WorldWideScience

Sample records for near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring

  1. A monitoring campaign for Luhman 16AB. I. Detection of resolved near-infrared spectroscopic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, E.; Delrez, L.; Opitom, C. [Institute of Astrophysics and Géophysique, Université of Liège, allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Radigan, Jacqueline [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Plavchan, Peter [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, M/C 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Street, Rachel, E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [LCOGT, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We report resolved near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the nearby L dwarf/T dwarf binary WISE J104915.57–531906.1AB (Luhman 16AB), as part of a broader campaign to characterize the spectral energy distribution and temporal variability of this system. A continuous 45 minute sequence of low-resolution IRTF/SpeX data spanning 0.8-2.4 μm were obtained, concurrent with combined-light optical photometry with ESO/TRAPPIST. Our spectral observations confirm the flux reversal of this binary, and we detect a wavelength-dependent decline in the relative spectral fluxes of the two components coincident with a decline in the combined-light optical brightness of the system over the course of the observation. These data are successfully modeled as a combination of achromatic (brightness) and chromatic (color) variability in the T0.5 Luhman 16B, consistent with variations in overall cloud opacity; and no significant variability was found in L7.5 Luhman 16A, consistent with recent resolved photometric monitoring. We estimate a peak-to-peak amplitude of 13.5% at 1.25 μm over the full light curve. Using a simple two-spot brightness temperature model for Luhman 16B, we infer an average cold covering fraction of ≈30%-55%, varying by 15%-30% over a rotation period assuming a ≈200-400 K difference between hot and cold regions. We interpret these variations as changes in the covering fraction of a high cloud deck and corresponding 'holes' which expose deeper, hotter cloud layers, although other physical interpretations are possible. A Rhines scale interpretation for the size of the variable features explains an apparent correlation between period and amplitude for Luhman 16B and the variable T dwarfs SIMP 0136+0933 and 2MASS J2139+0220, and predicts relatively fast winds (1-3 km s{sup –1}) for Luhman 16B consistent with light curve evolution on an advective time scale (1-3 rotation periods). The strong variability observed in this flux reversal brown dwarf pair

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey E. Krauklis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer–Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Monitoring Water Content in Epoxy Resins and Fiber-Reinforced Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauklis, Andrey E; Gagani, Abedin I; Echtermeyer, Andreas T

    2018-04-11

    Monitoring water content and predicting the water-induced drop in strength of fiber-reinforced composites are of great importance for the oil and gas and marine industries. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods are broadly available and often used for process and quality control in industrial applications. A benefit of using such spectroscopic methods over the conventional gravimetric analysis is the possibility to deduce the mass of an absolutely dry material and subsequently the true water content, which is an important indicator of water content-dependent properties. The objective of this study is to develop an efficient and detailed method for estimating the water content in epoxy resins and fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was applied to measure the water content of amine-epoxy neat resin. The method was developed and successfully extended to glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. Based on extensive measurements of neat resin and composite samples of varying water content and thickness, regression was performed, and the quantitative absorbance dependence on water content in the material was established. The mass of an absolutely dry resin was identified, and the true water content was obtained. The method was related to the Beer-Lambert law and explained in such terms. A detailed spectroscopic method for measuring water content in resins and fiber-reinforced composites was developed and described.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sprang, Eric N M; Ramaker, Henk-Jan; Westerhuis, Johan A; Smilde, Age K; Gurden, Stephen P; Wienke, Dietrich

    2003-08-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the process knowledge it is common to build process models. These models are often based on first principles such as kinetic rates or mass balances. These types of models are also known as hard or white models. White models are characterized by being generally applicable but often having only a reasonable fit to real process data. Other commonly used types of models are empirical or black-box models such as regression and neural nets. Black-box models are characterized by having a good data fit but they lack a chemically meaningful model interpretation. Alternative models are grey models, which are combinations of white models and black models. The aim of a grey model is to combine the advantages of both black-box models and white models. In a qualitative case study of monitoring industrial batches using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, it is shown that grey models are a good tool for detecting batch-to-batch variations and an excellent tool for process diagnosis compared to common spectroscopic monitoring tools.

  5. Simple and robust near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution using Teflon tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Sanghee; Ryu, Kyungtag; Cho, Soohwa; Chung, Hoeil; Namkung, Hankyu

    2006-01-01

    The ability to monitor etching solutions using a spectroscopy directly through existing Teflon lines in electronic industries is highly beneficial and offers many advantages. A monitoring method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) measurements with Teflon tubing as a sample container for the quantification of components in the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) etching solution composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) and water. Measurements were reproducible and it was possible to use the same calibration model for different Teflon tubings. Even though partial least squares (PLS) calibration performance was slightly degraded for Teflon cells when compared to quartz cells of the similar pathlength, the calibration data correlated well with reference data. The robustness of Teflon-based NIR measurement was evaluated by predicting the spectra of 10 independent samples that were collected using five different Teflon tubes. Although, two Teflon tubes were visually less transparent than the other three, there was no significant variation in the standard error of predictions (SEPs) among the five Teflon tubes. Calibration accuracy was successfully maintained and highly repeatable prediction results were achieved. This study verifies that a Teflon-based NIR measurement is reliable for the monitoring of etching solutions and it can be successfully integrated into on-line process monitoring

  6. Visible and near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of raw milk for cow health monitoring: reflectance or transmittance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, B; Polshin, E; Lammertyn, J; Saeys, W

    2011-11-01

    The composition of produced milk has great value for the dairy farmer. It determines the economic value of the milk and provides valuable information about the metabolism of the corresponding cow. Therefore, online measurement of milk components during milking 2 or more times per day would provide knowledge about the current health and nutritional status of each cow individually. This information provides a solid basis for optimizing cow management. The potential of visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy for predicting the fat, crude protein, lactose, and urea content of raw milk online during milking was, therefore, investigated in this study. Two measurement modes (reflectance and transmittance) and different wavelength ranges for Vis/NIR spectroscopy were evaluated and their ability to measure the milk composition online was compared. The Vis/NIR reflectance measurements allowed for very accurate monitoring of the fat and crude protein content in raw milk (R(2)>0.95), but resulted in poor lactose predictions (R(2)milk samples gave accurate fat and crude protein predictions (R(2)>0.90) and useful lactose predictions (R(2)=0.88). Neither Vis/NIR reflectance nor transmittance spectroscopy lead to an acceptable prediction of the milk urea content. Transmittance spectroscopy can thus be used to predict the 3 major milk components, but with lower accuracy for fat and crude protein than the reflectance mode. Moreover, the small sample thickness (1mm) required for NIR transmittance measurement considerably complicates its online use. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Ramaker, Henk-Jan; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Smilde, Age K.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Wienke, Dietrich

    2003-01-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of a series of industrial batch processes using a bilinear grey model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Sprang, ENM; Ramaker, HJ; Westerhuis, JA; Smilde, AK; Gurden, SP; Wienke, D

    2003-01-01

    A good process understanding is the foundation for process optimization, process monitoring, end-point detection, and estimation of the end-product quality. Performing good process measurements and the construction of process models will contribute to a better process understanding. To improve the process knowledge it is common to build process models. These models are often based on first principles such as kinetic rates or mass balances. These types of models are also known as hard or white...

  9. Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Hemodynamic Monitor in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, Nancy S; Hoffman, George M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the technology and clinical interpretation of near infrared spectroscopy oximetry and its clinical application in patients with congenital heart disease. MEDLINE and PubMed. Near infrared spectroscopy provides a continuous noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. Over 20 years ago, near infrared spectroscopy was introduced into clinical practice for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Since that time, the utilization of near infrared spectroscopy has extended into the realm of pediatric cardiac surgery and is increasingly being used in the cardiac ICU to monitor tissue oxygenation perioperatively.

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Chlorite Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral chemistry of twenty chlorite samples from the United States Geological Survey (USGS spectral library and two other regions, having a wide range of Fe and Mg contents and relatively constant Al and Si contents, was studied via infrared (IR spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis. Five absorption features of the twenty samples near 4525, 4440, 4361, 4270, and 4182 cm−1 were observed, and two diagnostic features at 4440 and 4280 cm−1 were recognized. Assignments of the two diagnostic features were made for two combination bands (ν+δAlAlO−OH and ν+δSiAlO−OH by regression with IR fundamental absorptions. Furthermore, the determinant factors of the NIR band position were found by comparing the band positions with relative components. The results showed that Fe/(Fe + Mg values are negatively correlated with the two NIR combination bands. The findings provide an interpretation of the NIR band formation and demonstrate a simple way to use NIR spectroscopy to discriminate between chlorites with different components. More importantly, spectroscopic detection of mineral chemical variations in chlorites provides geologists with a tool with which to collect information on hydrothermal alteration zones from hyperspectral-resolution remote sensing data.

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Chlorite Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yang; Meifang Ye; Haihui Han; Guangli Ren; Ling Han; Zhuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The mineral chemistry of twenty chlorite samples from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) spectral library and two other regions, having a wide range of Fe and Mg contents and relatively constant Al and Si contents, was studied via infrared (IR) spectroscopy, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Five absorption features of the twenty samples near 4525, 4440, 4361, 4270, and 4182 cm−1 were observed, and two diagnostic features at 4440 and 4280 cm−1 we...

  13. Near infrared spectroscopic evaluation of water in hyaline cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkar, M V; Spencer, R G; Pleshko, N

    2013-11-01

    In diseased conditions of cartilage such as osteoarthritis, there is typically an increase in water content from the average normal of 60-85% to greater than 90%. As cartilage has very little capability for self-repair, methods of early detection of degeneration are required, and assessment of water could prove to be a useful diagnostic method. Current assessment methods are either destructive, time consuming, or have limited sensitivity. Here, we investigated the hypotheses that non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of articular cartilage can be used to differentiate between free and bound water, and to quantitatively assess water content. The absorbances centered at 5200 and 6890 cm(-1) were attributed to a combination of free and bound water, and to free water only, respectively. The integrated areas of both absorbance bands were found to correlate linearly with the absolute water content (R = 0.87 and 0.86) and with percent water content (R = 0.97 and 0.96) of the tissue. Partial least square models were also successfully developed and were used to predict water content, and percent free water. These data demonstrate that NIRS can be utilized to quantitatively determine water content in articular cartilage, and may aid in early detection of degenerative tissue changes in a laboratory setting, and with additional validations, possibly in a clinical setting.

  14. A robust quantitative near infrared modeling approach for blend monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shikhar; Momose, Wataru; Katz, Jeffrey M; Hossain, Md Nayeem; Velez, Natasha; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2018-01-30

    This study demonstrates a material sparing Near-Infrared modeling approach for powder blend monitoring. In this new approach, gram scale powder mixtures are subjected to compression loads to simulate the effect of scale using an Instron universal testing system. Models prepared by the new method development approach (small-scale method) and by a traditional method development (blender-scale method) were compared by simultaneously monitoring a 1kg batch size blend run. Both models demonstrated similar model performance. The small-scale method strategy significantly reduces the total resources expended to develop Near-Infrared calibration models for on-line blend monitoring. Further, this development approach does not require the actual equipment (i.e., blender) to which the method will be applied, only a similar optical interface. Thus, a robust on-line blend monitoring method can be fully developed before any large-scale blending experiment is viable, allowing the blend method to be used during scale-up and blend development trials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Piantadosi, C A

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method for monitoring oxygen availability and utilization by the tissues. In intact skeletal muscle, NIRS allows semi-quantitative measurements of haemoglobin plus myoglobin oxygenation (tissue O2 stores) and the haemoglobin volume. Specialized...... algorithms allow assessment of the oxidation-reduction (redox) state of the copper moiety (CuA) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and, with the use of specific tracers, accurate assessment of regional blood flow. NIRS has demonstrated utility for monitoring changes in muscle oxygenation and blood flow...... during submaximal and maximal exercise and under pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disease and sepsis. During work, the extent to which skeletal muscles deoxygenate varies according to the type of muscle, type of exercise and blood flow response. In some instances, a strong...

  16. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    monitored intensive care period. Near infrared spectroscopic pH decreased significantly during cardiopulmonary bypass, decreased significantly during rewarming, and remained depressed 6 hrs after cardiopulmonary bypass. Diabetic patients responded differently than nondiabetic subjects to cardiopulmonary bypass, with lower muscle pH values (p =.02). CONCLUSIONS: Near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and Po2 are sensitive to changes in tissue perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass.

