that were converted into a regular DEM using ordinary kriging. Further. 110 pits were located using spatial simulated annealing (SSA) method. The interpolation techniques were multi-linear regression analysis (MLR), ordinary kriging (OK), regression kriging (RK), knging with external drift (KED) and multi-collocated ordinary cokriging (CKmc). A cross-validation test was used to assess the prediction performances of the different algorithms and then evaluate which methods performed best. RK and KED yielded better results than the more complex CKmc and OK. The choice of the most appropriate interpolation method accounting for redundant auxiliary information was strongly conditioned by site specific situations.

  9. The effect of pH and natural microbial phosphatase activity on the speciation of uranium in subsurface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sobecky, Patricia A.; Taillefert, Martial

    2011-10-01

    The biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate as a result of microbial phosphatase activity is a promising new bioremediation approach to immobilize uranium in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In contrast to reduced uranium minerals such as uraninite, uranium phosphate precipitates are not susceptible to changes in oxidation conditions and may represent a long-term sink for uranium in contaminated environments. So far, the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate has been demonstrated with pure cultures only. In this study, two uranium contaminated soils from the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) were amended with glycerol phosphate as model organophosphate source in small flow-through columns under aerobic conditions to determine whether natural phosphatase activity of indigenous soil bacteria was able to promote the precipitation of uranium(VI) at pH 5.5 and 7.0. High concentrations of phosphate (1-3 mM) were detected in the effluent of these columns at both pH compared to control columns amended with U(VI) only, suggesting that phosphatase-liberating microorganisms were readily stimulated by the organophosphate substrate. Net phosphate production rates were higher in the low pH soil (0.73 ± 0.17 mM d -1) compared to the circumneutral pH soil (0.43 ± 0.31 mM d -1), suggesting that non-specific acid phosphatase activity was expressed constitutively in these soils. A sequential solid-phase extraction scheme and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were combined to demonstrate that U(VI) was primarily precipitated as uranyl phosphate minerals at low pH, whereas it was mainly adsorbed to iron oxides and partially precipitated as uranyl phosphate at circumneutral pH. These findings suggest that, in the presence of organophosphates, microbial phosphatase activity can contribute to uranium immobilization in both low and circumneutral pH soils through the formation of stable uranyl phosphate minerals.

  10. Influence of pH and soil copper on adsorption of metalaxyl and penconazole by the surface layer of vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Paradelo, M; López, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2006-10-18

    The upper horizons of old vineyard soils have substantial copper contents due to the traditional use of copper-based fungicides. Total copper levels in eight vineyard soils in the Rías Baixas area of Galicia (northwestern Spain) ranged from 60 to 560 mg kg(-1) (mean +/- SD = 206 +/- 170 mg kg(-1)). The adsorption of the fungicides metalaxyl (pK(a) = 1.41) and penconazole (pK(a) = 2.83) by these soils was determined using fungicide solutions of pH 2.5 and 5.5, and desorption of fungicide adsorbed at pH 5.5 was also determined. In all cases, Freundlich equations were fitted to the data with R (2) > 0.96. Penconazole was adsorbed and retained more strongly than metalaxyl, with K(F) values more than an order of magnitude greater. In the desorption experiments, both fungicides exhibited hysteresis. Soil copper content hardly affected the adsorption of metalaxyl, but K(F) values for adsorption of penconazole increased at a rate of about 0.1 mL(n) (microg of penconazole)(1-n) (microg of Cu)(-1), which is attributed to the formation of Cu(2+)-penconazole complexes with greater affinity for soil colloids than penconazole itself. Because the dependence of K(F) for penconazole adsorption on copper content was the same at both pH values, complex formation appears not to have been affected by the solubilization of 6-17% of soil copper at pH 2.5. A similar copper dependence, or lack of dependence, was observed when 100-1000 mg kg(-1) of copper was added as Cu(NO(3))(2).2H(2)O to the solutions from which the fungicides were adsorbed.

  11. Copper availability and bioavailability are controlled by rhizosphere pH in rape grown in an acidic Cu-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaignon, Valerie; Quesnoit, Marie [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols Ecologie fonctionnelle and Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France); Hinsinger, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.hinsinger@supagro.inra.f [INRA, UMR 1222 Eco and Sols Ecologie fonctionnelle and Biogeochimie des Sols (INRA-IRD-SupAgro), Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier (France)

    2009-12-15

    We evaluated how root-induced changes in rhizosphere pH varied and interacted with Cu availability and bioavailability in an acidic soil. Rape was grown on a Cu-contaminated acidic soil, which had been limed at 10 rates. Soil Cu bioavailability was not influenced by liming. However, liming significantly decreased CaCl{sub 2}-extracted Cu for pH between 3.7 and 5.1. Little effect was found for pH above 5.1. For soil pH < 4.4, CaCl{sub 2}-Cu contents were smaller in rhizosphere than uncropped soil. Rhizosphere alkalisation occurred at pH < 4.8, while acidification occurred at greater pH. This explained the changes of CaCl{sub 2}-Cu in the rhizosphere at low pH and the absence of pH dependency of Cu bioavailability to rape. In addition, apoplastic Cu in roots increased with increasing soil pH, most probably as a result of increased dissociation and affinity of cell wall compounds for Cu. - Root-induced increase in pH reduces Cu availability in the rhizosphere and Cu bioavailability to rape.

  12. Extraction of oxidized and reduced forms of uranium from contaminated soils: effects of carbonate concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Gu, Baohua

    2005-06-15

    Uranium may present in soil as precipitated, sorbed, complexed, and reduced forms, which impact its mobility and fate in the subsurface soil environment. In this study, a uranium-contaminated soil was extracted with carbonate/ bicarbonate at varying concentrations (0-1 M), pHs, and redox conditions in an attempt to evaluate their effects on the extraction efficiency and selectivity for various forms of uranium in the soil. Results indicate that at least three differentforms of uranium existed in the contaminated soil: uranium(VI) phosphate minerals, reduced U(IV) phases, and U(VI) complexed with soil organic matter. A small fraction of U(VI) could be sorbed onto soil minerals. The mechanism involved in the leaching of U(VI) by carbonates appears to involve three processes which may act concurrently or independently: the dissolution of uranium(VI) phosphate and other mineral phases, the oxidation-complexation of U(IV) under oxic conditions, and the desorption of U(VI)-organic matter complexes at elevated pH conditions. This study suggests that, depending on site-specific geochemical conditions, the presence of small quantities of carbonate/bicarbonate could result in a rapid and greatly increased leaching and the mobilization of U(VI) from the contaminated soil. Even the reduced U(IV) phases (only sparingly soluble in water) are subjected to rapid oxidation and therefore potential leaching into the environment.

  13. Influence of Soil and Irrigation Water pH on the Availability of Phosphorus in Struvite Derived from Urine through a Greenhouse Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoning; Tao, Yi; Wen, Guoqi; Kong, Fanxin; Zhang, Xihui; Hu, Zhengyi

    2016-05-04

    One greenhouse pot experiment was used to investigate the availability of phosphorus in struvite derived from urine affected by soil pH (cinnamon soil, pH 7.3; paddy soil, pH 5.3) and irrigation water (pH 6.0 and 7.5) with bird rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.). The biomass of applied struvite in paddy soil was significantly greater than that of applied calcium superphosphate. However, statistically significant differences were not observed in cinnamon soil. Soil-applied struvite had a higher Olsen P compared to soil-applied calcium superphosphate irrespective of soil type. The biomass of applied struvite and irrigation with pH 6.0 water was greater compared to that with irrigation with pH 7.3 water irrespective of soil type, accompanied with significantly higher leaf chlorophyll concentration. Therefore, struvite has the potential to be an effective P fertilizer, and acidic irrigation water has greater influence on the availability of phosphorus in struvite than does acidic soil.

  14. Leaching characteristics of toxic constituents from coal fly ash mixed soils under the influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonweeraket, Kanokwan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cetin, Bora, E-mail: bora.cetin@sdsmt.edu [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Benson, Craig H., E-mail: chbenson@wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Aydilek, Ahmet H., E-mail: aydilek@umd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Edil, Tuncer B., E-mail: edil@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The impact of pH on the leaching of elements and metals from fly ash mixed soils. • Generally Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr follows a cationic leaching pattern. • The leaching of As and Se shows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. • The leaching behavior of elements does not change based on material type. • Different fly ash types show different abilities in immobilizing trace elements. - Abstract: Leaching behaviors of Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cadmium (Cd), Magnesium (Mg), Selenium (Se), and Strontium (Sr) from soil alone, coal fly ash alone, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures, were studied at a pH range of 2–14 via pH-dependent leaching tests. Seven different types of soils and coal fly ashes were tested. Results of this study indicated that Ca, Cd, Mg, and Sr showed cationic leaching pattern while As and Se generally follows an oxyanionic leaching pattern. On the other hand, leaching of Ba presented amphoteric-like leaching pattern but less pH-dependent. In spite of different types and composition of soil and coal fly ash investigated, the study reveals the similarity in leaching behavior as a function of pH for a given element from soil, coal fly ash, and soil-coal fly ash mixtures. The similarity is most likely due to similar controlling mechanisms (e.g., solubility, sorption, and solid-solution formation) and similar controlling factors (e.g., leachate pH and redox conditions). This offers the opportunity to transfer knowledge of coal fly ash that has been extensively characterized and studied to soil stabilized with coal fly ash. It is speculated that unburned carbon in off-specification coal fly ashes may provide sorption sites for Cd resulting in a reduction in concentration of these elements in leachate from soil-coal fly ash mixture. Class C fly ash provides sufficient CaO to initiate the pozzolanic reaction yielding hydrated cement products that oxyanions, including As and Se, can be incorporated into.

  15. Optimal Soil Eh, pH, and Water Management for Simultaneously Minimizing Arsenic and Cadmium Concentrations in Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohba, Hirotomo; Kaneko-Kadokura, Ayako; Makino, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Ken; Katou, Hidetaka

    2016-04-19

    Arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in rice grains are a human health concern. We conducted field experiments to investigate optimal conditions of Eh and pH in soil for simultaneously decreasing As and Cd accumulation in rice. Water managements in the experiments, which included continuous flooding and intermittent irrigation with different intervals after midseason drainage, exerted striking effects on the dissolved As and Cd concentrations in soil through changes in Eh, pH, and dissolved Fe(II) concentrations in the soil. Intermittent irrigation with three-day flooding and five-day drainage was found to be effective for simultaneously decreasing the accumulation of As and Cd in grain. The grain As and Cd concentrations were, respectively, linearly related to the average dissolved As and Cd concentrations during the 3 weeks after heading. We propose a new indicator for expressing the degree to which a decrease in the dissolved As or Cd concentration is compromised by the increase in the other. For minimizing the trade-off relationship between As and Cd in rice grains in the field investigated, water management strategies should target the realization of optimal soil Eh of -73 mV and pH of 6.2 during the 3 weeks after heading.

  16. Influence of Neutral Salts and pH on Exchangeable Acidity of Red Soil and Latosol Colloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the exchangeable acidity of a red soil colloid and a latosol colloid at different pH during reacting with four neutral salts was measured. The results show that the exchangeable acidity increased with increasing amounts of the neutral salts added, and the relation between them was almost linear. When the amount of the neutral salt added was lower than a certain value, the slope of the line was high, and the slope turned low when the amount exceeded that value, so there was a turning point in each line. The addition amounts of the neutral salts for the turning points were affected by the cation species of the neutral salts, but pH had less effect on them. After the turning points occurred, the exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid still gradually increased with the addition amounts of the neutral salts, but that of the latosol colloid did not increase any more.The exchangeable acidity in NaClO4, KClO4 and NaCl solutions increased at first, and then decreased with increasing pH, that is to say, peak values appeared. The peak positions of the exchangeable acidity in relation to pH changed with neutral salt solutions and were affected by the surface characteristics of the soil colloids, but not affected by the amounts of the neutral salts added. The exchangeable acidity in the Ba(NO3)2 solution increased continuously with increasing pH. The exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid was obviously larger than that of the latosol colloid.``

  17. RHIZOSPHERE pH AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN ORTHIC ALLOPHANIC SOIL UNDER Pinus radiata SEEDLINGS GROWN WITH BROOM AND RYEGRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad A. Rivaie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Under  Pinus radiata plantations  where  the tree spacing  is wider  and most soils are phosphorus  (P deficient,  the radiata  tree response to P fertilizer is expected  to be more influenced  by  the interaction between  the applied  P fertilizer, the tree and understorey vegetation.  Therefore,  a better understanding of the soil P chemistry under radiata pine trees in association  with  other  plants  is required.  We investigated  the effect of broom  (Cytisus scoparius L. and ryegrass  (Lolium multiflorum grown  with  radiata  seedlings  in Orthic Allophanic Soil treated with  0, 50, and 100 μg P g-1  soil of TSP on the pH and phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soils under glasshouse condition. The pHs of radiata rhizosphere soils either grown with broom or grass were lower than  those in the  bulk soils and the bulk and rhizosphere soils of grass and broom,  whether  they  were grown  alone or grown  with radiata at the  applications of 50 and 100 μg P g-1 soil. These results suggest that P application enhanced root induced acidification  in a P-deficient Allophanic Soil under radiata.  The soils in the rhizosphere of grass and broom, grown in association with radiata, were also acidified by  the effect of radiata  roots.  Acid  phosphatase  activity in soils under  radiata,  grass and broom  decreased with  an increased  rate of P application. At all P rates,  acid phosphatase activity was higher in the rhizosphere of radiata  grown  with  broom than in the bulk soils. The phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soil of radiata grown with broom was also higher than that of radiata grown with grass, but it was slightly lower than that in the rhizosphere of broom grown  alone. These results suggest that broom may have also contributed to the higher  phosphatase  activity in the rhizosphere soils than  in the bulk  soils of broom  and radiata when they were grown  together

  18. Biochar effects on soil-resident ligninolytic fungi: in vitro growth response and its pH dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Eren; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    Ligninolytic fungi play an essential role on soil fertility because of their decomposing activity that allows nutrients inside biomasses to be released back into the soil. Their enzymes are able to degrade lignin which is otherwise recalcitrant to microbial and chemical degradation. Biochar (BC) has been recently proposed as a soil amendment that may contribute to climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration in soil. Pyrolysis conditions, feedstock and several other factors affect BC characteristics which in turn may influence BC impact on soil microorganisms and terrestrial ecosystems. However, limited information is available in the literature about BC's impact on ligninolytic fungi. The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the impact of BC and pH change caused by BC addition on three soil-resident ligninolytic fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta. The BC sample used in this study was obtained from 100% red spruce pellets pyrolysed at a temperature of 550 °C, and it was added to PDA medium directly as solid BC at the doses of 2 g L-1 (BC-LD) and 10 g L-1 (BC-HD). pH values were determined and the experiments were conducted either adjusting the pH of the controls either without pH adjustment. The fungi were inoculated separately in Petri dishes filled with the various media and the radial mycelial growth was measured at several sampling times. Results obtained showed a fungal growth response clearly dependent on the species and the BC dose. BC-LD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas it inhibited that of B. adusta. BC-HD stimulated the growth of P. ostreatus and inhibited that of T. versicolor and B. adusta. Similar responses were obtained with or without pH adjustment for P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, whereas a pH dependency was found for B. adusta. The effects of these and other pertinent treatments on fungal enzymes of the fungi are currently under investigation.

  19. Fungi, bacteria and soil pH: the oxalate-carbonate pathway as a model for metabolic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaëtan; Guggiari, Matteo; Bravo, Daniel; Zopfi, Jakob; Cailleau, Guillaume; Aragno, Michel; Job, Daniel; Verrecchia, Eric; Junier, Pilar

    2012-11-01

    The oxalate-carbonate pathway involves the oxidation of calcium oxalate to low-magnesium calcite and represents a potential long-term terrestrial sink for atmospheric CO(2). In this pathway, bacterial oxalate degradation is associated with a strong local alkalinization and subsequent carbonate precipitation. In order to test whether this process occurs in soil, the role of bacteria, fungi and calcium oxalate amendments was studied using microcosms. In a model system with sterile soil amended with laboratory cultures of oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi, the addition of calcium oxalate induced a distinct pH shift and led to the final precipitation of calcite. However, the simultaneous presence of bacteria and fungi was essential to drive this pH shift. Growth of both oxalotrophic bacteria and fungi was confirmed by qPCR on the frc (oxalotrophic bacteria) and 16S rRNA genes, and the quantification of ergosterol (active fungal biomass) respectively. The experiment was replicated in microcosms with non-sterilized soil. In this case, the bacterial and fungal contribution to oxalate degradation was evaluated by treatments with specific biocides (cycloheximide and bronopol). Results showed that the autochthonous microflora oxidized calcium oxalate and induced a significant soil alkalinization. Moreover, data confirmed the results from the model soil showing that bacteria are essentially responsible for the pH shift, but require the presence of fungi for their oxalotrophic activity. The combined results highlight that the interaction between bacteria and fungi is essential to drive metabolic processes in complex environments such as soil.

  20. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  1. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    Full Text Available Biochar (BC application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O and nitric oxide (NO, but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2 were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH.

  2. Effect of Soil pH Increase by Biochar on NO, N2O and N2 Production during Denitrification in Acid Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obia, Alfred; Cornelissen, Gerard; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil suppresses emission of nitrous- (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), but the mechanisms are unclear. One of the most prominent features of BC is its alkalizing effect in soils, which may affect denitrification and its product stoichiometry directly or indirectly. We conducted laboratory experiments with anoxic slurries of acid Acrisols from Indonesia and Zambia and two contrasting BCs produced locally from rice husk and cacao shell. Dose-dependent responses of denitrification and gaseous products (NO, N2O and N2) were assessed by high-resolution gas kinetics and related to the alkalizing effect of the BCs. To delineate the pH effect from other BC effects, we removed part of the alkalinity by leaching the BCs with water and acid prior to incubation. Uncharred cacao shell and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were also included in the study. The untreated BCs suppressed N2O and NO and increased N2 production during denitrification, irrespective of the effect on denitrification rate. The extent of N2O and NO suppression was dose-dependent and increased with the alkalizing effect of the two BC types, which was strongest for cacao shell BC. Acid leaching of BC, which decreased its alkalizing effect, reduced or eliminated the ability of BC to suppress N2O and NO net production. Just like untreated BCs, NaOH reduced net production of N2O and NO while increasing that of N2. This confirms the importance of altered soil pH for denitrification product stoichiometry. Addition of uncharred cacao shell stimulated denitrification strongly due to availability of labile carbon but only minor effects on the product stoichiometry of denitrification were found, in accordance with its modest effect on soil pH. Our study indicates that stimulation of denitrification was mainly due to increases in labile carbon whereas change in product stoichiometry was mainly due to a change in soil pH.

  3. Archaeal abundance across a pH gradient in an arable soil and its relationship to bacterial and fungal growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per; Sterngren, Anna E; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

  4. Litter quality and pH are strong drivers of carbon turnover and distribution in alpine grassland soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budge

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpine soils are expected to contain large amounts of labile carbon (C which may become a further source of atmospheric CO2 as a of global warming. However, there is little data available on these soils, and understanding of the influence of environmental factors on soil organic matter (SOM turnover is limited. We extracted 30 cm deep cores from five grassland sites along a small elevation gradient from 2285 to 2653 m above sea level (a.s.l. in the central Swiss Alps. Our aim was to determine the quantity, degree of stabilization and mean residence time (MRT of SOM in relation to site factors such as temperature, soil pH, vegetation, and organic matter (OM structure. Soil fractions obtained by size and density fractionation revealed a high proportion of labile particulate organic matter C (POM C % mostly in the uppermost soil layers. POM C in the top 20 cm across the gradient ranged from 39.6–57.6% in comparison to 7.2–29.6% reported in previous studies for lower elevation soils (810–1960 m a.s.l.. At the highest elevation, MRTs measured by means of radiocarbon dating and turnover modelling, increased between fractions of growing stability from 90 years in free POM (fPOM to 534 years in the mineral-associated fraction (mOM. Depending on elevation and pH, plant community data indicated considerable variation in the quantity and quality of litter input, and these patterns could be reflected in the dynamics of soil C. 13C NMR data confirmed the direct relationship of OM composition to MRT. While temperature is likely to be a major cause for the slow turnover rate observed, other factors such as litter quality and soil pH, as well as the combination of all factors, play an important role in causing small-scale variability of SOM turnover. Ignoring this interplay of controlling factors may impair the performance of models to project SOM responses to environmental change.

  5. Wood ash application increases pH but does not harm the soil mesofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jiayi; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Ekelund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    . To examine this, we performed laboratory toxicity studies of the effects of wood-ash added to an agricultural soil and the organic horizon of a coniferous plantation soil with the detrivore soil collembolans Folsomia candida and Onychiurus yodai, the gamasid predaceous mite Hypoaspis aculeifer...

  6. Effect of pH Value on Stress Corrosion Cracking of X70 Pipeline Steel in Acidic Soil Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyong LIU; Cuiwei DU; Xin ZHANG; Fuming WANG; Xiaogang LI

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pH value on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X70 pipeline steel in simulated acidic soil solutions was investigated by using slow strain rate test,electrochemical polarization curves,electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.pH plays an important role in the susceptibility and electrochemical mechanism of SCC.The pH higher than 5 has no significant effect on electrochemical processes.By contrast,the pH lower than 5 intensifies cathodic hydrogen evolution reactions,thus increasing the cathodic current and corrosion potential.Under different pH values,the SCC mechanism of X70 pipeline steel varies among anodic dissolution (AD),hydrogen embrittlement (HE),and the combination of AD and HE (AD + HE) with variations of applied potential.At-850 mVSCE,the SCC mechanism is HE if pH is less than 4 or AD + HE if pH value is more positive.

  7. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing; Jiang, Lanlan; Yang, Fen; Zheng, Shixue; Wang, Gejiao; Lin, Xiangui

    2016-05-12

    Considering the extensive functional redundancy in microbial communities and great difficulty in elucidating it based on taxonomic structure, studies on the biogeography of soil microbial activity at large spatial scale are as important as microbial community structure. Eighty-four soil samples were collected across a region from south to north China (about 1,000 km) to address the questions if microbial activity displays biogeographic patterns and what are driving forces. These samples represented different soil types, land use and climate. Redundancy analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling clearly revealed that soil microbial activities showed distinct differentiation at different sites over a regional spatial scale, which were strongly affected by soil pH, total P, rainfall, temperature, soil type and location. In addition, microbial community structure was greatly influenced by rainfall, location, temperature, soil pH and soil type and was correlated with microbial activity to some extent. Our results suggest that microbial activities display a clear geographic pattern that is greatly altered by geographic distance and reflected by climate, soil pH and total P over large spatial scales. There are common (distance, climate, pH and soil type) but differentiated aspects (TP, SOC and N) in the biogeography of soil microbial community structure and activity.

  8. Soil and plant factors driving the community of soil-borne microorganisms across chronosequences of secondary succession of chalk grasslands with a neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramae, Eiko; Gamper, Hannes; van Veen, Johannes; Kowalchuk, George

    2011-08-01

    Although soil pH has been shown to be an important factor driving microbial communities, relatively little is known about the other potentially important factors that shape soil-borne microbial community structure. This study examined plant and microbial communities across a series of neutral pH fields (pH=7.0-7.5) representing a chronosequence of secondary succession after former arable fields were taken out of production. These fields ranged from 17 to >66 years since the time of abandonment, and an adjacent arable field was included as a reference. Hierarchical clustering analysis, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity of 52 different plant species showed that the plant community composition was significantly different in the different chronosequences, and that plant species richness and diversity increased with time since abandonment. The microbial community structure, as analyzed by phylogenetic microarrays (PhyloChips), was significantly different in arable field and the early succession stage, but no distinct microbial communities were observed for the intermediate and the late succession stages. The most determinant factors in shaping the soil-borne microbial communities were phosphorous and NH(4)(+). Plant community composition and diversity did not have a significant effect on the belowground microbial community structure or diversity. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing

    2016-01-01

    were collected across a region from south to north China (about 1,000 km) to address the questions if microbial activity displays biogeographic patterns and what are driving forces. These samples represented different soil types, land use and climate. Redundancy analysis and nonmetric multidimensional...... by rainfall, location, temperature, soil pH and soil type and was correlated with microbial activity to some extent. Our results suggest that microbial activities display a clear geographic pattern that is greatly altered by geographic distance and reflected by climate, soil pH and total P over large spatial...... scales. There are common (distance, climate, pH and soil type) but differentiated aspects (TP, SOC and N) in the biogeography of soil microbial community structure and activity....

  10. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems with a nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Khurram S; Ahmad, Zahoor; Joya, Yasir F; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; de Groot, Huub J M

    2016-08-11

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sunlight, developing robust, stable and easily accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here a unique nanoparticulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3(-)/CO2 system under benign conditions. Micrographs show that they exhibit a nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of >1.1 mA cm(-2) is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ion free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ion free electrolytes and tend to deactivate with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  11. Improving the Representation of the Nocturnal Near-Neutral Surface Layer in the Urban Environment with a Mesoscale Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Syed Zahid; Bélair, Stéphane; Mailhot, Jocelyn; Leroyer, Sylvie

    2013-06-01

    A new approach to improve the representation of surface processes in the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) atmospheric model associated with the exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere is presented. Effects of the urban canopy on the evolution of surface-layer wind, temperature, moisture, and turbulence are directly parametrized in order to allow realistic interactions between the canopy elements (i.e., roofs, roads, and walls) and the atmosphere at GEM's multiple vertical levels that are positioned inside the canopy. Surface energy budgets as implemented in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme have been used to determine temperatures of the urban canopy elements for the proposed multilayer scheme. Performance of the multilayer scheme is compared against standard implementations of the TEB scheme for one nighttime intensive observation period of the Joint Urban 2003 experiment held in Oklahoma City, USA. Although the new approach is found to have a negligible impact on urban surface-layer wind profiles, it improves the prediction of near-neutral nocturnal profiles of potential temperature close to the surface. The urban heat island effect is simulated with a better accuracy by the multilayer approach. The horizontal temperature gradient across the central business district of the city along the direction of flow is also reasonably well captured by the proposed scheme.

  12. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems by nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2016-07-19

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sun light, developing robust, stable and easy accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here unique nano-particulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3–/CO2 system under benign conditions. Mircographs show that they exhibit nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of > 1.1 mA cm–2 is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ions free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ions free electrolyte and tend to degrade with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  13. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  14. Stabilization of Organic Matter by Biochar Application in Compost-amended Soils with Contrasting pH Values and Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Jien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Food demand and soil sustainability have become urgent concerns because of the impacts of global climate change. In subtropical and tropical regions, practical management that stabilizes and prevents organic fertilizers from rapid decomposition in soils is necessary. This study conducted a short-term (70 days incubation experiment to assess the effects of biochar application on the decomposition of added bagasse compost in three rural soils with different pH values and textures. Two rice hull biochars, produced through slow pyrolization at 400 °C (RHB-400 and 700 °C (RHB-700, with application rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% (w/w, were separately incorporated into soils with and without compost (1% (w/w application rate. Experimental results indicated that C mineralization rapidly increased at the beginning in all treatments, particularly in those involving 2% and 4% biochar. The biochar addition increased C mineralization by 7.9%–48% in the compost-amended soils after 70 days incubation while the fractions of mineralized C to applied C significantly decreased. Moreover, the estimated maximum of C mineralization amount in soils treated with both compost and biochar were obviously lower than expectation calculated by a double exponential model (two pool model. Based on the micromorphological observation, added compost was wrapped in the soil aggregates formed after biochar application and then may be protected from decomposing by microbes. Co-application of compost with biochar may be more efficient to stabilize and sequester C than individual application into the studied soils, especially for the biochar produced at high pyrolization temperature.

  15. The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanrong; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhang, Haitao; Ouyang, Younan; Qiu, Boyin; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were done to investigate the effect of soil pH and organic matter content on EDTA-extractable heavy metal contents in soils and heavy metal concentrations in rice straw and grains. EDTA-extractable Cr contents in soils and concentrations in rice tissues were negatively correlated with soil pH, but positively correlated with organic matter content. The combination of soil pH and organic matter content would produce the more precise regression models for estimation of EDTA-Cu, Pb and Zn contents in soils, demonstrating the distinct effect of the two factors on the availability of these heavy metals in soils. Soil pH greatly affected heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. Furthermore, inclusion of other soil properties in the stepwise regression analysis improved the regression models for predicting straw Fe and grain Zn concentrations, indicating that other soil properties should be taken into consideration for precise predicting of heavy metal concentrations in rice plants.

  16. REACTION OF APPLE-TREE VARIETIES AND STOCKS ON CHANGE OF pH OF SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko T. N.; Buzoverov A. V.; Ryazanova L. G.; Zakharchuk N. V.

    2015-01-01

    The researches are devoted to the determination of physiological parameters of grafted apple-trees joining with the level of their resistance to the change of soil рН. The experiments were carried out in the conditions of lysimetric experience with the soils use characterizing by different value of рН. The scheme of experience included the following variants of soil medium reaction: neutral (рН 7,3), typical for black soils of plain part of the region (control); weak-acid (рН 6,2) existing in...

  17. Increasing aridity, temperature and soil pH induce soil C-N-P imbalance in grasslands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiao, Feng; Shi, Xin-Rong; Han, Feng-Peng; Yuan, Zhi-You

    2016-01-01

    ... predicted moving forward in these dryland ecosystems. Here, we assess how soil C-N-P stoichiometry is affected by climatic change along a 3500-km temperate climate transect in Inner Mongolia, China...

  18. pH is the primary determinant of the bacterial community structure in agricultural soils impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yucheng; Zeng, Jun; Zhu, Qinghe; Zhang, Zhenfa; Lin, Xiangui

    2017-01-01

    Acidification and pollution are two major threats to agricultural ecosystems; however, microbial community responses to co-existed soil acidification and pollution remain less explored. In this study, arable soils of broad pH (4.26–8.43) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) gradients (0.18–20.68 mg kg‑1) were collected from vegetable farmlands. Bacterial community characteristics including abundance, diversity and composition were revealed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen contents, suggesting the control of nutrients accessibility on bacterial abundance. The bacterial diversity was strongly related to soil pH, with higher diversity in neutral samples and lower in acidic samples. Soil pH was also identified by an ordination analysis as important factor shaping bacterial community composition. The relative abundances of some dominant phyla varied along the pH gradient, and the enrichment of a few phylotypes suggested their adaptation to low pH condition. In contrast, at the current pollution level, PAH showed marginal effects on soil bacterial community. Overall, these findings suggest pH was the primary determinant of bacterial community in these arable soils, indicative of a more substantial influence of acidification than PAH pollution on bacteria driven ecological processes.

  19. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties.

  20. Soil pH and exchangeable cation responses to tillage and fertilizer in dryland cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers can lead to soil acidification and other chemical changes that can lower fertility. Here, we present near-surface (0-7.6 cm) soil chemistry data from 16 years of two different crop rotations in the US northern Great Plains: (1) continuous crop (CC; spring w...

  1. Urea Fertilizer and pH Influence on Sorption Process of Flumetsulam and MCPA Acidic Herbicides in a Volcanic Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Graciela; Jorquera, Milko; Demanet, Rolando; Elgueta, Sebastian; Briceño, Gabriela; de la Luz Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urea fertilizer and pH on the sorption process of two acidic herbicides, flumetsulam (2',6'-difluoro-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-2-sulfonanilide) and MCPA (4-chloro--tolyloxyacetic acid), on an Andisol. Urea reduced the adsorption of MCPA but not that of flumetsulam. The Freundlich parameter of MCPA decreased from 8.5 to 5.1 mg L kg. This finding could be attributed to an increase in dissolved organic C due to an initial increase in soil pH for urea application. The higher acidic character of MCPA compared with that of flumetsulam produced a greater hydrolysis of urea, leading to a further pH increase. A marked effect of pH on the adsorption of both herbicides was observed. The organic C distribution coefficient () values for flumetsulam were in the range of 74 to 10 L kg, while those of MCPA were in the range of 208 to 45 L kg. In the kinetic studies, the pseudo-second-order model appeared to fit the data best ( > 0.994). The initial adsorption rates () ranged from 20.00 to 4.59 mg kg h for flumetsulam and from 125.00 to 25.60 mg kg hfor MCPA. Both herbicides were adsorbed rapidly during the first stage of the sorption process, and the rates of sorption were dependent on pH. The application of the Elovich and Weber-Morris models led us to conclude that mass transfer through the boundary layer and, to a lesser degree, intraparticle diffusion were influenced by the chemical character of the herbicide. These results suggest that urea application could increase leaching of acid herbicides in soils.

  2. The effect of pH on the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to Folsomia candida in amended field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Ortiz, Maria Diez; Lofts, Stephen; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-10-01

    The effect of soil pH on the toxicity of 30 nm ZnO to Folsomia candida was assessed in Dorset field soils with pHCaCl2 adjusted to 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39. To unravel the contribution of particle size and dissolved Zn, 200 nm ZnO and ZnCl2 were tested. Zinc sorption increased with increasing pH, and Freundlich kf values ranged from 98.9 (L/kg)(1/n) to 333 (L/kg)(1/n) for 30 nm ZnO and from 64.3 (L/kg)(1/n) to 187 (L/kg)(1/n) for ZnCl2. No effect of particle size was found on sorption, and little difference was found in toxicity between 30 nm and 200 nm ZnO. The effect on reproduction decreased with increasing pH for all Zn forms, with 28-d median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 553 mg Zn/kg, 1481 mg Zn/kg, and 3233 mg Zn/kg for 30 nm ZnO and 331 mg Zn/kg, 732 mg Zn/kg, and 1174 mg Zn/kg for ZnCl2 at pH 4.31, 5.71, and 6.39, respectively. The EC50s based on porewater Zn concentrations increased with increasing pH for 30 nm ZnO from 4.77 mg Zn/L to 18.5 mg Zn/L, while for ZnCl2 no consistent pH-related trend in EC50s was found (21.0-63.3 mg Zn/L). Porewater calcium levels were 10 times higher in ZnCl2 -spiked soils than in ZnO-spiked soils. The authors' results suggest that the decreased toxicity of ZnCl2 compared with 30 nm ZnO based on porewater concentrations was because of a protective effect of calcium and not a particle effect.

  3. Toxicity of the molybdate anion in soil is partially explained by effects of the accompanying cation or by soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekers, Jurgen; Mertens, Jelle; Smolders, Erik

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that toxicity of cationic trace metals in soil is partially confounded by effects of the accompanying anions. A similar assessment is reported here for toxicity of an oxyanion, i.e., molybdate (MoO(4) (2-)), the soil toxicity of which is relatively unexplored. Solubility and toxicity were compared between the soluble sodium molybdate (Na(2)MoO(4)) and the sparingly soluble molybdenum trioxide (MoO(3)). Confounding effects of salinity were excluded by referencing the Na(2)MoO(4) effect to that of sodium chloride (NaCl). The pH decrease from the acid MoO(3) amendment was equally referenced to a hydrochloric (HCl) treatment or a lime-controlled MoO(3) treatment. The concentrations of molybdenum (Mo) in soil solution or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) 0.01 M extracts were only marginally affected by either MoO(3) or Na(2)MoO(4) as an Mo source after 10 to 13 days of equilibration. Effects of Mo on soil nitrification were fully confounded by associated changes in salinity or pH. Effects of Mo on growth of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L) were more pronounced than those on nitrification, and toxicity thresholds were unaffected by the form of added Mo. The Mo thresholds for wheat growth were not confounded by pH or salinity at incipient toxicity. It is concluded that oxyanion toxicity might be confounded in relatively insensitive tests for which reference treatments should be included.

  4. The effect of nitrogen form on rhizosphere soil pH and zinc phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsant, A C; Tang, C; Baker, A J M

    2008-10-01

    The phytoextraction of Zn may be improved by applying N fertilizers to increase the biomass and Zn content of shoots. Rhizosphere-pH change from uptake of different N forms will affect Zn phyto-availability in the rhizosphere and Zn phytoextraction. This glasshouse study examined the effect of N form on Zn phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens (Prayon). The plants were grown in a Zn-contaminated soil (total Zn 250 mg kg-1 soil; pHwater 5.7) and supplied with (NH4)2SO4, Ca(NO3)2 or urea [(NH2)2CO]. The form was maintained by applying the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide. A biodegradable chelator ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) was included for comparison. The addition of N doubled the shoot biomass. The highest shoot Zn content occurred in the Ca(NO3)2 treatment and was associated with the highest rhizosphere pH. The lowest shoot dry weight occurred in the EDDS treatment. The Zn concentration in the shoots increased as the rhizosphere pH increased. A significant correlation occurred between Ca and Zn concentrations in the shoots. This study demonstrated that Ca(NO3)2 is a more effective treatment than , urea or EDDS for enhancing Zn phytoextraction in a mildly acidic soil.

  5. The effect of heavy metal concentration and soil pH on the abundance of selected microbial groups within ArcelorMittal Poland steelworks in Cracow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenart, Anna; Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the effect of heavy metal concentration and soil pH on the abundance of the selected soil microorganisms within ArcelorMittal Poland steelworks, Cracow. The analysis included 20 soil samples, where the concentration of Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cr and soil pH were evaluated together with the number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Actinomycetes and Azotobacter spp. In the majority of samples soil pH was alkaline. The limits of heavy metals exceeded in eight samples and in one sample, the concentration of Zn exceeded 31-fold. Chromium was the element which most significantly limited the number of bacteria and Actinomycetes.

  6. Dynamics of pH, Ferrum and Mangan, and Phosphorus on Newly Opened Paddy Soil having High Soil Organic Matter on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukristyonubowo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research had been carried out at the Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and Greenhouse of Soil ResearchInstitute, Bogor using newly opened paddy soil from Pesisir Selatan districts, West Sumatra (one year old. Totaltreatments tested were 12 which were combination of farmer rate, NPK recommendation (½×; ¾×; 1½×, strawcompost (½×; ¾×; 1½×, and dolomite. The trial was conducted using a completely randomized design with threereplications. This research had been prepared in two units, one unit for observing plant response to nutrientmanagement and another unit for incubation trial with the same treatment placed in the greenhouse. Rice cultivarused was IR-42 in accordance to the preferred varieties of local farmers. The sampling method for measuring thesolubility of Fe2+ and Mn2+, as well as the availability of PO43- was by centrifuge 50 g mud samples from theincubation pots then separated clear extract using filter paper. The observation results on dynamics of pH, Fe2+,Mn2+ and PO4-3 mainly occured in 1 to 14 days after submerging (incubation. After 14 days soil reaction had reachedthermodynamic sequence of oxidation-reduction processes, the PO43- more available and pH of the soil reached thepeak. The optimum dose of NPK fertilizer obtained 0.875 NPK or equal to 175 kg of urea, 87.5 kg of SP-36 and 87.5 kgKCl ha-1. The highest number of hills achieved from straw compost treatment 1½ organic matter (OM or 3 tons withan increase of 20%. Application of ameliorant dolomite increased the number of tillers about 2-3%, but insignificantlydifferent with no dolomite treatment.

  7. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance and climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangwei eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75-1945 km apart of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors.

  8. Niveles de carbono orgánico y ph en suelos agrícolas de las regiones pampeana y extrapampeana argentina Organic carbon and ph levels in agricultural soils of the pampa and extra-pampean regions of argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán René Sainz Rozas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El carbono orgánico (CO y el pH de los suelos son indicadores clave de la salud del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue relevar el contenido de CO y pH actual (0-20 cm de los suelos agrícolas de las regiones pampeana y extrapampeana de la Argentina y realizar mapas con ambas variables, utilizando la mediana de cada partido. Otro objetivo fue comparar la eficiencia de predicción (EP de dos métodos de interpolación: 1 el método inversa de la distancia ponderada (IDP y 2 el método Kriging ordinario (KO. El número de muestras utilizados para CO y pH fue de 31.619 y 31.398, respectivamente, las que fueron tomadas en lotes de producción en 2005 y 2006. Ambos métodos produjeron mapas similares de CO y pH, pero la EP fue ligeramente mayor para el KO (65 a 80% comparado al IDP (63 a 79%. Los valores de CO variaron de 5,5 a 38,0 g kg-1, determinándose los contenidos más bajos al oeste y norte, y los más elevados al sudeste (SE de la región. Los suelos de la mayor parte del área relevada presentaron valores de pH de 6 a 7,5, salvo algunos del norte de Buenos Aires, centro-sur de Santa Fe y este de Córdoba que mostraron valores de pH de 5,5-6. El contenido de CO manifiesta una tendencia declinante e indica la necesidad de aplicar prácticas de manejo de suelo tendientes a revertir este proceso degradativo. El pH de los suelos no sería limitante para la producción de cultivos en la mayor parte del área, pero se pueden presentar potenciales problemas de acidez en determinadas zonas.Soil organic carbon (SOC and pH are considered key indicators of soil health. The objective of this study was to determine SOC and soil pH of agricultural soils (0-20 cm in the pampeana and extrapampeana regions of Argentina and to elaborate maps with both variables, using the median of each county. Soil samples were taken from fields that were sampled in 2005 and 2006 at a 20 cm-soil depth and totalled 31,619 and 31,398 for SOM and pH, respectively. The

  9. Stability of Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in near-neutral sulphate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, A., E-mail: aboavida@fc.ul.pt; Almeida, I.; Frade, T. [CCMM, Departamento Quimica e Bioquimica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Tavares, A. C. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Energie Materiaux et Telecommunications (INRS-EMT) (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared by galvanostatic cathodic square wave deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the occlusion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (spherical shaped with diameter between 19.5 and 24.2 nm) promotes the formation of the {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} phase, changes the preferred crystallographic orientation of Zn from (101) and (102) planes to (002), and decreases the particle size of the metallic matrices. The stability of the nanocomposites immersed in near-neutral 0.05 mold m{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH 6.2) was investigated over 24 h. The initial open circuit potential for the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} coatings were -1.32 and -1.51 V (vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), respectively, and changed to -1.10 and -1.49 V (vs. Hg/Hg{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after 24 h of immersion. Data extracted from the steady state polarization curves demonstrated that the metal-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites have, with respect to the metal coatings, a higher corrosion potential in the case of the Zn-Ni alloy composite; a lower corrosion potential in the case of Zn-based nanocomposite albeit the predominant (002) crystallographic orientation; and a lower initial corrosion resistance due to the smaller grain size and higher porosity in the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. Morphological and chemical analyses showed that a thicker passive layer is formed on the surface of the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} and Zn-TiO{sub 2} deposits. After 24 h of immersion in the sulphate solution, the Zn-Ni-TiO{sub 2} coating has the highest corrosion stability due to the double-protective action created by the deposit's surface enrichment in Ni plus the higher amount of corrosion products.

  10. Effect of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Folsomia candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Rupp, Svenja; Lofts, Stephen; Svendsen, Claus; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) and pH may influence nanoparticle fate and effects in soil. This study investigated the influence of soil organic matter content and pH on the toxicity of ZnO-NP and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida in four natural soils, having between 2.37% and 14.7% OM and [Formula: see text] levels between 5.0 and 6.8. Porewater Zn concentrations were much lower in ZnO-NP than in ZnCl2 spiked soils, resulting in higher Freundlich sorption constants for ZnO-NP. For ZnCl2 the porewater Zn concentrations were significantly higher in less organic soils, while for ZnO-NP the highest soluble Zn level (23mgZn/l) was measured in the most organic soil, which had the lowest pH. Free Zn(2+) ion concentrations were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP and were greatly dependent on pH (pHpw) and dissolved organic carbon content of the pore water. The 28-d EC50 values for the effect of ZnCl2 on the reproduction of F. candida increased with increasing OM content from 356 to 1592mgZn/kg d.w. For ZnO-NP no correlation between EC50 values and OM content was found and EC50 values ranged from 1695 in the most organic soil to 4446mgZn/kg d.w. in the higher pH soil. When based on porewater and free Zn(2+) concentrations, EC50 values were higher for ZnCl2 than for ZnO-NP, and consistently decreased with increasing pHpw. This study shows that ZnO-NP toxicity is dependent on soil properties, but is mainly driven by soil pH.

  11. Diversity and food web structure of nematode communities under high soil salinity and alkaline pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamún, Peter; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Miklisová, Dana; Renčo, Marek; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-10-01

    A long-term and intensive magnesium (Mg) ore processing in Slovenské Magnezitové Závody a.s. in Jelšava has resulted in a high Mg content and alkaline pH of the soil environment, noticeable mainly in the close vicinity of the smelter. Nematode communities strongly reacted to the contamination mostly by a decrease in abundance of the sensitive groups. Nematodes from c-p 1 group and bacterivores, tolerant to pollution played a significant role in establishing the dominance at all sites. With increasing distance from the pollution source, the nematode communities were more structured and complex, with an increase in proportion of sensitive c-p 4 and 5 nematodes, composed mainly of carnivores and omnivores. Various ecological indices (e.g. MI2-5, SI, H') indicated similar improvement of farther soil ecosystems.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on pH buffering capacity and solubility of Ca, Mg, K, and P in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    In many parts of the world, soil acidification and heavy metal contamination has become a serious concern due to the adverse effects on chemical properties of soil and crop yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pH (in the range of 1 to 3 units above and below the native pH of soils) on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) solubility in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soil samples. Spiked samples were prepared by cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as chloride salts and incubating soils for 40 days. The pH buffering capacity (pHBC) of each sample was determined by plotting the amount of H(+) or OH(-) added (mmol kg(-1)) versus the related pH value. The pHBC of soils ranged from 47.1 to 1302.5 mmol kg(-1) for non-spiked samples and from 45.0 to 1187.4 mmol kg(-1) for spiked soil samples. The pHBC values were higher in soil 2 (non-spiked and spiked) which had higher calcium carbonate content. The results indicated the presence of heavy metals in soils generally decreased the solution pH and pHBC values in spiked samples. In general, solubility of Ca, Mg, and K decreased with increasing equilibrium pH of non-spiked and spiked soil samples. In the case of P, increasing the pH to about 7, decreased the solubility in all soils but further increase of pH from 7, enhanced P solubility. The solubility trends and values for Ca, Mg, and K did not differed significantly in non-spiked and spiked samples. But in the case of P, a reduction in solubility was observed in heavy metal-spiked soils. The information obtained in this study can be useful to make better estimation of the effects of soil pollutants on anion and cation solubility from agricultural and environmental viewpoints.

  13. Is Tree Species Diversity or Species Identity the More Important Driver of Soil Carbon Stocks, C/N Ratio, and pH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Domisch, Timo;

    2016-01-01

    We explored tree species diversity effects on soil C stock, C/N ratio, and pH as compared with effects of tree species identity. We sampled forest floors and mineral soil (0–40 cm) in a diversity gradient of 1–5 tree species composed of conifers and broadleaves in Białowieża Forest, Poland. Diver...

  14. Effect of Soil Temperature and pH on Nitrification Kinetics in Soils Receiving a Low Level of Ammonium Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    necessary and Identify by block number) Amonium Nitrites Microorganisms pH factor Laaid Treatment Removal Nitrates Waste water .ABSTRAC T r’C’mnrfue...study was provided from Civil Works project CWIS 31633, Optimization of Automated Procedures for Design and Management of Land Treatment Systems, and...CWIS 31297, Nitrogen Transformations in Land Treatment . The authors acknowledge the technical assistance of Dr. E.L. Schmidt of the University of

  15. The effect of Penicillium bilaii on wheat growth and phosphorus uptake as affected by soil pH, soil P and application of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Esteva, S.; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium bilaii may enhance P availability to plants, since it has been shown to increase plant growth and P uptake. There is currently increasing interest in using microorganisms to promote P mobilisation from organic P sources. An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of P....... bilaii on P uptake and growth of wheat in the presence and absence of sewage sludge. Two soils differing in P contents and pH were used, as it was hypothesised that these affect the efficiency of P mobilisation....

  16. Sorption-desorption and transport of trimethoprim and sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soil: effect of soil type, dissolved organic matter, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Lei; Lin, Shuang-Shuang; Dai, Chao-Meng; Shi, Lu; Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-05-01

    Use of animal manure is a main source of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) in soil and groundwater through a series of migration processes. The sorption-desorption and transport of four commonly used VPs including trimethoprim (TMP), sulfapyridine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine were investigated in three soil layers taken from an agricultural field in Chongming Island China and two types of aqueous solution (0.01 M CaCl2 solution and wastewater treatment plant effluent). Results from sorption-desorption experiments showed that the sorption behavior of selected VPs conformed to the Freundlich isotherm equation. TMP exhibited higher distribution coefficients (K d = 6.73-9.21) than other sulfonamides (K d = 0.03-0.47), indicating a much stronger adsorption capacity of TMP. The percentage of desorption for TMP in a range of 8-12 % is not so high to be considered significant. Low pH (soil organic matter (e.g., 0-20 cm soil sample) had a positive impact on sorption of VPs. Slightly lower distribution coefficients were obtained for VPs in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, which suggested that dissolved organic matter might affect their sorption behavior. Column studies indicated that the transport of VPs in the soil column was mainly influenced by sorption capacity. The weakly adsorbed sulfonamides had a high recovery rate (63.6-98.0 %) in the leachate, while the recovery rate of TMP was only 4.2-10.4 %. The sulfonamides and TMP exhibited stronger retaining capacity in 20-80 cm and 0-20 cm soil samples, respectively. The transport of VPs was slightly higher in the columns leached by WWTP effluent than by CaCl2 solution (0.01 M) due to their sorption interactions.

  17. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERN OF SOIL pH AND Eh AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOLUTE IRON CONTENT IN A WETLAND (TRANSDANUBIA, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZALAI ZOLTÁN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils. The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil andvegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation and the pH, Eh of soils and solute iron in a headwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia, three patches and two species, horsetail (Equisetum arvense, common nettle (Urtica dioica. Thespatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography, climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR. Root respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions and higher pH values were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effectsthrough plants on wetlands.

  18. Use of precision agriculture technologies in studying the relationships among soil pH, calcium carbonate equivalent, soybean cyst nematode population density, and soybean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovska, Natalia

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) and soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) infestation are major factors that contribute to soybean (Glycine max Merr.) yield reduction in the Midwest. The IDC is often associated with soybean grown on high pH, calcareous soils. In addition, it was documented that SCN population density is higher in high pH soils. The objectives of this paper were to assess the proportion of within-field soybean yield and SCN variability that could be explained by soil pH, calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), and a previously defined alkalinity stress index (ASI). Aerial images from 21 fields planted to SCN-resistant or susceptible soybean varieties were collected from 2001 through 2005 and used as a guide for soil and grain sampling. Ten to 16 sampling sites were selected on each field. Regression analyses within and across sites were used to study relationships between the measured variables. The SCN population density increased and yield decreased with increasing pH, CCE, and ASI across the fields. The percentage of yield variability across fields explained by soil pH, CCE, ASI, and SCN was 13%, 15%, 18%, and 1%, respectively, for resistant soybean varieties and 37%, 24%, 39%, and 10%, respectively, for susceptible varieties. The yield reduction due to high pH, CCE, and ASI was greater for SCN-susceptible varieties in field areas heavily infested with SCN.

  19. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  20. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  1. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with al

  2. Cadmium Accumulation and Pathological Alterations in the Midgut Gland of Terrestrial Snail Helix pomatia L. from a Zinc Smelter Area: Role of Soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włostowski, Tadeusz; Kozłowski, Paweł; Łaszkiewicz-Tiszczenko, Barbara; Oleńska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in the midgut gland of Helix pomatia snails living in a Cd-contaminated area were related to soil pH. Toxic responses in the midgut gland (i.e., increased vacuolization and lipid peroxidation) occurred in H. pomatia snails exhibiting the highest Cd levels in the gland (265-274 µg/g dry wt) and living on acidic soil (pH 5.3-5.5), while no toxicity was observed in snails accumulating less Cd (90 µg/g) and ranging on neutral soil (pH 7.0), despite the fact that total soil Cd was similar in the two cases. The accumulation of Cd in the gland was directly related to the water extractable Cd in soil, which in turn correlated inversely with soil pH, indicating that this factor had a significant effect on tissue Cd. It appeared further that the occurrence of Cd toxicity was associated with low levels of metallothionein in the gland of snails ranging on acidic soil.

  3. High-Resolution Denitrification Kinetics in Pasture Soils Link N2O Emissions to pH, and Denitrification to C Mineralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Sainur Samad

    Full Text Available Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N2O and N2. It is known that N2O reduction to N2 is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N2O emissions in response to carbon (C mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand using a fully automated-high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N2O production index (IN2O and N2O/(N2O+N2 product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N2O+N2 μmol N/h/vial were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO2 μmol/h/vial measured both under oxic (r2 = 0.62, p = 0.0015 and anoxic (r2 = 0.89, p<0.0001 conditions.

  4. Ni-based electrocatalyst for water oxidation developed In-situ in a HCO3 -/CO2 system at near-neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2014-03-10

    Electrochemically generated NiOx nanoworms from a neutral bicarbonate system split water into dioxygen and protons with tremendous efficiency and stability. The NiOx electrocatalyst follows a pH-potential dependence, revealing a PCET (proton coupled electron transfer) mechanism of one electron and one proton oxidation. It does not require proton abstracting phosphate or borate buffers for electrogeneration and catalysis, and shows promising activity for anodic oxidation of water in phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota of ewes and cows reveals a unique microbiota with low levels of lactobacilli and near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human vaginal microbiota affect reproductive performance and perinatal health. Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep a...

  6. Copper concentration of vineyard soils as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ribeiro Nachtigall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu concentration was evaluated as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter to a Dystrophic Lithic Udorthent and a Humic Dystrudept from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, cultivated with vines treated with successive applications of Cu-based product. Samples were collected from the surface layer (0 to 10 cm. Soluble Cu concentration was determined using DTPA and Mehlich III as extractants, and exchangeable Cu was determined in CaCl2. The availability of Cu was mainly affected by the soil pH. CaCl2 extractant had the best correlation with Cu concentration in contaminated soils, according to treatments applied. The addition of poultry litter did not reduce Cu availability in these soils. Total soil Cu content varied between 1,300 and 1,400 mg kg-1 in both soils. Copper available fractions, extracted by DTPA, CaCl2 and Mehlich III, averaged 35, 0.2 and 63%, respectively, of the total Cu present in the soil.Avaliaram-se os teores de Cu em função da variação do pH e da adição de cama-de-frango de dois solos com elevados teores deste elemento. Foram coletadas amostras da camada superficial (0 a 10 cm de um typical dystrophic Lithic Udorthent - LU (Neossolo Litólico distrófico típico e de um Humic Dystrudept - HD (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico típico da região da Serra do RS, cultivados com parreirais que receberam aplicações sucessivas de produtos à base de Cu. Foram determinados os teores de Cu solúvel em DTPA e pelo método Mehlich III, além do Cu trocável em CaCl2. A disponibilidade de Cu foi afetada principalmente pelo pH do solo. O extrator CaCl2 foi o que melhor se correlacionou com os teores de Cu em solos contaminados em função dos tratamentos aplicados. A adição de cama-de-frango não diminuiu a disponibilidade de Cu destes solos. Os teores de Cu total variaram entre 1.300 e 1.400 mg kg-1 nos dois solos. Considerando os teores totais de Cu nos solos, as frações "disponíveis", extra

  7. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  8. Active microorganisms in forest soils differ from the total community yet are shaped by the same environmental factors: the influence of pH and soil moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Karl J; Freedman, Zachary B; Upchurch, Rima A; Argiroff, William A; Zak, Donald R

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impact of environmental change on soil microbial functions requires an understanding of how environmental factors shape microbial composition. Here, we investigated the influence of environmental factors on bacterial and fungal communities across an expanse of northern hardwood forest in Michigan, USA, which spans a 500-km regional climate gradient. We quantified soil microbial community composition using high-throughput DNA sequencing on coextracted rDNA (i.e. total community) and rRNA (i.e. active community). Within both bacteria and fungi, total and active communities were compositionally distinct from one another across the regional gradient (bacteria P = 0.01; fungi P soil moisture, pH, SOM carboxyl content, as well as C and N concentration. Our study highlights the importance of distinguishing between metabolically active microorganisms and the total community, and emphasizes that the same environmental factors shape the total and active communities of bacteria and fungi in this ecosystem. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sorption of dissolved lead from shooting range soils using hydroxyapatite amendments synthesized from industrial byproducts as affected by varying pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Taki, Tomohiro; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-04-01

    For immobilization technologies to be successful, the use of readily available and cost advantageous amendment is important when the remediation targets vast amounts of contaminated soils. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the byproduct-synthesized hydroxyapatite can be used as an immobilizing amendment for dissolved Pb from a shooting range soil, and to model the kinetic data collected from dissolution experiments. A soil-solution kinetic experiment was conducted under fixed pH conditions as a function of time. A Pb-contaminated soil was reacted with various hydroxyapatite amendments to determine the dissolution rate and mineral products of soil Pb. Three types of amendments used were pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and poorly crystalline hydroxyapatites synthesized from gypsum waste (CHA), and synthesized from incinerated poultry litter (PHA). The dissolved Pb concentration decreased with the addition of amendments at pH 3-7. Both CHA and PHA were more effective than HA for attenuating Pb dissolution at pH 6 and above. According to the thermodynamic calculation at pH 6, the dissolved Pb concentration for CHA and PHA treatments was predicted to be 66% and 50% lower than that of HA treatment, respectively. A better Pb immobilization effect demonstrated by CHA and PHA resulted in their greater solubility at higher pH, which may promote the formation of chloropyromorphite precipitates. Dissolution kinetics of soil Pb was adequately explained by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations in acid pH ranges. According to the ion exchange model, an adequate agreement between the experimental data and regression curves was shown in the initial 40 min of the reaction process, but the accuracy of model predictability decreased thereafter. According to kinetic models and dissolution phenomena, CHA and PHA amendments had better Pb sorption capacity with rapid kinetics than pure hydroxyapatite at weak acid to neutral pH.

  10. Spatial variability more influential than soil pH and land relief on thermophilous vegetation in overgrown coppice oak forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz H. Szymura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overgrown coppice oak forests that cover the southern slopes beneath the foothills of the Sudetes (Silesia, Central Europe are considered to be Euro-Siberian steppic woods with a Quercus sp. habitat (91I0: a priority habitat in the European Union, according to the Natura 2000 system. In subcontinental parts of Central Europe, thermophilous oak forest vegetation is found extrazonally; its presence, in the study site, is related to previous coppice management. In this paper we explore the differentiation of the vegetation caused both by land-relief derived variables (potential heat load, slope inclination and exposition, soil depth and soil pH, as well as spatial processes. The data on the vegetation were collected from 117 regularly arranged sampling plots, located in three mountain ranges. The vegetation consisted of a mixture of species considered as typical for different habitats (mesophilous forests, acidophilous forests, thermophilous oak forests, grassland, thermophilous fringes and mesophilous mantle and was relatively rich in species. Many of the species found were rare and are protected in Poland. The results of the bioindication, on the basis of Ellenberg indicator values, suggest the pH gradient to be the most important, followed by the insolation/moisture gradient, to the differentiation of the studied vegetation. The thermophilous oak forests seem to occupy the niche between acidophilous and mesophilous forest. However the decomposition of spatial variation, assessed on the basis of semivariance values of the vegetation similarity coefficient (frequency index, emphasizes a strong differentiation of vegetation between sites and mountain ranges. The results of canonical correspondence analysis, performed on a spatially stratified sub-set of the data, revealed a stronger effect caused by spatial variation (32.7% of explained species variation than environmental variables, such as soil pH and potential heat load (13.1%. Since the

  11. Fate of cadmium at the soil-solution interface: a thermodynamic study as influenced by varying pH at South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Das, Dilip K; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh K

    2015-11-01

    A study on the sorption kinetics of Cd from soil solution to soils was conducted to assess the persistence of Cd in soil solution as it is related to the leaching, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of Cd. The kinetics of Cd sorption on two non-contaminated alkaline soils from Canning (22° 18' 48.02″ N and 88° 39' 29.0″ E) and Lakshmikantapur (22° 06' 16.61″ N and 88° 19' 08.66″ E) of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India, were studied using conventional batch experiment. The variable soil suspension parameters were pH (4.00, 6.00, 8.18, and 9.00), temperatures (308, 318, and 328 K) and Cd concentrations (5-100 mg L(-1)). The average rate coefficient (kavg) and half-life (t1/2) values indicate that the persistence of Cd in soil solution is influenced by both temperature and soil suspension pH. The concentration of Cd in soil solution decreases with increase of temperature; therefore, Cd sorption on the soil-solution interface is an endothermic one. Higher pH decreases the t 1/2 of Cd in soil solution, indicating that higher pH (alkaline) is not a serious concern in Cd toxicity than lower pH (acidic). Based on the energy of activation (Ea) values, Cd sorption in acidic pH (14.76±0.29 to 64.45±4.50 kJ mol(-1)) is a surface control phenomenon and in alkaline pH (9.33±0.09 to 44.60±2.01 kJ mol(-1)) is a diffusion control phenomenon The enthalpy of activation (ΔH∓) values were found to be between 7.28 and 61.73 kJ mol(-1). Additionally, higher positive energy of activation (ΔG∓) values (46.82±2.01 to 94.47±2.36 kJ mol(-1)) suggested that there is an energy barrier for product formation.

  12. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  13. Effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculum treatments in increasing pH and reducing sulfur-total of acid sulfate soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufieq, Nur Anny Suryaningsih; Rahim, Sahibin Abdul; Jamil, Habibah

    2013-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness ofsulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in using bran as a source of food and energy, and to see the effectiveness of the bran media and bacteria inoculums treatments for pH and sulfur-total of acid sulfate reduction insoils. This study used two factors in group random designs with four treatments for bacteria inoculum of B1 (1%), B2 (5%), B3 (10%), B4 (15%) and two treatments for organic media (bran) of D1 (1:1) and D2 (1:19). Based on three replications, the combination resulted in a total of 24 treatments. Soil pH was measured using the Duddridge and Wainright method and determination of sulfate content in soil was conducted by the spectrophotometry method. The data obtained was analyzed for significance by Analysis of Variance and the Least Significant Difference Test. The pH of the initial acid sulfate soils ranged from 3 to 4 and the soil sulfur-total ranged from 1.4% to 10%. After mixing sulfate reducing bacteria with the bran mediaand incubated for four days, the pH of the acid sulfate soils increased from 3.67 to 4.20, while the soil sulfur-total contents had been reduced by 2.85% to 0.35%. This experiment has proven that an acid sulfate soil with low pH is a good growth medium for the sulfate reducing bacteria. The bestincubation period to achieve an effective bioremediation resultthrough sulfate percentage reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria was 10 days, while the optimum bran media dose was 1:19, and the bacteria inoculums dose was 10%.

  14. Cold, pH and salt tolerant Penicillium spp. inhabit the high altitude soils in Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakar, Kusum; Sharma, Avinash; Pandey, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Twenty five fungal cultures (Penicillium spp.), isolated from soil samples from the high altitudes in the Indian Himalayan region, have been characterized following polyphasic approach. Colony morphology performed on five different media gave varying results; potato dextrose agar being the best for the vegetative growth and sporulation as well. Microscopic observations revealed 18 isolates to be biverticillate and 7 monoverticillate. Based on the phenotypic characters (colony morphology and microscopy), all the isolates were designated to the genus Penicillium. Exposure to low temperature resulted in enhanced sporulation in 23 isolates, while it ceased in case of two. The fungal isolates produced watery exudates in varying amount that in many cases increased at low temperature. All the isolates could grow between 4 and 37 °C, (optimum 24 °C), hence considered psychrotolerant. While all the isolates could tolerate pH from 2 to 14 (optimum 5-9), 7 isolates tolerated pH 1.5 as well. While all the fungal isolates tolerated salt concentration above 10 %; 10 isolates showed tolerance above 20 %. Based on ITS region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) analysis the fungal isolates belonged to 25 different species of Penicillium (showing similarity between 95 and 100 %). Characters like tolerance for low temperature, wide range of pH, and high salt concentration, and enhancement in sporulation and production of secondary metabolites such as watery exudates at low temperature can be attributed to the ecological resilience possessed by these fungi for survival under low temperature environment of mountain ecosystem.

  15. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus; Wenzel, Walter W

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C(soln)) and 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2) extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C(soln), the 0.005M Ca(NO(3))(2)-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C(DGT)) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R(2)>0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C(soln). However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops.

  16. Comparison of the solubilizing efficiencies of some pH lowering (sulphur and (NH4)2SO4) amendments on Cd and Zn mobility in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoakwah, Emmanuel; Van Slycken, Stijn; Essumang, David K

    2014-08-01

    The use of conventional methods to clean up the soil is very expensive and destructive to the ecosystem. The concept of phytoextraction has been introduced to safely manage soils contaminated with heavy metals. However, using plants to remediate polluted soils is a lengthy process. This has necessitated the use of amendments to potentially enhance solubilization of metals in order to increase their bioavailability in the soil solution. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of some selected pH lowering amendments [elemental sulphur and (NH4)2SO4] on the solubility and availability of Cd and Zn. The application of these amendments resulted in a decrease in the pH of the soil. The decrease in pH significantly enhanced the solubilization and the mobility of Cd and Zn into the soil solution. The CaCl2 extraction protocol was employed to study the effects of the various amendments on the mobility of Cd and Zn.

  17. Exchange Reaction Between Selenite and Hydroxyl Ion of Variable Charge Soil Surfaces:I.Electrolyte Species and pH Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU SHIWEI; ZHANG GANGYA; ZHANG XIAONIAN

    2003-01-01

    Hydroxyl release of red soil and latosol surfaces was quantitatively measured using a self-made constantpH automated titration instrument, to study the changes of hydroxyl release with different added seleniteamounts and pH levels, and to study the effects of electrolytes on hydroxyl release. Hydroxyl release increasedwith the selenite concentration, with a rapid increase at a low selenite concentration while slowing down ata high concentration. The pH where maximum of hydroxyl release appeared was not constant, shifting toa lower valus with increasing selenite concentration. Hydroxyl release decreased with increasing electrolyteconcentration, and the decrease was very rapid at a low electrolyte concentration but slow at a high electrolyteconcentration. For NaC1O4, NaC1 and Na2SO4, hydroxyl release was in the order of NaClO4 > NaCl >Na2SO4, and the difference was very significant. But for NaCl, KCl and CaCl2, the order of hydroxyl releasewas NaCl > KCl > CaCl2, and the difference was smaller. The amount of hydroxyl release from Xuwenlatosol was greater than that from Jinxian red soil. Hydroxyl release existed in a wider range of pH withXuwen latosol than with Jinxian red soil, due to their difference in soil properties. However, both soils hadsimilar curves of hydroxyl release, indicating the common characteristics of variable charge soils.