  17. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  18. Ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery using intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerkowski Hans-Reinhard

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, manipulations on the beating heart can lead to transient interruptions of myocardial oxygen supply, which can generate an accumulation of oxygen-dependent metabolites in coronary venous blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy as a monitoring method to detect possible ischemic events in off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures. Methods In 15 elective patients undergoing off-pump myocardial revascularization, intravascular near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of coronary venous blood was performed. NIR signals were transferred through a fiberoptic catheter for signal emission and collection. For data analysis and processing, a miniature spectrophotometer with multivariate statistical package was used. Signal acquisition and analysis were performed before and after revascularization. Spectroscopic data were compared with hemodynamic parameters, electrocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory findings. Results A conversion to extracorporeal circulation was not necessary. The mean number of grafts per patient was 3.1 ± 0.6. An intraoperative myocardial ischemia was not evident, as indicated by electrocardiogram and transesophageal echocardiography. Continuous spectroscopic analysis showed reproducible absorption spectra of coronary sinus blood. Due to uneventful intraoperative courses, clear ischemia-related changes could be detected in none of the patients. Conclusion Our initial results show that intravascular near-infrared spectroscopy can reliably be used for an online intraoperative ischemia monitoring in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. However, the method has to be further evaluated and standardized to determine the role of spectroscopy in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

  19. Assessment of near infrared and "software sensor" for biomass monitoring and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Z.I.T.A.; Streefland, M.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic instrumentation is often seen as promising for process analytical technology (PAT) to enhance control of manufacturing (bio)pharmaceuticals. The interpretation of near infrared spectra is challenging due to the large number of wavelengths recorded and the overlapping absorbance

  20. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF COOL WHITE DWARFS IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Von Hippel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared photometric observations of 15 and spectroscopic observations of 38 cool white dwarfs (WDs). This is the largest near-infrared spectroscopic survey of cool WDs to date. Combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and our near-infrared data, we perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. The spectral energy distributions of our objects are explained fairly well by model atmospheres with temperatures ranging from 6300 K down to 4200 K. Two WDs show significant absorption in the infrared, and are best explained with mixed H/He atmosphere models. Based on the up-to-date model atmosphere calculations by Kowalski and Saumon, we find that the majority of the stars in our sample have hydrogen-rich atmospheres. We do not find any pure helium atmosphere WDs below 5000 K, and we find a trend of increasing hydrogen to helium ratio with decreasing temperature. These findings present an important challenge to understanding the spectral evolution of WDs.

  1. Implanted near-infrared spectroscopy for cardiac monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Sourav K.; Cinbis, Can

    2011-02-01

    Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) provides one of the most effective therapies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death, but also delivers some high voltage shocks inappropriately, causing morbidity and mortality. Implanted near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may augment ICD arrhythmia detection by monitoring skeletal muscle perfusion. A two-wavelength, single-distance, continuous-wave implanted NIRS has been evaluated in-vivo. A weighted difference of the changes in attenuation at two wavelengths, across the isobestic point of the hemoglobin spectra, was taken to be the microvascular oxygenation trend indicator (O2 Index). Although the exact weight depends on the local vascular distribution and their oxygen levels, the hypothesis that a constant weight may be adequate for hemodynamic trending during short arrhythmic episodes, was tested. The sensor was implanted subcutaneously both on fresh tissue and inside scar tissue that formed around a pre-existing implant, in 3 animals each. Attenuations were recorded at 660 and 890 nm during normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). The slope of the O2 Index over 10 seconds was computed for 7 NSR and 8 VF episodes in fresh and 13 NSR and 15 VF episodes in scar tissue pockets. The mean O2 Index slope was significantly different (p<0.0001) between NSR and VF rhythms for both the fresh and scar tissue pockets. Therefore implanted NIRS may be useful for preventing inappropriate detection of VF during electromagnetic interference, double counting of ECG T-wave as an R-wave, ICD lead failure, electrocardiographic aberrancy etc.

  2. Interference Tolerant Functional Near Infrared Spectrometer (fNIRS) for Cognitive State Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in the brain with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising technique for monitoring cognitive state...

  3. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF YOUNG FIELD ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allers, K. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Liu, Michael C., E-mail: k.allers@bucknell.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present a near-infrared (0.9-2.4 {mu}m) spectroscopic study of 73 field ultracool dwarfs having spectroscopic and/or kinematic evidence of youth ( Almost-Equal-To 10-300 Myr). Our sample is composed of 48 low-resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 100) spectra and 41 moderate-resolution spectra (R {approx}> 750-2000). First, we establish a method for spectral typing M5-L7 dwarfs at near-IR wavelengths that is independent of gravity. We find that both visual and index-based classification in the near-IR provides consistent spectral types with optical spectral types, though with a small systematic offset in the case of visual classification at J and K band. Second, we examine features in the spectra of {approx}10 Myr ultracool dwarfs to define a set of gravity-sensitive indices based on FeH, VO, K I, Na I, and H-band continuum shape. We then create an index-based method for classifying the gravities of M6-L5 dwarfs that provides consistent results with gravity classifications from optical spectroscopy. Our index-based classification can distinguish between young and dusty objects. Guided by the resulting classifications, we propose a set of low-gravity spectral standards for the near-IR. Finally, we estimate the ages corresponding to our gravity classifications.

  4. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  5. Effect of Sampling Frequency for Real-Time Tablet Coating Monitoring Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Arai, Hiroaki; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2016-09-01

    While the sampling of pharmaceutical products typically follows well-defined protocols, the parameterization of spectroscopic methods and their associated sampling frequency is not standard. Whereas, for blending, the sampling frequency is limited by the nature of the process, in other processes, such as tablet film coating, practitioners must determine the best approach to collecting spectral data. The present article studied how sampling practices affected the interpretation of the results provided by a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the monitoring of tablet moisture and coating weight gain during a pan-coating experiment. Several coating runs were monitored with different sampling frequencies (with or without co-adds (also known as sub-samples)) and with spectral averaging corresponding to processing cycles (1 to 15 pan rotations). Beyond integrating the sensor into the equipment, the present work demonstrated that it is necessary to have a good sense of the underlying phenomena that have the potential to affect the quality of the signal. The effects of co-adds and averaging was significant with respect to the quality of the spectral data. However, the type of output obtained from a sampling method dictated the type of information that one can gain on the dynamics of a process. Thus, different sampling frequencies may be needed at different stages of process development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. A time-gated near-infrared spectroscopic imaging device for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Patrick; Uhring, Wilfried; Hanselmann, Walter; Glazenborg, René; Nouizi, Farouk; Zint, Virginie; Hirschi, Werner

    2013-03-01

    A time-resolved, spectroscopic, diffuse optical tomography device was assembled for clinical applications like brain functional imaging. The entire instrument lies in a unique setup that includes a light source, an ultrafast time-gated intensified camera and all the electronic control units. The light source is composed of four near infrared laser diodes driven by a nanosecond electrical pulse generator working in a sequential mode at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. The light pulses are less than 80 ps FWHM. They are injected in a four-furcated optical fiber ended with a frontal light distributor to obtain a uniform illumination spot directed towards the head of the patient. Photons back-scattered by the subject are detected by the intensified CCD camera. There are resolved according to their time of flight inside the head. The photocathode is powered by an ultrafast generator producing 50 V pulses, at 100 MHz and a width corresponding to a 200 ps FWHM gate. The intensifier has been specially designed for this application. The whole instrument is controlled by an FPGA based module. All the acquisition parameters are configurable via software through an USB plug and the image data are transferred to a PC via an Ethernet link. The compactness of the device makes it a perfect device for bedside clinical applications. The instrument will be described and characterized. Preliminary data recorded on test samples will be presented.

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of massive young stellar object candidates in the central molecular zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, G.; Schultheis, M.; Feldmeier-Krause, A.; Schödel, R.; Neumayer, N.; Matteucci, F.; Ryde, N.; Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Tej, A.

    2018-01-01

    Context. The central molecular zone (CMZ) is a 200 pc region around the Galactic centre. The study of star formation in the central part of the Milky Way is of great interest as it provides a template for the closest galactic nuclei. Aims: We present a spectroscopic follow-up of photometrically selected young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the CMZ of the Galactic centre. Our goal is to quantify the contamination of this YSO sample by reddened giant stars with circumstellar envelopes and to determine the star formation rate (SFR) in the CMZ. Methods: We obtained KMOS low-resolution near-infrared spectra (R 4000) between 2.0 and 2.5 μm of sources, many of which have been previously identified by mid-infrared photometric criteria as massive YSOs in the Galactic centre. Our final sample consists of 91 stars with good signal-to-noise ratio. We separated YSOs from cool late-type stars based on spectral features of CO and Brγ at 2.3 μm and 2.16 μm, respectively. We made use of spectral energy distribution (SED) model fits to the observed photometric data points from 1.25 to 24 μm to estimate approximate masses for the YSOs. Results: Using the spectroscopically identified YSOs in our sample, we confirm that existing colour-colour diagrams and colour-magnitude diagrams are unable to efficiently separate YSOs and cool late-type stars. In addition, we define a new colour-colour criterion that separates YSOs from cool late-type stars in the H-KS vs. H -[8.0] diagram. We use this new criterion to identify YSO candidates in the |l| rate than predicted by various star forming models. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, programme number 097.C-0208(A).

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor tissue haemoglobin (and myoglobin) oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, T. W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Tissue oxygenation may be monitored noninvasively by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) both on the thenar eminescence (muscle) and on the forehead (brain). Thenar measurement have been used to guide therapy in trauma patients ( 1 ) and to determine the prognosis of septic patients ( 2

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number...... of full-scale systems implemented in industrial fermentation processes. This thesis seeks to achieve a better understanding of the techniques near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy and thereby to solve some of the challenges that are encountered. The thesis shows the advantages of applying real...

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopic study on the effects of chewing on short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mayumi; Hoshi, Yoko; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kida, Ikuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we examined whether chewing gum improves performance in a short-term memory task - immediate recall of random eight-digit numbers - by assessing cerebral hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. We found that the oxyhemoglobin concentration during and after chewing gum was higher than that before chewing; further, the concentration increased during the task, and this increase was reduced with chewing, although non-significantly. Chewing did not improve task performance. Therefore, chewing-induced hemodynamic responses were unrelated to the performance in short-term memory tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Near Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Alkyl Aromatic Esters and Phenyl Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelyubov, D. V.; Vazhenin, D. A.; Kudriavtsev, A. A.; Buzolina, A. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Bands characterizing the content of carbon atoms in alkyl (7177-7205 cm-1) and phenyl structural fragments (9175-9192 cm-1) in organic molecules were revealed by studying the near infrared spectra of such compounds. The optical density at the maxima of these absorption bands was shown to depend strongly on the fraction of carbon atoms in the corresponding fragments. The developed models proved to be adequate for determining the fraction of carbon atoms in alkyl aromatic esters and phenyl ketones. The feasibility of modeling the molecular structure of alkyl aromatic esters using regression models was demonstrated for the product of the condensation of oleic acid and benzyl alcohol.

  12. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Carr, J.; Joy, M.; Gaffney, N.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there

  13. A near infrared spectroscopic study of the interstellar gas in the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Dan F.; Carr, John; Joy, Marshall; Gaffney, Niall

    1990-01-01

    Researchers used the McDonald Observatory Infrared Grating Spectrometer, to complete a program of spatially resolved spectroscopy of M82. The inner 300 pc of the starburst was observed with 4 inch (50 pc) resolution. Complete J, H and K band spectra with resolution 0.0035 micron (lambda/delta lambda=620 at K) were measured at the near-infrared nucleus of the galaxy. Measurements of selected spectral features including lines of FeII, HII and H2 were observed along the starburst ridge-line, so the relative distribution of the diagnostic features could be understood. This information was used to better define the extinction towards the starburst region, the excitation conditions in the gas, and to characterize the stellar populations there.

  14. Design of a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor using an InSb detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-Cheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Qi-Jie; Jiang, Feng-Xin; Chen, Jin-Ting; Zhang, Yi-Hao; Wang, Zhi-Yue; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Jiang, Hai-Jiao; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo

    2018-02-01

    Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of infrared astronomy observations from the ground, particularly for a candidate site of an infrared capable observatory since low background level is required for such a site. The Chinese astronomical community is looking for a suitable site for a future 12 m telescope, which is designed for working in both optical and infrared wavelengths. However, none of the proposed sites has been tested for infrared observations. Nevertheless, infrared sky background measurements are also important during the design of infrared observing instruments. Based on the requirement, in order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of an optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronics, and operational software. It is completed and tested in the laboratory. The results show that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level of several well-known astronomical infrared observing sites.