  18. Is Tree Species Diversity or Species Identity the More Important Driver of Soil Carbon Stocks, C/N Ratio, and pH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Domisch, Timo

    2016-01-01

    mechanism for higher root carbon input and in turn a deeper distribution of C in diverse forests. Diversity and identity affected soil pH in topsoil with positive and negative impacts, respectively. More diverse forests would lead to higher soil nutrient status as reflected by higher topsoil p......H, but there was a slight negative effect on N status as indicated by higher C/N ratios in the deeper layers. We conclude that tree species diversity increases soil C stocks and nutrient status to some extent, but tree species identity is a stronger driver of the studied soil properties, particularly in the topsoil.......We explored tree species diversity effects on soil C stock, C/N ratio, and pH as compared with effects of tree species identity. We sampled forest floors and mineral soil (0–40 cm) in a diversity gradient of 1–5 tree species composed of conifers and broadleaves in Białowieża Forest, Poland...

  19. Adsorción de cadmio, cromo y mercurio en suelos del Valle del Cauca a varios valores de pH Cadmium, chromium and mercury adsorption on Cauca Valley soils as a function of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García O. Álvaro

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de observar el proceso de adsorción de Cd, Cr y Hg y determinar el efecto del pH sobre la adsorción de los metales indicados, se seleccionaron tres suelos de los órdenes predominantes en el Valle del Cauca que, por su ubicación, están siendo regados con aguas contaminadas o pueden llegar a serlo en un futuro. El pH de los suelos se ajustó con ácido acético al 1, 4 y 12% o con NaOH 0.01 N para obtener valores lo más próximo posible a 5.7, 6.5 Y 7.8. Se prepararon soluciones de equilibrio con cada metal (0.0, 0.28, 0.56, 1.12 Y 2.25 mg/L y se adicionaron a 0.25 g de suelo seco al aire y tamizado para pasar una malla de 2 mm. La extracción de los metales se realizó con HCI 001 N y se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. La diferencia entre la concentración inicial y la final se consideró como la cantidad adsorbida por el suelo y la diferencia entre la cantidad adsorbida y la cantidad extraída con H Cl 0.01 N se consideró como la cantidad retenida por el suelo. En general el Cd se adsorbe más a valores de pH neutro o alcalino en todos los suelos, debido a que su forma predominante es la divalente y tiende más a formar complejos solubles e insolubles con los aniones encontrados en el suelo por encima de pH 7.0. La adsorción de Cr y Hg es mayor a valores de pH ácido debido a que forman complejos con la materia orgánica del suelo y/o los óxidos e hidróxidos de Fe, Al y Mn cuyas reacciones se ven favorecidas a estos valores de pH. La menor extracción (mayor retención en todos los suelos se dio a valores de pH entre 6.4 y 6.6, indicando que en este pH los metales quedan fuertemente retenidos por el complejo de cambio y su disponibilidad hacia las plantas es mínima.Soils irrigated with heavy metals contamined water are common in Cauca Valley and there is not available information about of soil behavior and soil processes affected by Cd, Cr and Hg. Three soils of the main orders of Cauca Valley

  20. Cadmium and Zn availability as affected by pH manipulation and its assessment by soil extraction, DGT and indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, Iqbal; Puschenreiter, Markus, E-mail: markus.puschenreiter@boku.ac.at; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of soil pH by soil additives and / or rhizosphere processes may enhance the efficiency of metal phytoextraction. Here we report on the effect of nitric acid additions to four polluted soils on Cd and Zn concentrations in soil solution (C{sub soln}) and 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extracts, and related changes in the diffusive fluxes and resupply of the metals as assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). The responses of these chemical indicators of bioavailability were compared to metal uptake in two indicator plant species, common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg) and narrow leaf plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) grown for 75 days in a pot experiment. Lowering soil pH increased C{sub soln}, the 0.005 M Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-soluble fractions and the DGT-measured Cd and Zn concentrations (C{sub DGT}) in the experimental soils. This was associated with enhanced uptake of Cd and Zn on soils acidified to pH 4.5 whereas plants did not survive at pH 3.5. Toxicity along with decreased kinetics of metal resupply (calculated by the 2D DIFS model) in the strong acidification treatment suggests that moderate acidification is more appropriate to enhance the phytoextraction process. Each of the chemical indicators of bioavailability predicted well (R{sup 2} > 0.70) the Cd and Zn concentrations in plantain shoots but due to metal toxicity not for dandelion. Concentration factors, i.e. the ratio between metal concentrations in shoots and in soil solution (CF) indicate that Cd and Zn uptake in plantain was not limited by diffusion which may explain that DGT did not perform better than C{sub soln}. However, DGT is expected to predict plant uptake better in diffusion-limited conditions such as in the rhizosphere of metal-accumulating phytoextraction crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of soil acidification was assessed for four Zn and Cd polluted soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For some soils moderate acidification could

  1. Phosphorus sorption-desorption and effects of temperature, pH and salinity on phosphorus sorption in marsh soils from coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Junhong; Ye, Xiaofei; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Guangliang; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    Wetland soils act as a sink or source of phosphorus (P) to the overlaying water due to phosphorus sorption-desorption processes. Litter information is available on sorption and desorption behaviors of phosphorus in coastal wetlands with different flooding conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate phosphorus sorption-desorption processes, fractions of adsorbed phosphorus, and the effects of salinity, pH and temperature on phosphorus sorption on soils in tidal-flooding wetlands (TW), freshwater-flooding wetlands (FW) and seasonal-flooding wetlands (SW) in the Yellow River Delta. Our results showed that the freshly adsorbed phosphorus dominantly exists in Occluded-P and Fe/AlP and their percentages increased with increasing phosphorus adsorbed. Phosphorus sorption isotherms could be better described by the modified Langmuir model than by the modified Freundlich model. A binomial equation could be properly used to describe the effects of salinity, pH, and temperature on phosphorus sorption. Phosphorus sorption generally increased with increasing salinity, pH, and temperature at lower ranges, while decreased in excess of some threshold values. The maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Qmax) was larger for FW soils (256 mg/kg) compared with TW (218 mg/kg) and SW soils (235 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The percentage of phosphorus desorption (Pdes) in the FW soils (7.5-63.5%) was much lower than those in TW (27.7-124.9%) and SW soils (19.2-108.5%). The initial soil organic matter, pH and the exchangeable Al, Fe and Cd contents were important factors influencing P sorption and desorption. The findings of this study indicate that freshwater restoration can contribute to controlling the eutrophication status of water bodies through increasing P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. pH dependence and unsuitability of fluorescein dye as a tracer for pesticide mobility studies in acid soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Peterson

    2009-01-01

    The mobility of fluorescein and bromide used as tracers in packed soil columns was investigated.Five different soils were used in two application methods: soil surface application and soil incorporation, both of which simulate accepted methods of soil application of termiticides to prevent structural infestation. The...

  3. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are a major source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. Increasing frequency and severity of flooding as predicted for large intensively cropped areas may promote temporary denitrification and N2O production but the effect of flooding events on N2O emiss....... Furthermore, this study shows that subsurface N2O reduction is a key process limiting N2O emission and that a reduction in N2O emissions is achievable if highly fertilized N-rich soils are limed....... within the soil. The magnitude of the emissions are, not surprisingly, positively correlated with the soil NO3− concentration but also negatively correlated with liming (neutral pH). The redox potential of the soil is found to influence N2O accumulation as the production and consumption of N2O occurs...

  4. pH : a key control of the nature and distribution of dissolved organic matter and associated trace metals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pédrot, M.; Dia, A.; Davranche, M.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter is ubiquitous at the Earth's surface and plays a prominent role in controlling metal speciation and mobility from soils to hydrosystems. Humic substances (HS) are usually considered to be the most reactive fraction of organic matter. Humic substances are relatively small and formed by chemically diverse organic molecules, bearing different functional groups that act as binding sites for cations and mineral surfaces. Among the different environmental physicochemical parameters controlling the metal speciation, pH is likely to be the most important one. Indeed, pH affect the dissociation of functional groups, and thus can influence the HS structure, their ability to complex metals, their solubility degree allowing the formation of aggregates at the mineral surface. In this context, soil/water interactions conducted through batch system experiments, were carried out with a wetland organic-rich soil to investigate the effect of pH on the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated trace elements. The pH was regulated between 4 and 7.5 using an automatic pH stat titrator. Ultrafiltration experiments were performed to separate the dissolved organic pool following decreasing pore sizes (30 kDa, 5 kDa and 2 kDa with 1 Da = 1 g.mol-1). The pH increase induced a significant DOC release, especially in heavy organic molecules (size >5 kDa) with a high aromaticity (>30 %). These were probably humic acids (HA). This HA release influenced (i) directly the trace element concentrations in soil solution since HA were enriched in several trace elements such as Th, REE, Y, U, Cr and Cu; and (ii) indirectly by the breaking of clay-humic complexes releasing Fe- and Al-rich nanoparticles associated with V, Pb and Ti. By contrast, at acid pH, most HS were complexed onto mineral surfaces. They also sequestered iron nanoparticles. Therefore, at low pH, most part of DOC molecules had a size complexing. Consequently, the soil solution was depleted in

  5. The Influence of Long-Term Copper Contaminated Agricultural Soil at Different pH Levels on Microbial Communities and Springtail Transcriptional Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de T.E.; Tas, N.; Braster, M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Roling, W.F.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2012-01-01

    Copper has long been applied for agricultural practises. Like other metals, copper is highly persistent in the environment and biologically active long after its use has ceased. Here we present a unique study on the long-term effects (27 years) of copper and pH on soil microbial communities and on t

  6. Biological control of beech and hornbeam affects species richness via changes in the organic layer, pH and soil moisture characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Cammeraat, E.

    2010-01-01

    1.  Litter quality is an important ecosystem factor, which may affect undergrowth species richness via decomposition and organic layers directly, but also via longer-term changes in soil pH and moisture. The impact of beech trees with low-degradable and hornbeam trees with high-degradable litter on

  7. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    in Poland, diversity led to higher topsoil pH. However, there was a negative effect on N status as indicated by the higher C/N ratios in the deeper soil layers (20-40 cm). Further investigations are needed to unravel whether the increasing effect on soil C/N ratio results from more N-poor organic matter...... supply (C/N ratio and pH). The studies were carried out in (1) forest floor and mineral soil to 20 cm depth across six different sites of major European forest types based on samples from one to five tree species mixtures along a latitudinal gradient from Spain to Finland, (2) soil profiles down to 40 cm......, particularly in topsoil layers. Diversity did not affect fine root characteristics of the young forests and effects on soil properties were different under the investigated contexts. Across the different European sites, diversity had no effect on C/N ratio and pH but under comparable environmental conditions...

  8. Soil pH Dynamics and Nitrogen Transformations Under Long-Term Chemical Fertilization in Four Typical Chinese Croplands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hong-qi; XU Ming-gang; L Jia-long; HE Xin-hua; LI Jian-wei; SHI Xiao-jun; PENG Chang; WANG Bo-ren; ZHANG Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    Long-term fertilization experiment provides the platform for understanding the proton budgets in nitrogen transformations of agricultural ecosystems. We analyzed the historical (1990-2005) observations on four agricultural long-term experiments in China (Changping, Chongqing, Gongzhuling and Qiyang) under four different fertilizations, i.e., no-fertilizer (control), sole chemical nitrogen fertilizer (FN), sole chemical phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FPK) and chemical nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FNPK). The significant decline in topsoil pH was caused not only by chemical N fertilization (0.29 and 0.89∆pH at Gongzhuling and Qiyang, respectively) but also by chemical PK fertilization (0.59∆pH at Gongzhuling). The enhancement of available nutrients in the topsoil due to long-term direct nutrients supply with chemical fertilizers was in the descending order of available P (168-599%)>available K (16-189%)>available N (9-33%). The relative rate of soil pH decline was lower under long-term judicious chemical fertilization (-0.036-0.034 ∆pH yr-1) than that under long-term sole N or PK fertilization (0.016-0.086 ∆pH yr-1). Long-term judicious chemical fertilization with N, P and K elements decreases the nutritional limitation to normal crop growth, under which more N output was distributed in biomass removal rather than the loss via nitrate leaching. We concluded that the N distribution percentage of nitrate leaching to biomass removal might be a suitable indicator to the sensitivity of agricultural ecosystems to acid inputs.

  9. Effect of soil fungi communities on the growth of damping-off pathogens in relation to incubation temperature and medium pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kacprzak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four communities of saprotrophic fungi from a forest nursery soil were tested for their effect on the in vitro growth of damping-off pathogens: Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. oxysporum and F. solani in relation to incubation temperature (5, 10, 15, 20 or 25°C and medium pH (4.3; 5.6 or 7.5. The soil fungi communities weakly suppressed the growth of pathogens studied only at the lower temperatures (5 or 10°C. At the higher temperatures the communities tested supported the growth of all pathogens. The supporting effct was increasing with the increase of temperature, independently of pH. The effect was highly dependent on incubation temperature and not dependent on medium pH (P

  10. Remediation of arsenic contaminated soil by coupling oxalate washing with subsequent ZVI/Air treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Menghua; Ye, Yuanyao; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2016-02-01

    The application of a novel coupled process with oxalate washing and subsequent zero-valent iron (ZVI)/Air treatment for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil was investigated in the present study. Oxalate is biodegradable and widely present in the environment. With addition of 0.1 mol L(-1) oxalate under circumneutral condition, 83.7% and 52.6% of arsenic could be removed from a spiked kaolin and an actual contaminated soil respectively. Much more oxalate adsorption on the actual soil was attributed to the higher soil organic matter and clay content. Interestingly, oxalate retained in the washing effluent could act as an organic ligand to promote the oxidation efficiency of ZVI/Air at near neutral pH. Compared with the absence of oxalate, much more As(III) was oxidized. Arsenic was effectively adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides as the consumption of oxalate and the increase of pH value. For the actual soil washing effluent, about 94.9% of total arsenic was removed after 120 min's treatment without pH adjustment. It has been demonstrated that As(V) was the dominant arsenic speciation adsorbed on iron (hydr)oxides. This study provides a promising alternative for remediation of arsenic contaminated soil in view of its low cost and environmental benign.

  11. Influence of Ca and pH on the uptake and effects of Cd in Folsomia candida exposed to simplified soil solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; Ortiz, Maria Diez; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-08-01

    The present study sought to quantify the components of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for the effects of Cd on Folsomia candida (Collembola). Assuming that soil porewater is the main route of exposure and to exclude the effects of soil particles on metal availability, animals were exposed for 7 d to different Cd concentrations between 0.1 mM and 100 mM in simplified soil solutions at different Ca concentrations (0.2 mM, 0.8 mM, 3.2 mM, and 12.8 mM) or at different pH (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0). Higher Ca concentrations decreased the toxicity of Cd (adult survival) in test solutions, whereas toxicity was slightly lower at pH 7 and 6 than at pH 5, suggesting a mitigating effect of Ca and to a lesser extent pH on Cd toxicity to F. candida. Internal Cd concentrations in the animals increased with increasing exposure level but were significantly reduced by increasing Ca concentrations and were not significantly affected by pH. By using Langmuir isotherms, binding constants for Cd, Ca, and protons and the fraction of binding sites occupied by Cd were calculated and used to predict effects of Cd on survival. Predicted toxicity showed a good agreement with measured responses when Ca and pH were used as separate factors or combined together. The present study shows indications of protective effects of Ca but less of protons on the toxicity and uptake of Cd in F. candida on exposure to simplified soil solutions, which can be described using the principles of a biotic ligand model.

  12. Insights into the effect of soil pH on N(2)O and N(2) emissions and denitrifier community size and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, Jirí; Simek, Miloslav; Laughlin, Ronnie J; Bru, David; Chèneby, Dominique; Watson, Catherine J; Philippot, Laurent

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how changes in soil pH affect the N(2)O and N(2) emissions, denitrification activity, and size of a denitrifier community. We established a field experiment, situated in a grassland area, which consisted of three treatments which were repeatedly amended with a KOH solution (alkaline soil), an H(2)SO(4) solution (acidic soil), or water (natural pH soil) over 10 months. At the site, we determined field N(2)O and N(2) emissions using the (15)N gas flux method and collected soil samples for the measurement of potential denitrification activity and quantification of the size of the denitrifying community by quantitative PCR of the narG, napA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ denitrification genes. Overall, our results indicate that soil pH is of importance in determining the nature of denitrification end products. Thus, we found that the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio increased with decreasing pH due to changes in the total denitrification activity, while no changes in N(2)O production were observed. Denitrification activity and N(2)O emissions measured under laboratory conditions were correlated with N fluxes in situ and therefore reflected treatment differences in the field. The size of the denitrifying community was uncoupled from in situ N fluxes, but potential denitrification was correlated with the count of NirS denitrifiers. Significant relationships were observed between nirS, napA, and narG gene copy numbers and the N(2)O/(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio, which are difficult to explain. However, this highlights the need for further studies combining analysis of denitrifier ecology and quantification of denitrification end products for a comprehensive understanding of the regulation of N fluxes by denitrification.

  13. Interactive effects of MnO2, organic matter and pH on abiotic formation of N2O from hydroxylamine in artificial soil mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shurong; Berns, Anne E.; Vereecken, Harry; Wu, Di; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Abiotic conversion of the reactive nitrification intermediate hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to nitrous oxide (N2O) is a possible mechanism of N2O formation during nitrification. Previous research has demonstrated that manganese dioxide (MnO2) and organic matter (OM) content of soil as well as soil pH are important control variables of N2O formation in the soil. But until now, their combined effect on abiotic N2O formation from NH2OH has not been quantified. Here, we present results from a full-factorial experiment with artificial soil mixtures at five different levels of pH, MnO2 and OM, respectively, and quantified the interactive effects of the three variables on the NH2OH-to-N2O conversion ratio (RNH2OH-to-N2O). Furthermore, the effect of OM quality on RNH2OH-to-N2O was determined by the addition of four different organic materials with different C/N ratios to the artificial soil mixtures. The experiments revealed a strong interactive effect of soil pH, MnO2 and OM on RNH2OH-to-N2O. In general, increasing MnO2 and decreasing pH increased RNH2OH-to-N2O, while increasing OM content was associated with a decrease in RNH2OH-to-N2O. Organic matter quality also affected RNH2OH-to-N2O. However, this effect was not a function of C/N ratio, but was rather related to differences in the dominating functional groups between the different organic materials.

  14. Nickel adsorption in two Oxisols and an Alfisol as affected by pH, nature of the electrolyte, and ionic strength of soil solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cindy Silva [Univ. de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (BR). Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA); Casagrande, Jose Carlos [Univ. Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Araras, SP (BR). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias (CCA); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo [Univ. de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (BR). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ); Camargo, Otavio Antonio de; Berton, Ronaldo Severiano [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Solos e Recursos Ambientais

    2008-12-15

    Background, aim, and scope: The retention of potentially toxic metals in highly weathered soils can follow different pathways that variably affect their mobility and availability in the soil-water-plant system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pH, nature of electrolyte, and ionic strength of the solution on nickel (Ni) adsorption by two acric Oxisols and a less weathered Alfisol. Materials and methods: The effect of pH on Ni adsorption was evaluated in surface and subsurface samples from a clayey textured Anionic 'Rhodic' Acrudox (RA), a sandy-clayey textured Anionic 'Xantic' Acrudox (XA), and a heavy clayey textured Rhodic Kandiudalf (RK). All soil samples were equilibrated with the same concentration of Ni solution (5.0 mg L{sup -1}) and two electrolyte solutions (CaCl{sub 2} or NaCl) with different ionic strengths (IS) (1.0, 0.1 and 0.01 mol {sup L-1}). The pH of each sample set varied from 3 to 10 in order to obtain sorption envelopes. Results and discussion: Ni adsorption increased as the pH increased, reaching its maximum of nearly pH 6. The adsorption was highest in Alfisol, followed by RA and XA. Competition between Ni{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} was higher than that between Ni{sup 2+} and Na{sup +} in all soil samples, as shown by the higher percentage of Ni adsorption at pH 5. At pH values below the intersection point of the three ionic strength curves (zero point of salt effect), Ni adsorption was generally higher in the more concentrated solution (highest IS), probably due to the neutralization of positive charges of soil colloids by Cl{sup -} ions and consequent adsorption of Ni{sup 2+}. Above this point, Ni adsorption was higher in the more diluted solution (lowest ionic strength), due to the higher negative potential at the colloid surfaces and the lower ionic competition for exchange sites in soil colloids. Conclusions: The effect of ionic strength was lower in the Oxisols than in the Alfisol. The main mechanism that

  15. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of Fe oxide may be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of soil pH and organic matter on the chemical bioavailability of vanadium species: The underlying basis for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Inka; Metzler, Martina; Hartikainen, Helinä

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to unravel the chemical reactions and processes dictating the potential bioavailability of vanadium (V). In environmental solutions V exists in two stable oxidation states, +IV and +V, of which + V is considered to be more toxic. In this study, the effect of speciation and soil pH on the chemical accessibility of V was investigated with two soils: 1) field soil rather rich in soil organic matter (SOM) and 2) coarse mineral soil low in SOM. Fresh soil samples treated with V(+V) (added as NaVO3) or V(+IV) (added as VOSO4) (pH adjusted to the range 4.0-6.9) were incubated for 3 months at 22 °C. The adsorption tendency of V species was explored by water extraction (Milli-Q water, 1:50 dw/V) and by sequential extraction (0.25 M KCl; 0.1 M KH2/K2HPO4; 0.1 M NaOH; 0.25 M H2SO4, 1:10 dw/V). The potential bioavailability of V was found to be dictated by soil properties. SOM reduced V(+V) to V(+IV) and acted as a sorbent for both species, which lowered the bioaccessibility of V. A high pH, in turn, favored the predominance of the V(+V) species and thus increased the chemical accessibility of V.

  17. A model to explain high values of pH in an alkali sodic soil Modelo para explicar valores elevados de pH em um solo sódico alcalino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Alves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available For alkali sodic soils (pH>8.5, the "hydrolysis of exchangeable sodium" has been used as a possible explanation for the alkalinity production and rise in pH of these soils. As an alternative to this hypothesis, a model was developed to simulate and to explain that the alkalinity production and rise in pH is possible in a soil that accumulates alkaline sodium salts and CaCO3. Several simulations were performed by using different combinations of CO2 partial pressures (P, presence or absence of MgCO3, along with experimental values of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and ion concentrations in saturation extracts from an alkali sodic soil (named Pantanal. A hypothetical system with similar conditions to the Pantanal soil but with a Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was also considered. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and predicted values for pH and ion concentrations in the soil solution when the model (without MgCO3 was applied to the Pantanal soil. However, KG values calculated for the Pantanal soil were generally higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2. Moreover, high pH values and elevated ionic strength were obtained when a KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was used at high ESP (similar to those found in the Pantanal soil. KG values obtained for the Pantanal soil and the results obtained in the simulation of the hypothetical system are suggesting that a value higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 should be used to adequately simulate the behavior of the Pantanal soil at low ionic strength and high ESP values.Em solos alcalino sódicos (pH>8,5, a "hidrólise de sódio trocável" tem sido usada como uma possível explicação para a produção de álcali e elevação do pH nestes solos. Como uma alternativa a essa hipótese, um modelo foi desenvolvido para simular e explicar que a produção de álcali e elevação do pH é possível num solo que acumula sais alcalinos de sódio e CaCO3. Várias simulações foram

  18. Soil pH effects on the comparative toxicity of dissolved zinc, non-nano and nano ZnO to the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Laura R; Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lofts, Stephen; Lahive, Elma; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Wojnarowicz, Jacek; Cedergreen, Nina; Spurgeon, David; Svendsen, Claus

    2014-08-01

    To determine how soil properties influence nanoparticle (NP) fate, bioavailability and toxicity, this study compared the toxicity of nano zinc oxide (ZnO NPs), non-nano ZnO and ionic ZnCl2 to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in a natural soil at three pH levels. NP characterisation indicated that reaction with the soil media greatly controls ZnO properties. Three main conclusions were drawn. First that Zn toxicity, especially for reproduction, was influenced by pH for all Zn forms. This can be linked to the influence of pH on Zn dissolution. Secondly, that ZnO fate, toxicity and bioaccumulation were similar (including relationships with pH) for both ZnO forms, indicating the absence of NP-specific effects. Finally, earthworm Zn concentrations were higher in worms exposed to ZnO compared to ZnCl2, despite the greater toxicity of the ionic form. This observation suggests the importance of considering the relationship between uptake and toxicity in nanotoxicology studies.

  19. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Száková, Jiřina; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Hejcman, Michal; Müllerová, Vladimíra; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8) and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism. We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs. Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid acid) in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions. In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  20. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  1. Ecophysiological mechanisms characterising fen and bog species: focus on variations in nitrogen uptake traits under different soil-water pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takatoshi; Nakamura, Motoka

    2012-04-01

    Although the productivity and nitrogen (N)-use traits of mire plants differ dramatically between fens and bogs, soil N richness does not necessarily differ, whereas the soil-water pH is distinctly lower in bogs than in fens. The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying these relations are unclear. To assess the relative availability of N forms in relation to soil-water pH, we focused on the net N uptake rate per unit root weight (NNUR), glutamine synthetase activity and nitrate reductase activity, and performed reciprocal transplant experiments with the seedlings of fen (Carex lyngbyei) and bog (C. middendorffii) sedge species in intact habitat sites. The soil-water pH was clearly lower at the bog site, but the NH(4) (+), NO(3) (-) or dissolved organic-N concentrations did not differ between the fen and bog sites. The activity of both enzymes for inorganic-N assimilation did not differ among the sites and species. However, the fen species grown at bog sites showed a drastic decrease in the NNUR, suggesting a suppression of organic-N uptake. The bog species showed no NNUR difference between the sites. These results indicate that inorganic-N availability does not differ between the two habitats, but organic-N availability is lowered in a low-pH bog, particularly in the case of fen species. Therefore, the relative availability of N forms shows species-specific variations that depend on the differences in the soil-water pH of root zone, even at similar N richness, which would play a key role in plant distribution strategies in relation to the fen-bog gradient.

  2. Relationship Between pH and Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Thermal-Sprayed Ni-Al-Coated Q235 Steel in Simulated Soil Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Xin-qiang; Ke, Wei; Xu, Song; Feng, Bing; Hu, Bo-tao

    2017-09-01

    Electrochemical corrosion behavior of a thermal-sprayed Ni-Al-coated Q235 steel was investigated in the simulated soil solutions at different pH values using measurements of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as well as surface analyses including x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the Ni-Al-coated Q235 steel was dependent on the pH of the test solution. From pH = 3.53 to pH = 4.79, the corrosion resistance of the coated steel increased rapidly. In the pH range from 4.79 to 12.26, the corrosion resistance exhibited no significant change. At pH 13.25, the corrosion resistance of the sample was found to decrease. The calculated corrosion rate of Ni-Al-coated Q235 steel was lower than that of the uncoated Q235 steel and galvanized steel in all the test solutions. Over a wide range of pH values, the Ni-Al-coated Q235 steel exhibited extremely good corrosion resistance. The experimental data together with the potential-pH diagrams provided a basis for a detailed discussion of the related corrosion mechanisms of the coated steel.

  3. Functional significance of tree species diversity and species identity on soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in major European forest types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawud, Seid Muhie

    supply (C/N ratio and pH). The studies were carried out in (1) forest floor and mineral soil to 20 cm depth across six different sites of major European forest types based on samples from one to five tree species mixtures along a latitudinal gradient from Spain to Finland, (2) soil profiles down to 40 cm...... in Poland, diversity led to higher topsoil pH. However, there was a negative effect on N status as indicated by the higher C/N ratios in the deeper soil layers (20-40 cm). Further investigations are needed to unravel whether the increasing effect on soil C/N ratio results from more N-poor organic matter...... inputs or a more efficient uptake of N from the organic matter in diverse stands. Diversity positively influenced C stock particularly in mineral soils as concurrently observed across the six different sites, under the comparable environmental conditions and in two species mixtures as represented...

  4. Flooding-induced N2O emission bursts controlled by pH and nitrate in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Clough, Tim J.; Elberling, Bo

    2014-01-01

    shows that non-steady state peak N2O emission events during flooding might potentially be at least in the order of reported annual mean N2O emissions, which typically do not include flood induced N2O emissions, and that more than one-third of the produced N2O in the soil is not emitted but consumed...... in narrow redox windows where the redox range levels are negatively correlated with the pH. This study highlights the potential importance of N2O bursts associated with flooding and infers that annual N2O emission estimates for tilled agricultural soils that are temporarily flooded will be underestimated...

  5. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  6. Influence of In Vitro Assay pH and Extractant Composition on As Bioaccessibility in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro bioaccessibility assays are often utilised to determine the potential human exposure to soil contaminants through soil ingestion. Comparative studies have identified inconsistencies in the results obtained with different in vitro assays. In this study we investigated the...

  7. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Daniel S.; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied......Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade...... and fate and interactions of nanoparticles with soil microbial communities....

  8. Chemical equilibria model of strontium-90 adsorption and transport in soil in response to dynamic alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, B P; Spalding, I R

    2001-01-15

    Strontium-90 is a major hazardous contaminant of radioactive wastewater and its processing sludges at many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. In the past, such contaminated wastewater and sludge have been disposed in soil seepage pits, lagoons, or cribs often under highly perturbed alkaline conditions (pH > 12) where 90Sr solubility is low and its adsorption to surrounding soil is high. As natural weathering returns these soils to near-neutral or slightly acidic conditions, the adsorbed and precipitated calcium and magnesium phases, in which 90Sr is carried, change significantly in both nature and amounts. No comprehensive computational method has been formulated previously to quantitatively simulate the dynamics of 90Sr in the soil-groundwater environment under such dynamic and wide-ranging conditions. A computational code, the Hydrologic Utility Model for Demonstrating Integrated Nuclear Geochemical Environmental Responses (HUMDINGER), was composed to describe the changing equilibria of 90Sr in soil based on its causative chemical reactions including soil buffering, pH-dependent cation-exchange capacity, cation selectivity, and the precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, and magnesium hydroxide in response to leaching groundwater characteristics including pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved cations, and inorganic carbonate species. The code includes a simulation of one-dimensional transport of 90Sr through a soil column as a series of soil mixing cells where the equilibrium soluble output from one cell is applied to the next cell. Unamended soil leaching and highly alkaline soil treatments, including potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, and sodium aluminate, were simulated and compared with experimental findings using large (10 kg) soil columns that were leached with 90Sr-contaminated groundwater after treatment. HUMDINGER's simulations were in good agreement with dynamic experimental observations of soil exchange capacity

  9. Cadmium biosorption by free and immobilised microorganisms cultivated in a liquid soil extract medium: effects of Cd, pH and techniques of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, T; Bagot, D; Jézéquel, K; Fabre, B

    2002-05-27

    Instead of soil clean-up, a process not very technically and economically suited to agricultural soil contaminated by heavy metals (with a low concentration of heavy metals but highly or potentially highly contaminated surfaces), the control of the transfer of cadmium from the soil to the crops may well be a convenient method. We tested the bacterium ZAN-044, the actinomycete R27 and a basidiomycete Fomitopsis pinicola isolated for their ability to biosorb Cd, in order to inoculate agricultural soils afterwards. We then compared the cadmium biosorption by viable microbial cells which were free or immobilised in alginate beads and incubated in a soil extract liquid medium at various pH values (5, 6 and 7) and cadmium concentrations (1 and 10 mg/l). The Cd concentration in the medium had the most important effect on the percentage of Cd biosorbed by the microorganisms, but the culture mode (free or immobilised cells) was not a side effect. In the case of F. pinicola and the actinomycete R27, the percentage of Cd biosorbed by free cells did not decrease when the Cd concentration in the medium increased (6-42% at the lowest Cd concentration to 11-48% at 10 mg Cd/l). On the other hand, with a low Cd concentration (1 mg Cd/l), the percentage of Cd biosorbed by the bacterium ZAN-044 was maximum (69%) at pH 7, while this bacterium did not grow at 10 mg Cd/l and it did not accumulate Cd. For the three micro-organisms tested, relatively low specific biosorptions of Cd were observed, when the microorganisms were cultivated with a soil extract medium ('poor' medium), comparatively to those with a 'rich' medium. Finally, the choice of microorganism for the inoculation of contaminated soils depends on the cadmium level in the medium and on the distribution of the metal between the biomass and the medium.

  10. The gamma dose assessment and pH correlation for various soil types at Batu Pahat and Kluang districts, Johor, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Saffuwan Mohamed, E-mail: saffuwan@uthm.edu.my [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia); Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad [Research Center for Soft Soil (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    An assessment of absorbed dose and radiation hazard index as well as its relationship with soil pH was performed in this study. The area was chosen due to its variety of soil types from the Alluvial and the Sedentary group. The radioactivity concentration levels and the soil acidity were measured using the Canberra GC3518 high pure germanium with a relative efficiency of 35% at 1.3 MeV and the Takemura Soil pH and Moisture Tester (DM15), respectively. Overall results show the Holyrood-Lunas soil of Alluvial group recorded the highest external terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate (TGRD) of 286.4±37.9 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 78.1±8.9 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 410.5±55.4 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 56.4±8.8 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively, while the Peat soil of Alluvial group recorded the lowest TGRD of 4.4±2.7 nGy h{sup −1} and radioactivity concentrations of 4.8±1.7 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 226}Ra), 3.1±1.1 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 232}Th) and 6.1±2.0 Bq kg{sup −1} ({sup 40}K), respectively. The estimated mean outdoor annual effective dose, the mean radium equivalent activity (R{sub eq}) and the mean external (H{sub ext}) and internal hazard index (H{sub int}) associated with the alluvial and sedentary soil group were evaluated at 0.15 and 0.20 mSv, 280 and 364 Bq kg{sup −1}, H{sub ext} = 0.78 and 1.01, and H{sub int} = 0.93 and 1.26, respectively. Correlation analysis between 238U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K with soil pH level for alluvial group was r = +0.68, +0.48 and 0, respectively, while for sedentary soil, the Pearson’s, r = −0.30, −0.90 and +0.14, respectively.