  15. Design of a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor using an InSb detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shu-cheng; Wang, Jian; Tang, Qi-jie; Jiang, Feng-xin; Chen, Jin-ting; Zhang, Yi-hao; Wang, Zhi-yue; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Hong-fei; Jiang, Hai-jiao; Zhu, Qing-feng; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo

    2018-02-01

    Infrared sky background level is an important parameter of infrared astronomy observations from the ground, particularly for a candidate site of an infrared capable observatory since low background level is required for such a site. The Chinese astronomical community is looking for a suitable site for a future 12 m telescope, which is designed for working in both optical and infrared wavelengths. However, none of the proposed sites has been tested for infrared observations. Nevertheless, infrared sky background measurements are also important during the design of infrared observing instruments. Based on the requirement, in order to supplement the current site survey data and guide the design of future infrared instruments, a multiband near-infrared sky brightness monitor (MNISBM) based on an InSb sensor is designed in this paper. The MNISBM consists of an optical system, mechanical structure and control system, detector and cooler, high gain readout electronics, and operational software. It is completed and tested in the laboratory. The results show that the sensitivity of the MNISBM meets the requirements of the measurement of near-infrared sky background level of several well-known astronomical infrared observing sites.

  16. Oxidation state of uranium in metamict and annealed zircon: near-infrared spectroscopic quantitative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Ming; Ewing, R C

    2003-01-01

    Radiation and thermally induced changes in the oxidation state of uranium in metamict zircon have been systematically analysed, for the first time, using polarized near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that in damaged zircon U ions in crystalline domains exhibited relatively sharp, anisotropic signals from tetravalent and pentavalent U ions in crystalline domains (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup +). The linewidths and peak positions of the 4834 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + , E || c) and the 6668 cm sup - sup 1 band (U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 5 sup + , E perp. c) are a non-linear function of the self-radiation dose. They reach nearly constant values at doses greater than approx 3.5 x 10 sup 1 sup 8 alpha-events g sup - sup 1. Quantitative analysis of U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l sup 4 sup + and U sub c sub r sub y sub s sub t sub a sub l...

  17. A functional near-infrared spectroscopic investigation of speech production during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nick; Hancock, Allison S; Moon, Todd K; Gillam, Ronald B

    2018-03-01

    This study was designed to test the extent to which speaking processes related to articulation and voicing influence Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures of cortical hemodynamics and functional connectivity. Participants read passages in three conditions (oral reading, silent mouthing, and silent reading) while undergoing fNIRS imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses of the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemodynamic response function concentration values were compared for each task across five regions of interest. There were significant region main effects for both oxy and deoxy AUC analyses, and a significant region × task interaction for deoxy AUC favoring the oral reading condition over the silent reading condition for two nonmotor regions. Assessment of functional connectivity using Granger Causality revealed stronger networks between motor areas during oral reading and stronger networks between language areas during silent reading. There was no evidence that the hemodynamic flow from motor areas during oral reading compromised measures of language-related neural activity in nonmotor areas. However, speech movements had small, but measurable effects on fNIRS measures of neural connections between motor and nonmotor brain areas across the perisylvian region, even after wavelet filtering. Therefore, researchers studying speech processes with fNIRS should use wavelet filtering during preprocessing to reduce speech motion artifacts, incorporate a nonspeech communication or language control task into the research design, and conduct a connectivity analysis to adequately assess the impact of functional speech on the hemodynamic response across the perisylvian region. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  19. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Bremser, Wolfram; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties. (paper)

  20. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and control of cell culture and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Petersen, Nanna; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    of chemometric models built for interpretation of the spectra, thus impairing the analyte concentration predictions. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of necessary conditions and challenges that one has to face when developing a NIR application for monitoring of cell culture or fermentation...... processes. Important practical aspects are introduced, such as sampling, modeling of biomass concentration, influence of microorganism morphology on the spectra, effects of the hydrodynamic conditions in the fermenter, temperature influence, instrument settings, and signal optimization. Several examples......Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can potentially provide on-line information on substrate, biomass, product, and metabolite concentrations in fermentation processes, which could be useful for improved monitoring or control. However, several factors can negatively influence the quality...

  1. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Spectroscopic catalogues, such as GEISA and HITRAN, do not yet include information on the water vapour continuum that pervades visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. This is partly because, in some spectral regions, there are rather few laboratory measurements in conditions close to those in the Earth's atmosphere; hence understanding of the characteristics of the continuum absorption is still emerging. This is particularly so in the near-infrared and visible, where there has been renewed interest and activity in recent years. In this paper we present a critical review focusing on recent laboratory measurements in two near-infrared window regions (centred on 4700 and 6300 cm-1) and include reference to the window centred on 2600 cm-1 where more measurements have been reported. The rather few available measurements, have used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), cavity ring down spectroscopy, optical-feedback - cavity enhanced laser spectroscopy and, in very narrow regions, calorimetric interferometry. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy can measure the continuum across both these and neighbouring windows; by contrast, the cavity laser techniques are limited to fewer wavenumbers, but have a much higher inherent sensitivity. The available results present a diverse view of the characteristics of continuum absorption, with differences in continuum strength exceeding a factor of 10 in the cores of these windows. In individual windows, the temperature dependence of the water vapour self-continuum differs significantly in the few sets of measurements that allow an analysis. The available data also indicate that the temperature dependence differs significantly between different near-infrared windows. These pioneering measurements provide an impetus for further measurements. Improvements and/or extensions in existing techniques would aid progress to a full characterisation of the continuum - as an example, we

  2. Near-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) by WINERED: CN Red-system Band Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Yasui, Chikako; Izumi, Natsuko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hamano, Satoshi; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Fukue, Kei; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Otsubo, Shogo; Takenaka, Keiichi; Watase, Ayaka; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Nakaoka, Tetsuya [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Mizumoto, Misaki, E-mail: yoshiharu.shinnaka@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: kawakthd@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    Although high-resolution spectra of the CN red-system band are considered useful in cometary sciences, e.g., in the study of isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen in cometary volatiles, there have been few reports to date due to the lack of high-resolution ( R  ≡  λ /Δ λ  > 20,000) spectrographs in the near-infrared region around ∼1 μ m. Here, we present the high-resolution emission spectrum of the CN red-system band in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), acquired by the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph WINERED mounted on the 1.3 m Araki telescope at the Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto, Japan. We applied our fluorescence excitation models for CN, based on modern spectroscopic studies, to the observed spectrum of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) to search for CN isotopologues ({sup 13}C{sup 14}N and {sup 12}C{sup 15}N). We used a CN fluorescence excitation model involving both a “pure” fluorescence excitation model for the outer coma and a “fully collisional” fluorescence excitation model for the inner coma region. Our emission model could reproduce the observed {sup 12}C{sup 14}N red-system band of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy). The derived mixing ratio between the two excitation models was 0.94(+0.02/−0.03):0.06(+0.03/−0.02), corresponding to the radius of the collision-dominant region of ∼800–1600 km from the nucleus. No isotopologues were detected. The observed spectrum is consistent, within error, with previous estimates in comets of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C (∼90) and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N (∼150).

  3. Inline monitoring of adsorption of Butane Isomers with near infrared spectroscopy: Drift Correction in time based experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, A.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used to monitor online a large variety of processes. Hydrocarbons with their strong NIR spectral signature are good candidate analytes. For this work, the sorption data are measured in a manometric setup coupled with online NIR spectroscopy, to monitor the bulk

  4. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy versus Transcranial Doppler-Based Monitoring in Carotid Endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Cho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper monitoring of cerebral perfusion during carotid artery surgery is crucial for determining if a shunt is needed. We compared the safety and reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with trans-cranial Doppler (TCD for cerebral monitoring. Methods: This single-center, retrospective review was con-ducted on patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA using selective shunt-based TCD or NIRS at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center from November 2009 to June 2016. Postoperative complications were the primary outcome, and the distribution of risk factors between the 2 groups was compared. Results: The medical records of 74 patients (45 TCD, 29 NIRS were reviewed. The demographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. One TCD patient died within the 30-day postoperative period. Postoperative stroke (n=4, p=0.15 and neurologic complications (n=10, p=0.005 were only reported in the TCD group. Shunt usage was 44.4% and 10.3% in the TCD and NIRS groups, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusion: NIRS-based selective shunting during CEA seems to be safe and reliable for monitoring cerebral perfusion in terms of postoperative stroke and neurologic symptoms. It also reduces unnecessary shunt usage.

  5. Multi-parameters monitoring during traditional Chinese medicine concentration process with near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Sun, Qiaofeng; Hu, Tian; Li, Lian; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jiayue; Zhou, Wanhui; Zang, Hengchang

    2018-03-01

    As a powerful process analytical technology (PAT) tool, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used in real-time monitoring. In this study, NIR spectroscopy was applied to monitor multi-parameters of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shenzhiling oral liquid during the concentration process to guarantee the quality of products. Five lab scale batches were employed to construct quantitative models to determine five chemical ingredients and physical change (samples density) during concentration process. The paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and samples density were modeled by partial least square regression (PLSR), while the content of the glycyrrhizic acid and cinnamic acid were modeled by support vector machine regression (SVMR). Standard normal variate (SNV) and/or Savitzkye-Golay (SG) smoothing with derivative methods were adopted for spectra pretreatment. Variable selection methods including correlation coefficient (CC), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and interval partial least squares regression (iPLS) were performed for optimizing the models. The results indicated that NIR spectroscopy was an effective tool to successfully monitoring the concentration process of Shenzhiling oral liquid.

  6. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY FOR CO{sub 2} IN 18 COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamada, Saki; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Mitsuru [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sekiguchi, Tomohiko [Department of Teacher Training, Hokkaido University of Education, Asahikawa Campus, Hokumon 9, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 070-8621 (Japan); Watanabe, Jun-ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sakon, Itsuki; Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: ootsubo@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-10

    We conducted a spectroscopic survey of cometary volatiles with the Infrared Camera on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 5 {mu}m. In our survey, 18 comets, including both the Oort cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets, were observed in the period from 2008 June to 2010 January, most of which were observed at least twice. The prominent emission bands in the observed spectra are the fundamental vibrational bands of water (H{sub 2}O) at 2.7 {mu}m and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at 4.3 {mu}m. The fundamental vibrational band of carbon monoxide (CO) around 4.7 {mu}m and the broad emission feature, probably related to carbon-hydrogen-bearing molecules, can also be recognized around the 3.3-3.5-{mu}m region in some of the comets. With respect to H{sub 2}O, gas production rate ratios of CO{sub 2} have been derived in 17 comets, except for the comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our data set provides the largest homogeneous database of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios in comets obtained so far. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O production rate ratios are considered to reflect the composition of cometary ice when a comet is observed at a heliocentric distance within {approx}2.5 AU, since H{sub 2}O ice fully sublimates there. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ratio in cometary ice spans from several to {approx}30% among the comets observed at <2.5 AU (13 out of the 17 comets). Alternatively, the ratio of CO/CO{sub 2} in the comets seems to be smaller than unity based on our observations, although we only obtain upper limits for CO in most of the comets.

  7. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY FOR CO2 IN 18 COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hamada, Saki; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Mitsuru; Usui, Fumihiko; Nakagawa, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Ishiguro, Masateru; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Sakon, Itsuki; Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic survey of cometary volatiles with the Infrared Camera on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 5 μm. In our survey, 18 comets, including both the Oort cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets, were observed in the period from 2008 June to 2010 January, most of which were observed at least twice. The prominent emission bands in the observed spectra are the fundamental vibrational bands of water (H 2 O) at 2.7 μm and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) at 4.3 μm. The fundamental vibrational band of carbon monoxide (CO) around 4.7 μm and the broad emission feature, probably related to carbon-hydrogen-bearing molecules, can also be recognized around the 3.3-3.5-μm region in some of the comets. With respect to H 2 O, gas production rate ratios of CO 2 have been derived in 17 comets, except for the comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our data set provides the largest homogeneous database of CO 2 /H 2 O production rate ratios in comets obtained so far. The CO 2 /H 2 O production rate ratios are considered to reflect the composition of cometary ice when a comet is observed at a heliocentric distance within ∼2.5 AU, since H 2 O ice fully sublimates there. The CO 2 /H 2 O ratio in cometary ice spans from several to ∼30% among the comets observed at 2 in the comets seems to be smaller than unity based on our observations, although we only obtain upper limits for CO in most of the comets.