  11. Copper release kinetics from a long-term contaminated acid soil using a stirred flow chamber: effect of ionic strength and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Garrido-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Peña Rodríguez, Susana; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    The effect of pH and ionic strength on copper release in a long-term Cu-polluted soil was studied using a stirred flow chamber. The presence of Ca(2+) and Na(+) was also evaluated. More copper was released as the ionic strength increased, and it was significantly higher in the presence of Ca(2+) than in the presence of Na(+). The maximum amount of Cu that could be released under experimental conditions increased logarithmically as the ionic strength increased, and the release rate parameters were not significantly correlated with ionic strength values. The maximum amount of Cu that could be released was similar for solutions with pH values between 5.5 and 8.5. For solutions with a pH value below 4.5, the amount of Cu released increased exponentially as the pH decreased. The release rate parameters and Cu release pattern were affected by pH, especially for more acidic solutions (pH values of 2.5 and 3.5).

  12. The influence of long-term copper contaminated agricultural soil at different pH levels on microbial communities and springtail transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Taş, Neslihan; Braster, Martin; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Röling, Wilfred F M; Roelofs, Dick

    2012-01-03

    Copper has long been applied for agricultural practises. Like other metals, copper is highly persistent in the environment and biologically active long after its use has ceased. Here we present a unique study on the long-term effects (27 years) of copper and pH on soil microbial communities and on the springtail Folsomia candida an important representative of the soil macrofauna, in an experiment with a full factorial, random block design. Bacterial communities were mostly affected by pH. These effects were prominent in Acidobacteria, while Actinobacteria and Gammaroteobacteria communities were affected by original and bioavailable copper. Reproduction and survival of the collembolan F. candida was not affected by the studied copper concentrations. However, the transcriptomic responses to copper reflected a mechanism of copper transport and detoxification, while pH exerted effects on nucleotide and protein metabolism and (acute) inflammatory response. We conclude that microbial community structure reflected the history of copper contamination, while gene expression analysis of F. candida is associated with the current level of bioavailable copper. The study is a first step in the development of a molecular strategy aiming at a more comprehensive assessment of various aspects of soil quality and ecotoxicology.

  13. Imaging pH and oxygen at the soil-root interface by planar optodes: a challenging technology to study dynamic rhizosphere processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudin, Gabrielle; Oburger, Eva; Schmidt, Hannes; Borisov, Sergey; Pradier, Céline; Jourdan, Christophe; Marsden, Claire; Obermaier, Daniela; Woebken, Dagmar; Richter, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Hinsinger, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Roots do not only take up water and nutrients from surrounding soil but they also release a wide range of exudates, such as low molecular weight organic compounds, CO2 or protons. Root-soil interactions trigger heterogeneous rhizosphere processes based on differences in root activity along the root axis and with distance from the root surface. Elucidating their temporal and spatial dynamics is of crucial importance for a better understanding of these interrelated biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Therefore, monitoring key parameters at a fine scale and in a non-invasive way at the root-soil interface is essential. Planar optodes are an emerging technology that allows in situ and non-destructive imaging of mainly pH, CO2 and O2. Originated in limnology, planar optodes have recently been applied to soil-root systems in laboratory conditions. This presentation will highlight advantages and challenges of using planar optodes to image pH and O2 dynamics in the rhizosphere, focusing on two RGB (red-green-blue) approaches: a commercially available system (PreSens) and a custom-made one. Important insights into robustness, accuracy, potentials and limitations of the two systems applied to different laboratory/greenhouse-based experimental conditions (flooded and aerobic rhizobox systems, plant species) will be addressed. Furthermore, challenges of optode measurements in the field, including a first case study with Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil, will be discussed.

  14. Short-column anion-exchange chromatography for soil and peat humic substances profiling by step-wise gradient of high pH aqueous sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutta, Milan; Ráczová, Janka; Góra, Róbert; Pessl, Juraj

    2015-08-21

    Novel anion-exchange liquid chromatographic method with step gradient of aqueous EDTA(4-) based mobile phase elution has been developed to profile available Slovak soil humic substances and alkaline extracts of various soils. The method utilize short glass column (30mm×3mm) filled in with hydrolytically stable particles (60μm diameter) Separon HEMA-BIO 1000 having (diethylamino)ethyl functional groups. Step gradient was programmed by mixing mobile phase composed of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0; 5mmolL(-1)) and mobile phase constituted of aqueous solution of sodium EDTA (pH 12.0, 500mmolL(-1)). The FLD of HSs was set to excitation wavelength 480nm and emission wavelength 530nm (λem). Separation mechanism was studied by use of selected aromatic acids related to humic acids with the aid of UV spectrophotometric detection at 280nm. The proposed method benefits from high ionic strength (I=5molL(-1)) of the end mobile phase buffer and provides high recovery of humic acids (98%). Accurate and reproducible profiling of studied humic substances, alkaline extracts of various types of soils enables straightforward characterization and differentiation of HSs in arable and forest soils. Selected model aromatic acids were used for separation mechanism elucidation.

  15. [Effects of different organic matter mulching on water content, temperature, and available nutrients of apple orchard soil in a cold region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang-Tao; Lü, De-Guo; Qin, Si-Jun

    2014-09-01

    The effects of different organic matter covers on soil physical-chemical properties were investigated in a 'Hanfu' apple orchard located in a cold region. Four treatments were applied (weed mulching, rice straw mulching, corn straw mulching, and crushed branches mulching), and physical-chemical properties, including orchard soil moisture and nutrient contents, were compared among treatment groups and between organic matter-treated and untreated plots. The results showed that soil water content increased in the plots treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the arid season. Cover with organic matter mulch slowed the rate of soil temperature increase in spring, which was harmful to the early growth of fruit trees. Organic matter mulching treatments decreased the peak temperature of orchard soil in the summer and increased the minimum soil temperature in the fall. pH was increased in soils treated with organic matter mulching, especially in the corn straw mulching treatment, which occurred as a response to alleviating soil acidification to achieve near-neutral soil conditions. The soil organic matter increased to varying extents among treatment groups, with the highest increase observed in the weed mulching treatment. Overall, mulching increased alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the soil, but the alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the rice straw mulching treatment was lower than that of the control.

  16. The detrimental influence of bacteria (E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella) on the degradation of organic compounds (and vice versa) in TiO2 photocatalysis and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes under simulated solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo-Lasso, Alejandro; Mora-Arismendi, Luis Enrique; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés; Sanabria, Janeth; Benítez, Norberto; Pulgarin, César

    2012-05-01

    TiO2 photocatalytic and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes were tested under simulated solar light to degrade two models of natural organic matter - resorcinol (R) (which should interact strongly with TiO2 surfaces) and hydroquinone (H) - separately or in the presence of bacteria. Under similar oxidative conditions, inactivation of Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhimurium was carried out in the absence and in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) of R and H. The 100% abatement of R and H by using a TiO2 photocatalytic process in the absence of bacteria was observed in 90 min for R and in 120 min for H, while in the presence of microorganisms abatement was only of 55% and 35% for R and H, respectively. Photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5.0 completely removed R and H in 40 min, whereas in the presence of microorganisms their degradation was of 60% to 80%. On the other hand, 2 h of TiO2 photocatalytic process inactivated S. typhimurium and E. coli cells in three and six orders of magnitude, respectively, while S. sonnei was completely inactivated in 10 min. In the presence of R or H, the bacterial inactivation via TiO2 photocatalysis was significantly decreased. With photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5 all the microorganisms tested were completely inactivated in 40 min of simulated solar light irradiation in the absence of organics. When R and H were present, bacterial photo-Fenton inactivation was less affected. The obtained results suggest that in both TiO2 and iron photo-assisted processes, there is competition between organic substances and bacteria simultaneously present for generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This competition is most important in heterogeneous systems, mainly when there are strong organic-TiO2 surface interactions, as in the resorcinol case, suggesting that bacteria-TiO2 interactions could play a key role in photocatalytic cell inactivation processes.

  17. Effects of Environment-friendly Bast Fiber Film Degradation on Soil Ph%土壤pH对环保型麻地膜降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建龙; 王朝云; 易永健; 汪洪鹰; 聂兆君

    2009-01-01

    为了探明麻地膜降解性能与土壤pH和土壤微生物的相关性,利用生石灰调节土壤pH,将土壤pH调节为弱酸性、中性、弱碱性3个不同的水平,将麻地膜埋入3种不同的土壤中,定期测定其失重率及其周围土壤微生物种类和数量的变化.结果表明,麻地膜在3种不同pH条件下的降解速率表现为:弱碱性>中性>弱碱性.在土壤微生物方面,碱性土壤中土壤微生物的总量最多,中性土壤中居中,酸性土壤中越少,对比3种微生物的变化,在碱性土壤中放线菌的数量有显著性增加.碱性土壤有利于麻地膜的降解,由于在碱性土壤中放线菌的数量最多,且麻地膜的降解性能与土壤放线菌的数量呈显著正相关.%environment-friendly bast fiber film is buried in the ground floor of different soil pH value to study degradation and changes in the type and quantity of micro-organisms, to explore environment-friendly bast fiber film degradation relevance between micro-organisms and soil pH value. There are three types of soil, for example, weak acid soil, neutral soil, weak alkaline, in which film is buried. It is to determinate of weight loss and changes of quantity of micro-organisms around. The result shows that environment-friendly bast fiber film degradation in three different soil conditions performances at three different speeds, as follows weak alkaline soil>neutral soil>weak acid. In alkaline soil, the total quantity of micro-organisms is more than neutral and acidic soil, and in acidic soil atleast. Comparison of three micro-organisms, in the alkaline soil the number of actinomycetes has increased significandy. Alkaline soil is conducive to the degradation of film, because in alkaline soil has the most quantity of actinomycetes. There is a significant positive correlation between the degradation of environment-friendly bast fiber film and the quantity of actinomyces.

  18. Investigation on Soil pH Value in Tobacco Field in Zhuxi County%竹溪县烟田土壤酸碱度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨继龙; 刘阳; 王远林; 王官明; 张良培; 张晓亮; 张凯

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To study the status of soil pH value of tobacco field in Zhuxi city, and to put forward the improving measures.[ Meth-od] The soil pH values of 817 fields belonging to 587 tobacco families of 38 villages in 5 towns were measured.[ Result] The county average soil pH value was 6.30, the maximum value was 8.5, the minimum value was 5.0.The pH values of 579 samples were all lower than 6.5, which accounted for 70.9% and indicated that the most of the tested soil samples were the weak acid.Soil pH values of 736 samples were be-tween 5.0 to 7.0, which was suitable for the tobacco growth, and accounted for more than 90.09%.[Conclusion] The soil pH value of to-bacco fields is mainly weak acidity in Zhuxi County.There is acidification phenomenon in soil at present, but it is not serious.Zhuxi County is still the suitable production area for high-quality flue-cured tobacco by carrying out the sustained increase of organic fertilizer, planting green manure, crop rotation, replacing potassium sulfate by potassium nitrate.%[目的]调查竹溪县烟叶种植田间土壤酸碱度的现状,提出相应的改良措施。[方法]对全县5个乡镇38个行政村583户烟农的817个田块进行检测。[结果]全县土壤pH平均值为6.30,最大值为8.5,最小值为5.0,pH在6.5以下的样本数579个,占比70.9%,整体呈弱酸性。适宜烤烟生长的土壤样本(pH 5.5~7.0)有736个,占比90.09%。[结论]竹溪县烟田土壤以弱酸性(pH 5.5~6.5)为主。当前土壤酸化现象并不严重,通过持续开展增施有机肥、种植绿肥、轮作、硝酸钾替代硫酸钾等改良措施,竹溪县仍为适宜生产优质烤烟的区域。

  19. Effect of pH on transport of Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ through lateritic soil: Column experiments and transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srilert Chotpantarat; Say Kee Ong; Chakkaphan Sutthirat; Khemarath Osathaphan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of pH on the transport of Pb2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ through lateritic soil columns.Model results by fitting the symmetric breakthrough curves (BTCs) of bromide (Br-) with CXTFIT model suggested that physical non-equilibrium processes were absent in the columns.The heavy metal BTCs were, however, asymmetrical and exhibited a tailing phenomenon,indicating the presence of chemical non-equilibrium processes in the columns.The retardation factors of Pb2+ were the largest of the four metal ions at both pH 4.0 (33.3) and pH 5.0 (35.4).The use of Langmuir isotherm parameters from batch studies with HYDRUS-1D did not predict the BTCs well.Rather the two-site model (TSM) described the heavy metal BTCs better than the equilibrium linear/nonlinear Langmuir model.The fraction of instantaneous sorption sites (f) of all four metal ions on the lateritic soil was consistently about 30%-44% of the total sorption sites.

  20. Using community trait-distributions to assign microbial responses to pH changes and Cd in forest soils treated with wood ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Wallander, Håkan; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    H and Cd, and (iii) consequences for proxies of the function soil organic matter (SOM) turnover including respiration and microbial growth rates. Two sets of field-experiments in temperate conifer forest plantations were combined with laboratory microcosm experiments where wood ash additions were compared...... to additions of lime and Cd. Wood ash induced structural changes in the microbial community in both field experiments, and striking similarities were observed between the application of ash and that of lime in the microcosm experiments. Wood ash increased pH, and led to a shift toward faster SOM decomposition...

  1. 酸碱度值对土体液、塑限的影响%EFFECTS OF PH VALUE ON LIQUID LIMIT AND PLASTIC LIMIT OF SOIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师林; 朱大勇; 陈龙飞

    2011-01-01

    By using the method of soaking in laboratory,the change laws between the liquid limit,plastic limit and plasticity index of the polluted soil and the pH value were studied.The values of the liquid limit and plastic limit of the soil samples were measured before and after soaking in the hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution with respective pH value.Then,the change laws indicate that,with the pH value increasing,the liquid limit and the plasticity index increase while the plastic limit presents that both ends are big and the middle is small;when fixing the pH value,the liquid limit is increasing proportional to the time of soaking,while the plastic limit is diminishing.Finally,the reasons causing these change laws were analyzed.%采用室内浸泡方法,研究污染土的液、塑限以及塑性指数随酸碱度值的变化规律。用不同酸碱度值的盐酸和氢氧化钠溶液浸泡土样,测定浸泡前、后土样的液、塑限值,总结其变化规律。试验表明:随着酸碱度值的增大,液限和塑性指数逐渐增大而塑限呈现两端大中间小;在酸碱度值一定的情况下,随着浸泡时间的增长,土样有液限值逐渐减小、塑限值逐渐增大的趋势。最后,对上述变化的原因进行分析。

  2. Effecf of pH and some cations on activity of acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. isolated from acid sulphate soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairatana Nilnond

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. is able to hydrolyze organic phosphorus. These soil yeast microorganisms were isolated from rice roots grown in acid sulphate soil that generally contains highamount of aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn ions. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pH and some cations on acid phosphatase activity. Two isolates of Ustilago sp., AR101and AR102, were cultured in 100 mL of modified Pikovskaya's broth containing Na-phytate, pH 4, and acid phosphatase activity was determined at pH 2.0-7.0. Effect of Al, Fe, and Mn, including calcium (Ca ions,on growth of AR101 and AR102, secreted acid phosphatase activity, and the ability of acid phosphatase on the phosphorus release from Na-phytate by Ustilago sp. were investigated. It was found that the optimum pH for acid phosphatase activity was 3.5-4.5. The activity of acid phosphatase secreted from AR101 (3,690nmol min-1 mL-1 was remarkably higher than that from AR102 (956 nmol min-1 mL-1. Aluminum, iron, manganese and calcium ions in the medium did not affect the growth of either isolate. The activity of secretedacid phosphatase of AR101 was inhibited by Al and Ca ion, and synthesis of acid phosphatase of Ustilago sp. AR102 was possibly stimulated by Fe ion. Both AR101 and AR102 solubilized Na-phytate, resulting in therelease of P. However, some amount of released P was then precipitated with Al and Fe ions as the highly insoluble Fe- or Al- phosphate.

  3. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  4. An evaluation of remote sensing derived soil pH and average spring groundwater table for ecological assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, H.D.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Kooistra, L.; Amerongen, van L.; Witte, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological assessments such as species distribution modelling and benchmarking site quality towards regulations often rely on full spatial coverage information of site factors such as soil acidity, moisture regime or nutrient availability. To determine if remote sensing (RS) is a viable alternative

  5. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sánchez-Andrea, I.; Villanueva, L.; Wienk, H.; Schoutsen, F; Stams, A.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their envi

  6. Evaluation of a commercial multi-sensor system for soil electrical conductivity, organic matter, and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient and accurate spatial quantification of soil properties is recognized as an important aspect of precision agriculture. With the current standard practice of in-field sample collection and subsequent laboratory analysis it is often prohibitively expensive to obtain data at the spatial densit...

  7. Sorption, dissolution and pH determine the long-term equilibration and toxicity of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; Diez Ortiz, Maria; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-07-01

    To assess the effect of long-term dissolution on bioavailability and toxicity, triethoxyoctylsilane coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP), non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 were equilibrated in natural soil for up to twelve months. Zn concentrations in pore water increased with time for all ZnO forms but peaked at intermediate concentrations of ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO, while for coated ZnO-NP such a clear peak only was seen after 12 months. Dose-related increases in soil pH may explain decreased soluble Zn levels due to fixation of Zn released from ZnO at higher soil concentrations. At T = 0 uncoated ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to the springtail Folsomia candida, but not as toxic as coated ZnO-NP, and ZnCl2 being most toxic. After three months equilibration toxicity to F. candida was already reduced for all Zn forms, except for coated ZnO-NP which showed reduced toxicity only after 12 months equilibration.

  8. Observation of pH Value in Electrokinetic Remediation using various electrolyte (MgSO4, KH2PO4 and Na(NO3)) for Barren Acidic Soil at Ayer Hitam, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norashira, J.; Zaidi, E.; Aziman, M.; Saiful Azhar, A. T.

    2016-07-01

    Barren acidic soil collected at Ayer Hitam, Johor Malaysia was recorded at pH value of 2.36 with relative humidity of 86%. This pH value is not suitable for the growth of any plants especially for the soil stabilization purposes. Gradation weathering within the range of 4 to 6 indicates an incomplete/partial weathering process. The soil grade in this range is known as a black shale mudstone. Beside, this also influences to a factor of the high surface water runoff at this particular soil species. As the acidic pH become a major problem for soil fertilizing hence an appropriate technique was implemented known as using ‘Electrokinetic Remediation’, EKR. This technique has a great potential in changing the soil pH value from acidic to less acidic and also kept maintain the pH at the saturated rate of electrochemical process. This research study presents the monitoring data of pH value due to the effect of various electrolyte consist of 0.5M of MgSO4, KH2PO4, and Na(NO3). Here, the distilled water (DW) was used as reference solution. The electric field was provided by dipping two pieces of identical rectangular aluminum foil as anode and cathode. The EKR was conducted under a constant voltage gradient of 50 V/m across the sample bulk at 0.14 m length measured between both electrodes. The data collection was conducted during the total period of 7 days surveillance. The variation of pH values at the remediation area between anode and cathode for various type of electrolyte indicates that there are a significant saturated value as it reaches 7 days of treatment. During the analysis, it is found that the highest pH value at the remediation area after 7 days treatment using Na(NO3), KH2PO4 and MgSO4 was 3.93, 3.33 and 3.39 respectively. Hence from the last stage of pH value observation, it can be conclude that the best electrolyte for barren soil treatment is Na(NO3) whereby it contribute to highest pH value and turn the soil to be less acidic.

  9. Transporte de crômio trivalente influenciado pelo pH, horizonte do solo e fontes do crômio Movement of trivalent chromium as influenced by pH, soil horizon and sources of chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. K. de Alcântara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se qualitativamente a eluviação de Cr(III em colunas, influenciada: (i pelo pH, (ii pelo horizonte e (iii por fontes de crômio. Utilizaram-se amostras dos horizontes A e B de dois solos, com diferentes teores de matéria orgânica, do Estado de São Paulo: Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico, textura argilosa (LVe e Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo Distrófico, textura média (LVd em que as amostras do horizonte superficial receberam adição de carbonato de cálcio. Realizaram-se experimentos de lixiviação em colunas, para obtenção das curvas de eluição de três fontes de crômio: a em solução salina (Cr-SAL; b complexado (Cr-EDTA e c associado a um resíduo de curtume (Cr-RESÍDUO. A eluviação do crômio foi maior no LVd de textura média que no LVe argiloso; já a calagem teve pouca ou nenhuma influência na diminuição da eluviação. No solo LVe, a movimentação de crômio foi maior no horizonte superficial em relação ao subsuperficial, possivelmente em decorrência da formação de compostos solúveis entre o crômio e o ácido fúlvico presente na matéria orgânica. A eluviação foi influenciada pela fonte de crômio, cujos maiores valores foram observados com a aplicação de Cr-EDTA , e os menores com Cr-RESÍDUO.In this work, the chromium (III movement in soil columns was studied, considering the influence of (i pH; (ii soil horizon and (iii source of Cr. Two soils samples of A and B horizons, differing in organic matter content from São Paulo State - Brazil, were utilized: a Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico (Typic Eutrorthox and b Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico (Typic Haplorthox. The surface horizons received calcium carbonate. Elution experiments in soil columns were carried out in order to obtain elution curves for different sources of chromium: a in salt solution (Cr-SALT; b chelated (Cr-EDTA and c associated to a tannery plant residue (Cr-Residue. Chromium elution was higher in the Haplorthox than

  10. The Toxicological Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials: Insights From In Vitro Physiologically-based Geochemical Leach Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.; Lamothe, P.; Meeker, G. P.; Sutley, S.

    2003-12-01

    pH and high chloride concentrations, simulated gastric fluids are most efficient at solubilizing metals such as Hg, Pb, Zn, and others that form strong chloride complexes; although these metals tend to partially reprecipitate in the near-neutral simulated intestinal fluids, complexes with organic ligands (i.e., amino and carboxylic acids) enhance their solubility. These metals are also quite soluble in near-neutral, protein-rich plasma-based fluids because they form strong complexes with the proteins. In contrast, metalloids that form oxyanion species (such as As, Cr, Mo, W) are commonly more soluble in near-neutral pH simulated lung fluids than in simulated gastric fluids.

  11. Vertical structure and pH as factors for chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial community of soils and terrestrial ecosystems of different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacheva, Evgeniya; Natalia, Manucharova

    2016-04-01

    Chitin is a naturally occurring fibre-forming polymer that plays a protective role in many lower animals similar to that of cellulose in plants. Also it's a compound of cell walls of fungi. Chemically it is a long-chain unbranched polysaccharide made of N-acetylglucosamine residues; it is the second most abundant organic compound in nature, after cellulose. Pectin is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. Roots of the plants and root crops contain pectin. Chitin and pectin are widely distributed throughout the natural world. Structural and functional features of the complex microbial degradation of biopolymers one of the most important direction in microbial ecology. But there is no a lot of data concerns degradation in vertical structure of terrestrial ecosystems and detailed studies concerning certain abiotic features as pH. Microbial complexes of natural areas were analyzed only as humus horizons (A1) of the soil profile. Only small part of microbial community could be studied with this approach. It is known that ecosystems have their own structure. It is possible to allocate some vertical tiers: phylloplane, litter (soil covering), soil. We investigated chitinolytic and pectinolytic microbial communities dedicated to different layers of the ecosystems. Also it was described depending on pH dominated in certain ecosystem with certain conditions. Quantity of eukaryote and procaryote organisms increased in the test samples with chitin and pectin. Increasing of eukaryote in samples with pectin was more then in samples with chitin. Also should be noted the significant increasing of actinomycet's quantity in the samples with chitin in comparison with samples with pectin. The variety and abundance of bacteria in the litter samples increased an order of magnitude as compared to other probes. Further prokaryote community was investigated by method FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). FISH is a cytogenetic

  12. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  13. 调节茶园土壤pH对土壤养分、酶活性及微生物数量的影响%Effects of Adjusting pH of Tea Plantation Soil on Its Soil Nutrients, Enzyme Activity and Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘炳君; 杨扬; 李强; 呼广雷; 陈向阳; 方建新; 王世强

    2011-01-01

    [目的]考察酸化和碱化作用对茶园土壤主要养分、土壤酶活性及微生物数量的影响,进而探讨pH值变化与三者之间关系.[方法]用石灰调节茶园土壤pH进行不同天数培养后研究土壤养分、酶活性及微生物.[结果]酸性土壤经石灰调节提高pH 1 ~2,引起土壤中速效磷、可交换性酸降低,土壤细菌、放线菌数量增加近10倍,真菌随pH增加而减少;土壤过氧化氢酶、多酚氧化酶、脲酶活性随pH调节而增高.[结论]随着培养天数的增加茶园土壤pH呈降低趋势;土壤中速效磷、交换性酸、真菌数量及转化酶活性与pH之间呈负相关;土壤中细菌、放线菌数量及过氧化氢酶、多酚氧化酶、脲酶的酶活性与pH呈正相关.%[Objective] The research aimed to investigate the effects of acidification and alkalization on soil nutrients, soil enzyme activity and microbial quantity in tea plantation soil so as to further explore the mutual relationship between them and the change of pH. [ Method] The study was conducted by regulating the soil pH of the tea plantation soil with lime on the soil nutrients, enzyme activity and microorganism. [ Result ] Acid soil, with its pH improved by 1 - 2 units would cause the soil available phosphorus and soil exchangeable acid to reduce. And the quantity of bacteria and aetinomyces in the soil would increase by about 10 times. With pH increasing, the fungi decreased. The activity of catalase, polyphenol oxidase, the urease in the soil increased with pH regulation. [ Conclusion ] As the days went on, soil pH decreased. The available phosphorus, exchangeable acid, the number of fungi and invertase activity in the soil were negatively correlated with pH. The quantity of bacteria and actinomyces in the soil and the activity of catalase, polyphenol oxidase, urease were positively correlated with pH.

  14. Changes of pH and Enzyme Activities in Greenhouse Soils of Different Planting Years in Tianjin%天津地区不同年限设施土壤pH及酶活性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋; 高贤彪; 宁晓光; 王立艳; 李明悦; 高伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide the scientific basis of preventing soils from degradation and promoting agriculture sustainable development, soil enzyme activities and pH were studied in the greenhouse vegetable soils under different planting years( 1 ,2,3,6 and 12 year) in Tianjin with the open field soil as control. The result indicated that soil urease 、catalase and intertase activity were higher in greenhouse vegetable soils than that in open'field soil,peroxi-dase activities were opposite. Soil urease increased gradually with the cultivation years,but soil catalase,peroxidase and intertase activity increased beginning,then decreased. Soil enzyme activities decreased with soil depths. Soil pH declined with the planting years.%以天津地区露地土壤作对照,研究了栽培1,2,3,6,12年设施蔬菜土壤有关生物学指标的变化.结果表明,设施土壤脲酶、过氧化氢酶、转化酶活性高于露地,过氧化物酶相反;随着连作年限延长,土壤脲酶活性逐渐增强,而过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶、转化酶活性开始增强之后减弱.土壤酶活性都由表层向底层逐渐减弱.土壤pH随着栽培年限增加呈逐渐降低趋势.

  15. Time-dependent changes of zinc speciation in four soils contaminated with zincite or sphalerite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegelin, Andreas; Jacquat, Olivier; Pfister, Sabina; Barmettler, Kurt; Scheinost, Andreas C; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    The long-term speciation of Zn in contaminated soils is strongly influenced by soil pH, clay, and organic matter content as well as Zn loading. In addition, the type of Zn-bearing contaminant entering the soil may influence the subsequent formation of pedogenic Zn species, but systematic studies on such effects are currently lacking. We therefore conducted a soil incubation study in which four soils, ranging from strongly acidic to calcareous, were spiked with 2000 mg/kg Zn using either ZnO (zincite) or ZnS (sphalerite) as the contamination source. The soils were incubated under aerated conditions in moist state for up to four years. The extractability and speciation of Zn were assessed after one, two, and four years using extractions with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and Zn K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, respectively. After four years, more than 90% of the added ZnO were dissolved in all soils, with the fastest dissolution occurring in the acidic soils. Contamination with ZnO favored the formation of Zn-bearing layered double hydroxides (LDH), even in acidic soils, and to a lesser degree Zn-phyllosilicates and adsorbed Zn species. This was explained by locally elevated pH and high Zn concentrations around dissolving ZnO particles. Except for the calcareous soil, ZnS dissolved more slowly than ZnO, reaching only 26 to 75% of the added ZnS after four years. ZnS dissolved more slowly in the two acidic soils than in the near-neutral and the calcareous soil. Also, the resulting Zn speciation was markedly different between these two pairs of soils: Whereas Zn bound to hydroxy-interlayered clay minerals (HIM) and octahedrally coordinated Zn sorption complexes prevailed in the two acidic soils, Zn speciation in the neutral and the calcareous soil was dominated by Zn-LDH and tetrahedrally coordinated inner-sphere Zn complexes. Our results show that the type of Zn-bearing contaminant phase can have a significant influence on the formation of pedogenic Zn

  16. 土壤调理剂对红壤pH值及空心菜产量和品质的影响%Effects of soil conditioner on red soil pH and yield and quality of water spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育鹏; 胡海燕; 李兆君; 孔庆波; 戴春山; 张永清

    2014-01-01

    Soil acidification is a key restricting factor to high and stable yields of crop. It also seriously affects the sustainable development of agriculture in China. In this paper, the effects of soil conditioner which mainly consisted of calcium carbonate on red soil pH, silica-alumina ratio and vegetable yield and quality were studied through field experiments. The results showed that soil conditioner could significantly increase soil pH and silica-alumina ratio, and could also improve water spinach yields and its quality. Compared with the control, soil pH was increased by 3. 60% ~21. 65%, water spinach yield was increased by 5. 81% ~44. 45%, vitamin C content was increased by 2. 48% ~23. 97%, and soluble sugar content was increased by 4. 18% ~26. 48% when the soil conditioner application concentration ranged from 600 to 1 800 kg/hm2 . Meanwhile, the ni-trate content of spinach had no significantly changes. It was found that the 1 500 kg/hm2 application amount was more reasona-ble. And, rotary tillage after surface fertilizer was a very reasonable and effective application method.%土壤酸化是制约土壤高产稳产的重要因素,严重影响了我国农业的可持续发展。通过大田试验研究了以碳酸钙为主要原料生产的土壤调理剂对酸性土壤pH值、硅铝率及空心菜产量和品质的影响。结果表明,土壤调理剂可以增加土壤pH值和硅铝率,提高空心菜的产量,改善空心菜的品质;与对照相比,土壤调理剂用量为600~1800 kg/hm2时,可使土壤pH值增加3.60%~21.65%,空心菜产量增加5.81%~44.45%,维生素C含量增加2.48%~23.97%,可溶性糖含量增加4.18%~26.48%;土壤调理剂对空心菜硝酸盐含量没有显著影响。研究发现,土壤调理剂用量为1500 kg/hm2时较为经济合理,表面撒施后旋耕是非常合理且有效的施用方法。

  17. Terrestrial soil pH and MAAT records based on the MBT/CBT in the southern South China Sea: implications for the atmospheric CO2 evolution in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L.; Li, L.; Li, Q.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Liang Dong1, Li Li1, Qianyu Li1,2, Chuanlun L. Zhang1,3 1State Key Laboratory of Marine Geology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China 2School of Earth and Environment Sciences, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia 3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA The methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT) and/or the cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) are derived from the branched glycerol dialkyl Glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) of bacterial origin and are widely used to reconstruct the terrestrial soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAAT); however, these proxies are less frequently used in the oceanic settings. Here we provide the first high resolution records of soil pH and MAAT since the last glacial maximum based on the sedimentary core of MD05-2896 in the southern South China Sea. The MAAT record exhibited typical glacial and interglacial cycles and was consistent with the winter insolation variation. The pH values were lower (6.4-7) in the glacial time and higher (7-8.4) in the interglacial time. Changes in soil pH allowed the evaluation of changes in soil CO2 based on the atmosphere-soil CO2 balance. The results imply that the lower winter MAAT variation with a lower winter atmospheric CO2 concentration might have resulted in a higher pH in the interglacial period. Our records provide a new insight into the evolution of atmospheric CO2 between glacial and interglacial cycles in East Asia. Key words: South China Sea, MBT/CBT, b-GDGTs, MAAT, pH

  18. Remaining phosphorus and sodium fluoride pH in soils with different clay contents and clay mineralogies Fósforo remanescente e pH em fluoreto de sódio em solos com diferentes teores e qualidades de argila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eduardo Alves

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The remaining phosphorus (Prem has been used for estimating the phosphorus buffer capacity (PBC of soils of some Brazilian regions. Furthermore, the remaining phosphorus can also be used for estimating P, S and Zn soil critical levels determined with PBC-sensible extractants and for defining P and S levels to be used not only in P and S adsorption studies but also for the establishment of P and S response curves. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil clay content and clay mineralogy on Prem and its relationship with pH values measured in saturated NaF solution (pH NaF. Ammonium-oxalate-extractable aluminum exerts the major impacts on both Prem and pH NaF, which, in turn, are less dependent on soil clay content. Although Prem and pH NaF have consistent correlation, the former has a soil-PBC discriminatory capacity much greater than pH NaF.O fósforo remanescente (Prem tem sido utilizado para estimar o fator capacidade de P (FCP de solos de algumas regiões do Brasil. Entre outras finalidades, o P remanescente pode também ser utilizado para estimar níveis críticos de P, S e Zn no solo, determinados com extratores sensíveis ao FCP, e para a definição das doses de P e S a serem usadas, tanto em estudos de adsorção como no estabelecimento de curvas de resposta a esses elementos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do teor e da composição mineralógica da fração argila do solo sobre o Prem, e sua relação com o pH medido em solução saturada de NaF (pH NaF. Tanto o Prem quanto o pH NaF são mais influenciados pelo teor de Al extraído com oxalato de amônio e menos dependentes do teor de argila. Embora a correlação entre o Prem e o pH NaF seja consistente, o Prem apresenta maior capacidade de estratificar solos quanto ao fator capacidade de fósforo que o pH NaF.

  19. Organic Residues Affect Soil P Availability, Cowpea Yield And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    And Nutrient Uptake on a Near Neutral P-Deficient. Alfisol in ... Cowpea plants grown on Flemingia and Leucaena incubated soils with and without PR produced higher number of pods ..... acids are important for mobilization of P from rock ...

  20. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K. Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their environmental niche. The membrane lipids of these species were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ion trap/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/IT/MS and high resolution accurate mass/mass spectrometry (HRAM/MS. Abundant unknown intact polar lipids (IPLs from P. saltans were isolated and further characterized using amino acid analysis and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Ornithine IPLs (OLs with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were observed in both bacterial species. Lysine-containing IPLs (LLs were also detected in both species and were characterized here for the first time using HPLC-MS. Novel LLs containing hydroxy fatty acids and novel hydroxylysine lipids with variable (hydroxy fatty acid composition were identified in P. saltans. The confirmation of OL and LL formation in F. johnsoniae and P. saltans and the presence of OlsF putative homologues in P. saltans suggest the OlsF gene coding protein is possibly involved in OL and LL biosynthesis in both species, however, potential pathways of OL and LL hydroxylation in P. saltans are still undetermined. Triplicate cultures of P. saltans were grown at three temperature/pH combinations: 30°C/pH 7, 15°C/pH 7 and 15°C/pH 9. The fractional abundance of total amino acid containing IPLs containing hydroxylated fatty acids was significantly higher at higher temperature, and the fractional abundance of lysine-containing IPLs was significantly higher at lower temperature and higher pH. These results suggest that these amino acid-containing IPLs, including the novel hydroxylysine lipids, could be involved in temperature and pH

  1. Potential for leaching of heavy metals in open-burning bottom ash and soil from a non-engineered solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Gora, Dorcas; Chaukura, Nhamo; Tauro, Tonny

    2016-03-01

    Bottom ash from open-burning of municipal waste practised in developing countries poses a risk of heavy metal leaching into groundwater. Compared to incineration ash, there is limited information on heavy metal leaching from open-burning ash and soil from non-engineered landfills. Batch and column experiments were conducted to address three specific objectives; (1) to determine aqua regia extractable concentrations of heavy metals in fresh ash, old ash and soil from beneath the landfill, (2) to determine the relationship between heavy metal leaching, initial and final pH of leaching solution, and aqua regia extractable concentrations, and (3) to determine the breakthrough curves of heavy metals in ashes and soil. Aqua regia extractable concentrations of Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni and Pb were significantly higher (p heavy metals were not correlated with aqua regia extractable concentrations. Final pH of leachate rebounded to close to original pH of the material, suggesting a putative high buffering capacity for all materials. Both batch and column leaching showed that concentrations of leached heavy metals were disproportionately lower (heavy metals was further evidenced by sigmoidal breakthrough curves. Heavy metal retention was attributed to precipitation, pH-dependent adsorption and formation of insoluble organo-metallic complexes at near-neutral to alkaline pH. Overall, the risk of heavy metal leaching from ash and soil from the waste dump into groundwater was low. The high pH and the presence of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu make ash an ideal low-cost liming material and source of micronutrients particularly on acidic soils prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Environmental effects on the aquatic system and metal discharge to the Mediterranean Sea from a near-neutral zinc-ferrous sulfate mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frau, Franco; Medas, Daniela; Da Pelo, Stefania; Wanty, Richard B.; Cidu, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    After mine closure in the 1980s and subsequent shutdown of the dewatering system, groundwater rebound led to drainage outflow from the Casargiu gallery (Montevecchio mine, SW Sardinia, Italy) beginning in 1997. Mine drainage had pH 6.0 and dissolved concentrations of sulfate (5000 mg/L) and metals (e.g., 1000 mg/L Zn, 230 mg/L Fe, 150 mg/L Mn) much higher than those previously measured in groundwater under dewatering conditions. As compared with the first stages of rebound at Casargiu, a very high contamination level still persists after more than 15 years of flushing. Mine drainage (20–70 L/s; pH 6.0 ± 0.2; Zn-Mg-Ca-SO4 composition) flowed into the Rio Irvi. Abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxides occurred. Moreover, sulfate-bearing green rust was observed to flocculate in the reach of the Rio Irvi where pH was still circumneutral. Water sampling along this stream for about 6 km almost to its mouth in the Mediterranean Sea showed a pH decrease from 6.0 to 4.0 and a significant removal of Fe (46 %) and As (96 %), while sulfate, Zn, Mn, Co, Ni, and Cd showed small variations downstream. Lead was initially adsorbed onto Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxides, then desorbed as pH dropped below 5. The estimated amount of dissolved metals discharged into the Mediterranean Sea is significant (e.g., 900 kg/day Zn, 1.4 kg/day Cd, 5 kg/day Ni). In particular, a conservative estimation of the amount of Zn discharged to the sea is about 330 ton/year, which would correspond to 1.4 % of the global annual flux of dissolved Zn from uncontaminated rivers to the oceans.

  3. pH Distribution and Its Relationship with Soil Available Nutrient in Panzhihua Tobacco Lands%攀枝花烟区土壤pH分布特点及其与土壤有效养分的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭明全; 胡建新; 张宗锦

    2012-01-01

    The pH values of 750 soil samples in Panzhihua tobacco area were collected, and their relationship with soil available nutrients were analyzed. The results showed that Panzhihua tobacco soil pH was overall suitable for tobacco-planting land with an average of pH 6.1 ±0.6, and the variation coefficient was 9.27 % o pH in the most suitable soil samples of flue-cured tobacco growth was between 5.5 -6.5 accounting for 63.33 % of the total sample. The soil pH of different tobacco regions was in order of Renhequ > Miyixian > Yanbianxian; the different soil types pH was in order of Lateri tic red soil > limestone soil > yellow brown soil, rice soil > red, purple soil, of which soil pH were significant correlations with soil organic matter, a large number of elements, trace elements, and a significantly negative correlation with available P and rapidly-available potassium, and a significantly positive correlation with organic matter, nitrogen alkali solution, but a significantly positive correlation with exchange of calcium, effective boron, water-soluble chloride, exchangeable magnesium, effective zinc.%采集并分析了攀枝花烟区750个土壤样本的pH,并分析了其与土壤有效养分的关系.结果表明:攀枝花烟区土壤pH总体适宜,平均为6.1±0.6,变异系数为9.27%;pH 5.5~6.5处于最适宜烤烟生长的土壤样本占总样本总数的63.33%;不同烟区土壤pH大小表现为:仁和区>米易县>盐边县;不同土壤类型pH大小表现为:赤红壤>石灰岩土>黄棕壤、水稻土>红壤、紫色土.土壤pH与土壤有机质、大量元素、中微量元素均存在显著的相关性,其中与速效磷、速效钾存在显著的负相关,与有机质、碱解氮存在显著的正相关,但与交换性钙、有效硼、水溶性氯、交换性镁、有效锌呈显著的正相关.

  4. 土壤pH值对葡萄砧木中钾及丙二醛含量的影响%Effect of soil pH on potassium and MDA contents of grape rootstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩真; 李秀杰; 翟衡; 姜建刚; 李勃

    2013-01-01

    以不同葡萄砧木110R、3309C、140R、5BB、Beta为材料,研究土壤不同pH值对葡萄砧木植株内钾含量以及叶片内丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响。结果表明,土壤pH值对葡萄砧木中的钾含量及MDA含量有影响。土壤pH值为6时,葡萄砧木中的钾含量和积累量最高;土壤pH值为4和8时,砧木3309C的钾积累量下降最少;土壤pH值为6时,葡萄各砧木MDA含量最低,pH值为8时均为最高。%Several grape rootstocks (110R、3309C、140R、5BB、Beta ) were used to study the effects of soil pH on the content of potassium in plant and the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in leaf. The results showed that potassium (K) and MDA contents of grape rootstocks were significantly affected by soil pH. The content and accumulation of K of rootstock reached the maximum at pH 6. The K accumulation of 3309C reduced least at pH 4 and pH 8. The MDA contents of rootstocks were the lowest at soil pH 6 and the highest at pH 8.

  5. INFLUENCE OF STRAIN RATE ON NEAR-NEUTRAL pH ENVIRONMENTALLY ASSISTED CRACKING OF PIPELINE STEELS%应变速率对管线钢近中性pH值环境敏感开裂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丙炎; 韩恩厚; 王俭秋; 柯伟

    2005-01-01

    以X-70管线钢近中性pH值溶液(NS4和实际土壤溶液)为研究对象,研究了恒载荷、慢应变速率拉伸(SSRT)和循环载荷等不同条件下的环境开裂行为.结果表明,在该体系中局部应变速率是联系各种不同断裂过程的纽带,决定着断裂的模式.当该局部应变速率低于发生应力腐蚀开裂(SCC)敏感局部应变速率的上限(即5×10-5 s-1)时,SCC才能够发生;在循环载荷作用下,当该局部应变速率高于此上限时,将发生力学因素起主导作用的腐蚀疲劳(CF)开裂;该局部应变速率继续升高时,将发生机械断裂.对X-70管线钢在近中性pH值的环境开裂,不论开裂过程是溶解或(和)氢的作用占主导,均受局部应变速率控制.在通常遇到的现场服役条件下,X-70管线钢在近中性pH值溶液中的开裂模式是SCC,不是CF,应称之为"近中性pH值应变促进腐蚀开裂",实质上这是一种由局部应变速率决定的环境开裂行为.

  6. 长株潭城市群土壤pH与重金属污染的研究%The Correlation of Heavy Metal with pH in Soils from Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳建华

    2012-01-01

    为了研究土壤样品pH和土壤中重金属含量的相关关系,对长株潭城市群60个土壤样品中pH、有机质含量和重金属含量进行分析.结果表明:长株潭城市群的60个采样点中,13.3%的土壤样品pH<5.0,35%的土壤样品的pH在5.0~6.5之间,41.7%的土壤样品pH在6.5~7.5之间,10%的土壤样品pH在7.5~8.5之间,无强碱性样品.长株潭地区不同土壤pH范围的重金属平均含量不同,随着土壤pH由强酸性、酸性到中性的升高,重金属含量显著提高,但当pH超过7.5,碱性土壤中的重金属含量呈下降趋势.%In order to investigate the correlations of heavy metal with pH in soils, the pH, organic matter contents and heavy metal concentration of 60 soil samples collected from Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration were analyzed. The results showed that, the pH of 13.3% samples were lower than 5.0, 35% of samples were 5.0-6.5, 41.7% of samples were 6.5-7.5 and 10% of samples were 7.5-8.5. In conclusion, different mean heavy metal concentrations in soil samples were achieved during various pH ranges. The heavy metals contents increased significantly with the pH of soils increased from strong acidic, acidic soils to neutral soils. However, the heavy metal contents decreased in alkaline soil samples when the pH over 7.5.

  7. 土壤类型与酸碱度对紫杉生长发育的影响%Effect of Soil Types and pH Value on Growth of Taxus cuspidata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓杰; 白玉文; 张涛; 程广有

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨土壤类型与酸碱度对紫杉生长发育的影响,选择沙壤土、旱田土、腐殖土、河沙和苔藓等5种土壤类型(沙壤土pH分别为4.5,5.0,5.5,6.0,6.5,7.0,7.5,8.5)进行盆栽试验.结果表明:不同类型土壤对紫杉生长影响不同,在腐殖质中高生长最好,新梢长度达16.9 cm;其次是沙壤土,新梢长度达14.5 cm;在腐殖土和沙壤土中栽培的紫杉总根长度较大,河沙与苔藓基质中侧根和白根数量多.盆土酸碱度影响紫杉生长,土壤pH在5.5~7.0时,树高生长量差异不大,新梢长度为12.6~13.3 cm;当土壤pH小于4.5或大于7.5时,高生长受到抑制;土壤pH在5.5~7.0时,总根长度和侧根数量最多.%In order to evaluate effect of soil types and pH value on growth of of Taxus cuspidata, sandy soil, upland soil,humus soil,river sand and moss were selected to cultivate,pH value was adjusted to 4. 5,5. 0,5. 5, 6. 0,6. 5,7. 0,7. 5 and 8. 5 respectively. These results indicated that there were significant variations of yew growth in different soils. The height of yew seedlings which planted in humus soil and sandy soil were superior to that of other soils,whose growth yields were 16. 9 cm and 14. 5 cm respectively. The root length of seedlings which planted in humus soil and sandy soil were superior to that of other soils. The amount of lateral root and albino root of seedlings which planted in river sand and moss were greater than those of other soils. There were significant variations of yew growth in different pH values. The height yield was no significant variation when the soil pH value was from 5. 5 to 7. 0,whose growth yield was from 12. 6 to 13. 3 cm. Nevertheless,the height yield was restrained when the soil pH value was less than 4 . 5 or greater than 7 . 5 . The root length and lateral root number was maximum when the soil pH value was from 5 . 5 to 7 . 0 .

  8. Last-Century Increases in Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency of Grassland Communities Have Occurred over a Wide Range of Vegetation Composition, Nutrient Inputs, and Soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Iris H; Macdonald, Andy J; Schnyder, Hans

    2016-02-01

    Last-century climate change has led to variable increases of the intrinsic water-use efficiency (Wi; the ratio of net CO2 assimilation to stomatal conductance for water vapor) of trees and C3 grassland ecosystems, but the causes of the variability are not well understood. Here, we address putative drivers underlying variable Wi responses in a wide range of grassland communities. Wi was estimated from carbon isotope discrimination in archived herbage samples from 16 contrasting fertilizer treatments in the Park Grass Experiment, Rothamsted, England, for the 1915 to 1929 and 1995 to 2009 periods. Changes in Wi were analyzed in relation to nitrogen input, soil pH, species richness, and functional group composition. Treatments included liming as well as phosphorus and potassium additions with or without ammonium or nitrate fertilizer applications at three levels. Wi increased between 11% and 25% (P soil pH (P soils showed the largest ΔWi (+14.7 μmol mol(-1)). The ΔWi response of these acidic plots was probably related to drought effects resulting from aluminum toxicity on root growth. Our results from the Park Grass Experiment show that Wi in grassland communities consistently increased over a wide range of nutrient inputs, soil pH, and plant community compositions during the last century.

  9. 浙江省标准农田土壤酸碱度现状及改良措施%Status of Soil pH Values of Standardized Farmlands in Zhejiang Province and Its Improvement Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边武英

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to investigate the status of soil pH values of standardized farmlands in Zhejiang province and put forward the corresponding improvement measures. [Method] With the standardized farmlands of 83 counties in Zhejiang province as sampling points, the soil samples were conducted for collection, processing and storage according to referenced to NY/T 1121.1 and soil pH values were measured by using distilled water extraction and glass electrode. The pH values of standardized farmland of different types in different regions were compared. [Result] The percentage which soil pH values of standardized farmlands and paddy at all levels accounted presented a trend of reducing at the middle and rising at two ends, and the rising amplitude of the proportion of acid soils was more than that of alkaline soils. Compared with the structure of 2nd general soil survey,the ratio of farmlands with soil pH values of or lower than 5.5 was increased by 20.71%, and that with soil pH of or lower than 4.5 of farmlands was increased by 1.71%. There were obvious differences of the pH value of standardized farmland in different geomorphologic types and the order was as follows: coastal plain > water net plain > valley plain > hilly area. [Conclusion] Measures such as liming, increasing organic fertilizer and extending soil testing and fertilizer recommendation should be taken to prevent the phenomenon of soil acidification of farmland in Zhejiang Province fundamentally.%[目的] 调查浙江省标准农田土壤酸碱度的现状,提出相应的改良措施.[方法] 以浙江省83个县市区的标准农田为取样点,参照NY/T 1121.1对土壤样品进行采集、处理和贮存,采用蒸馏水浸提玻璃电极法测定土壤pH值,对全省不同类型、不同区域的标准农田pH值进行比较.[结果] 标准农田土壤和水稻土pH值各级所占百分比呈现中间降低两头上升的趋势,且酸性土壤所占比例上升幅度大

  10. Research Progress on Effects of Soil pH on Plant Growth and Development%土壤pH对植物生长发育影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐琨; 朱伟文; 周文新; 易镇邪; 屠乃美

    2013-01-01

    Growth and development of plant are seriously affected by the soil pH.The effects of soil pH on growth and development of plant represent direct aspect and indirect aspect.The indirect one mainly lies in three points as following:effects on physical,chemical and biological properties of soil.On the side of direct aspect,it shows on appearance,material metabolism,growth and development,quality and yield of plant.In order to enhance soil fertility and promote growth and development of plant,it is essential and urgent to study the improvement approach of pH maladjusted soil and the effect mechanism of soil pH on plant.%土壤pH对植物的生长发育影响显著,主要表现在直接影响和间接影响两个方面.间接影响主要是通过对土壤物理、化学及生物学特性的影响而影响植物生长,直接影响主要表现在对植物外观形态、物质代谢、生长发育以及品质和产量等方面.为提高土壤肥力,促进植物生长发育,酸碱性失调土壤的改良途径与土壤pH对植物的影响机理等是当前亟待加强研究的问题.

  11. Soil pH in fruit trees in relation to specific apple replant disorder (SARD). II. The first five years at Wageningen research plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, H.; Hoestra, H.; Borsboom, O.; Pouwer, A.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots were established with 4 target pH values, viz. 4, 5, 6 and 7, to study the effect of pH on specific apple replant disorder (SARD). The target pH levels were not stable and frequently showed fluctuations. Although no significant differences have been found on tree performance, the develop

  12. Estimativa da acidez potencial pelo método do pH SMP em solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica Estimation of potencial acidity by the pH SMP method in soils with higher organic matter content in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do potencial para uso agrícola e das características edáficas peculiares, poucos são os métodos desenvolvidos para a recomendação de adubação e calagem para os solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica. O objetivo deste estudo foi definir um modelo matemático que estime a acidez potencial (H+Al a partir do pH SMP medido em água e em solução de CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 em solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica. Foram utilizadas 41 amostras de horizontes superficiais de solos com elevado teor de matéria orgânica de vários Estados do Brasil. Os resultados demonstraram que a acidez potencial pode ser estimada por meio da regressão da solução-tampão SMP (r =0,85**. Também foi observada correlação significativa (r = 0,65** entre o pH em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 e o pH SMP.In spite of agricultural potential for use and the peculiar edaphic characteristics, there are few methods developed for manuring and liming recommendation for soils with high organic matter contents. The objective of this study was to determine a mathematical model that estimates the potencial acidity with pH SMP measured in water and in solution of CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 in soil with high organic matter content. Forty one surface soil samples of Histosols and other soils whith higher organic matter content of different states of Brazil were utilized. The results showed that potential acidity can be estimated by pH SMP buffer suspension regression ( R=0.85** and that in pH determined in CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 was significantly correlated (R= 0.65** to pH determined in SMP.

  13. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total dissolve

  14. Fator capacidade de fósforo em solos de pernambuco mineralogicamente diferentes e influência do pH na capacidade máxima de adsorção Phosphate capacity factor in mineralogically different soils in Pernambuco and the influence of pH on the maximum capacity of adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Broggi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O Fator Capacidade de Fósforo (FCP é definido pela razão de equilíbrio entre o fator quantidade de P (Q e o fator intensidade (I e representa uma medida da capacidade do solo em manter um determinado nível de P em solução. As características e o teor dos constituintes minerais da fração argila são responsáveis por uma maior ou menor FCP, interferindo nas relações solo-planta. Por outro lado, o pH do solo tem, em alguns casos, mostrado-se com efeito na adsorção e, em outros, com pequena e não consistente alteração na Capacidade Máxima de Adsorção de P (CMAP. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, determinar o FCP de solos mineralogicamente diferentes em Pernambuco; correlacionar características físicas e químicas dos solos com o FCP; e avaliar o efeito do pH na CMAP. Amostras subsuperficiais de quatro solos, mineralogicamente diferentes, foram caracterizadas química e fisicamente e determinado o FCP. Essas amostras foram corrigidas com CaCO3 e MgCO3 na proporção 4:1 e incubadas por 30 dias, com exceção do Vertissolo. Determinou-se a CMAP antes e após a correção dos solos. O experimento consistiu de um fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro solos com e sem correção, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. As características dos solos que melhor refletiram o FCP foram o P remanescente (P-rem e a CMAP. Independentemente dos constituintes mineralógicos da fração argila, solos com elevados teores de alumínio apresentaram aumento da CMAP com a correção. A energia de adsorção (EA nos solos corrigidos foi, em média, significativamente menor, independentemente do solo.Phosphate Maximum Capacity (FCP is defined by the ratio of equilibrium between the amount of factor P (Q and factor intensity (I and represents a measure of the soil ability to maintain a certain level of P in solution. The characteristics and content of the constituents of clay minerals are responsible for a greater or lesser FCP, interfering in soil

  15. 过碳酰胺对土壤pH和5种交换态金属离子含量的影响%Effects of Applying Percarbamide on Soil pH and Exchangeable Content of Five Metals in Different Acidic and Alkaline Soils,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宁; 李顺兴; 曾清如; 蔡秋亮

    2012-01-01

    用过碳酰胺溶液(与尿素溶液作对照)对中国南方3种酸性土壤和中国北方3种碱性土壤进行室内土培试验,研究氮肥施用对土壤pH和5种交换态金属(Mn、Cu、Zn、Ca、Mg)离子含量的影响。结果表明:酸性土壤pH在短期内随过碳酰胺浓度增大而急剧上升,碱性土壤pH则随过碳酰胺浓度增加呈先增加再减少然后又增加,且其变化幅度小于酸性土壤;动态试验表明,pH上升的现象是短期的,6种土壤pH达到最大值后缓慢下降,9d后3种碱性土壤的pH均降到比原来更低的程度。酸性土壤中交换性Mn、Cu、Zn的整体变化趋势表现为随过碳酰胺施用时间延长呈先降低再逐步上升,与土壤pH呈负相关;而碱性土壤中交换态Mn、Cu、Zn的含量变化不明显。6种土壤中交换态金属Ca、Mg离子含量的变化与土壤pH变化基本呈正相关。研究表明,与施用普通尿素相比,作为一种新型氮肥,施用过碳酰胺对土壤中金属元素活性不会产生新的负影响。%The effects of percarbamide on the changes of pH and soil exchangeable Mn,Cu,Zn,Ca and Mg contents in 3 acidic soils and 3 alkaline soils in China were studied by indoor incubation test.The results showed that the pH of acidic soils increased quickly,and pH in alkaline soils increased first,then fell,rose again,with the increasing concentrations of applied percarbamide,and the changing range of pH in alkaline soils was smaller than that in acidic soils.The time-course experiment revealed that the rise of soil pH was short-term,with a subsequently slow drop after reaching their maximum,and pH value of 3 alkaline soils was less than the original pH value after 9 days.The dynamic changes of exchangeable mentals(Mn,Cu,Zn) in acidic soils were negative correlated with soil pH,and the contents of Mn,Cu,Zn decreased first and then increased gradually.However,the changes of Mn,Cu,Zn in alkaline soils were not very obviously.There was a

  16. Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sufur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. from South-Western Siberian soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Galinski, E.A.; Muntyan, M.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    A chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) strain ALCO 1 capable of growing at both near-neutral and extremely alkaline pH was isolated from hypersaline soda lakes in S-W Siberia (Altai, Russia). Strain ALCO 1 represents a novel separate branch within the halothiobacilli in the Gammapr

  17. Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sufur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. from South-Western Siberian soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Galinski, E.A.; Muntyan, M.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    A chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) strain ALCO 1 capable of growing at both near-neutral and extremely alkaline pH was isolated from hypersaline soda lakes in S-W Siberia (Altai, Russia). Strain ALCO 1 represents a novel separate branch within the halothiobacilli in the

  18. Effects of Different Organic Material and Lime on Soil pH and Available Cadmium%有机物料与石灰对土壤pH和镉有效性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹绍军; 喻华; 冯文强; 秦鱼生; 廖鸣兰; 王昌全; 涂仕华

    2011-01-01

    In an incubation study, impacts of applying different organic materials (pig manure, chick manure, peat and active carbon) , lime and combined uses of these materials on dynamical changes in soil pH and available Cd contents were investigated in order to offer applicable techniques to effectively reduce Cd availability in the td-polluted soil. The results showed that soil pH and available Cd contents were significantly affected by the treatments in the study. Soil pH was increased with an increase in rates of pig manure or lime, but decreased with incubation time till end of the incubation period (60 d). Lime + organic materials affected soil pH relatively more in the first 15 d than thereafter. Soil available Cd contents were negatively related to soil pH changes caused by different treatments and rates of pig manure and/or lime, that was, the higher the rate of pig manure or lime, the lower the soil available Cd contents. Compared with CK, the application of peat and active carbon also significantly reduced soil available Cd. Combined use of pig manure and lime reduced Cd availability far more than that of another one. All the treatments reduced soil available Cd as the incubation proceeded, particularly for the highest rate of lime, and followed by the highest rate of pig manure and active carbon. After 60 d incubation, soil available Cd contents of these three treatments reduced from 0.063, 0. 112 and 0. 105 to 0.044, 0.061 and 0.075 mg/kg, respectively.%本文采用土壤培养实验,探讨了不同有机物料(猪粪、鸡粪、泥炭和活性炭)、石灰及其有机物料与石灰配合施用对镉(Cd)污染土壤的pH和Cd有效性的影响,旨在为土壤Cd污染治理提供有效的方法和技术.结果表明:不同处理对土壤pH和Cd的有效影响显著.土壤pH随猪粪或石灰用量增加而增加,随培养时间而逐渐降低,60 d后趋于稳定;石灰+有机物料在0~5 d对土壤pH的影响较大,15 d后趋于稳定.土壤有效Cd含量

  19. Avaliação do pH da rizosfera de genótipos de café em resposta à toxidez de alumínio no solo Rhizosphere pH evaluation of coffee genotypes in response to soil aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÃO MARCOS DE MENDONÇA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre pH da rizosfera e tolerância ao Al de cinco genótipos de café, na presença e na ausência de calagem. As plantas de café foram desenvolvidas em caixas plásticas, com as raízes próximas da tampa. Após 90 dias as tampas foram removidas e uma fina camada de agar contendo indicador foi derramada sobre a superfície. Também foram avaliados a produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, o comprimento e a superfície de raízes. Quando o solo foi corrigido observou-se o desenvolvimento da coloração amarela próximo às raízes, indicando o abaixamento do pH em H2O. O resultado foi confirmado pela avaliação do pH do solo e da rizosfera com variações de 0,2 e 0,3 unidades de pH. Por outro lado, na presença de Al não houve diferença entre o pH do solo e o da rizosfera, indicando que a alteração no pH desta não parece ser o mecanismo de tolerância ao Al em cafeeiros, uma vez que os genótipos sensíveis e tolerantes apresentaram o mesmo comportamento.This work was carried out in greenhouse aiming to evaluate the relationship between rhizosphere-pH and aluminum tolerance of five coffee genotypes, grown with or without soil liming. Coffee plants were grown in plastic boxes, with roots developing near the cover. After 90 days the lids were removed and a solid agar layer with pH indicator was placed on the surface of soil and roots. It was also evaluated roots and shoots dry biomass production and roots length and surface. When the soil was limed, it was observed the development of yellow color near the roots indicating a pH decrease. This result was confirmed by observing soil and rhizosphere-pH changes, varying between 0.2 and 0.3 units of pH. On the other hand, in the presence of Al it was not observed differences among soil and rhizosphere-pH, indicating that the change of pH induced by roots is not the mechanism of Al

  20. Comportamiento de familias S1 de maíz en distintos pH del suelo Comportamento das famílias S1 de milho em distintos pH do solo Performance of S1 maize (Zea mays L. families in different soil pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Castañón Nájera

    2004-01-01

    . Avaliaram-se 129 famílias S1 derivadas da população de milho SA-6 do Centro Internacional de Melhoramento de Milho e Trigo (CIMMYT, em duas repetições por ambiente. Mediram-se o florescimento masculino (FM, o florescimento feminino (FF, a altura da planta (AP, a altura da espiga (AE, a sincronização do florescimento (ASI, a prolificidade (PRO, espigas com dano (ED e o rendimento de grão (RG. Encontraram-se diferenças entre locais (L, famílias (F e locais x famílias (LxF em todos os caracteres estudados. As variáveis medidas foram mais afetadas no CEPAP (solo ácido do que no CBTA # 36 (solo levemente ácido e CECOT (solo normal. Os valores de herdabilidade foram altos: AP (0,65, AE (0,65, RG (0,58 e FM (0,52, as estimativas dos limites inferior e superior dos intervalos de confiança para herdabilidade de cada uma das variáveis estudadas foram diferentes de zero. Os maiores coeficientes de variação genética (CV foram observados para RG (18,29 e EP (20,95. As famílias selecionadas superaram a média da população em seis caracteres, sugerindo que pela combinação pode-se continuar melhorando a população para tolerância à acidez do solo.This research was carried out in three environments of Vera Cruz State, Mexico, during Spring-Summer 1997. The objectives of the work were to evaluate the response of S1 families at environments with and without soil acidity, to estimate genetic parameters in these families, and to make a selection of S1 families based on their performance. A total of 129 S1 families or lines were evaluated in two replications for each environment. The S1 families came from the maize SA-6 population of the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT. The traits measured were: days to pollen shed (DPS, days to silking extrusion (DSE, plant height (PH, ear height (EH, anthesis-silking interval (ASI, prolificity (PRO, rotten ears (RE and grain yield (GY. The results showed differences among environments (E, families (F

  1. Actual cation exchange capacity of agricultural soils and its relationship with pH and content of organic carbon and clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Houba, V.J.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2001-01-01

    For the set up of a multinutrient 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) soil testing program a conversion from conventional soil testing programs to a CaCl2 program has been proposed in literature. Such conversion should be based on the relationship between test values of the conventional method and the C

  2. Copper, nickel and zinc speciation in a biosolid-amended soil: pH adsorption edge, μ-XRF and μ-XANES investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Sayen, Stéphanie; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Metal solid phase speciation plays an important role in the control of the long-term stability of metals in biosolid-amended soils. The present work used pH-adsorption edge experiments and synchrotron-based spectroscopy techniques to understand the solid phase speciation of copper, nickel and zinc in a biosolid-amended soil. Comparison of metal adsorption edges on the biosolid-amended soil and the soil sample showed that Cu, Ni, and Zn can be retained by both soil and biosolid components such as amorphous iron phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These data are combined with microscopic results to obtain structural information about the surface complexes formed. Linear combination fitting of K-edge XANES spectra of metal hot-spots indicated consistent differences in metal speciation between metals. While organic matter plays a dominant role in Ni binding in the biosolid-amended soil, it was of lesser importance for Cu and Zn. This study suggests that even if the metals can be associated with soil components (clay minerals and organic matter), biosolid application will increase metals retention in the biosolid-amended soil by providing reactive organic matter and iron oxide fractions. Among the studied metals, the long-term mobility of Ni could be affected by organic matter degradation while Cu and Zn are strongly associated with iron oxides.