  8. Quantitative real-time monitoring of dryer effluent using fiber optic near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S C; Walker, D S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time quantitation of the solvents evaporating from a dryer. The vapor stream in the vacuum line of a dryer was monitored in real time using a fiber optic-coupled acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared (AOTF-NIR) spectrometer. A balance was placed in the dryer, and mass readings were recorded for every scan of the AOTF-NIR. A partial least-squares (PLS) calibration was subsequently built based on change in mass over change in time for solvents typically used in a chemical manufacturing plant. Controlling software for the AOTF-NIR was developed. The software collects spectra, builds the PLS calibration model, and continuously fits subsequently collected spectra to the calibration, allowing the operator to follow the mass loss of solvent from the dryer. The results indicate that solvent loss can be monitored and quantitated in real time using NIR for the optimization of drying times. These time-based mass loss values have also been used to calculate "dynamic" vapor density values for the solvents. The values calculated are in agreement with values determined from the ideal gas law and could prove valuable as tools to measure temperature or pressure indirectly.

  9. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and control of cell culture and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Albert E; Petersen, Nanna; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Larsen, Anders; Gernaey, Krist V

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can potentially provide on-line information on substrate, biomass, product, and metabolite concentrations in fermentation processes, which could be useful for improved monitoring or control. However, several factors can negatively influence the quality of chemometric models built for interpretation of the spectra, thus impairing the analyte concentration predictions. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of necessary conditions and challenges that one has to face when developing a NIR application for monitoring of cell culture or fermentation processes. Important practical aspects are introduced, such as sampling, modeling of biomass concentration, influence of microorganism morphology on the spectra, effects of the hydrodynamic conditions in the fermenter, temperature influence, instrument settings, and signal optimization. Several examples from the literature are provided, which will hopefully guide the reader interested in the topic. Furthermore, the general procedure used for the development of calibration models is presented, and the influence of microorganism metabolism-potential source of correlation between analytes-is commented. Other important issues such as wavelength selection and evaluation of robustness are shortly introduced. Finally, some examples of potential applications of NIR monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies, the combination with other monitoring tools (the so-called sensor fusion), and the description of process trajectories. On the basis of the review, we conclude that acceptance of NIR spectroscopy as a standard monitoring tool by the fermentation industry will necessitate considerably more on-line studies using industrially relevant-and highly challenging-fermentation conditions (high aeration intensity, high biomass concentration and viscosity, and filamentous production strain). (c) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009.

  10. Effects of temperature on the near-infrared spectroscopic measurement of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byungjo; McShane, Michael J.; Rastegar, Sohi; Cote, Gerard L.

    1998-05-01

    The noninvasive monitoring of sugars, and in particular, glucose using near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy would be useful for a number of applications including regulating the nutrients in cell culture medium, monitoring on-line processes in the food industry, and in vivo monitoring for control of glucose in DIabetic patients. The focus of this research was the investigation of the temperature effects across a 10.6 to 40.4 degrees C range on Fourier filtered and unfiltered single-beam as well as absorbance glucose and water NIR spectra. It is known that the positions of water absorption bands centered at 1.923 and 2.623 micrometers depend heavily on temperature effects while the glucose bands are temperature insensitive across this range. The water absorption bands were shown to shift to lower wavelengths while the distance between these bands increased with increasing temperatures. Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were constructed at five separate temperatures, 15.7, 20.5, 25.5, 35.6, and 40.4 degrees C. When absorbance spectra were used with reference scans taken at the same temperature and PLS models were used, no significant difference in the standard error of prediction (SEP) was noted with temperature. Using PLS calibration with single-beam spectra at one temperature showed large SEPs at the other temperatures. The use of Fourier filtered single-beam spectra reduced the SEP but still showed an increase as large temperature differences were produced and the filtered single beam approach did not reduce the SEP to the level achieved with the absorbance spectra.

  11. A deep near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the Scutum-Crux arm for Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslowe, C. K.; Crowther, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a New Technology Telescope/Son-of-Isaac spectroscopic survey of infrared selected Wolf-Rayet (WR) candidates in the Scutum-Crux spiral arm (298° ≤ l ≤ 340°, |b| ≤ 0.5°. We obtained near-IR spectra of 127 candidates, revealing 17 WR stars - a ∼13 per cent success rate - of which 16 are newly identified here. The majority of the new WR stars are classified as narrow-lined WN5-7 stars, with two broad-lined WN4-6 stars and three WC6-8 stars. The new stars, with distances estimated from previous absolute magnitude calibrations, have no obvious association with the Scutum-Crux arm. Refined near-infrared (YHJK) classification criteria based on over a hundred Galactic and Magellanic Cloud WR stars, providing diagnostics for hydrogen in WN stars, plus the identification of WO stars and intermediate WN/C stars. Finally, we find that only a quarter of WR stars in the survey region are associated with star clusters and/or H II regions, with similar statistics found for luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Milky Way. The relative isolation of evolved massive stars is discussed, together with the significance of the co-location of LBVs and WR stars in young star clusters.

  12. Characterizing infantile hemangiomas with a near-infrared spectroscopic handheld wireless device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Christopher J.; Hoi, Jennifer W.; Kim, Hyun K.; Behr, Gerald; Geller, Lauren; Antonov, Nina; Flexman, Molly; Garzon, Maria; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2015-03-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are common vascular growths that occur in 5-10% of neonates and have the potential to cause disfiguring and even life-threatening complications. Currently, no objective tool exist to monitor either progression or treatment of IH. To address this unmet clinical need, we have developed a handheld wireless device (HWD) that uses diffuse optical spectroscopy for the assessment of IH. The system employs 4 wavelengths (l=780nm, 805nm, 850nm, and 905nm) and 6 source-detector pairs with distances between 0.6 and 20 mm. Placed on the skin surface, backreflection data is obtained and a multispectral evolution algorithm is used to determine total hemoglobin concentration and tissue oxygen saturation. First results of an ongoing pilot study involving 13 patients (average enrollment age = 25 months) suggest that an increase in hypoxic stress over time can lead to the proliferation of IH. Involuting IH lesions showed an increase in tissue oxygen saturation as well as a decrease in total hemoglobin.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for a real time monitoring of the biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockl, Andrea; Lichti, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    In this research project Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to monitor the content of specific process parameters in anaerobic digestion. A laboratory scaled biogas digester was constantly fed every four hours with maize- and grass silage to keep a base load with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.5 kg oDM/m 3  ∗ d. Daily impact loads with shredded wheat up to an OLR of 8 kg oDM/m 3  ∗ d were added in order to generate peaks at the parameters tested. The developed calibration models are capable to show changes in process parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA), propionic acid, total inorganic carbon (TIC) and the ratio of the volatile fatty acids to the carbonate buffer (VFA/TIC). Based on the calibration of the models for VFA and TIC, the values could be predicted with an R 2 of 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. Moreover, the residual prediction deviations were 4.0 and 6.0 for VFA and TIC, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-resolved near-infrared technique for bedside monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Migueis, Mark; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2010-02-01

    A primary focus of neurointensive care is monitoring the injured brain to detect harmful events that can impair cerebral blood flow (CBF). Since current non-invasive bedside methods can only indirectly assess blood flow, the goal of this research was to develop an optical technique for measuring absolute CBF. A time-resolved near-infrared (NIR) apparatus was built and its ability to accurately measure changes in optical properties was demonstrated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. The time-resolved system was combined with a bolus-tracking method for measuring CBF using the dye indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular flow tracer. Cerebral blood flow was measured in newborn piglets and for comparison, CBF was concurrently measured using a previously developed continuous-wave NIR method. Measurements were acquired with both techniques under three conditions: normocapnia, hypercapnia and following occlusion of the carotid arteries. Mean CBF values (N = 3) acquired with the TR-NIR system were 31.9 +/- 11.7 ml/100g/min during occlusion, 39.7 +/- 1.6 ml/100g/min at normocapnia, and 58.8 +/- 9.9 ml/100g/min at hypercapnia. Results demonstrate that the developed TR-NIR technique has the sensitivity to measure changes in CBF; however, the CBF measurements were approximately 25% lower than the values obtained with the CW-NIRS technique.

  15. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Volatiles in Frozen Lunar Simulants While Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Forgione, Joshua; White, Bruce; McMurray, Robert; Cook, Amanda M.; Bielawski, Richard; Fritzler, Erin L.; Thompson, Sarah J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) focuses on using local resources for mission consumables. The approach can reduce mission cost and risk. Lunar polar volatiles, e.g. water ice, have been detected via remote sensing measurements and represent a potential resource for both humans and propellant. The exact nature of the horizontal and depth distribution of the ice remains to be documented in situ. NASA's Resource Prospector mission (RP) is intended to investigate the polar volatiles using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. RP component level hardware is undergoing testing in relevant lunar conditions (cryovacuum). In March 2015 a series of drilling tests were undertaken using the Honeybee Robotics RP Drill, Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS), and sample capture mechanisms (SCM) inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The goal of these tests was to investigate the ability of NIRVSS to monitor volatiles during drilling activities and assess delivery of soil sample transfer to the SCMs in order to elucidate the concept of operations associated with this regolith sampling method.

  16. Monitoring angiogenesis using a human compatible calibration for broadband near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runze; Zhang, Qiong; Wu, Ying; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of many conditions, including cancer, stroke, vascular disease, diabetes, and high-altitude exposure. We have previously shown that one can study angiogenesis in animal models by using total hemoglobin (tHb) as a marker of cerebral blood volume (CBV), measured using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bNIRS). However, the method was not suitable for patients as global anoxia was used for the calibration. Here we determine if angiogenesis could be detected using a calibration method that could be applied to patients. CBV, as a marker of angiogenesis, is quantified in a rat cortex before and after hypoxia acclimation. Rats are acclimated at 370-mmHg pressure for three weeks, while rats in the control group are housed under the same conditions, but under normal pressure. CBV increased in each animal in the acclimation group. The mean CBV (%volume/volume) is 3.49%±0.43% (mean±SD) before acclimation for the experimental group, and 4.76%±0.29% after acclimation. The CBV for the control group is 3.28%±0.75%, and 3.09%±0.48% for the two measurements. This demonstrates that angiogenesis can be monitored noninvasively over time using a bNIRS system with a calibration method that is compatible with human use and less stressful for studies using animals.

  17. Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yaoxian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of serious mortality and morbidity, which often happens in inpatients and especially with the postoperative population [1]. The golden standard to diagnose DVT is venography, which relies on complicated imaging modalities requiring to be injected in a vein below the clot invasively and ionizing procedures that employing xray imaging to show where and how the DVT blocks. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is recently found to be an intriguing and potential method detecting DVT in clinics. It has been reported recently that employing NIRS to diagnose DVT. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), local extremities manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, usually cause thrombosis and the reduction of distal blood flow. Thrombolytic therapy is to use exogenous activator to activate the dissolution system, which can dissolve intracoronary thrombus. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those DVT and ASO patients did not take treatments and normal population. 8 DVT and 9 ASO patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited to take the measurements of concentration variation of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) by NIRS-based thrombosis monitor. Thereinto, 5 DVT and 6 ASO patients has taken the thrombolytic treatment, and the data for the periods before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment were extracted for analysis. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in DVT and ASO patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converge to the curves of normal subjects. And the Δ[Hb] emerges the similar trends, except for the rising trend in the beginning and the downtrend after thrombolytic therapy. The findings indicated NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.

  18. Monitoring of lower urinary tract function in patients with spinal cord injury using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Nigro, Mark; Stothers, Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Background: One of the most important conditions where there is loss of normal bladder function is spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently, evaluation of bladder function is limited to periodic invasive urodynamic testing (UDS). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in monitoring bladder function in patients with SCI during bladder filling and emptying and to investigate the correlations of NIRS measures with simultaneous UDS parameters. NIRS is a non-invasive optical method to study tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics and function by monitoring changes in the chromophore concentrations of oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (tHb). Methods: 10 adult paraplegic patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction who were referred for regular urodynamic evaluation were recruited. Changes in O2Hb, HHb and tHb, and tissue saturation index (TSI%) in the detrusor were monitored and recorded by a wireless NIRS system during the urodynamic evaluation. Time points of urgency and urinary leakage were marked and patterns of change in NIRS parameters were compared to standard urodynamic pressure tracings. Results: Strong consistency between changes in NIRS-derived tHb and changes in intravesical pressure were observed during filling across the subjects. During bladder filling a gradual increase in O2Hb and tHb with minimal changes in HHb was observed. Interestingly, a drop in TSI% was detected seconds before strong urgency and urinary leakage. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest a relationship between noninvasive NIRS measures and UDS parameters during bladder filling in SCI patients.