  3. Actual cation exchange capacity of agricultural soils and its relationship with pH and content of organic carbon and clay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Houba, V.J.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2001-01-01

    For the set up of a multinutrient 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) soil testing program a conversion from conventional soil testing programs to a CaCl2 program has been proposed in literature. Such conversion should be based on the relationship between test values of the conventional method and the C

  4. Nickel adsorption by soils in relation to pH, organic matter, and iron oxides Adsorção de níquel em solos em função de pH, matéria orgânica e óxidos de ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on nickel adsorption by Brazilian soils. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of pH, organic matter, and iron oxides on nickel adsorption by three soils: a clayey Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox, a sandy clay loam Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox, and a clayey Rhodic Hapludalf. Soil samples were collected from the 0-0.2 m layer and treated to eliminate organic matter and iron oxides. The nickel adsorption was evaluated in the original samples and in those treated to remove organic matter and to remove both, organic matter and iron oxides, using 2 g soil + 20 mL of 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 solution containing 5 mg L-1 Ni, pH varying from 3.5 to 7.5. The nickel adsorption decreased with the elimination of organic matter. For the samples without organic matter and iron oxides, adsorption decreased only in the Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox. The pH was the main factor involved in nickel adsorption variation, and for soil samples without organic matter and iron oxides, the maximum adsorption occurred at higher pH values.Há poucas informações disponíveis na literatura quanto à adsorção de níquel em solos do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência do pH, da matéria orgânica, e dos óxidos de ferro na adsorção de níquel em amostras da camada superficial (0 a 0,20 m de um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico típico (LVwf, textura argilosa, um Latossolo Amarelo ácrico típico (LAw, textura argilo-arenosa e um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NVef, textura muito argilosa. Foram utilizadas amostras de solo natural, de solo sem matéria orgânica (MO, e de solo sem matéria orgânica e sem óxidos de ferro, para fazer envelopes de adsorção (2,0 g de solo + 20 mL de solução contendo 5 mg L-1 de Ni em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1, variando o pH de 3,5 a 7,5. A adsorção de níquel diminuiu com a eliminação da MO; a eliminação de MO e de óxidos de Fe só provocou diminuição na média de adsorção no

  5. Effect of biochar on mineral nitrogen content in soils with different pH values%生物质炭对不同pH值土壤矿质氮含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜; 赵小蓉; 李贵桐; 赵立欣; 孟海波; 林启美

    2014-01-01

    为了揭示生物质炭作为土壤调理剂添加后对土壤矿质氮形态、含量等土壤性质的影响,该研究利用芒草分别在350和700℃裂解制得生物质炭,发现2个温度尤其是700℃制得的生物质炭,对NH4+有很强的吸附能力,但对NO3-的吸附能力很弱。将生物质炭分别加入到酸性(pH值为3.8)和碱性(pH值为7.6)土壤中,25℃下室内培养180d。结果表明,生物质炭提高了土壤全氮含量,酸性和碱性土壤分别平均提高了22%和17%;但使土壤铵态氮含量大幅降低至接近仪器检测限水平;生物质炭对土壤硝态氮含量的影响因生物质炭和土壤类型而异。生物质炭对土壤矿质氮形态和含量的影响,显然与生物质炭对铵的吸附作用、提高土壤 pH 值、增强氨挥发损失,以及形成微生物量氮等密切相关。该研究可为开展生物质炭基氮素新型肥料及制剂等方面的科学研究提供参考。%Biochar is the charred byproduct of biomass pyrolysis, the heating of plant-derived material in the absence of oxygen in order to capture combustible gases. Key chemical and physical properties of biochar are greatly affected both by the choice of feedstock (crop waste, energy crop, etc.) and the process conditions (mainly temperature and time). The effect of temperature on biochar properties shows that biochar created at low temperature may be suitable for controlling the release of nutrients, whilst high temperature biochars may be more suitable for use as activated carbon. The other key aspect of biochar is related to carbon sequestration and improvement of soil productivity. Soils amended with biochar in many centuries ago by pre-Colombian peoples in the Amazon Basin still retain higher plant-available nutrients than the adjacent unamended soils. Additions of biochar to soil have shown definite increases in the availability of major cations and phosphorus as well as total nitrogen

  6. 土壤含水量、pH及有机质对DMPP硝化抑制效果的影响%Inhibitory effect of DMPP on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content, pH and organic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛妍; 武志杰; 张丽莉; 宫平; 董欣欣; 聂彦霞

    2012-01-01

    采用室内模拟培养试验方法,研究了土壤含水量(40%、60%和80%田间最大持水量)、pH(4、7、10)及有机质(原土和去除有机质)对3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐(DMPP)在潮棕壤中硝化抑制效果的影响.结果表明:随土壤含水量的降低,DMPP的降解趋于缓慢,硝化抑制效应增强.不同土壤pH处理下,以pH为10的处理硝化抑制效果最好,DMPP的存留量最高,pH为7和4处理硝化抑制效果较低,DMPP存留量较少.去除有机质可延长DMPP的存留时间,显著降低土壤表观硝化率.%A laboratory incubation test with meadow brown soil was conducted to study the inhibitory effect of 3 ,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on soil nitrification as affected by soil moisture content (40% , 60% and 80% of the maximum field capacity) , pH (4,7 and 10) , and organic matter (retained and removal). With the decrease of soil moisture content, the degradation of DMPP in soil tended to slow down, and the oxidation of soil NH4+ was more inhibited. At pH 10, more DMPP was remained in soil, and had the greatest inhibitory effect; at pH 7 and pH 4, the DMPP was lesser remained, with a smaller inhibitory effect. The removal of organic matter prolonged the remaining time of DMPP in soil, and decreased the apparent soil nitrification rate significantly.

  7. Root-Induced Changes of pH, Eh, Fe(Ⅱ) and Fractions of Pb and Zn in Rhizosphere Soils of Four Wetland Plants with Different Radial Oxygen Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-Xing; LIU Yong; YE Zhi-Hong

    2012-01-01

    A rhizobox experiment was conducted to compare iron (Fe) oxidation and changes of pH,redox potential (Eh) and fractions of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of four emergent-rooted wetland plants (Echinodorus macrophyllus,Eleocharis geniculata,Hydrocotyle vulgaris and Veronica serpyllifolia) with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots.The results indicated that all these wetland plants decreased pH and concentration of Fe(Ⅱ) but increased the Eh in the rhizosphere soils.Pb and Zn were transformed from unstable fractions to more stable fractions in the rhizosphere soils,so decreasing their potential metal mobility factors (MF).Among the four plants,E.macrophyllus,with the highest ROL and root biomass,possessed the greatest ability in formation of Fe plaque and in the reduction of heavy metal MFs in the rhizosphere soil.Wetland plants,with higher ROLs and root biomass,may thus be effective in decreasing potential long-term heavy metal bioavailabilities.

  8. In-field spatial variability in the degradation of the phenyl-urea herbicide isoproturon is the result of interactions between degradative Sphingomonas spp. and soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Lincoln, Suzanne D; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Morgan, J Alun W; Aamand, Jens; Walker, Allan

    2003-02-01

    Substantial spatial variability in the degradation rate of the phenyl-urea herbicide isoproturon (IPU) [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] has been shown to occur within agricultural fields, with implications for the longevity of the compound in the soil, and its movement to ground- and surface water. The microbial mechanisms underlying such spatial variability in degradation rate were investigated at Deep Slade field in Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Most-probable-number analysis showed that rapid degradation of IPU was associated with proliferation of IPU-degrading organisms. Slow degradation of IPU was linked to either a delay in the proliferation of IPU-degrading organisms or apparent cometabolic degradation. Using enrichment techniques, an IPU-degrading bacterial culture (designated strain F35) was isolated from fast-degrading soil, and partial 16S rRNA sequencing placed it within the Sphingomonas group. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified bacterial community 16S rRNA revealed two bands that increased in intensity in soil during growth-linked metabolism of IPU, and sequencing of the excised bands showed high sequence homology to the Sphingomonas group. However, while F35 was not closely related to either DGGE band, one of the DGGE bands showed 100% partial 16S rRNA sequence homology to an IPU-degrading Sphingomonas sp. (strain SRS2) isolated from Deep Slade field in an earlier study. Experiments with strains SRS2 and F35 in soil and liquid culture showed that the isolates had a narrow pH optimum (7 to 7.5) for metabolism of IPU. The pH requirements of IPU-degrading strains of Sphingomonas spp. could largely account for the spatial variation of IPU degradation rates across the field.

  9. Research on pH Buffer Capacity and Acidification Rate of Arable Brown Soil%耕地棕壤酸碱缓冲性能及酸化速率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈月; 依艳丽; 张大庚; 粟杰; 依妍; 徐龙超

    2012-01-01

    Significant acidification has taken place in the arable brown soil of Liaoning province since the second soil general survey.The general mean of pH were declined from 6.42 to 5.73.Arable brown soil(0-20 cm) of the four typical areas in Liaoning province(Changtu,Shenyang,Wafangdian and Qingyuan) were used to study the pH buffer capacity,acidification rate and the influencing factors.The results showed that pH buffer capacity in the four areas were from 29.66 to 39.87 mmol/kg·pH unit.The pH buffer capacity of the north and middle area in Liaoning province were higher than the south and east area.The acidification of south area was the fastest with the value of 2.69 H+ kmol/(hm2·a),and the slowest happened in the east with the value of 1.44 H+ kmol/(hm2·a).The initial pH,cation exchange capacity,soil mechanical composition and organic matter were all the factors that affect the changes of soil pH buffer capacity.The texture in the north and middle area were silt loam soil,cation exchange capacity,base saturation and clay content were higher than that in the other two areas(south and east).Therefore,they had the higher pH buffer capacities.Fertilization and the other human factors that contribute to buffer capacity and acidification rate need to be further studied.%辽宁省耕地棕壤自第二次土壤普查以来酸化趋势明显,pH整体平均值从第二次普查时期的6.42降至5.73。对辽宁省4个典型地区(昌图、沈阳、瓦房店、清原)的耕地棕壤耕层(0-20cm)缓冲性能、酸化速率及其影响因素进行研究,结果表明:各地区酸碱缓冲容量变幅为29.66~39.87mmol/kg.pH unit,其中辽宁北部和中部地区酸碱缓冲容量明显高于辽南和辽东地区。酸化速率以辽南地区下降速率最快,其值为2.69H+kmol/(hm2.a),而速率最慢的地区为辽东,其酸化速率为1.44H+kmol/(hm2.a)。土壤初始pH、阳离子交换量、颗粒组成及有机质含量均

  10. A~fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water with step-by-step decreasing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aghnatios

    2014-02-01

    provides information on the necessary strength for the solubilisation of a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental fractional solubility is sorted into two groups: (i Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, P constitute group 1, with a solubility between 23% and 70% and with a maximum solubility at pH 3; (ii whereas in group 2 (Al, Fe, the solubility is less than 2% with the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P and Mn suggest a~possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates, which gives phosphorus an unexpected high lability.

  11. 不同温度下2种不同pH值水稻土甲烷产生的比较%Comparison of methane production of two different pH rice paddy soils at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买尔哈巴·力提甫; 韦梦; 裘琼芬

    2015-01-01

    水稻土甲烷的产生受环境因子的影响。为了比较不同温度下不同pH值水稻土甲烷产生的差异,同时分析不同温度下产甲烷随时间的变化与理化因子变化的相关性,以酸性砂质水稻土(pH值4.67)和偏碱性粘质水稻土(pH值7.88)为研究对象,在15℃、25℃、37℃以及50℃4个温度下进行为期100 d的厌氧培养,定期测定培养过程中产甲烷累积量以及土壤理化因子pH值、氨氮以及有机碳的变化。结果表明,在15℃~37℃范围内初始有机碳含量以及氨氮浓度高的酸性砂质水稻土产甲烷大于偏碱性粘质水稻土;2种土壤产甲烷量以及产甲烷速率均随温度升高而增大,均在37℃时达到最大值;然而在50℃高温下,酸性砂质水稻土甲烷产量明显小于碱性粘质水稻土,且其产甲烷量以及产甲烷速率明显下降,甚至低于25℃,而碱性粘质土壤产甲烷量依然高于37℃,产甲烷速率与37℃相比没有明显下降,说明高温对酸性砂质水稻土的影响大于碱性粘质水稻土。在厌氧培养过程中,不同温度下氨氮浓度与产甲烷始终保持比较高的相关性,而有机碳含量的变化与产甲烷的相关性随温度升高而下降,说明高温下影响土壤产甲烷的因素较低温复杂得多。与碱性土壤相比,不同温度下酸性土壤pH值的变化对产甲烷的影响较大。%In order to study the impact of tempereture on methane production and analyse the correlation between methane emission and environment factors in different pH paddy soils, samples like an acidic sandy paddy soil (pH 4.67) and an alkaline clayey paddy soil (pH 7.88) were anaerobicly incubated at 15℃, 25℃, 37℃and 50℃for 100 days. During the incubation the changes of the cumu-lant of methane-production and soil characteristics such as pH, organic carbon and nitrogen of ammonium were measured. The results indicated that the cumulant and rate

  12. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation at circumneutral pH: Reaction kinetics, mineral products, and distribution of neutrophilic iron oxidizers in wetland soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollrath, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that neutrophilic Fe(II) oxidizers can conserve energy from Fe(II) oxidation, however, it is still unclear how they can compete against the fast abiotic reaction at neutral pH, or to which extent these bacteria increase the overall Fe(II) oxidation rate. Similar to

  13. Effect of Free Calcium Carbonate on Soil pH and Enzyme Activities%土壤中游离碳酸钙对土壤pH及酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺婧; 赵亚平; 关连珠

    2011-01-01

    游离碳酸钙是我国北方石灰性土壤的重要组成物质,密切影响着土壤的物理、化学、生物学性质以及土壤的环境学效应,但是将游离碳酸钙作为土壤重要组成物质而探讨其对土壤生物学特性尤其是对土壤酶活性的影响研究较少.通过研究探讨碳酸钙与土壤pH值之间的定量关系以及碳酸钙含量对土壤酶活性的影响,为进一步研究游离碳酸钙对土壤生物学性质及土壤环境效应的影响提供理论参考.采用实验室模拟培养及分析测试的方法进行试验.结果表明:土壤pH随游离碳酸钙含量的增加而增加,趋近于达到该试验条件下的最大值(pH=8.19),但并非呈直线相关,而是呈非线性相关关系.中性磷酸酶活性和转化酶随碳酸钙浓度的增加而降低,其最大降低幅度分别为0.402个活性单位和3.16个活性单位.碳酸钙含量与土壤pH值之间呈非线性相关关系.碳酸钙对土壤中性磷酸酶和转化酶活性产生极显著的抑制作用,对脲酶活性呈现低含量促进而高含量抑制的作用,而对过氧化氢酶则产生极显著的促进作用.%Free calcium carbonate is the important substance of calcareous soil component in North China, and has closely effect on the physical, chemical and biochemical properties of soil and the effect of soil environment. So this experiment aims to provide theory reference for further study on the effect of free calcium carbonate on soil microbial character and soil environmental. The study used the method of indoor simulated culture and analysis. Soil pH gradually rose with the increase of free calcium carbonate content, and approached the maximum on this experiment conditions (pH=8.19). The relation was not linear relation. Soil neutral phosphatase and invertase gradually decreased with the rose of calcium carbonate, the max-decreased ranges respectively were 0.402 and 3.16 activity unit. Soil pH with the contents of free calcium

  14. 土壤 pH 值对3个牡丹品种的生长及光合特性的影响1)%Effect of Soil pH on Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristic of Three Paeonia suffruticosa Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓刚; 王莉莉; 郭太君

    2016-01-01

    With three years old grafted varieties of Paeonia suffruticosa‘Bingshancangyu’ ‘Jinchengnvlang’ and‘Zhoumeigui’ as materials, we studied the effect of soil pH on growth and photosynthetic characteristic .At soil pH of 4.5 and 5.5, many indexes of three varieties including height increments , current branch length increments , leaf area, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WU,E), chlorophyll a (chla), chloro-phyll b ( chlb) and chlorophyll a+b ( chla+b) were significantly decreased .The values of intercellular CO 2 concentration ( Ci ) and chla/b were remarkably increased , which indicated that non-stomatal limitation was the main reason for the re-duction of Pn .Under the alkaline stress at soil pH of 9.5, the decrease in Pn of variety‘Bingshancangyu ’ was mainly lim-ited by non-stomatal factors.After treatment, the main role of stomatal factors in the reduction of Pn was replaced by non-stomatal factors.The suitable soil pH range for three varieties growth is in 6.5-8.5.The variety‘Zhoumeigui’ has the wi-dest range of soil pH for the growth , followed by the varieties of ‘Jinchengnvlang ’ and‘Bingshancangyu ’.%采用盆栽方法研究了不同土壤pH值对3年生牡丹嫁接苗‘冰山藏玉’‘金城女郎’和‘绉玫瑰’3个品种的生长及光合特性的影响。结果表明:pH值4.5、pH值5.5显著降低3个品种的株高生长量、当年生枝生长量、叶面积、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、水分利用效率(WU,E)、叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素(a+b),而显著提高细胞间隙CO2摩尔分数(Ci)、叶绿素a/叶绿素b的值,表明非气孔因素是酸胁迫下3个品种Pn 下降的主要原因;pH值9.5碱胁迫下,‘冰山藏玉’ Pn 下降受非气孔因素限制,而‘金城女郎’和‘绉玫瑰’由处理前期的气孔因素转变为后期的非

  15. Effects of Soil pH Value on Growth and Physiological Characters of Lupinus polyphylla Lindl%土壤pH对多叶羽扇豆生长及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 刘安成; 庞长民; 张瑞博

    2012-01-01

    通过调节土壤酸碱度,研究不同土壤pH值对多叶羽扇豆的生长发育及生理特性的影响。结果表明:多叶羽扇豆植株随着土壤pH值的降低,叶片黄花率降低,叶绿素含量升高;POD活性升高,叶片内SOD活性的影响呈升高降低的趋势,2年生植株较1年生植株影响更为明显。土壤pH对多叶羽扇豆叶绿素a/b比值及CAT活性的差异性不显著。%Infection of different pH of soil on growth and physiological characters of Lupinus polyphylla was studied.Results indicated that with the decline of pH,the rate of yellow plant decreased while chlorophyll rose in content,the activities of peroxidase(POD) increased and SOD activities increased also.The chlorophyll content a/b and activity of catalase were no significant difference with soil pH change.

  16. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria: amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.; Sanchez-Andrea, I.; Villanueva, L.; Wienk, H.; Schoutsen, F.; Stams, A.J.M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their envi

  17. Lysine and novel hydroxylysine lipids in soil bacteria : amino acid membrane lipid response to temperature and pH in Pseudopedobacter saltans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, Eli K; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Villanueva, Laura; Wienk, Hans; Schoutsen, Frans; Stams, Alfons J M; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial decomposition of organic matter is an essential process in the global carbon cycle. The soil bacteria Pseudopedobacter saltans and Flavobacterium johnsoniae are both able to degrade complex organic molecules, but it is not fully known how their membrane structures are adapted to their envi

  18. Mobilization of soluble and dispersible lead, arsenic, and antimony in a polluted, organic-rich soil - effects of pH increase and counterion valency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Liming is a common technique suggested for the stabilization of shooting range sites. We investigated the effect of an increase in pH on the mobilization of soluble and dispersible (colloidal) Pb, As, and Sb. Our hypothesis was that the addition of divalent cations counteracts the pH-induced mobilization of soluble and colloidal metal(loid)s. We determined soluble (operationally defined as the fraction < 10 nm obtained after centrifugation) and dispersible (filter cut-off 1200 nm) As, Pb, Sb, Fe, and C(org) concentrations in the filtered suspensions of batch extracts of topsoil samples (C(org): 8%) from a former shooting range site following a pH increase to values between 3.5 and 7 by adding a monovalent (KOH) or a divalent (Ca(OH)(2)) base. In the Ca(OH)(2)-treated samples, dissolved metal(loid) concentrations were 62 to 98% lower than those titrated with KOH to similar pH. Similarly, Ca reduced the concentration of dispersible Pb by 95%, but had little or no impact on dispersible As and Sb. We conclude that the counterion valency controls the mobility of metal(loid)s by affecting the mobility and sorption capacity of the sorbents (e.g., colloids, organic matter).

  19. Heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of a novel GH11 xylanase from saline-alkali soil with excellent tolerance to high pH, high salt concentrations and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Zhongyuan; Liu, Huihui; Li, Shuang; Qiu, Haiyan; Li, Kun; Luo, Xuegang; Song, Yajian; Wang, Nan; He, Hongpeng; Zhou, Hao; Ma, Wenjian; Zhang, Tongcun

    2017-11-01

    A GH11 xylanase gene (xyn11-1) cloned from saline-alkali soil was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The purified recombinant Xyn11-1 showed its maximal activity at pH 6.0, and retained more than 60.4% of activity at pH 10.0, with good pH stability. Its optimal temperature was 50 °C and it was stable after incubation for 1 h at 30 °C. Furthermore, Xyn11-1 was highly salt-tolerant, retaining more than 77.4% of activity in the presence of 0.25-4 M NaCl and displaying more than 47.2% relative activity after being incubated in the presence of 5 M NaCl at 37 °C for 10 min. In addition, 5 mM β-Mercaptoethanol, Cu(2+), Co(2+), and Mn(2+) increased the xylanase activity by 22.3%, 8.8%, 7.1%, and 4.4%, respectively. Significantly, 93.4% and 59.8% of the optimal activity was retained in the presence of 2% and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the Km,Vmax, and Kcat value of Xyn11-1 for beechwood xylan were 3.7 mg ml(-1), 101.0 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) and 42.1 s(-1), respectively. Xyn11-1 is a strict endo-β-1,4-xylanase, its main enzymatic products being xylotetraose and xylopentaose. Xyn11-1 is the first reported GH11 xylanase isolated from saline-alkali soil, and has excellent tolerance of high pH, high salt concentrations and ethanol, which indicates its great potential for basic research and industrial applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. In vitro系统评价胃肠液pH及土液比对铅、镉、砷生物可给性的影响%In vitro Model System to Evaluate the Influence of pH and Soil-gastric/intestinal Juices Ratio on Bioaccessibility of Pb, Cd and As in Two Typical Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付瑾; 崔岩山

    2012-01-01

    土壤中铅、镉、砷可能直接通过人的口部无意摄入进入人体,危害人体健康,而各研究者评价土壤重金属对人体健康风险所用的实验参数有别,结果缺乏可比性,因此探讨不同评价方法对结果的影响具有重要意义.以污染的棕钙土和红壤为研究对象,应用in vitro方法研究分析胃肠阶段不同土液比、pH以及土壤性质对铅、镉、砷生物可给性的影响.结果表明,重金属的生物可给性与in vitro系统中的pH、土液比、土壤类型以及重金属本身有关.在胃阶段,随着土液比升高,3种重金属生物可给性趋于降低;不同土液比处理下,红壤中铅生物可给性大于棕钙土,而砷则相反,红壤和棕钙土中镉的生物可给性差异不明显.在肠阶段,随着土液比升高,3种重金属生物可给性也趋于降低(除了红壤镉以外),土液比1∶100的3种重金属生物可给性均显著大于1∶10.不同pH处理下,铅的生物可给性随pH的升高逐渐降低,而pH对镉和砷的生物可给性的影响与土液比有关.因此,肠胃实际吸收的重金属可能与摄入水量、食物成分与组成以及食物摄入引起的肠液pH变化有关.%Bioaccessibility is one of important evaluating methods for the risk of poisonous soil particles to human. And the method of in vitro digestion has been used to access the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in dust from contaminated soils, such as lead(Pb), cadmium(Cd) and arsenic (As ). In order to figure out the influence of different soil-to-solution ratio and pH on the bioaccessibility of heavy metals ( %) in stomach and intestine, two typical contaminated soils were estimated using the method of in vitro digestion. The current results demonstrated that the differences in bioaccessibility of heavy metals were determined as a function of the pH, soil to solution ratios, soil types, digestive organs, and metal oneself. In stomach, the bioaccessibility of Pb, Cd, As in two

  1. Efeito da temperatura, pH e vestígios de Hg2+ e Pb2+ na acti­vidade de desidrogenases e urease num solo da região de Évora Effect of temperature, pH and Hg2+ and Pb2+ traces in dehydrogenaseand urease activities of a soil from Évora region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As actividades das enzimas no solo são um importante indicador da sua qualida­de. Neste estudo procedeu-se à caracteri­zação da actividade enzimática de desi­drogenases (EC 1.1.1 e da urease (EC 3.5.1.5 de um solo sob Olea europeae L. da região de Évora. As constantes cinéti­cas Km e Vmáx, foram determinadas usando como substratos o cloreto de p­-iodonitrotetrazolio (INT e a ureia, res­pectivamente. Foi avaliado o efeito nas referidas actividades provocado pelo pH, temperatura e vestígios de Hg2+ e de Pb2+. As actividades máximas obtiveram-se a pH = 8,5 e 40 ºC, com Km= 0,5 mM e Vmáx = 5,4 µmol min-1 g-1, para a activida­de de desidrogenases e a pH = 10 e 37 ºC, com Km = 25,7 mM e Vmáx = 2,0x10-2 µmol min-1 g-1, para a urease. Estas acti­vidades foram inibidas por diferentes concentrações de Hg2+, mas apenas a acti­vidade da urease foi inibida pelo Pb2+. Estes resultados são comparáveis com os referidos na literatura para estes enzimas.Enzyme activities are often used as in­dicator of soil quality. This study reports on dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1 and urease (EC 3.5.1.5 activities of a soil under Olea europaea L. from Évora region. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were determined using p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT and urea, respectively. Effects of pH, temperature and Hg2+ and Pb2+ traces on both activities were determined. Maximal activity was obtained at pH = 8.5 and 40ºC, Km = 0.5 mM and Vmax=5,4µmol min-1 g-1 , for dehydro­genase and at pH = 10 and 37 ºC, Km = 25.7 mM and Vmax = 2.0x10-2 µmol min-1 g-1, for urease. These activities were in­hibited by different concentrations of Hg2+, but only the urease activity was in­hibited by Pb2+. Results of this study are comparable to those reported in the litera­ture for these enzymes.

  2. Five Year Field Evaluation of Prosopis alba Clones on pH 9–10 Soils in Argentina Selected for Growth in the Greenhouse at Seawater Salinities (45 dS m−1

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    Mauricio Ewens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis alba seedlings, that grew at the 45 dS m−1 salinity level in a previous study of growth and survival of Argentine and Peruvian Prosopis, were propagated by rooting cuttings and established in a seed orchard/long term evaluation trial on soils with low salinity (EC 5.1–7.5 dS m−1 but high pH (8.9 to 10.2. A pH gradient occurred in the field with values ranging from pH 9.4 in block 1 to pH 10.3 in block 5. After five years growth, almost all of the clones had a mean height greater than 4 m and one clone was more than 5 m. Ten of the 21 tested clones had significantly greater biomass growth than the three seed propagated check varieties. The broad-sense (i.e., clone mean heritability was estimated to be 0.45 for biomass, 0.53 for diameter and 0.59 for height indicating that strong genetic gains should be possible by selecting and vegetatively propagating the best genotypes. In the block with the highest pH values, two clones that appear to be P. alba × P. ruscifolia hybrids (i.e., P. vinallilo had the greatest biomass. Correlations between growth during the last two months in the high salinity hydroponic greenhouse selection system and growth in the field were significant (R2 = 0.262 and positive, although the relationship was negative for putative P. vinallilo clones (R2 = 0.938. The several fold increase in biomass of some of the clones over the three check varieties, suggests that the greenhouse screen was successful in identifying superior salt tolerant clones. Apparently whether the greenhouse seedlings had lesser (~1 cm to greater (~3 cm height growth was not as important as just having a healthy live apical meristem. The observed salt tolerance of the putative P. vinalillo clones may prove useful as rootstocks for recently described high pod producing P. alba clones.

  3. Adsorção de boro em solos ácricos em função da variação do pH Boron adsorption in acric soils as a function of pH variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Roberto Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A adsorção de B pelo solo é o principal fenômeno que afeta sua disponibilidade e seu potencial de contaminação. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a investigar os efeitos do pH na adsorção de B em amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de um Latossolo Vermelho Acriférrico (LVwf e de um Latossolo Amarelo Ácrico (LAw - ambos com balanço positivo de cargas no horizonte Bw - e de um Nitossolo Vermelho eutroférrico (NVef; (b avaliar a adequação do modelo de Langmuir em simular os resultados experimentais de adsorção; e (c correlacionar os atributos químicos, físicos e mineralógicos dos solos com os valores de adsorção máxima (Ads máx e do coeficiente de afinidade (K L, derivados das isotermas. Experimentos do tipo "batch" foram realizados para determinação da quantidade de boro adsorvido, tendo como eletrólito-suporte soluções de NaCl 0,01 mol L-1 com 0,1; 0,2; 0,4; 0,8; 1,2; 1,6; 2,0; e 4,0 µg mL-1 de B. Houve aumento da adsorção de B com a elevação do pH e da concentração inicial de B adicionado. Maiores quantidades de B foram adsorvidas na amostra superficial do NVef e nos horizontes Bw positivamente carregados dos Latossolos ácricos. A adsorção de B foi representada por isotermas dos tipos C (linear e L (exponencial e adequadamente ajustada pelo modelo de Langmuir. Os parâmetros Ads máx e K L estimados por regressão não-linear não se correlacionaram com o pH. No pH natural, teores de matéria orgânica (MO e de argila foram as variáveis que mais influenciaram a Ads máx nas camadas superficiais. Nas camadas subsuperficiais, a Ads máx correlacionou-se negativamente com os teores de MO e positivamente com os de gibbsita. Teores de (hidróxidos de Fe cristalinos e amorfos estiveram correlacionados aos valores de K L obtidos nas amostras subsuperficiais e ao pH natural, bem como à Ads máx das camadas superficiais após aumento do pH.Boron (B adsorption by soils affects its bioavailable contents and

  4. Short-term Response of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Dissolved Nitrogen and pH in Soil%土壤中可溶性氮和pH对有机肥和化肥的短期响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹丹; 吴祥为; 田光明; 徐强; 保琦蓓; 周卉; 李霞

    2012-01-01

    The short-term changes of soil dissolved nitrogen and soil pH after fertilizations were studied by pot experiment in greenhouse.The study aimed to discuss the conversion between organic and mineral nitrogen,so as to evaluate the interrelationships between dissolved nitrogen and pH after fertilization in soil.During the five weeks after Brassica chinensis were transplanted into soil amended with different nitrogen fertilizers,soil pH of cake manure,pig compost and inorganic fertilizer treatments followed sharp decreases with slow rebound;sludge compost and control treatments almost didn't alter pH.Total dissolved nitrogen(TDN),dissolved organic nitrogen(DON),NH+4-N and NO-3-N in soil under different fertilizations followed the sequence: Cake manure,inorganic fertilizer pig compost sludge compost control.NH+4-N declined on the whole,while the rise trends of NO-3-N differed among four fertilization treatments.The results represent transformations of different organic fertilizers varied obviously in soil.Soil pH of cake manure and inorganic fertilizer treatments were significantly positive correlation with NH+4-N,while negative with NO-3-N;except that DON of pig compost treatment was correlated with both NH+4-N and NO-3-N negatively,the other four treatments all had significant postive correlation with TDN.%通过温室盆栽试验,施用猪粪堆肥(PC)、污泥堆肥(SC)、菜籽饼肥(CM)和无机化肥(IF)后,对土壤pH值和不同形态氮素的短期响应进行研究,探讨土壤可溶性无机氮、有机氮及土壤pH值之间的相互关系。结果表明,CM,PC和IF处理的pH值都呈现先快速下降后缓慢回升的趋势,但PC处理下降幅度较小;而SC处理和不施肥对照(CK)处理的pH值基本不变;不同施肥处理均提高了土壤中氮素水平,3种有机肥中以CM处理最显著地提高了土壤中总可溶性氮(TDN)、NH4+-N、NO3--N和可溶性有机氮(DON)浓度,PC处理的次

  5. Efeitos da aplicação de efluente tratado no solo: pH, matéria orgânica, fósforo e potássio Effects of application of treated wastewater in soil: pH, organic matter, phosphorus and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria S. Duarte

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da disposição do efluente doméstico tratado em algumas características químicas do solo, razão pela qual foram determinadas as características físicas e químicas do efluente tratado e da água de abastecimento público e as características químicas do solo cultivado. Esta pesquisa foi realizada no período de maio a setembro de 2005, com o cultivo de variedade matador de pimentão com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualisado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo quatro tipos de água e dois níveis de adubação e 12 repetições para cada tratamento. Concluiu-se ao término do experimento que o efluente utilizado mostrou qualidade física e química adequada para irrigação de plantas de pimentão e, com exceção da concentração de matéria orgânica, não se constataram-se, em geral, alterações significativas nas concentrações de fósforo, potássio e pH do solo cultivado.This research aims to provide an analysis of the effects of treated wastewater reuse on some characteristics of soil, reason for which the physical and chemical characteristics of the treated effluent, the tap water and the cultivated soil were assessed. This study was carried out from May to September 2005 and the variety 'matador' of pepper was cultivated. The experimental design was randomized in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme (four water types and two fertilization levels and twelve replications. At the end of the experiment it was concluded that the effluent presented adequate physical and chemical quality for irrigation of pepper plant. With the exception of the organic matter concentration, in general, there was no significant change in the concentration of phosphorus, potassium and pH of the cultivated soil.

  6. Peanut response to lime and molybdenum application in low pH soils Resposta do amendoim à calagem e ao molibdênio em solo ácido

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    J. A. Quaggio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Liming acid soils is considered to assure the availability of Mo in crops. Additionally, in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. the positive response to liming is associated to a better supply of Ca+2, Mo for the nitrogenase-complex activity, and other non-nitrogen fixing activities of the crop. This study was thus undertaken to assess the effect of lime, Mo, and the lime-Mo interaction on peanut crop, on an acid Ultisol at the Mococa Experimental Station, Instituto Agronômico, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1987 to 1990. A randomized complete block design with four replications, in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, was used in the study. The factors included four lime rates (0, 2, 4, and 6 t ha-1 broadcast and incorporated into the soil, and Mo (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha-1 as (NH42MoO4 applied as seed dressing. Lime was applied once at the beginning of the study while Mo was applied at every planting. Peanut seed cv 'tatu' was used. Significant increase in peanut kernel yield with liming was only evident in the absence of Mo, whereas the peanut response to Mo was observed in two out of the three harvests. A higher yield response (28 % increase was found when Mo was applied without liming. Soil molybdenum availability, as indicated by plant leaf analysis, increased significantly when lime was applied. Molybdenum fertilization led to higher leaf N content, which in turn increased peanut yield in treatments with smaller lime doses.A calagem em solos ácidos tem sido considerada prática suficiente para garantir a disponibilidade de molibdênio para as culturas. Adicionalmente, seu efeito positivo na cultura do amendoim tem sido associado ao melhor fornecimento de cálcio, maior disponibilidade de molibdênio para o complexo nitrogenase, e outros processos na planta não relacionados com a fixação biológica de N. Esse trabalho foi realizado, com vistas em estudar os efeitos de doses de calcário e de molibdênio e suas interações na cultura do amendoim

  7. 化工厂场地酸化土壤工程化中和修复案例研究%Case Study on Engineering Remediation of Acidified Site Soil in a Chemical Plant by a Neutralizing Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘云雨; 罗飞; 徐正国; 宋静; 骆永明

    2011-01-01

    对江苏某化工厂酸化地块进行了氧化钙中和修复工程研究.Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号地块剖面混合土样pH值分别为3.56、4.68和4.74,土壤修复目标定在pH值为6~8基本近中性.通过室内试验确定Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号地块土壤生石灰掺混比例为0.5%、0.3%和0.3%;现场中试后Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号地块石灰掺混比例调整为0.7%、0.35%和0.3%;中试结果用于场地机械搅拌工程修复,修复过程中定期随机采样对中和效果进行连续监测.监测结果基本达标后请第三方对修复效果进行评估,最后土壤回填压实.修复结果表明借助于科学的石灰添加量和工程机械混合措施,能快速有效地修复酸化地块土壤.%Engineering remediation with CaO for an acidified site in a chemical plant in Jiangsu Province was carried out in this study. The pH of composite soil samples taken from soil profiles in Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ acidified zones were 3.56, 4.68 and 4.74 respectively. The soil pH remediation objective was set at 6 ~ 8 near neutral range. Determined by laboratory quick test, the theoretical lime-soil mixture ratio was 0.5% , 0. 3% and 0.3% for Ⅰ ,Ⅱ, Ⅲ acidified zones respectively. After pilot scale test, the final adjusted "lime-soil" mixture ratio was O. 7%, 0.35% and 0.3% and the ratio was used for the soil mechanical agitation with continuous soil pH monitoring until the results reaching the remediation goal. Then a third party with relevant certification was invited to evaluate the remediation effect. The remediation result showed that combining reasonable lime-soil mixture ratio and mechanical measures could quickly and effectively remediate the acidified soil.

  8. Efeito do pH do solo rizosférico e não rizosférico de plantas de soja inoculadas com Bradyrhizobium japonicum na absorção de boro, cobre, ferro, manganês e zinco Effect of pH of rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil on boron, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc uptake by soybean plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Humberto Souza

    2010-10-01

    of the rhizosphere of N2-fixing plants seem to play a key role in the uptake of micronutrient whose availability depends on changes in soil acidity. Variations in the B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn uptake were studied during soybean development and growth cycle under the influence of biological N2 fixation and the initial pH of two soils samples (a clayey and a sandy Yellow Latosol; Oxisols, in a greenhouse experiment. These samples were incubated with rates of CaCO3 + MgCO3 (4:1 to raise the pH (H2O to 5.2, 5.6, 6.2, and 6.6 in the clay soil and to 5.3, 5.6, 5.9, and 6.3, respectively, in the sandy soil. After 60 days of incubation, the soil samples were fertilized with 450 mg dm-3 P and 120 mg dm-3 K. Soybean (Glycine max (L Merrill seeds of the variety Paranaíba, inoculated with the strains SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum were germinated. Four plants per pot (2.2 dm³ were grown and harvested 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 46, and 54 days after emergence. The following variables were measured: pH of the rhizosphere (pHr, the non-rhizospheric soil pH (between roots (pHnr, the B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn contents in shoots and roots, N in the shoot, number of nodules, and the shoot, root and nodule dry matter. It was observed that changes in pHr and pHnr depended on the initial soil pH (pHs and on biological N2 fixation. The accumulation of B and Fe in the shoots was not influenced by the pHr values modified depending on the pH, except for Fe in the clay soil. However, nodules appeared 24 days after emergence and nutrient accumulation was significantly increased from then on. For Cu, Mn and Zn uptake seemed to be affected mainly by pHr. The micronutrient content in the plants proved to be sensitive to changes in the rhizospheric pH, particularly after nodulation.

  9. Diagnose e tratamento preventivo, no solo, de deficiência de zinco em cultura de arroz de sequeiro em solos com pH abaixo de 7 Diagnosis and prevention treatment, of zinc defficiency in upland rice, cultivated in soils with pH below 7, in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derly Machado de Souza

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola de 1965/66, em plantas de arroz cultivadas em terras altas, sem irrigação e com pH que variava entre 5,75 e 6,90, localizadas nos municípios de Miguelópolis, Leme e Campinas, foram notadas anomalias que se caracterizavam por afetar as plantas desde duas semanas após a germinação, causando morte a algumas delas. As fôlhas mais velhas apresentavam-se com coloração castanho-escura, exceto ao longo dos bordos e da nervura principal, que conservavam a côr verde normal. Algumas fôlhas, além dêsses sintomas, apresentavam o têrço inferior com tonalidade verde-amarelada; outras mostravam-se partidas no sentido do seu comprimento. Resultados obtidos com adubações qualitativas e quantitativas de zinco e pela análise química das plantas evidenciaram que os sintomas descritos eram provocados pela deficiência de zinco quando os teores dêsse elemento eram inferiores a 15 ppm na matéria sêca. Uma dose de 5 kg/ha de sulfato de zinco, aplicada no sulco de plantio, foi suficiente para evitar o aparecimento da deficiência de zinco na planta.An abnormality in rice plants was recently noticed in Miguelopolis, Leme and Campinas counties (São Paulo State, Brazil in soils with pH below 7. It affected the plants soon after germination, killing most of them. The surviving plants had their normal development delayed. Affected plants had their older leaves with brown color, except along the rim and the main vein which continued green. In some cases, leaves split along its length. Younger leaves, however, appeared normal. The cause of these symptoms was attributed to zinc deficiency. Chemical analyses of the whole plant indicated that symptoms appear on rice plants when zinc content was below 15 ppm in dry matter. Application of 5 kg/ha of zinc sulfate in the soil, at the planting time, was enough to avoid manifestation of defficiency signs.

  10. Germination and Seedling Growth of Perennial Ryegrass in Acid Sulfate Soil Treated by Pyrite Nano-Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Yi, J.; Kim, T.

    2007-05-01

    The trial pot experiment was conducted to validate the effect of encapsulation in reduction of acid rock drainage. Six different treatments were performed: A = control, four times spraying of distilled water; B = four times of 0.01 M H2O2; C = once-encapsulated and three times spraying of distilled water; D = twice-encapsulated and twice spraying of distilled water; E = three times-encapsulated and once spraying of distilled water and F = four times-encapsulated for the acid sulfate soil with pyrite bearing andesite powder and sand. After the encapsulation treatment, the perennial ryegrass (Loium perenne) was sowed to evaluate germination rate and growth for three months. The leachate was examined for the chemical properties. The leachate from the A pot (control) is characterized as acidic (pH below 3) and high concentrations of SO4-2: 12,022 mg/L, Al: 85.8 mg/L and Mn: 34.1 mg/L which can be toxic effect to the plant growth. However, the leachate from encapsulated pots showed near neutral (pH 6 to 7) and low concentrations of SO4-2 (below 3,000 mg/L), Al (below 45mg/L) and Mn (24 gm/L). The frequency of encapsulation treatment is related to reduction of acidic drainage. It was hard to identify the significant difference of the seed germination rate of ryegrass between the treatments, although root and shoot growth showed three times difference between the control (1.90g/pot) and four times encapsulated treatment (6.33g/pot) after 2 month growth. It is suggested that encapsulation of pyrite in acid sulfate soil causes the reduction of acidic drainage resulting in the higher growth of herbaceous plants.

  11. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  12. Influences of DOM and pH on PAHs Migrations in Soil Columns%DOM及pH对典型PAHs在土壤中迁移影响模拟实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔肖翠; 何江涛; 杨蕾; 邹合萍

    2014-01-01

    影响多环芳烃(PAHs)在土壤中垂向迁移的因素很多,通过柱实验模拟研究了溶解性有机质(DOM)浓度及pH对多环芳烃在土壤中迁移及转化的影响,以氯离子做示踪剂进行校正,探讨了不同浓度DOM及pH对多环芳烃迁移的影响。结果表明,校正后的多环芳烃迁移速率随着DOM浓度增加呈逐渐增大趋势,与空白柱对照可得低浓度的DOM由于累积吸附与共吸附作用对多环芳烃的迁移起抑制作用,随着DOM浓度增加,抑制作用逐渐减弱,当浓度达到一定程度时,DOM形成表面活性剂胶体束,多环芳烃进入胶体束内部,从而迁移速率加快。当pH为6、8、10时多环芳烃的迁移速率与空白柱相比均较大,且pH为8、10时多环芳烃迁移速率大于pH为6时的迁移速率,由此可见pH会影响多环芳烃迁移速率,其原因为pH的改变会影响DOM所带电荷的电性,当pH升高到中性或碱性时由于空间排斥理论,DOM的迁移会加快,从而影响多环芳烃的迁移速率。%Vertical migrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)in soils are influenced by many factors. In a simulated experiment, vertical migrations of PAHs in soil columns were investigated at different levels of DOM and pH. Chloride ion(Cl-)was used to correct the migration rates of PAHs. The migration rates of PAHs were influenced by DOM concentrations. At low concentrations, DOM restrained the vertical migrations of PAHs, due to its cumulative adsorption and co-adsorption. At high concentrations, however, DOM formed surfactant colloids, and the PAHs could enter the colloids, leading to increased migrations. The migrations of PAHs in the columns increased with in-creasing pH values, due to promoted electrostatic exclusion from more charges of DOM from the dissociation at higher pH.

  13. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  14. Rendimento de feijão e alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo em função de doses de composto de resíduo de algodão Yield of bean plant and changes in pH and soil organic matter as a function of doses of compost cotton waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Júnio Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de feijão e as alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo após a aplicação do composto de resíduo de algodão. Para tanto, instalou-se o experimento em condições de campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos constituídos por doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 de resíduo de algodão compostado oriundo da indústria têxtil, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se que a aplicação do resíduo de algodão compostado promoveu melhoria nas características produtivas do feijoeiro submetido ao manejo orgânico e elevou os valores de pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Desse modo, o composto utilizado mostrou-se como uma alternativa para a adubação da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield of bean plants and changes in pH and soil organic matter after compost cotton waste application. An experiment was carried out in an Acrisol. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five levels of cotton waste compost (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 from the textile factory, in five replications. The application of the cotton waste compost promoted increase in the growth and productive characteristics in bean crop, and increased the pH values and soil organic matter. Thus, the compost showed as an alternative for fertilization of the culture.

  15. Soil Resources Degradation and Conservation Techniques Adopted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    include among others: pedestals, armour layers and tree moulds which lead ... soil management practices adopted by the farmers ... observation of the soil management practices adopted .... The pH values of the soils under the different land.

  16. pH が異なる一次元圧密された粘性土の微視的構造

    OpenAIRE

    笹西, 孝行; 松下, 英次; 山本, 哲朗; 鈴木, 素之

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of pH on soil structures of one dimensionally consolidated cohesive soils, consolidation tests were performed on six soil samples in which pH values were artificially changed by adding sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide solutions. A scanning electric microscope made observation of soil structures. It was shown that the soil structures formed by the consolidation changed with pH values and the kind of soil sample. Although acid soil samples formed flocculent st...

  17. 皖南茶园土壤活性铝形态分布与土壤pH和植茶年限的关系%Influences of Soil pH and Cultivation Years on Active Aluminum Species Distribution from Tea Soils in Southern Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏有健; 廖万有; 王烨军; 张永利; 吴新荣; 胡善国; 孙力

    2013-01-01

    通过采集皖南3个典型茶园土壤和实验室分析,研究了在不同植茶年限下茶园土壤pH和活性铝形态分布特征.结果表明:茶园土壤中活性铝的形态主要有交换态铝Al3+、单聚体羟基铝Al(OH)2+Al(OH)2+、胶体态铝Al(OH)30和腐植酸铝Al-HA,总体上随着植茶年限的增加Al-HA含量呈明显下降趋势,而Al3+己稳步上升趋势,单聚体羟基铝Al(OH)2+Al(OH)2+呈缓慢下降.0~20cm层土壤pH值与Al3+、植茶年限呈极显著负相关(-0.819、-0.952,P<0.01),与Al(OH)2+Al(OH)2+呈显著正相关(0.658,P<0.05),与Al-HA呈极显著正相关(0.929,P<O.01),20~40cm层土壤pH与各形态活性铝及植茶年限间的相关性不显著.pAl-pH的线性回归方程的斜率在0.281~0.659之间,都明显偏离了三水铝石模型,而方程的决定系数都在0.90以上,表明茶园土壤中Al3+舌度对土壤pH的影响还是很显著的.与自然土相比,植茶促进交换态铝在茶园土壤中的累积,土壤种茶后趋于酸化,种茶时间越长酸化越严重,而茶园土壤pH与土壤活性铝总量是呈负相关的.%Effects of soil pH and active aluminum species distribution by different cultivating years in three typical tea gardens of Southern Anhui Province were studied.Experimental result showed that active aluminum had four species in tea soil,exchangeable aluminum Al3+,unimer hydroxyl aluminum Al(OH)2+ Al(OH)2+,colloidal aluminum Al(OH)30 and humic-acid aluminum Al-HA.With the increasing of cultivating years,the content of humic-acid aluminum was in downtrend,the exchangeable aluminum was increased to a low level while the content of unimer hydroxyl aluminum decreased gently.According to the Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that 0~20 cm layer soil pH value were high significantly correlated with Al3+(r=-0.819,P<0.01),cultivation years (r=--0.952,P<0.01),Al-HA (r=0.929,P<0.01)and not related with Al(OH)30 (r=-0.359,P>0.05),and with Al(OH)2+ Al(OH)2+had a positive

  18. Correlation Analysis Between Soil pH and Fertility Indicators in Hainan Black Pepper Advantageous Regions%海南胡椒优势区土壤pH值与养分肥力指标的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖超; 邬华松; 谭乐和; 鱼欢; 杨建峰; 李志刚; 唐宏亮

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the correlation between the soil pH with soil organic matter (SOM) and available nutrient concentrations, soil samples were collected at the depth of 0~20 cm and 20~40 cm soil layer from the main black pepper plantations in Hainan. The results showed that the soil pH was ranged from 3.76 to 5.26 in advantageous regions. Highly acidic and strongly acidic soil samples were accounted for 54% and 46% of the total soil samples, respectively. Across Hainan black pepper gardens, about 98% of soil samples were in lower interval for the SOM content, about 85% were in the appropriate range for available nitrogen(N), 54% of soil samples were below the appropriate value range for available phosphorus(P) content, about 54% of pepper garden were lack of available potassium(K), and exchangeable calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) concentrations were lower than optimum value range. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the soil pH had significantly positive correlation with available nutrient concentrations of K, Ca and Mg. No evident correlation was observed for SOM, available N and available P. Ridge regression analysis indicated that relationship between the soil pH and nutrient concentration was arranged from strong to weak: K>Ca>SOM>Mg>N>P. It was suggested that appropriate increase in the input amounts of plant ash, lime and organic fertilizer were suggested to improve the soil pH and soil fertility in Hainan black pepper gardens.%对海南省胡椒优势区胡椒园土壤分0~20 cm和20~40 cm两层取样,用以研究海南胡椒种植区土壤pH值与养分含量之间的关系.结果表明,海南胡椒优势区土壤pH值在3.76~5.26之间,极强酸土壤占样品总数的54%,强酸土壤占样品总数的46%;约98%胡椒园土壤有机质含量在较低含量区间;碱解氮含量有85%在适宜值范围内;有效磷含量有54%低于适宜值范围;约54%胡椒园缺乏速效钾;交换性钙、镁含量均低于适宜值范围.线

  19. Dirvožemio pH erdvinių dėsningumų Lietuvoje pagrindimas

    OpenAIRE

    Volungevičius, Jonas; Prapiestienė, Regina; Eidukevičienė, Marija

    2006-01-01

    The first results of soil pH spatial statistical analysis in Lithuania’s territory are presented. The study has been performed in three stages: (1) compilation of a soil pH map, (2) statistical analysis of soil pH diversity, and (3) determination of spatial regularities in soil pH data... [Visą santraukos tekstą skaitykite spustelėję interneto prieigos nuorodą].

  20. High Ph, Ammonia Toxicity, and the Search for Life on the Jovian Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, P. H.; Souza, K. A.; Mack, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pH and ammonia concentration were studied separately, where possible, on a variety of organisms, including some isolated from natural environments of high pH and/or ammonia concentration. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are both extremely sensitive to ammonia. An aerobic organism (growth up to pH 11.4) from an alkaline spring is more resistant, but exhibits a toxic response to ammonia at a pH much lower than its maximum for growth. The greatest ammonia resistance has been found in an unidentified organism growing at near neutral pH. Even in this case, however, urvival at ammonia concentrations reasonably expected on the Jovian planets is measured in hours. This is two to three orders of magnitude longer than for E. coli. Results support the tentative conclusion that contamination of the Jovian planets with terrestrial organisms that can grow is unlikely. However, the range of toxic response noted, coupled with the observation that terrestrial life has not been exposed to high ammonia concentrations for millions of years, suggests that adaptation to greater ammonia tolerance may be possible.

  1. Studies of the Levels of Some Toxic Elements in Soil and Tailings from Bibiani Mining Area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Quarshie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of the toxic elements As, Cd, Cr, Hg and V in soil and tailings samples from the Bibiani mining area in the Western Region of Ghana have been measured using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA with the aim of assessing the impact of mining activity on the Bibiani mining environment. All samples and standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons in the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1 facility at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya-Ghana, followed by counting with a conventional counting system. The concentrations of the elements measured in the soil were in the ranges: As, 0.46-996 mg/kg; Cd, 0.69-4.15 mg/kg; Hg, 0.01-0.06 mg/kg and V, 60-204 mg/kg. In the tailings, the concentrations of the elements were in the following ranges: As, (2.70-3.50×103 mg/kg; Cd 1.35-3.36 mg/kg; Cr, 19-87 mg/kg; Hg, 0.01-0.02 mg/kg and V, 48-93 mg/kg. The soils were near neutral and reducing (except sample LS, taken from Lineso, a galamsey mining area which had a pH of 4.99 with pH ranging from 4.99 to 7.54 and an average Eh of -64 mV, as were the tailings with pH ranging from 6.63 to 7.62 with an average Eh of -53 mV. Very high levels of As were measured in the tailings and some soil samples very close to the tailings dams of the Central African Goldmine, as well as some areas that used to be galamsey mining areas. This gives the indication that the tailings dams and galamsey mining activities might be the source of As pollution in the area. It was also realized that high levels of the elements As, and V occurred generally in both the soil and tailings samples. The levels of As in the tailings were far higher than in the soil whilst the levels of V in the soil were higher than those in the tailings. The levels of Cr measured in the tailings were quite high but our inability to measure Cr in the soil makes it difficult for us to tell whether these levels have in anyway influenced the levels of Cr in the soil. On the contrary

  2. Trace metal biogeochemistry in mangrove ecosystems: a comparative assessment of acidified (by acid sulfate soils) and non-acidified sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Bibhash; Birch, Gavin; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu

    2013-10-01

    The generation of acidity and subsequent mobilization of toxic metals induced by acid sulfate soils (ASSs) are known to cause severe environmental damage to many coastal wetlands and estuaries of Australia and worldwide. Mangrove ecosystems serve to protect coastal environments, but are increasingly threatened from such ASS-induced acidification due to variable hydrological conditions (i.e., inundation-desiccation cycles). However, the impact of such behaviors on trace metal distribution, bio-availability and accumulation in mangrove tissues, i.e., leaves and pneumatophores, are largely unknown. In this study, we examined how ASS-induced acidifications controlled trace metal distribution and bio-availability in gray mangrove (Avicennia marina) soils and in tissues in the Kooragang wetland, New South Wales, Australia. We collected mangrove soils, leaves and pneumatophores from a part of the wetland acidified from ASS (i.e., an affected site) for detailed biogeochemical studies. The results were compared with samples collected from a natural intertidal mangrove forest (i.e., a control site) located within the same wetland. Soil pH (mean: 5.90) indicated acidic conditions in the affected site, whereas pH was near-neutral (mean: 7.17) in the control site. The results did not show statistically significant differences in near-total and bio-available metal concentrations, except for Fe and Mn, between affected and control sites. Iron concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the affected site, whereas Mn concentrations were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in the control site. However, large proportions of near-total metals were potentially bio-available in control sites. Concentrations of Fe and Ni were significantly (p values≤0.001) greater in leaves and pneumatophores of the affected sites, whereas Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn were greater in control sites. The degree of metal bio-accumulation in leaves and pneumatophores suggest contrasting

  3. 海南清澜港红树林湿地土壤有机碳分布及其与pH的关系%Soil Carbon Sequestration and Its Relationship with Soil pH in Qinglangang Mangrove Wetlands in Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志华; 张莉; 郭彦茹; 菀玉; 曹萌; 郭菊兰; 李志勇

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems play an important role in carbon sequestration. A survey was carried out along two transects of mangroves in Qinglangang, Hainan Island, where the most typical mangrove community in China is distributed. This study aimed at evaluating site effect on carbon sequestration and its relationship with pH. One of the transects was located in a site far away from the sea ( more than 500 m) ,the other near the sea ( less than 100 m) . Along each transect,three soil columns ( seaward,interior,landward) were withdrawn using a PVC pipe. Each soil column was separated into sections of 5 cm interval. Soil samples from each section were analyzed for carbon content and pH. The main results are as follows. The pH of mangrove soil far from sea ranged from 4. 9 to 6. 2,compared with a much higher pH of around 8. 0 near sea. The SOC content in the soil far from sea ranged from (9. 1 ± 1. 08) g·kg -1 to( 66. 2 ± 5. 17) g·kg -1 ,with an average soil depth of about 85 cm. The SOC content increased with soil depth until 60 -70 cm,then the SOC decreased. Along each transect,the SOC content decreased with the distance away from sea. The SOC contents of seaward,interior,landward were (36. 76 ± 3. 04) g·kg -1,(35. 12 ± 3. 78) g·kg -1,(17. 20 ± 1. 56) g·kg -1, respectively. There was significant difference in SOC content between seaward site and landward site. The change patterns of the mangrove SOC far from sea in Qinglangang were consistent with that of Yap and Palau mangrove in Micronesia. The SOC content of transect near sea ranged from 8. 35 ± 0. 94 g·kg -1 to (38. 3 ± 2. 53) g·kg -1,with an average depth of about 60 cm. The SOC content generally decreased with depth but with a small peak at 40cm. Average SOC contents of seaward,interior,landward were (22. 12 ± 2. 57) g·kg -1,(14. 83 ± 1. 01) g·kg -1,(13. 18 ± 1. 20) g·kg -1, respectively. The SOC content was significantly different between seaward and landward sites. The SOC content of all samples

  4. 硝化抑制剂对春玉米氮素利用及土壤pH值和无机氮的影响%Effects of nitrification inhibitor on nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize, soil pH and inorganic nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玉凤; 王晓燕; 庞荔丹; 宋鹏慧; 戴建军

    2015-01-01

    通过大田试验,研究了黑土区春玉米施用硝化抑制剂对土壤pH值、土壤铵态氮和硝态氮变化、硝化抑制率、产量及氮素利用率的影响。试验结果表明:硝化抑制剂处理中,混合物B的中水平添加量处理( B2)玉米产量较一次性全施肥处理( AF)能够增产且增产率最高,为5.60%,氮素利用率较追肥处理( TP)提高5.43%,硝化抑制作用和增产的效果明显;施用硝化抑制剂可使土壤pH值缓慢阶梯式下降;土壤含水率与土壤铵态氮含量呈负相关性(P<0.01);土壤铵态氮含量与土壤pH值呈显著正相关;所选用的两种硝化抑制剂的配方中, B2和A3(混合物A的低水平添加量)处理的增产和硝化抑制效果最佳。%A field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitor application in black soil area on soil pH, soil ammonium and nitrate change, nitrification inhibition rate, yield and nitrogen use efficiency of spring maize. Results showed that: yield of treatment of nitrification inhibitor added in fertilizer (B2) increased by 5. 60% compared with nitrogen fertilization of all-in-one treatment ( AF) . The nitrogen use efficiencies of treatment of nitrification inhibitor B2 increased by 5. 43% compared with that of nitrogen top dressing ( TP ) . Nitrification inhibition was significant and production was in-creased. Nitrification inhibitor slowly decreased soil pH stepwise. Soil moisture content and soil NH4+ -N were negatively cor-related (P<0. 01) and there was a significant positive correlation between ammonium nitrogen content and soil pH. The two nitrification inhibitors treatments, B2 and A3, had the best effects on yield increasing and nitrification inhibition.

  5. De betekenis van de zuurgraad van de grond en de fosfaat- en kalivoorziening van grassportvelden = The significance of soil pH and the supply of phosphorus and potassium to sports turf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riem Vis, F.

    1982-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de resultaten van eigen onderzoek omtrent de eisen die grasvelden aan de pH van de zodelaag en aan de voorziening met fosfaat en kali stellen, besproken en vergeleken met literatuurgegevens

  6. Oil Recovery of Soil Contained Petroleum Oil by Using Bio surfactant of Mixed Cultures Bacteria (Brevundumonas diminuta, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Pseudomonas citronelis at vary pH Conditions (5-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Yudono

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacteria (Brevundumonas diminuta, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Pseudomonas citronelbis which are indigenous bacteria from Babat Toman village South Sumatra. It were isolated and identified by using Bergey's method. In the normal condition (pH 7, these bacteria could produce bio surfactant and effectively as mixed culture. The growth of mixed culture of indigenous bacteria was tested at different pH conditions (5-9. The results show that  the optimum pH was obtained at pH 7, the population of bacteria was  2.14.107 cfu/mL. The shortest regeneration time of these bacteria were (12, 12, 9, 9 hours respectively. The initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of sample was 18,4 %, it was extracted by using the bio surfactant of mixed culture with 10 % concentration at different pH conditions (5-9, the contact time as long as 168 hours. The optimal oil recovery was obtained at pH 7 as much as 20.97 %. It can be concluded that the bio surfactant effectively used in the normal condition (pH 7 and ineffectively in alkaline condition (pH 9.The GC analyses were conducted to initial crude oil and the residue. The results show that the crude oil consists of 33 components, and the residue consists of 14 components. It shows that the bio surfactant of mixed culture bacteria dissolved the hydrocarbon components with temperature fractions 150, 155, 178, 184, 190, and 197 o C.  

  7. Cd phytoavailability in sewage sludge-amended soil of different pH estimated by an isotopic method and chemical extraction; Fitodisponibilidad de Cd en suelo de diferente pH tratado com lodo albanal estimada por metodo isotopico y extraccion quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe Carlos; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton; Muraoka, Takashi; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Div. de Produtividade Agroindustrial e Alimentos]. E-mail: falvarez@cena,usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Div. de Desenvolvimento de Meeodos e Tecnicas Analiticas e Nucleares

    2008-07-01

    The Cd phytoavailability in sewage sludge-amended soils of different pHs using the {sup 109}Cd L-value isotopic method and Cd extracted by DTPA has been determined. Maize plants (Zea mais L.) were grown under greenhouse conditions in a xanthic ferralsol at different pHs amended with five sewage sludge (SS) rates, and labeled with 74 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 109}Cd. The SS rates altered the properties of the soil chemicals and these influenced the isotopic parameter (L-value) and percent of Cd uptake by plants from soil (%Cdpdfs) and SS (%CdpdfSS). L-values and Cd extracted by DTPA correlate significantly with SS rates and Cd uptake by plants and are efficient for predicting the Cd phytoavailability in the sewage sludge-amended soil. (author)

  8. Effects of rainwater harvesting and afforestation on soil properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Effect of rainwater harvesting (RWH) structures like Contour trench (CT), ... conserving soil and water facilitating plant growth and helped restore the degraded hill. .... Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC) soil organic ...... Field Crop Res.

  9. PH og modernismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus.......Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus....

  10. Changes in soil properties and plant uptake of heavy metals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Full Length Research Paper. Changes in soil ... In a study to evaluate the contributions of open municipal waste dump to soil heavy metals ... Key words: Heavy metal contamination, seasonal changes, soil pH, soil texture, specific adsorption.

  11. Evaluation of the fertility status of selected soils in Mbaise, Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the fertility status of selected soils in Mbaise, Imo State southeastern ... moisture content, total porosity and also soil chemical properties such as soil pH, ... Keywords: Soil fertility, Nutrient index, Organic matter, land use, Ultisol ...

  12. Effects of biochar application on transformation and chemical forms of C,N and P in soils with different pH%生物质炭对不同 pH 土壤中碳氮磷的转化与形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋桐; 邱志腾; 章明奎

    2014-01-01

    为了解生物质炭的施用对土壤本身碳、氮、磷循环的影响,选择不同酸碱度的3种土壤,设置对照(不施生物质炭和肥料)、施生物质炭、单施肥料及同时施生物质炭和肥料等4个处理,研究了施用生物质炭对土壤碳、氮、磷的转化与形态的影响。结果表明,施用生物质炭增加了土壤的 pH 值,在酸性土壤上尤为明显。施用生物质炭显著地提高了供试3种土壤的有机碳积累,降低了酸性和中性土壤中的水溶性有机碳,促进了土壤微生物生物量碳的提高,降低了易氧化有机碳占总有机碳的比例,轻微增加了土壤中胡敏酸与富里酸的比值(humic/fulvic acids,H/F)。施生物质炭可降低土壤中的 NH 4+-N 含量,有利于氮素向缓效态转化,防止氮素淋失;但它可增加土壤中 NH 3的挥发损失,对 NH 3挥发损失的影响在酸性土壤中小于中性和石灰性土壤。施生物质炭可提高土壤中的总磷含量,在未施肥料磷的土壤施用生物质炭增加了土壤水溶性磷的比例,但在施肥料磷的土壤中施用生物质炭却降低了土壤水溶性磷的比例;施生物质炭可增加土壤中 NaHCO 3-IP 和 NaHCO 3-OP 等生物有效态磷在总磷中的比例,降低了 NaOH-IP 和残余态磷的比例,明显增加了 HCl-P 的比例。研究认为,施用生物质炭可促进土壤碳的固定,可在一定程度上改善土壤氮、磷等养分的有效性;可考虑优先用于酸性土壤。%Summary Soil organic matter has an important role in soil fertility and agricultural productivity.Many practices have been used to increase organic carbon in soil,particularly nitrogen fertilization,zero-tillage agriculture,and the addition of large amounts of manure to soil.These practices do not sequester significant quantities of C into soil because most of the organic matter is not stable and is mineralized very fast.Many factors contribute to soil organic C stabilization,including soil

  13. Effects of Organic,Special and Conventional Farming on Soil Nutrients and Enzyme Activities under Eight Kinds of Vegetables%有机、特别与常规栽培对八种蔬菜土壤养分和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彬; 和文龙; 叶静宜; 封雪; 沈茂华

    2012-01-01

    通过田间试验比较了有机、特别与常规栽培对8种蔬菜土壤基本养分和土壤酶活性的影响。结果表明,与常规栽培相比,有机栽培和特别栽培能够提高土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷和速效钾含量,改良酸性土壤,并显著提高了土壤酶活性。有机栽培蔬菜土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶、转化酶和酸性磷酸酶活性均显著高于常规栽培。特别栽培的各项土壤指标基本介于有机和常规之间。研究表明有机栽培能够提高土壤养分和土壤酶活性。%A field experiment was carried on to evaluate the effects of farming systems on soil fertility and soil enzyme activities with eight kinds of vegetables.The results showed that,compared with conventional farming systems,the organic matter,total nitrogen,available P and available K were increased under organic and specially grown farming system.The soil pH was increased near neutral in organic farming system,but decreased in special and conventional farming systems.Activities of soil enzymes were obviously increased,under organic farming system while those under specially grown system were lower than organic farming system but much higher than conventional farming.The trend of soil catalase activity,soil urease activity,soil invertase activity and soil acid phosphatase activity were generally the same.It showed that organic farming did improve soil nutrients and enzyme activity significantly.

  14. Soil Respiration: Concept and Measurement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDOR M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration is the main element in the carbon cycle that makes possible for plants carbon plants to return inthe atmosphere. The objective of this work was to present and discuss some aspects of the soil CO2 efflux. We definedherein, some terms associated to the soil respiration concept, we tackled some aspects regarding the influence oftemperature, humidity and soil pH on soil respiration and we presented the principle of soil respiration measurement byusing dynamic closed chamber system.

  15. Influência do pH e temperatura sobre a atividade amilolítica de rizóbios isolados de solos da Amazônia Influence of pH and temperature on amylolytic activity of rhizobia isolated from Amazonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poucas são as informações referentes ao perfil enzimático de bactérias rizobiais. Em meio de cultura solidificado, foi conduzido um experimento em fatorial 7 x 3 x 3 para avaliar o efeito do pH (5,0; 6,5 e 8,0 e da temperatura (25, 35 e 42 ºC sobre a atividade amilolítica de sete isolados de rizóbio. As maiores atividades amilolíticas foram observadas em ambientes ácidos, com algumas bactérias também produzindo níveis significativos em pH 8,0. Entre as interações significativas (PInformation is scarce regarding the enzymatic profiles of rhizobia bacteria. On solid medium, a 7 x 3 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of pH (5.0, 6.5 and 8.0 and temperature (25, 35 and 42 ºC on amylase activities of seven rhizobia strains. The highest enzymatic activities were found in acid environments, with some bacteria also producing significant levels at pH 8.0. Among the significant interactions (P<0.01, INPA strains R-110 and R-822 exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.0 and 25 ºC, with the R-822 being also a good amylase producer at 35 and 42 ºC. In general terms, INPA strains R-110 and R-822 were the best enzyme producers, with amylolytic enzymatic activities higher than 2.0.