  19. Optical monitoring of kidney oxygenation and hemodynamics using a miniaturized near-infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Nigro, Mark; Nguan, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Background: Following human renal allograft transplant primary graft dysfunction can occur early in the postoperative period as a result of acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, drug toxicity, and vascular complications. Successful treatment of graft dysfunction requires early detection and accurate diagnosis so that disease-specific medical and/or surgical intervention can be provided promptly. However, current diagnostic methods are not sensitive or specific enough, so that identifying the cause of graft dysfunction is problematic and often delayed. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established optical method that monitors changes in tissue hemodynamics and oxygenation in real time. We report the feasibility of directly monitoring kidney the kidney in an animal model using NIRS to detect renal ischemia and hypoxia. Methods: In an anesthetized pig, a customized continuous wave spatially resolved (SR) NIRS sensor was fixed directly to the surface of the surgically exposed kidney. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb) deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (THb) were monitored before, during and after renal artery clamping and reperfusion, and the resulting fluctuations in chromophore concentration from baseline used to measure variations in renal perfusion and oxygenation. Results: On clamping the renal artery THb and O2Hb concentrations declined progressively while HHb rose. With reperfusion after releasing the artery clamp O2Hb and THb rose while HHb fell with all parameters returning to its baseline. This pattern was similar in all three trials. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that a miniaturized NIRS sensor applied directly to the surface of a kidney in an animal model can detect the onset of renal ischemia and tissue hypoxia. With modification, our NIRS-based method may contribute to early detection of renal vascular complications and graft dysfunction following renal transplant.

  20. Predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkė, Alina; Bilskienė, Diana; Šaferis, Viktoras; Gedminas, Martynas; Bieliauskaitė, Dalia; Tamašauskas, Arimantas; Macas, Andrius

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in young adults. Study aimed to define the predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring of TBI patients in a Lithuanian clinical setting. Data of 61 patients was analyzed. Predictive value of early NIRS monitoring, computed tomography data and regular intensive care unit (ICU) parameters was investigated. Twenty-six patients expressed clinically severe TBI; 14 patients deceased. Patients who survived expressed higher NIRS values at the periods of admission to operative room (75.4%±9.8% vs. 71.0%±20.5%; P=0.013) and 1h after admission to ICU (74.7%±1.5% vs. 61.9%±19.4%; P=0.029). The NIRS values discriminated hospital mortality groups more accurately than admission GCS score, blood sugar or hemoglobin levels. Admission INR value and NIRS value at 1h after admission to ICU were selected by discriminant analysis into the optimal set of features when classifying hospital mortality groups. Average efficiency of classification using this method was 88.9%. When rsO2 values at 1h after admission to ICU did not exceed 68.0% in the left hemisphere and 68.3% in the right hemisphere, the hazard ratio for death increased by 17.7 times (Pbrain saturation monitoring provides accurate predictive data, which can improve the allocation of scarce medical resources, set the treatment goals and alleviate the early communication with patients' relatives. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  2. Monitoring Cerebral and Renal Oxygenation Status during Neonatal Digestive Surgeries Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepending on the initial pathology, hypovolemia, intra-abdominal hypertension, and sepsis are often encountered in neonatal digestive surgery. Accurate newborn monitoring during and after surgery is essential to adapt resuscitation protocols. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is non-invasive and can detect hypoperfusion which indicates a low circulatory blood flow, regardless of the cause.ObjectiveEvaluating changes in cerebral and renal regional oxygen saturation during neonatal digestive surgeries, conducted according to normal practices, with commonly used monitoring parameters. Analyzing retrospectively the inter-relationships between NIRS values and mean arterial pressure (MAP values as well as pre-ductal SpO2.MethodsProspective, descriptive, monocentric study. All neonates referred for surgery were included. NIRS allows the measurement of cerebral and renal oxygenation fluctuations, as well as calculating difference in intraoperative and postoperative values.ResultsNineteen patients were included. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (C rSO2 values were stable while renal regional oxygen saturation (R rSO2 values tended to decrease with time during surgery. Indeed, 72% of rSO2 decline episodes occurred after the first 30 min of surgery, without any significant statistical differences for the next 90 min of surgery. After surgery, the lowest average C and R rSO2 values were evidenced during the first 6 h, with 60% of C rSO2 and R rSO2 anomalies occurring in that time frame. There was no significant statistical difference observed in the following 18 h. There was a significant correlation between R rSO2 and SpO2 values (p < 0.01, but not with C rSO2 values. There was no correlation with the MAP either for the C rSO2 values or R rSO2 ones.ConclusionNIRS is a promising non-invasive bedside tool to monitor cerebral and tissue perfusion, analyzing tissue microcirculation. NIRS has its interest to guide neonatal digestive

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopic observation of the ageing process in archaeological wood using a deuterium exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Siesler, H W

    2005-03-01

    The ageing degradation of the fine wood structure of dry-exposed archaeological wood was investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with the aid of a deuterium exchange method. The archaeological wood sample was taken from an old wooden temple in Japan (late 7th century), which has been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Comparing the analytical results with those of a modern wood sample of the same species, the ageing process of archaeological wood was clarified as a change in the state of order on a macromolecular structural level. It can be concluded from NIR spectra that the amorphous region, and partially semi-crystalline region, in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin decreased by the ageing degradation, whereas the crystalline region in cellulose was not affected by the ageing. The accessibility of the diffusant to effect H/D-exchange was monitored by an OH-related absorption band obtained from FT-NIR transmission spectroscopy and characteristically varied with the ageing process of the wood samples, the absorption bands characteristic of a specific state of order and the diffusion agent. Finally, we proposed a morphological model to describe the variation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall with ageing degradation. The state of microfibrils changed loosely by ageing, so that elementary fibrils were arranged loosely under 5 A, whereas several elementary fibrils in the modern wood were arranged in very close proximity under 3 A to each other.

  4. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Caicedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP, assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + _. SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first three days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen

  5. Decomposition of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Using Oblique Subspace Projections: Applications in Brain Hemodynamic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Alexander; Varon, Carolina; Hunyadi, Borbala; Papademetriou, Maria; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data is comprised by a large number of synchronously collected biomedical signals that are measured at different locations. Deciphering the interrelationships of these signals can yield important information about their dependence providing some useful clinical diagnostic data. For instance, by computing the coupling between Near-Infrared Spectroscopy signals (NIRS) and systemic variables the status of the hemodynamic regulation mechanisms can be assessed. In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the decomposition of NIRS signals into additive components. The algorithm, SIgnal DEcomposition base on Obliques Subspace Projections (SIDE-ObSP), assumes that the measured NIRS signal is a linear combination of the systemic measurements, following the linear regression model y = Ax + ϵ . SIDE-ObSP decomposes the output such that, each component in the decomposition represents the sole linear influence of one corresponding regressor variable. This decomposition scheme aims at providing a better understanding of the relation between NIRS and systemic variables, and to provide a framework for the clinical interpretation of regression algorithms, thereby, facilitating their introduction into clinical practice. SIDE-ObSP combines oblique subspace projections (ObSP) with the structure of a mean average system in order to define adequate signal subspaces. To guarantee smoothness in the estimated regression parameters, as observed in normal physiological processes, we impose a Tikhonov regularization using a matrix differential operator. We evaluate the performance of SIDE-ObSP by using a synthetic dataset, and present two case studies in the field of cerebral hemodynamics monitoring using NIRS. In addition, we compare the performance of this method with other system identification techniques. In the first case study data from 20 neonates during the first 3 days of life was used, here SIDE-ObSP decoupled the influence of changes in arterial oxygen saturation from the

  6. low-Cost, High-Performance Alternatives for Target Temperature Monitoring Using the Near-Infrared Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgo, Mathew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A process is being developed for commercial production of the medical isotope Mo-99 through a photo-nuclear reaction on a Mo-100 target using a highpower electron accelerator. This process requires temperature monitoring of the window through which a high-current electron beam is transmitted to the target. For this purpose, we evaluated two near infrared technologies: the OMEGA Engineering iR2 pyrometer and the Ocean Optics Maya2000 spectrometer with infrared-enhanced charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor. Measuring in the near infrared spectrum, in contrast to the long-wavelength infrared spectrum, offers a few immediate advantages: (1) ordinary glass or quartz optical elements can be used; (2) alignment can be performed without heating the target; and (3) emissivity corrections to temperature are typically less than 10%. If spatial resolution is not required, the infrared pyrometer is attractive because of its accuracy, low cost, and simplicity. If spatial resolution is required, we make recommendations for near-infrared imaging based on our data augmented by calculations

  7. On-line H2S monitoring using near-infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.; Jeffrey, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate the technique of frequency-modulated, tunable diode laser spectroscopy for the monitoring of H 2 S gas in geothermal plant emissions. The geothermal power industry has an interest in the development of real-time techniques for monitoring these emissions, since improved measurement capabilities could lead to considerable cost savings through the optimization of the chemicals used for abatement. There are several locations throughout the plant at which this measurement could be performed. They vary from the main stream line which operates at a temperature of about 350 F (175 C) and a pressure of 100 psig to the cooling stack with a temperature of 80--100 F (27--38 C) at ambient pressure. Gas concentrations range from 0.1 ppm to 1,000's of ppms. The technical goal of this effort was to perform a series of scoping experiments to determine the effect of elevated pressure, temperature and water vapor on the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique for the detection of H 2 S. The results of these experiments are presented, and the deployment options and system designs are discussed

  8. Near infrared and acoustic chemometrics monitoring of volatile fatty acids and dry matter during co-digestion of manure and maize silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Carina J.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two process analytical technologies, near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic chemometrics, were investigated as means of monitoring a maize silage spiked biogas process. A reactor recirculation loop which enables sampling concomitant with on-line near infrared characterisation...... accuracy) and RPD between 2.8 and 3.6 (acceptable precision). A second experiment employed at-line monitoring with both near infrared spectroscopy and acoustic chemometrics. A larger calibration span was obtained for total solids by spiking. Both process analytical modalities were validated with respect...

  9. Genetic multivariate calibration for near infrared spectroscopic determination of protein, moisture, dry mass, hardness and other residues of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Durmuş

    2006-01-01

    Determination of wheat flour quality parameters, such as protein, moisture, dry mass by wet chemistry analyses takes long time. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled with multivariate calibration offers a fast and nondestructive alternative to obtain reliable results. However, due to the complexity of the spectra obtained from NIR, some wavelength selection is generally required to improve the predictive ability of multivariate calibration methods. In this study, two different wheat data s...

  10. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Olesen, J

    2001-01-01

    , brain and connective tissue, and more recently it has been used in the clinical setting to assess circulatory and metabolic abnormalities. Quantitative measures of blood flow are also possible using NIRS and a light-absorbing tracer, which can be applied to evaluate circulatory responses to exercise......Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is becoming a widely used research instrument to measure tissue oxygen (O2) status non-invasively. Continuous-wave spectrometers are the most commonly used devices, which provide semi-quantitative changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in small blood...... vessels (arterioles, capillaries and venules). Refinement of NIRS hardware and the algorithms used to deconvolute the light absorption signal have improved the resolution and validity of cytochrome oxidase measurements. NIRS has been applied to measure oxygenation in a variety of tissues including muscle...

  12. High frame-rate MR-guided near-infrared tomography system to monitor breast hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqiu; Jiang, Shudong; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Davis, Scott C.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2011-02-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) tomography system with spectral-encoded sources at two wavelength bands was built to quantify the temporal contrast at 20 Hz bandwidth, while imaging breast tissue. The NIR system was integrated with a magnetic resonance (MR) machine through a custom breast coil interface, and both NIR data and MR images were acquired simultaneously. MR images provided breast tissue structural information for NIR reconstruction. Acquisition of finger pulse oximeter (PO) plethysmogram was synchronized with the NIR system in the experiment to offer a frequency-locked reference. The recovered absorption coefficients of the breast at two wavelengths showed identical temporal frequency as the PO output, proving this multi-modality design can recover the small pulsatile variation of absorption property in breast tissue related to the heartbeat. And it also showed the system's ability on novel contrast imaging of fast flow signals in deep tissue.