  16. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  17. An experimental study of the effects of pH and nitrogen on grassland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilman, D.; Olff, H.

    1991-01-01

    The response of plant species to a full-factorial experimental manipulation of soil pH and soil N in a Minnesota old field is compared to patterns observed in a chronosequence of old fields. Agropyron repens reached its greatest relative abundance in low pH but high N treatments. Schizachyrium scopa

  18. An experimental study of the effects of pH and nitrogen on grassland vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilman, D.; Olff, H.

    1991-01-01

    The response of plant species to a full-factorial experimental manipulation of soil pH and soil N in a Minnesota old field is compared to patterns observed in a chronosequence of old fields. Agropyron repens reached its greatest relative abundance in low pH but high N treatments. Schizachyrium

  19. 短期放牧强度对典型草原土壤有机碳及pH值的影响%Effects of Short-term Grazing Intensities on Soil Organic Carbon and pH Value in the Typical Steppe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萨仁高娃; 曹芙; 敖特根; 叁巴; 王成杰

    2014-01-01

    选择克氏针茅典型草原放牧的西门塔尔牛为研究对象,分析研究短期不同放牧强度(零放牧、轻牧、中牧、重牧)对草地土壤有机碳及pH值的影响,以探索典型草原适宜的载畜率。结果表明:①0~20 cm土层,有机碳含量随着放牧强度的增大而降低,且在重度放牧条件下呈显著差异;而20~30 cm土层,有机碳含量大小顺序为重牧>中牧>零放牧>轻牧,且重牧与轻牧呈显著差异。②土壤pH值随着放牧强度的增大而显著增加。③垂直分布上,土壤有机碳含量随着土层深度的增加而减少,而pH值大小顺序均呈现为10~20 cm>20~30 cm>0~10 cm。由此可见,制定适宜的载畜率,维持土壤养分平衡,是遏制草地退化的必要措施。%Taking Simmental cattle grazed in the typical steppe of Stipa krylovii Roshev as the research object, the effects of different short-term grazing intensities (non-grazing, light-grazing, moderate-grazing and heavy-grazing)on the soil organic carbon and pH value in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia were analyzed and the suitable stocking rate of the typical steppe was discussed, in order to alleviate the grassland soil degradation and enhance the sustained utilization of grassland. The results showed that the content of organic carbon in 0-20 cm soil layer decreased with the increase of grazing intensities and there was significant difference under the heavy-grazing conditions. The organic carbon content in 20-30 cm soil layer was heavy-grazing>moderate-grazing>non-grazing>light-grazing and there was significant difference between the heavy-grazing and light-grazing. The soil pH value significantly increased as the grazing intensities decreased. The organic carbon content in soil decreased as the soil depth increased and the order of pH value was 10-20 cm>20-30 cm>0-10 cm in the vertical distribution. Therefore it was essential for preventing the grassland

  20. Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh Le Tuan

    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on iron minerals can generate hydroxyl radical (•OH), a strong oxidant capable of transforming a wide range of contaminants. This reaction is critical to ex situ advanced oxidation processes employed in waste treatment systems, as well as in situ chemical oxidation processes used for soil and groundwater remediation. Unfortunately, the process in the ex situ treatment systems is relatively inefficient at circumneutral pH values. In this research, the development of iron-containing catalysts with improved efficiency was investigated. In addition, little is known about the factors that control the performance of in situ treatment systems. Another aim of this dissertation was to elucidate those factors to provide a basis for improving the efficiency of the remediation method. Two types of silica- and alumina-containing iron (hydr)oxide catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel processing techniques (Chapter 2). Relative to iron oxides, such as hematite and goethite, these catalysts were 10 to 80 times more effective in catalyzing the production of •OH from H2O2 under circumneutral conditions. The higher efficiency makes these catalysts promising candidates for ex situ advanced oxidation processes. Moreover, because alumina and silica alter the reactivity of the iron oxides with H2O2, understanding the activity of iron associated with natural aluminosilicates and silica-containing minerals in the subsurface is crucial to explaining the variability of •OH production observed in in situ treatment systems. In addition to the sol-gel technique used in Chapter 2, silica-containing iron (hydr)oxide catalysts were synthesized by immobilizing iron oxide onto mesoporous silica supports, such as SBA-15 (Chapter 5). The iron-containing SBA-15 was 10 times more effective than iron oxides in catalyzing the production of •OH from H2O2. Moreover, this catalyst could be employed for selective oxidation of small organic contaminants

  1. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  2. Primordial soup or vinaigrette: did the RNA world evolve at acidic pH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Harold S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA world concept has wide, though certainly not unanimous, support within the origin-of-life scientific community. One view is that life may have emerged as early as the Hadean Eon 4.3-3.8 billion years ago with an atmosphere of high CO2 producing an acidic ocean of the order of pH 3.5-6. Compatible with this scenario is the intriguing proposal that life arose within alkaline (pH 9-11 deep-sea hydrothermal vents like those of the 'Lost City', with the interface with the acidic ocean creating a proton gradient sufficient to drive the first metabolism. However, RNA is most stable at pH 4-5 and is unstable at alkaline pH, raising the possibility that RNA may have first arisen in the acidic ocean itself (possibly near an acidic hydrothermal vent, acidic volcanic lake or comet pond. As the Hadean Eon progressed, the ocean pH is inferred to have gradually risen to near neutral as atmospheric CO2 levels decreased. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that RNA is well suited for a world evolving at acidic pH. This is supported by the enhanced stability at acidic pH of not only the RNA phosphodiester bond but also of the aminoacyl-(tRNA and peptide bonds. Examples of in vitro-selected ribozymes with activities at acid pH have recently been documented. The subsequent transition to a DNA genome could have been partly driven by the gradual rise in ocean pH, since DNA has greater stability than RNA at alkaline pH, but not at acidic pH. Testing the hypothesis We have proposed mechanisms for two key RNA world activities that are compatible with an acidic milieu: (i non-enzymatic RNA replication of a hemi-protonated cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, and (ii specific aminoacylation of tRNA/hairpins through triple helix interactions between the helical aminoacyl stem and a single-stranded aminoacylating ribozyme. Implications of the hypothesis Our hypothesis casts doubt on the hypothesis that RNA evolved in the vicinity of alkaline

  3. Geochemical patterns in the soils of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David R; Rutherford, Neil F; Morisseau, Eleni; Zissimos, Andreas M

    2012-03-15

    The soil geochemical atlas of Cyprus is a recent addition to the series of national to continental-scale geochemical mapping programmes implemented over the last two decades for environmental and resource applications. The study has been conducted at the high sampling density of 1 site per 1km(2), with multi-element and multi-method analysis performed on samples of top soil (0-25cm) and sub soil (50-75cm) from a grid of over 5350 sites across a major portion of Cyprus. Major and most trace elements display sharp concentration changes across the main geological boundaries but a high degree of spatial continuity and consistency of values within those boundaries. Some elements display one to two orders of magnitude difference in median concentrations between the soils developed over ultramafic or mafic units and those developed over sedimentary rocks or alluvial units. The ratio of aqua regia-extractable to total metal contents provides an indication of the general mineralogical host for a number of trace elements. The majority of soils are near-neutral to alkaline with the small proportion of areas with soil pHgeochemical values. Where the concentrations of some elements (including Pb, Hg and Sn) are indicative of contamination, the values are typically higher in the top soil samples in these areas. Variations in the concentration of elements with strong redox controls on mobility are linked to changes in sedimentary environment between deep and shallow marine conditions. Some element patterns can be related to the effects of urbanisation and sulphide mining operations; however the dominant control on soil geochemistry is the parent geology and regolith forming processes. The atlas demonstrates the effectiveness of high-density sampling in mapping local to regional-scale features of the geochemical landscape.

  4. pH Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  5. Automatizace pěstebního procesu z hlediska hodnoty pH a obsahu živin v substrátu

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, David

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of thesis is creation of the automatic growroom and realisation of the controller. The controller will be able for measurement temperature, pH and pH of soil. The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity in soils. The other part is about measurement of pH and conductivity. The practical part begun with measurement of pH by laboratory pH meter. These measured figures I compared with figures measured with my pH meter created by my own. The other part describe realisation ...

  6. Soil pedotransfer functions for four Mexican soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, M.A.; Keulen, van H.

    1995-01-01

    The PTF relating CEC to clay content, soil organic matter content (SOM), and pH explained 96% of the variability. Analysis of the residuals showed the effects of clay at three sites and SOM at all sites to be similar, despite quite distinct agro-ecological conditions and a wide range of SOM levels (

  7. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of sulfadiazine on soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangler, Martin

    as fertilizers on agricultural lands they represent a route for antibiotics into the soil environment where they may persist and affect levels of antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities over time. In this work the level of tolerance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) was studied in a number......-threshold, of a non-contaminated soil environment at various pH of which to compare other soils. Soil samples representing a broad range of natural pH were collected from the pH gradient at the Hoosfield acid strip, part of the long-term field experiment at the Rothamstead Research Station (UK) and exposed...... and transport of SDZ at the interphase between dewatered SDZ-amended sewage sludge and soil. SDZ was not mineralized within sludge aggregates and travelled more than 10 mm into the surrounding soil. The strongest PICT response was observed in soils fertilized with organic fertilizers or inorganic NPK fertilizer...

  9. Effects of sulfadiazine on soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangler, Martin

    as fertilizers on agricultural lands they represent a route for antibiotics into the soil environment where they may persist and affect levels of antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities over time. In this work the level of tolerance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) was studied in a number...... of soils applying the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT)-approach. As SDZ is amphoteric and thus exist on either neutral, anionic or cationic form soil pH is likely to influence the toxicity and bioavailability of SDZ to soil bacteria. In manuscript I the aim was to set a baseline, a PICT...... designed to test effects on soil quality of a range of different fertilizers in agriculture. In manuscript II extracted bacteria from soil samples representing a broad range of natural soil pH values were tested for their toxicity response to SDZ when amended at different assay pH. Toxicity clearly...

  10. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  11. Adsorption of Phosphate on Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG; ZHUZU-XIANG; 等

    1992-01-01

    The study about the adsorption of phosphate on four variable charge soils and some minerals revealed that two stage adsorption appeared in the adsorption isothems of phosphate on 4 soils and there was a maximum adsorption on Al-oxide-typed surfaces between pH 3.5 to pH 5.5 as suspension pH changed from 2 to 9,but the adsorption amount of phosphate decreased continually as pH rose on Fe-oxide typed surfaces.The adsorption amount of phosphate and the maximum phosphate adsorption pH decreased in the order of yellow-red soil> lateritic red soil> red soil> paddy soil,which was coincided with the content order of amorphous Al oxide.The removement of organic matter and Fe oxide made the maximum phosphate adsorption pH rise from 4.0 to 5.0 and 4.5,respectively.The desorption curves with pH of four soils showed that phosphate desorbed least at pH 5.Generally the desorption was contrary to the adsorption with pH changing.There was a good accordance between adsorption or desorption and the concentration of Al in the suspension.The possible mechanisms of phosphate adsorption are discussed.

  12. 17-4 PH and 15-5 PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard T.

    1995-01-01

    17-4 PH and 15-5 PH are extremely useful and versatile precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Armco 17-4 PH is well suited for the magnetic particle inspection requirements of Aerospace Material Specification. Armco 15-5 PH and 17-4 PH are produced in billet, plate, bar, and wire. Also, 15-5 PH is able to meet the stringent mechanical properties required in the aerospace and nuclear industries. Both products are easy to heat treat and machine, making them very useful in many applications.

  13. Effects of Cu2+ and Ph on osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Cu2+ and pH on osteoclastic bone resorption lacunae are studied by culturing Japanese white rabbit osteoclasts on bone slices. The number and surface area of bone resorption lacunae are measured by photomicrography and image analysis. Concentration of calcium ion in the supernatant is measured by atomic absorption spectrometry to evaluate the activity of osteoclasts. The morphology of the lacunae is observed under a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that Cu2+ at concentration of 1.00×10-6 mol/L and 1.00×10-7 mol/L inhibits osteoclastic activity and causes a dose-dependent reduction in the number and surface area of the lacunae. While the number of lanunae is increased and osteoclastic bone resorbing function is significantly improved at Cu2+ concentration of 1.00×10-8 mol/L. It is suggested that the effect of Cu2+ on osteoclastic bone resorption depends on Cu2+ concentration. pH had no significant effect on osteoclastic function in the near neutral range.

  14. pH matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inaba, Masanori; Quinson, Jonathan; Arenz, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the ink properties of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity determined in thin film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) measurements. It was found that the adaption of a previously reported ink recipe...... to home-made catalysts does not lead to satisfying results, although reported work could be reproduced using commercial catalyst samples. It is demonstrated that the pH of the catalyst ink, which has not been addressed in previous TF-RDE studies, is an important parameter that needs to be carefully...

  15. Effect of Forest Conversion on Soil pH, Organic Carbon Fractions and Exchangeable Mineral Nutrients%林型转化对土壤pH、有机碳组分和交换性矿质元素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张玲玲; 李意德; 温达志

    2016-01-01

    nutrients. In this study, soil samples (0~10, 10~20 and 20~30 cm depth) were collected from a Primary forest (PF), an adjacent Secondary forest (SF) and a Chinese fir plantation (CFP). We determined soil pH value, concentrations of soil total organic carbon (TOC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) and heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC), exchangeable K+ and Ca2+, with the aim of understanding the impacts of this land-use change on these variables. After the conversion from PF to SF, in 0~30 cm depth, the soil pH value increased slightly by 4.4% while the concentrations of exchangeable K+, Ca2+ increased by 22.5% and 8.2%, and their storage increased correspondingly by 60.2% and 55.1%, respectively. By contrast, the concentrations of TOC, LFOC and HFOC significantly decreased by 26.7%, 40.8% and 11.3%, respectively. The storage of LFOC decreased by 22.2% while no significant changes were found for TOC and HFOC. After the conversion from SF to CFP, the concentrations of exchangeable K+, Ca2+ increased slightly by 6.3% and 2.9%, respectively. All other variables did not show any significant changes except for the HFOC’s storage which decreased by 13.8%. Among the three types of forests, the PF showed significant negative correlations between soil pH value and the concentrations of TOC, LFOC and HFOC, as well as exchangeable K+, Ca2+. However, the significance of these correlations were generally weakened in SF and CFP, suggesting that forest conversion had posed disproportionate impact on soil pH, organic carbon and nutrients. In summary, this forest land conversion generally led to a dramatic reduction in soil organic carbon, while the acidity of the soil and the availability of soil mineral nutrients were improved, which was presumably favorite for the quick recovery of vegetation. From the perspective of carbon sequestration, we highlighted that priority protection of surface soils for the renewal of the degraded forests by planting target species with fast growth and

  16. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2 -facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Production of organic acids in solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) is challenging, and highly pH-dependent, as cell growth occurs near neutral pH, while acid sorption occurs only at low pH conditions. CO2 sparging was used to achieve acidic pH swings, facilitating undissociated organic acid uptake without generating osmotic stress inherent in traditional acid/base pH control. A modified cultivation medium was formulated to permit greater pH reduction by CO2 sparging (pH 4.8) compared to typical media (pH 5.3), while still possessing adequate nutrients for extensive cell growth. In situ product recovery (ISPR) of butyric acid (pKa = 4.8) produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was achieved through intermittent CO2 sparging while recycling reactor contents through a column packed with absorptive polymer Hytrel® 3078. This polymer was selected on the basis of its composition as a polyether copolymer, and the use of solubility parameters for predicting solute polymer affinity, and was found to have a partition coefficient for butyric acid of 3. Total polymeric extraction of 3.2 g butyric acid with no CO2 mediated pH swings was increased to 4.5 g via CO2 -facilitated pH shifting, despite the buffering capacity of butyric acid, which resists pH shifting. This work shows that CO2 -mediated pH swings have an observable positive effect on organic acid extraction, with improvements well over 150% under optimal conditions in early stage fermentation compared to CO2 -free controls, and this technique can be applied other organic acid fermentations to achieve or improve ISPR.

  17. 不同pH值下接种AM真菌对枳橙苗生长及光合作用的影响%Effects of AM Fungi on Growth and Photosynthesis of Citrus Rootstock Seedlings in Soils with Different pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛琳琳; 高崇; 曾明; 李伟; 雷世梅; 伍加勇

    2012-01-01

    以枳橙Citrus sinensis×Poncirus tri foliata为试材,研究不同pH值(5.5~6.5,6.5~7.5,7.5~8.5)条件下接种丛枝菌根(AM)真菌摩西球囊霉Glomus mosseae对枳橙苗生长及光合能力的影响.结果表明,不同pH值水平下接种摩西球囊霉均能有效地侵染枳橙植株,菌根侵染率在65%以上;接种处理植株的菌根侵染率、株高、生物量干重、叶片叶绿素含量、光合作用速率和蒸腾速率等指标均显著高于不接种植株;接种AM真菌增强了宿主植物对碱性土的适应性.%Citrange seedlings (Citrus sinensis (L. ) Osbeck×Poncirus trifoliata (L. )) were used to study the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mossease) on growth and photo-. synthesis of the trees under different pH conditions (pH 5. 5~6. 5, 6. 5~7. 5, 7. 5~8. 5). Results indicated that the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mossease was equally effective in infecting plants under all tested pH conditions and the infection rates were higher than 65%. Mycorrhiza infection rate, plant height, dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity and transpiration rate of inoculated plants were significantly higher than those of control plants. Inoculation with AM fungi enhanced the adaptability of the host plants to alkaline soils.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals how a lack of potassium ions increases Sulfolobus acidocaldarius sensitivity to pH changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetti-Dinh, Antoine; Dethlefsen, Olga; Friedman, Ran; Dopson, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Extremely acidophilic microorganisms (optimum growth pH of ≤3) maintain a near neutral cytoplasmic pH via several homeostatic mechanisms, including an inside positive membrane potential created by potassium ions. Transcriptomic responses to pH stress in the thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated by growing cells without added sodium and/or potassium ions at both optimal and sub-optimal pH. Culturing the cells in the absence of added sodium or potassium ions resulted in a reduced growth rate compared to full-salt conditions as well as 43 and 75 significantly different RNA transcript ratios, respectively. Differentially expressed RNA transcripts during growth in the absence of added sodium ions included genes coding for permeases, a sodium/proline transporter and electron transport proteins. In contrast, culturing without added potassium ions resulted in higher RNA transcripts for similar genes as a lack of sodium ions plus genes related to spermidine that has a general role in response to stress and a decarboxylase that potentially consumes protons. The greatest RNA transcript response occurred when S. acidocaldarius cells were grown in the absence of potassium and/or sodium at a sub-optimal pH. These adaptations included those listed above plus osmoregulated glucans and mechanosensitive channels that have previously been shown to respond to osmotic stress. In addition, data analyses revealed two co-expressed IclR family transcriptional regulator genes with a previously unknown role in the S. acidocaldarius pH stress response. Our study provides additional evidence towards the importance of potassium in acidophile growth at acidic pH.

  19. Effects of soil acidification and liming on the phytoavailability of cadmium in paddy soils of central subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Qihong; Huang, Daoyou

    2016-12-01

    Intensive and paired soil and rice grain survey and multiple-field liming experiments were conducted to assess soil acidification in the past 30 years, quantify the relationships of Cd phytoavailability with soil acidity, and determine efficacies of liming on soil acidity and Cd phytoavailability in paddy soils of central subtropical China at a regional scale. Soil pH, total and extractable Cd (Cdtot and Cdext), rice grain Cd were determined, and all measured data were analyzed separately in groups of 0.1 pH units intervals. Paddy soil pH averagely declined at 0.031 unit yr(-1) between 1980s and 2014 (P soil pH 4.0 and 5.5 and around -1.31 between pH 6.9 and 7.3, whereas linearly decreased by a factor of 0.76 with pH 5.5-6.9, and by a factor of 1.38 with pH 7.3-8.2 (P soil pH were observed for soil Cdext to Cdtot ratio. However, the former exhibited a lag effect to soil acidification in the acidic soils and a leading effect in alkaline soils. Liming increased soil pH by 0.50 units, and decreased rice grain Cd by 35.3% and log Cd transfer ratio by a factor of 0.76 (P soil acidification occurred and accelerated in the past 30 years, and piecewise-linearly increased Cd phytoavailability of paddy soils in central subtropical China. Mitigating soil acidification, i.e. liming, should be preferentially implemented to minimize Cd phytoavailability.

  20. Soil Test Phosphorus Recovery from Livestock Manures Compared with Inorganic Fertilizer in Soil Incubations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Craig Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compared dairy and hen manure P recovery relative to fertilizer P recovery for two Nova Scotia soils with different antecedent soil test P (STP, incubated for 5, 15, 30, 60, and 110 days. Fertilizer equivalence of manure P was expressed as P recovery ratio in percentage points (%PRR. Repeated measures analysis with soil pH covariate revealed: (1 manure %PRR averaged 72% (low-STP soil and 80% (medium-STP soil, (2 there were no significant differences in %PRR between dairy and hen manure, and (3 manure %PRR decreased with incubation time for the low-STP soil but not for the medium-STP soil. The soil pH covariate was significant for both low- and medium-STP soils, and the relationship with %PRR was positive for low- but not for the medium-STP soil.

  1. Laryngopharyngeal pH measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Spurrier, E; Clancy, M; Deakin, C

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Cohorts of unconscious adult ED and elective surgical patients were recruited. The posterior pharyngeal wall pH was measured immediately before and after intubation. Pharyngeal pH was used to indicate risk of aspiration, and pH change to assess the efficacy of cricoid pressure.

  2. Arsenic adsorption of lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuthiphun, L.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic adsorption efficiency of soil covering materials (lateritic soil, limestone powder, lime and fly ash on arsenic-contaminated soil obtained from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province tosolve arsenic air pollution problem was investigated using batch experiments. The four types of the aforementioned soil covering materials were examined to determine their arsenic adsorption efficiency, equilibriumtime as well as adsorption isotherms.The results revealed that among soil covering materials mixed with arsenic-contaminated soil at 10% w/w, the efficiency of arsenic adsorption of fly ash, lateritic soil, lime and limestone powder were 84, 60,38 and 1% respectively. The equilibrium time for lateritic soil at pH 4 was achieved within 4 hrs, whereas pH 7 and 12, the equilibrium time was 6 hrs. For fly ash, 2 hrs were required to reach the equilibrium at pH 12, while the equilibrium time was attained within 6 hrs at pH 4 and 7. Furthermore, lateritic soil possessedhigh arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 7 and 4 and best fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The fly ash showing high arsenic adsorption efficiency at pH 12 and 7 fit the Freundlich isotherm at pH 12 and Langmuirisotherm at pH 7.This indicated that lateritic soil was suitable for arsenic adsorption at low pH, whilst at high pH,arsenic was well adsorbed by fly ash. The Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm could be used to determine quantities of soil covering materials for arsenic adsorption to prevent arsenic air pollution from arseniccontaminated soils.

  3. SOIL Geo-Wiki: A tool for improving soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalský, Rastislav; Balkovic, Juraj; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-01

    soil classification system) and allow experts to upload and share scientifically rigorous soil data; and an application oriented towards the general public, which will be more focused on describing well observed, individual soil properties using simplified classification keys. The latter application will avoid the use of soil science related terminology and focus on the most useful soil parameters such as soil surface features, stone content, soil texture, soil plasticity, calcium carbonate presence, soil color, soil pH, soil repellency, and soil depth. Collection of soil and landscape pictures will also be supported in Soil Geo-Wiki to allow for comprehensive data collection while simultaneously allowing for quality checking by experts.

  4. Quantification of Uncertainty in Mathematical Models: The Statistical Relationship between Field and Laboratory pH Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt K. Benke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of soil pH using a field portable test kit represents a fast and inexpensive method to assess pH. Field based pH methods have been used extensively for agricultural advisory services and soil survey and now for citizen soil science projects. In the absence of laboratory measurements, there is a practical need to model the laboratory pH as a function of the field pH to increase the density of data for soil research studies and Digital Soil Mapping. The accuracy and uncertainty in pH field measurements were investigated for soil samples from regional Victoria in Australia using both linear and sigmoidal models. For samples in water and CaCl2 at 1 : 5 dilutions, sigmoidal models provided improved accuracy over the full range of field pH values in comparison to linear models (i.e., pH 9. The uncertainty in the field results was quantified by the 95% confidence interval (CI and 95% prediction interval (PI for the models, with 95% CI < 0.25 pH units and 95% PI = ±1.3 pH units, respectively. It was found that the Pearson criterion for robust regression analysis can be considered as an alternative to the orthodox least-squares modelling approach because it is more effective in addressing outliers in legacy data.

  5. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  6. Reclamation of an acidic soil of Rwanda's central upland by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: acidic soil, compost, exchangeable aluminium, soil pH, Rwanda. Résumé ... as organic amendment source (compost, green manure, mulch, etc.). ..... from the addition of farm manure and/or household wastes that gave very.

  7. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  8. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Guido Antonioli Conservator pacis et iustitie. La signoria di Taddeo Pepoli a Bologna (1337-1347, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Filologia romanza e cultura medievale (XIII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001   Elisabetta Filippini «In vassallatico episcopi permanere debent». Rapporti vassallatici e concessioni beneficiali dei vescovi di Cremona fra X e XIII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di Ricerca in Storia Medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2003   Marco Meschini, Innocenzo III e il "negotium pacis et fidei" in Linguadoca tra il 1198 e il 1215, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 2003   Fabrizio Ricciardelli The Politics of Exclusion in Florence (1215-1434, thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History, University of Warwick, Department of History, April 2003 Renata Salvarani Baptizare pueros et decimas dare. Cura delle anime, strutturazione ecclesiastica e organizzazione delle campagne in area gardesana fra VIII e XIII secolo (diocesi di Brescia, Verona, Mantova e Trento, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2002-2003   Vito Sibilio Le parole della prima crociata, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel medioevo euromediterraneo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  9. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations.   Miguel Calleja Puerta El conde Suero Vermúdez, su parentela y su entorno social. La aristocracia leonesa en los siglos XI y XII, Tesis de doctorado en Historia, Universidad de Oviedo (España, 2000   Adele Cilento Potere e monachesimo nella Calabria bizantina: relazioni e interferenze (secc. IX-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (X ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2000   Amedeo De Vincentiis Firenze e i signori. Sperimentazioni istituzionali e modelli di regime nelle signorie fiorentine degli Angioini (fine XIII - metà XIV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medioevale (XI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Milano, 1999   Marco Folin Il sistema politico di un antico Stato italiano: i ducati estensi nella prima Età moderna (1452-1598, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia, Scuola Normale superiore di Pisa, 2000   Barbara Frale Guardiani del Santuario. Le radici orientali del processo contro l’ordine del Tempio (1128 - 1314, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale d’Europa (XI ciclo, Università "Ca’ Foscari" di Venezia, 2000

  10. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  11. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  12. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  13. Relationships between soil fertility indicators and toposequence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-25

    Sep 25, 2016 ... standard methods, showed differences for soil organic carbon (OC) at the soil surface at the lowland level (5.51 g .... Laboratory Analysis. Soil pH was .... the PCA axes are set as additional variables. This .... data set. (TDS) is in full agreement with the results of ... J. of Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation.

  14. Characteristic of Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+transport in soils with different pH value and ionic strength%不同pH值和离子强度下土壤Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+的运移特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莹莹; 徐绍辉

    2013-01-01

      为探究锌、镉及铵态氮在土壤中的运移特征,该文通过室内土柱混合置换试验,分析了不同 pH 值和离子强度对锌、镉、铵态氮(Zn2+、Cd2+、NH4+)在土壤中运移的影响;获得了示踪剂Br和Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+的穿透曲线(breakthrough curves,BTCs),并对试验结果进行了模拟。研究表明:Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+在土壤中运移时,运移速度:NH4+>Zn2+>Cd2+,pH 值越高,Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+的出流时间越晚,峰值越低;离子强度越大,出流时间越早,峰值越高。描述溶质运移的非平衡两点模型(two-site model,TSM)能够较好地模拟 Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+在土壤中的运移,pH值越高,模拟得到的分配系数Kd值越大(以Zn2+为例,由3.853增大到4.386),f值越小(以Zn2+为例,由0.231减小到0.006),分形系数β值很小且无明显变化规律;离子强度越大,模拟得到的分配系数Kd值越小(以Zn2+为例,由4.023减小到到3.381),f值及分形系数β值均很小且无明显变化规律。该研究对深入了解Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+在土壤中的运移机理、提出污染土壤修复措施提供科学依据。%  In order to make a thorough inquiry of Zn, Cd, NH4+transportation in soils, the effect of pH and ionic strength on Zn, Cd, NH4+transport in soils were studied, through a stable flow miscible displacement experiment. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of the tracer bromide (Br) and Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+were obtained in these soil column experiments. With the software HYDRUS-1D, the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) model was used to simulate the observed BTCs of Br. Then we estimated the porosityθand dispersion coefficient D and got the soil column migration model parameters. Through adjusting the value of Kd,β,α, f, two-site model (TSM) was used to simulate the BTCs of Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+with software HYDRUS-1D. Based on the analysis of BTCs observation, it turned out that transport velocity of Zn2+/Cd2+/NH4+is

  15. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Federica Cengarle Le investiture feudali di Filippo Maria Visconti (1412-1447, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2005 Silvia Coazzin Liberi domini totius castri. L'aristocrazia rurale "minore" nel Senese e nella Toscana meridionale. Forme di egemonia, assetto sociale e patrimoniale di lignaggi, famiglie e gruppi consortili di castello (secc. XI-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Maria Elena Cortese Signori e castelli. Famiglie aristocratiche, dominati signorili e trasformazioni insediative nel comitatus fiorentino (fine X-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Patrizia Meli Gabriele Malaspina marchese di Fosdinovo: il condottiero ed il politico, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 Federica Pessotto La Morea franca. Economia e istituzioni tra Oriente e Occidente nei secoli XIII e XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società e Religioni dal Tardoantico alla fine del Medioevo, Università degli studi di Torino, 2003 Lorenzo Pubblici Dal Caucaso al Mar d’Azov. L’impatto dell’invasione mongola nella Caucasia fra nomadismo e civiltà sedentaria (1204-1395, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Firenze, 2005 [01/05] Riccardo Rao "Comunia". Risorse collettive e patrimoniali dei maggiori comuni subalpini (secoli XII - inizio XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medioevale, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2005 Alessandro Soddu Feudalesimo e potere signorile in Sardegna nei secoli XI-XIV.  La signoria territoriale dei Malaspina, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia, Università "Pompeu Fabra" di Barcellona, 2004

  16. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertation. Laura Baietto Una politica per le città. Rapporti fra papato, vescovi e comuni nell'Italia centro-settentrionale da Innocenzo III a Gregorio IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Giuseppe Banfo Compresenze e sovrapposizioni di poteri territoriali di qualità diversa tra X e XIII: il caso del basso Monferrato, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2002   Francesca Dell'Acqua La vetrata tra l'età tardo imperiale e l'altomedioevo: le fonti, l'archeologia, Tesi di Perfezionamento in Storia dell'Arte Medievale, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 2001   Primo Giovanni Embriaco I vescovi di Albenga e gli sviluppi signorili nella Liguria occidentale (secoli XI-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2001   Antonella Ghignoli Documenti e proprietà altomedievali. Fondamenti e problemi dell'esegesi storica delle fonti documentarie nello specchio della tradizione delle carte pisane dei secoli VIII-XI, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Vito Loré Espansione monastica e mutamenti politici. La Trinità di Cava nei suoi rapporti con i sovrani longobardi e normanni e con l'aristocrazia territoriale. Secoli XI-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2002   Rosaria Stracuzzi Messina nel '400, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2001   Stefania Tamburini Le "portate" ecclesiastiche nel piviere di San Giovanni in Firenze nel 1427. Spunti per una riflessione sul patrimonio ecclesiastico della diocesi fiorentina,Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e informatica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001

  17. Influence of pH on Formation of Taranakites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUJIANMIN; P.M.HUANG

    1999-01-01

    Monoammonium phosphate(1 mol L-1),monopotassium phosphate(1 mol L-1) and aluminum chloride(5×10-3molL-1)were used to investigate the influence of pH on the formation of NH4-taranakite and K-taranakite in systems with a high NH4H2PO4 or KH2PO4 concentration.The experimental data indicated that the reaction products of aluminum with NH4H2PO4 or KH2PO4 changed with the pH in the systems.In a pH range of 2.5 to 10.0,as the pH increased,the products in either ammonium or potassium system followed the sequence:taranakite,amorphous(NH4,K)2AIH(PO4)2.4H2O,and then crystalline (NH4,K)AlPO4OH.2H2O.However,the pH ranges of the formation of these products in ammonium system were different from potassium system.NH4-taranakite formed from pH 2.75 to pH 5.75,whereas K-taranakite formed in the pH range of 3.00 to 5.0,From the theoretical calcuation by a computer program (GEOCHEM version 2.0) ,NH4-taranakte and K-taranakite could form at the pH from 1.50 to 8.30 and from 1.25to 8.45,respectively.These pH ranges were much wider than the experimental results.The difference between the experimental data and theoretical data was attributed to the lack of kinetic data and /or the incompleteness and inaccuracy of the thermodynamic data in the data base of the program.The pH ranges of the formation of the taranakites indicated that the taranakites could exist in the immediate vicinity of phosphate ferilizer zone as reaction products of phosphate fertilizers with soils,especially acideic soils,resulting in the fixation of not only phosphate but also nitrogen and /or potassium in soils.