  13. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  14. Spectroscopic properties of a novel near-infrared tunable laser material Ni:MgGa2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2005-01-01

    An intense emission band from Ni 2+ in MgGa 2 O 4 spinel in the range of 1.1-1.6μm was observed at room temperature. The emission band could be assigned to the downward d-d transition of T2g3->A2g3 of Ni 2+ ions in octahedral sites. The lifetime of the emission was more than 1.6ms from 5 to 300K. This material has potential as a near-infrared tunable-laser host

  15. A near infrared instrument to monitor relative hemoglobin concentrations of human bone tissue in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul; Khambatta, Faram; Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Thomas, John C.; Clark, Jillian M.; Marshall, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A continuous wave near infrared instrument has been developed to monitor in vivo changes in the hemoglobin concentration of the trabecular compartment of human bone. The transmitter uses only two laser diodes of wavelengths 685 and 830 nm, and the receiver uses a single silicon photodiode operating in the photovoltaic mode. The functioning of the instrument and the depth of penetration of the near infrared signals was determined in vitro using tissue-equivalent phantoms. The instrument achieves a depth of penetration of approximately 2 cm for an optode separation of 4 cm and, therefore, has the capacity to interrogate the trabecular compartment of human bone. The functioning of the instrument was tested in vivo to evaluate the relative oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations of the proximal tibial bone of apparently healthy, normal weight, adult subjects in response to a 3 min on, 5 min off, vascular occlusion protocol. The traces of the relative Hb and HbO2 concentrations obtained were reproducible in controlled conditions. The instrument is relatively simple and flexible, and offers an inexpensive platform for further studies to obtain normative data for healthy cohorts, and to evaluate disease-specific performance characteristics for cohorts with vasculopathies of bone.

  16. Tree health monitoring: perspectives from the visible and near infrared remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonthier P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we present a critical review of those optical remote sensing techniques operating with the visible (VIS and near infrared (NIR bands for the assessment of health in forest trees. Physical, biological and physio-pathological issues of VIS-NIR reflectance of leaves are described pointing out that a decrease of NIR reflectance is highly influenced by stress conditions on tree caused by abiotic and biotic factors. In many cases the NIR spectral band is more sensitive than the VIS one, allowing to detect plant stress long before the appearance of visible symptoms. A description of the main remote sensing methods is provided, including radiometric measurements and multispectral imaging approaches. False colour infrared (FCIR images collection and their photointerpretation and processing are shown as they represent the most relevant means to acquire information of canopy from its reflectance properties. The amount and the quality of the obtainable data depend on: (i field conditions; (ii the type of the adopted instrument (camera, radiometer; (iii the recording system position (ground platforms, aircraft, satellite; (iv the format of the data (analogical, digitalised or digital; and (v the photointerpretation technique. Results from literature are discussed stressing the limits of remote sensing methods. Remote sensing in VIS and NIR spectral bands is generally a powerful classification tool to detect and score tree stress. Nevertheless, it is not a diagnostic tool in that it does not provide information on the cause of stress. Moreover, the method should be adequately tested at single tree level for many important pathogens, in particular root rot, butt rot and stem rot fungi. In perspective, new high spatial resolution satellite images and their GIS software elaboration might be suitable to improve remote sensing analysis.

  17. Toward a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based monitoring of pain assessment for nonverbal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rojas, Raul; Huang, Xu; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models. Toward this aim, we used the quantitative sensory testing to determine pain threshold and pain tolerance to cold and heat in 18 healthy subjects (three females), mean age±standard deviation (31.9±5.5). The classification model is based on the bag-of-words approach, a histogram representation used in document classification based on the frequencies of extracted words and adapted for time series; two learning algorithms were used separately, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). A comparison between two sets of fNIRS channels was also made in the classification task, all 24 channels and 8 channels from the somatosensory region defined as our region of interest (RoI). The results showed that K-NN obtained slightly better results (92.08%) than SVM (91.25%) using the 24 channels; however, the performance slightly dropped using only channels from the RoI with K-NN (91.53%) and SVM (90.83%). These results indicate potential applications of fNIRS in the development of a physiologically based diagnosis of human pain that would benefit vulnerable patients who cannot self-report pain.

  18. [Near infrared spectroscopy based process trajectory technology and its application in monitoring and controlling of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the principle of NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy)-based process trajectory technology was introduced.The main steps of the technique include:① in-line collection of the processes spectra of different technics; ② unfolding of the 3-D process spectra;③ determination of the process trajectories and their normal limits;④ monitoring of the new batches with the established MSPC (multivariate statistical process control) models.Applications of the technology in the chemical and biological medicines were reviewed briefly. By a comprehensive introduction of our feasibility research on the monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine technical process using NIRS-based multivariate process trajectories, several important problems of the practical applications which need urgent solutions are proposed, and also the application prospect of the NIRS-based process trajectory technology is fully discussed and put forward in the end. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring and control of the fluidized bed granulation and coating processes-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Li, Lian; Yin, Wenping; Xu, Dongbo; Zang, Hengchang

    2017-09-15

    The fluidized bed granulation and pellets coating technologies are widely used in pharmaceutical industry, because the particles made in a fluidized bed have good flowability, compressibility, and the coating thickness of pellets are homogeneous. With the popularization of process analytical technology (PAT), real-time analysis for critical quality attributes (CQA) was getting more attention. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, as a PAT tool, could realize the real-time monitoring and control during the granulating and coating processes, which could optimize the manufacturing processes. This article reviewed the application of NIR spectroscopy in CQA (moisture content, particle size and tablet/pellet thickness) monitoring during fluidized bed granulation and coating processes. Through this review, we would like to provide references for realizing automated control and intelligent production in fluidized bed granulation and pellets coating of pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Hemodynamics and Oxygenation After Cold-Spray Application as Monitored by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir H.; Hoens, Alison; Reid, W. Darlene

    2015-01-01

    Context Vapocoolant spray, commonly known as cold spray (CS), is a cryotherapy modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiologic effects of cryotherapy modalities include reductions in tissue blood flow, oxygenation, and cell metabolism in addition to attenuation of pain perception attributed to reduced superficial nerve conduction velocity. Objective To examine the effects of CS on subcutaneous and intramuscular blood flow and oxygenation on the thigh muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy, an optical method to monitor changes in tissue oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb), and total (tHb) hemoglobin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Muscle Biophysics Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Participants were 13 healthy adults (8 men, 5 women; age = 37.4 ± 6 years, body mass index = 27.4 ± 2.6, adipose tissue thickness = 7.2 ± 1.8 mm). Intervention(s) Conventional CS was applied to the vastus medialis muscles. Main Outcome Measure(s) Changes in chromophore concentrations of O2Hb, HHb, and tHb at superficial and deep layers were monitored for 5 minutes using a 2-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Results Thirty seconds after CS application, we observed a decrease from baseline in O2Hb and tHb only in the superficial layer that was maintained for 3 minutes. Conclusions Application of CS induced a transient change in blood flow and oxygenation of the superficial tissues with no change in deeper tissues over the healthy vastus medialis muscle. The limited physiologic effect of CS on the superficial hemodynamics and oxygenation of limb muscles may limit the therapeutic benefit of this cryotherapy modality to a temporary analgesic effect, a hypothesis that warrants a clinical trial on traumatized muscles. PMID:26098273

  1. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  2. A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; Zhang, Jinshan; Frost, Ray L

    2010-11-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm⁻¹ between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite - A mid-infrared and near-infrared study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.F.; Yang, J.; Liu, Q.F.; Zhang, J.S.; Frost, R.L. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm{sup -1} between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis.

  4. The DENIS & 2MASS Near Infrared Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Mamon, Gary

    1996-01-01

    The DENIS and 2MASS near infrared surveys are presented. Their applications in extragalactic astronomy and cosmology are listed. The prospects for a rapid spectroscopic followup survey of a near infrared selected sample of nearly $10^5$ galaxies are illustrated with Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. In-line monitoring and interpretation of an indomethacin anti-solvent crystallization process by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Eun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Cho, Young-Sang; Choi, Guang Jin

    2011-11-28

    PAT (process analytical technology) has been emphasized as one of key elements for the full implementation of QbD (quality-by-design) in the pharmaceutical area. NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) has been studied intensively as an in-line/on-line monitoring tool in chemical and biomedical industries. A precise and reliable monitoring of the particle characteristics during crystallization along with a suitable control strategy should be highly encouraged for the conformance to new quality system of pharmaceutical products. In this study, the anti-solvent crystallization process of indomethacin (IMC) was monitored using an in-line NIRS. IMC powders were produced via anti-solvent crystallization using two schemes; 'S-to-A' (solvent-to-antisolvent) and 'A-to-S' (antisolvent-to-solvent). In-line NIR spectra were analyzed by a PCA (principal component analysis) method. Although pure α-form IMC powder was resulted under A-to-S scheme, a mixture of the α-form and γ-form was produced for S-to-A case. By integrating the PCA results with off-line characterization (SEM, XRD, DSC) data, the crystallization process under each scheme was elucidated by three distinct consecutive steps. It was demonstrated that in-line NIRS, combined with PCA, can be very useful to monitor in real time and interpret the anti-solvent crystallization process with respect to the polymorphism and particle size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  7. Predictive value of early near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Vilkė

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: NIRS plays an important role in the clinical care of TBI patients. Regional brain saturation monitoring provides accurate predictive data, which can improve the allocation of scarce medical resources, set the treatment goals and alleviate the early communication with patients’ relatives.

  8. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed butterfat interesterification with rapesee oil by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for butterfat modification. The reactions were catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM at 70 C for the blend of butterfat/rapeseed oil (70/30, w/w) in a packed-bed reactor. The blend and intere...

  9. Spectrum of excess partial molar absorptivity. Part II: a near infrared spectroscopic study of aqueous Na-halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebe, Fumie; Nishikawa, Keiko; Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-04-07

    Our earlier thermodynamic studies suggested that F(-) and Cl(-) form hydration shells with the hydration number 14 ± 2 and 2.3 ± 0.6, respectively, and leave the bulk H(2)O away from hydration shells unperturbed. Br(-) and I(-), on the other hand, form hydrogen bonds directly with the momentarily existing hydrogen bond network of H(2)O, and retard the degree of entropy-volume cross fluctuation inherent in liquid H(2)O. The effect of the latter is stronger for I(-) than Br(-). Here we seek additional information about this qualitative difference between Cl(-) and (Br(-) and I(-)) pair by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. We analyze the ν(2) + ν(3) band of H(2)O in the range 4600-5500 cm(-1) of aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr and NaI, by a new approach. From observed absorbance, we calculate excess molar absorptivity, ε(E), excess over the additive contributions of solute and solvent. ε(E) thus contains information about the effect of inter-molecular interactions in the ν(2) + ν(3) spectrum. The spectrum of ε(E) shows three bands; two negative ones at 5263 and 4873 cm(-1), and the positive band at 5123 cm(-1). We then define and calculate the excess partial molar absorptivity of each salt, ε(E)(salt). From the behaviour of ε(E)(salt) we suggest that the negative band at 5263 cm(-1) represents free H(2)O without much hydrogen bonding under the influence of local electric field of ions. Furthermore, from a sudden change in the x(salt) (mole fraction of salt) dependence of ε(E)(salt), we suggest that there is an ion-pairing in x(salt) > 0.032, 0.036, and 0.04 for NaCl, NaBr and NaI respectively. The positive band of ε(E) at 5123 cm(-1) is attributed to a modestly organized hydrogen bond network of H(2)O (or liquid-likeness), and the x(salt) dependence of ε indicated a qualitative difference in the effect of Cl(-) from those of Br(-) and I(-). Namely, the values of ε(E)(salt) stay constant for Cl(-) but those for Br(-) and I(-) decrease smoothly on

  10. First step toward near-infrared continuous glucose monitoring: in vivo evaluation of antibody coupled biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Karolien; Kodeck, Valérie; Van De Walle, Elke; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Declercq, Heidi; Dubruel, Peter; Vlaminck, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is crucial in diabetic care. Long-term CGM systems however require an accurate sensor as well as a suitable measuring environment. Since large intravenous sensors are not feasible, measuring inside the interstitial fluid is considered the best alternative. This option, unfortunately, has the drawback of a lag time with blood glucose values. A good strategy to circumvent this is to enhance tissue integration and enrich the peri-implant vasculature. Implants of different optically transparent biomaterials (poly(methyl-methacrylate) [PMMA] and poly(dimethylsiloxane) [PDMS]) – enabling glucose monitoring in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum – were surface-treated and subsequently implanted in goats at various implantation sites for up to 3 months. The overall in vivo biocompatibility, tissue integration, and vascularization at close proximity of the surfaces of these materials were assessed. Histological screening showed similar tissue reactions independent of the implantation site. No significant inflammation reaction was observed. Tissue integration and vascularization correlated, to some extent, with the biomaterial composition. A modification strategy, in which a vascular endothelial-cadherin antibody was coupled to the biomaterials surface through a dopamine layer, showed significantly enhanced vascularization 3 months after subcutaneous implantation. Our results suggest that the developed strategy enables the creation of tissue interactive NIR transparent packaging materials, opening the possibility of continuous glucose monitoring. PMID:25304314

  11. A PAT approach for the on-line monitoring of pharmaceutical co-crystals formation with near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O; Silva, Marta C D; Lopes, João A

    2014-08-25

    Cocrystals represent a class of crystalline solids consisting of two or more molecular species usually held together by non-covalent bonds. Pharmaceutical cocrystals can alter the physicochemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to improve solubility, dissolution rate, particle properties and stability. This work presents a process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitor on-line the cocrystallization of furosemide and adenine by solvent evaporation using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Furosemide and adenine were added to a small volume of methanol in a beaker and stirred on an orbital stirring table during 8h at room temperature. The on-line monitoring was performed with a FT-NIR spectrometer fitted with a reflectance fiber optic probe. Monitoring was performed with the probe tip placed 1cm above the cocrystallization medium to avoid interference with the cocrystallization process. Cocrystals were vacuum dried to remove residual solvent and characterized off-line by NIRS, MIRS, DSC and XRPD. Results demonstrate that it was possible to follow the main cocrystallization events on-line. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality.

  13. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring for prevention of brain injury in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    : To evaluate the benefits and harms of interventions that attempt to alter cerebral oxygenation guided by cerebral NIRS monitoring in order to prevent cerebral injury, improve neurological outcome, and increase survival in preterm infants born more than 8 weeks preterm. Search methods: We used the standard...... search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 10 September 2016), Embase (1980 to 10 September 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 10 September 2016). We also searched clinical trial databases......); grade III/IV (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.31; one trial; 166 participants); and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (which did not occur in either group). Likewise, there was no effect of NIRS plus guideline on the occurrence of a patent ductus arteriosus (RR 1.96, 95% CI 0.94 to 4.08; one trial; 166...

  14. Comparison of near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy for on-line monitoring of etchant solutions directly through a Teflon tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaejin; Hwang, Jinyoung; Chung, Hoeil

    2008-01-01

    Both near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been studied for the quantitative measurement of components (H 3 PO 4 , HNO 3 , and CH 3 COOH) in an etchant solution and the corresponding prediction robustness has been evaluated. Both measurements were accomplished by illuminating radiation directly through a Teflon tube. Raman spectral features of each component were much clearer and more selective than those observed in the NIR spectrum. Especially, NIR spectral variation pertinent to H 3 PO 4 and HNO 3 were mostly based on the displacement and perturbation of water bands rather than due solely to NIR absorption. Therefore, the resulting spectral variations were not highly specific. When the validation set contained minor spectral variations resulting from a slight instrumental change, NIR prediction performance for all three components degraded substantially by showing obvious prediction bias. However, the accuracies of Raman predictions were maintained. Since partial least squares (PLS) models for each component were built using NIR spectra of poor specificity with broadly overlapping features, even minor spectral differences introduced by instrumental variations sensitively influenced the prediction performance of the NIR models. Overall, the selectivity (specificity) of a targeting spectroscopic method should be considered critically to secure prediction robustness for monitoring components in an etchant solution

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of

  16. At-line monitoring of key parameters of nisin fermentation by near infrared spectroscopy, chemometric modeling and model improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Liang; Du, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Yong-Can; Yang, Shuang; Lu, Jia-Hui; Zhao, Hong-Yu; Wang, Yao; Teng, Li-Rong

    2012-03-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for at-line (fast off-line) monitoring of 4 key parameters including nisin titer (NT), the concentration of reducing sugars, cell concentration and pH during a nisin fermentation process. This procedure is based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares (PLS). Samples without any preprocessing were collected at intervals of 1 h during fifteen batch of fermentations. These fermentation processes were implemented in 3 different 5 l fermentors at various conditions. NIR spectra of the samples were collected in 10 min. And then, PLS was used for modeling the relationship between NIR spectra and the key parameters which were determined by reference methods. Monte Carlo Partial Least Squares (MCPLS) was applied to identify the outliers and select the most efficacious methods for preprocessing spectra, wavelengths and the suitable number of latent variables (n (LV)). Then, the optimum models for determining NT, concentration of reducing sugars, cell concentration and pH were established. The correlation coefficients of calibration set (R (c)) were 0.8255, 0.9000, 0.9883 and 0.9581, respectively. These results demonstrated that this method can be successfully applied to at-line monitor of NT, concentration of reducing sugars, cell concentration and pH during nisin fermentation processes.

  17. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-12-05

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, as well as those with movement disorders, such as cerebral palsy. An additional consideration when studying movement disorders, however, is the quality of actual movements performed and the potential for additional, unintended movements. Therefore, concurrent monitoring of both blood flow changes in the brain and actual movements of the body during testing is required for appropriate interpretation of fNIRS results. Here, we show a protocol for the combination of fNIRS with muscle and kinematic monitoring during motor tasks. We explore gait, a unilateral multi-joint movement (cycling), and two unilateral single-joint movements (isolated ankle dorsiflexion, and isolated hand squeezing). The techniques presented can be useful in studying both typical and atypical motor control, and can be modified to investigate a broad range of tasks and scientific questions.

  18. Brain and muscle oxygenation monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during all-night sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Khatami, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    The hemodynamic changes during natural human sleep are still not well understood. NIRS is ideally suited for monitoring the hemodynamic changes during sleep due to the properties of local measurement, totally safe application and good tolerance to motion. Several studies have been conducted using NIRS in both normal subjects and patients with various sleep disorders during sleep to characterize the hemodynamic changing patterns during different sleep stages and during different symptoms such as obstructive apneas. Here we assessed brain and muscle oxygenation changes in 7 healthy adults during all-night sleep with combined polysomnography measurement to test the notion if hemodynamic changes in sleep are indeed brain specific. We found that muscle and brain showed similar hemodynamic changes during sleep initiation. A decrease in HbO2 and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) while an increase in HHb was observed immediately after sleep onset, and an opposite trend was found after transition with progression to deeper slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage. Spontaneous low frequency oscillations (LFO) and very low frequency oscillations (VLFO) were smaller (Levene's test, psleep (LS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep in both brain and muscle. Spectral analysis of the NIRS signals measured from brain and muscle also showed reductions in VLFO and LFO powers during SWS with respect to LS and REM sleep. These results indicate a systemic attenuation rather than local cerebral reduction of spontaneous hemodynamic activity in SWS. A systemic physiological mechanism may exist to regulate the hemodynamic changes in brain and muscle during sleep.

  19. Real-time monitoring prefrontal activities during online video game playing by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Lei; Long, Kehong; Gong, Hui; Lei, Hao

    2018-02-16

    A growing body of literature has suggested that video game playing can induce functional and structural plasticity of the brain. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record prefrontal activities in 24 experienced game players when they played a massively multiplayer online battle arena video game, League of Legends (LOL), under naturalistic conditions. It was observed that game onset was associated with significant activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and concomitant deactivations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole area (FPA). Game events, such as slaying an enemy and being slain by an enemy evoked region-specific time-locked hemodynamic/oxygenation responses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It was proposed that the VLPFC activities during LOL playing are likely responses to visuo-motor task load of the game, while the DLPFC/FPA activities may be involved in the constant shifts of attentional states and allocation of cognitive resources required by game playing. The present study demonstrated that it is feasible to use fNIRS to monitor real-time prefrontal activity during online video game playing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Shot-Noise-Limited Dual-Beam Detector for Atmospheric Trace-Gas Monitoring with Near-Infrared Diode Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durry, Georges; Pouchet, Ivan; Amarouche, Nadir; Danguy, Théodore; Megie, Gerard

    2000-10-01

    A dual-beam detector is used to measure atmospheric trace species by differential absorption spectroscopy with commercial near-infrared InGaAs laser diodes. It is implemented on the Spectrom tre Diodes Laser Accordables, a balloonborne tunable diode laser spectrometer devoted to the in situ monitoring of CH 4 and H 2 O. The dual-beam detector is made of simple analogical subtractor circuits combined with InGaAs photodiodes. The detection strategy consists in taking the balanced analogical difference between the reference and the sample signals detected at the input and the output of an open optical multipass cell to apply the full dynamic range of the measurements (16 digits) to the weak molecular absorption information. The obtained sensitivity approaches the shot-noise limit. With a 56-m optical cell, the detection limit obtained when the spectra is recorded within 8 ms is 10 4 (expressed in absorbance units). The design and performances of both a simple substractor and an upgraded feedback substractor circuit are discussed with regard to atmospheric in situ CH 4 absorption spectra measured in the 1.653- m region. Mixing ratios are obtained from the absorption spectra by application of a nonlinear least-squares fit to the full molecular line shape in conjunction with in situ P and T measurements.

  1. Real-time monitoring of a coffee roasting process with near infrared spectroscopy using multivariate statistical analysis: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiago A; Santos, João Rodrigo; Páscoa, Ricardo N M J; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R; Lopes, João A

    2018-03-01

    This work proposes the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) based on principal component analysis (PCA) for real-time monitoring of the coffee roasting process. The main objective was the development of a MSPC methodology able to early detect disturbances to the roasting process resourcing to real-time acquisition of NIR spectra. A total of fifteen roasting batches were defined according to an experimental design to develop the MSPC models. This methodology was tested on a set of five batches where disturbances of different nature were imposed to simulate real faulty situations. Some of these batches were used to optimize the model while the remaining was used to test the methodology. A modelling strategy based on a time sliding window provided the best results in terms of distinguishing batches with and without disturbances, resourcing to typical MSPC charts: Hotelling's T 2 and squared predicted error statistics. A PCA model encompassing a time window of four minutes with three principal components was able to efficiently detect all disturbances assayed. NIR spectroscopy combined with the MSPC approach proved to be an adequate auxiliary tool for coffee roasters to detect faults in a conventional roasting process in real-time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of itaconic acid hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor using fiber-optic coupled near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joseph; Turner, Paul H

    2003-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been applied to determine the conversion of itaconic acid in the effluent stream of a trickle bed reactor. Hydrogenation of itaconic to methyl succinic acid was carried out, with the trickle bed operating in recycle mode. For the first time, NIR spectra of itaconic and methyl succinic acids in aqueous solution, and aqueous mixtures withdrawn from the reactor over a range of reaction times, have been recorded using a fiberoptic sampling probe. The infrared spectra displayed a clear isolated absorption band at a wavenumber of 6186 cm(-1) (wavelength 1.617 microm) resulting from the =C-H bonds of itaconic acid, which was found to decrease in intensity with increasing reaction time. The feature could be more clearly observed from plots of the first derivatives of the spectra. A partial least-squares (PLS) model was developed from the spectra of 13 reference samples and was used successfully to calculate the concentration of the two acids in the reactor effluent solution. Itaconic acid conversions of 23-29% were calculated after 360 min of reaction time. The potential of FT-NIR with fiber-optic sampling for remote monitoring of three-phase catalytic reactors and validation of catalytic reactor models is highlighted in the paper.

  3. Non-invasive imaging of tumors by monitoring autotaxin activity using an enzyme-activated near-infrared fluorogenic substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Madan

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX, an autocrine motility factor that is highly upregulated in metastatic cancer, is a lysophospholipase D enzyme that produces the lipid second messenger lysophosphatidic acid (LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC. Dysregulation of the lysolipid signaling pathway is central to the pathophysiology of numerous cancers, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the ATX/LPA pathway has emerged as an important source of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Herein we describe development and validation of a fluorogenic analog of LPC (AR-2 that enables visualization of ATX activity in vivo. AR-2 exhibits minimal fluorescence until it is activated by ATX, which substantially increases fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR region, the optimal spectral window for in vivo imaging. In mice with orthotopic ATX-expressing breast cancer tumors, ATX activated AR-2 fluorescence. Administration of AR-2 to tumor-bearing mice showed high fluorescence in the tumor and low fluorescence in most healthy tissues with tumor fluorescence correlated with ATX levels. Pretreatment of mice with an ATX inhibitor selectively decreased fluorescence in the tumor. Together these data suggest that fluorescence directly correlates with ATX activity and its tissue expression. The data show that AR-2 is a non-invasive and selective tool that enables visualization and quantitation of ATX-expressing tumors and monitoring ATX activity in vivo.

  4. Monitoring Local Regional Hemodynamic Signal Changes during Motor Execution and Motor Imagery Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eIso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the topographical localization of motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during motor execution (ME and motor imagery (MI by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, as this technique is more clinically expedient than established methods (e.g. fMRI. Twenty right-handed healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental protocol was a blocked design consisting of 3 cycles of 20 s of task performance and 30 s of rest. The tapping sequence task was performed with their fingers under 4 conditions: ME and MI with the right or left hand. Hemodynamic brain activity was measured with NIRS to monitor changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration. Oxy-Hb in the somatosensory motor cortex (SMC increased significantly only during contralateral ME and showed a significant interaction between task and hand. There was a main effect of hand in the left SMC. Although there were no significant main effects or interactions in the supplemental motor area (SMA and premotor area (PMA, oxy-Hb increased substantially under all conditions. These results clarified the topographical localization by motor-related regional hemodynamic signal changes during ME and MI by using NIRS.

  5. A case study of real-time monitoring of solid-state phase transformations in acoustically levitated particles using near infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Sönke; Wu, Jian X; Laackmann, Julian; Moritz, Hans-Ulrich; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Leopold, Claudia S

    2013-01-23

    The objective of this study was to monitor the amorphous-to-crystalline solid-state phase transformation kinetics of the model drug ibuprofen with spectroscopic methods during acoustic levitation. Chemical and physical information was obtained by real-time near infrared (NIRS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The recrystallisation kinetic parameters (overall recrystallisation rate constant β and the time needed to reach 50% of the equilibrated level t(50)), were determined using a multivariate curve resolution approach. The acoustic levitation device coupled with non-invasive spectroscopy enabled monitoring of the recrystallisation process of the difficult-to-handle (adhesive) amorphous sample. The application of multivariate curve resolution enabled isolation of the underlying pure spectra, which corresponded well with the reference spectra of amorphous and crystalline ibuprofen. The recrystallisation kinetic parameters were estimated from the recrystallisation profiles. While the empirical recrystallisation rate constant determined by NIR and Raman spectroscopy were comparable, the lag time for recrystallisation was significantly lower with Raman spectroscopy as compared to NIRS. This observation was explained by the high energy density of the Raman laser beam, which might have led to local heating effects of the sample and thus reduced the recrystallisation onset time. It was concluded that acoustic levitation with NIR and Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate curve resolution allowed direct determination of the recrystallisation kinetics of amorphous drugs and thus is a promising technique for monitoring solid-state phase transformations of adhesive small-sized samples during the early phase of drug development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In-line monitoring and optimization of powder flow in a simulated continuous process using transmission near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Anik; Shi, Zhenqi; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2017-06-30

    In-line monitoring of continuous powder flow is an integral part of the continuous manufacturing process of solid oral dosage forms in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, monitoring downstream from loss-in-weight (LIW) feeders and/or continuous mixers provides important data about the state of the process. Such measurements support control of the process and thereby enhance product quality. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a potential PAT tool to monitor the homogeneity of a continuous powder flow stream in pharmaceutical manufacturing. However, the association of analytical results from NIR sampling of the powder stream and the homogeneity (content uniformity) of the resulting tablets provides several challenges; appropriate sampling strategies, adequately robust modeling techniques and poor sensitivities (for low dose APIs) are amongst them. Information from reflectance-based NIRS sampling is limited. The region of the powder bed that is interrogated is confined to the surface where the measurement is made. This potential bias in sampling may, in turn, limit the ability to predict the homogeneity of the finished dosage form. Further, changes to the processing parameters (e.g., rate of powder flow) often have a significant effect on the resulting data. Sample representation, interdependence between process parameters and their effects on powder flow behavior are critical factors for NIRS monitoring of continuous powder flow system. A transmission NIR method was developed as an alternative technique to monitor continuous powder flow and quantify API in the powder stream. Transmission NIRS was used to determine the thickness of the powder stream flowing from a loss-in-weight feeder. The thickness measurement of the powder stream provided an in-depth understanding about the effects of process parameters such as tube angles and powder flow rates on powder flow behaviors. This knowledge based approach helped to define an analytical design space that was

  7. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans

    2017-05-15

    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  9. Measuring Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Derived Cerebral Autoregulation in Neonates: From Research Tool Toward Bedside Multimodal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Thewissen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral autoregulation (CAR, the ability of the human body to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF in a wide range of perfusion pressures, can be calculated by describing the relation between arterial blood pressure (ABP and cerebral oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. In literature, disturbed CAR is described in different patient groups, using multiple measurement techniques and mathematical models. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent cerebral pathology and outcome can be explained by impaired CAR.Aim and methods: In order to summarize CAR studies using NIRS in neonates, a systematic review was performed in the PUBMED and EMBASE database. To provide a general overview of the clinical framework used to study CAR, the different preprocessing methods and mathematical models are described and explained. Furthermore, patient characteristics, definition of impaired CAR and the outcome according to this definition is described organized for the different patient groups.Results: Forty-six articles were included in this review. Four patient groups were established: preterm infants during the transitional period, neonates receiving specific medication/treatment, neonates with congenital heart disease and neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Correlation, coherence and transfer function (TF gain are the mathematical models most frequently used to describe CAR. The definition of impaired CAR is depending on the mathematical model used. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants is the outcome variable most frequently correlated with impaired CAR. Hypotension, disease severity, dopamine treatment, injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and long term outcome are associated with impaired CAR. Prospective interventional studies are lacking in all research areas.Discussion and conclusion: NIRS derived CAR measurement is an important research

  10. Measuring Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Derived Cerebral Autoregulation in Neonates: From Research Tool Toward Bedside Multimodal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewissen, Liesbeth; Caicedo, Alexander; Lemmers, Petra; Van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral autoregulation (CAR), the ability of the human body to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a wide range of perfusion pressures, can be calculated by describing the relation between arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In literature, disturbed CAR is described in different patient groups, using multiple measurement techniques and mathematical models. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent cerebral pathology and outcome can be explained by impaired CAR. Aim and methods: In order to summarize CAR studies using NIRS in neonates, a systematic review was performed in the PUBMED and EMBASE database. To provide a general overview of the clinical framework used to study CAR, the different preprocessing methods and mathematical models are described and explained. Furthermore, patient characteristics, definition of impaired CAR and the outcome according to this definition is described organized for the different patient groups. Results: Forty-six articles were included in this review. Four patient groups were established: preterm infants during the transitional period, neonates receiving specific medication/treatment, neonates with congenital heart disease and neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Correlation, coherence and transfer function (TF) gain are the mathematical models most frequently used to describe CAR. The definition of impaired CAR is depending on the mathematical model used. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants is the outcome variable most frequently correlated with impaired CAR. Hypotension, disease severity, dopamine treatment, injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and long term outcome are associated with impaired CAR. Prospective interventional studies are lacking in all research areas. Discussion and conclusion: NIRS derived CAR measurement is an important research tool to

  11. Association of low non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic measurements during initial trauma resuscitation with future development of multiple organ dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Bret A; Campons, Kevin M; Bozeman, William P

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) non-invasively monitors muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2). It may provide a continuous noninvasive measurement to identify occult hypoperfusion, guide resuscitation, and predict the development of multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) after severe trauma. We evaluated the correlation between initial StO2 and the development of MOD in multi-trauma patients. Patients presenting to our urban, academic, Level I Trauma Center/Emergency Department and meeting standardized trauma-team activation criteria were enrolled in this prospective trial. NIRS monitoring was initiated immediately on arrival with collection of StO2 at the thenar eminence and continued up to 24 hours for those admitted to the Trauma Intensive Care Unit (TICU). Standardized resuscitation laboratory measures and clinical evaluation tools were collected. The primary outcome was the association between initial StO2 and the development of MOD within the first 24 hours based on a MOD score of 6 or greater. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed; numeric means, multivariate regression and rank sum comparisons were utilized. Clinicians were blinded from the StO2 values. Over a 14 month period, 78 patients were enrolled. Mean age was 40.9 years (SD 18.2), 84.4% were male, 76.9% had a blunt trauma mechanism and mean injury severity score (ISS) was 18.5 (SD 12.9). Of the 78 patients, 26 (33.3%) developed MOD within the first 24 hours. The MOD patients had mean initial StO2 values of 53.3 (SD 10.3), significantly lower than those of non-MOD patients 61.1 (SD 10.0); P=0.002. The mean ISS among MOD patients was 29.9 (SD 11.5), significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 12.1 (SD 9.1) (P<0.0001). The mean shock index (SI) among MOD patients was 0.92 (SD 0.28), also significantly higher than that of non-MODS patients, 0.73 (SD 0.19) (P=0.0007). Lactate values were not significantly different between groups. Non-invasive, continuous StO2 near-infrared spectroscopy

  12. Changes in cerebral blood flow during olfactory stimulation in patients with multiple chemical sensitivity: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. Patients with MCS process odors differently from controls. This odor-processing may be associated with activation in the prefrontal area connecting to the anterior cingulate cortex, which has been suggested as an area of odorant-related activation in MCS patients. In this study, activation was defined as a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF because of odorant stimulation. Using the well-designed card-type olfactory test kit, changes in rCBF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC were investigated after olfactory stimulation with several different odorants. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging was performed in 12 MCS patients and 11 controls. The olfactory stimulation test was continuously repeated 10 times. The study also included subjective assessment of physical and psychological status and the perception of irritating and hedonic odors. Significant changes in rCBF were observed in the PFC of MCS patients on both the right and left sides, as distinct from the center of the PFC, compared with controls. MCS patients adequately distinguished the non-odorant in 10 odor repetitions during the early stage of the olfactory stimulation test, but not in the late stage. In comparison to controls, autonomic perception and negative affectivity were poorer in MCS patients. These results suggest that prefrontal information processing associated with odor-processing neuronal circuits and memory and cognition processes from past experience of chemical exposure play significant roles in the pathology of this disorder.

  13. Quantitative monitoring of an activated sludge reactor using on-line UV-visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarraguca, Mafalda C.; Lopes, Joao A. [Universidade do Porto, REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Porto (Portugal); Paulo, Ana; Alves, Madalena M.; Dias, Ana M.A.; Ferreira, Eugenio C. [Universidade do Minho, IBB - Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Braga (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to be powerful tools for bioprocess monitoring and control. Once implemented and optimized, these methods are fast, nondestructive, user friendly, and most importantly, they can be implemented in situ, permitting rapid inference of the process state at any moment. In this work, UV-visible and NIR spectroscopy were used to monitor an activated sludge reactor using in situ immersion probes connected to the respective analyzers by optical fibers. During the monitoring period, disturbances to the biological system were induced to test the ability of each spectroscopic method to detect the changes in the system. Calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed for three key process parameters, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration (N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and total suspended solids (TSS). For NIR, the best results were achieved for TSS, with a relative error of 14.1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The UV-visible technique gave similar results for the three parameters: an error of {proportional_to}25% and correlation coefficients of {proportional_to}0.82 for COD and TSS and 0.87 for N-NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The results obtained demonstrate that both techniques are suitable for consideration as alternative methods for monitoring and controlling wastewater treatment processes, presenting clear advantages when compared with the reference methods for wastewater treatment process qualification. (orig.)

  14. Quantitative monitoring of an activated sludge reactor using on-line UV-visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Paulo, Ana; Alves, Madalena M; Dias, Ana M A; Lopes, João A; Ferreira, Eugénio C

    2009-10-01

    The performance of an activated sludge reactor can be significantly enhanced through use of continuous and real-time process-state monitoring, which avoids the need to sample for off-line analysis and to use chemicals. Despite the complexity associated with wastewater treatment systems, spectroscopic methods coupled with chemometric tools have been shown to be powerful tools for bioprocess monitoring and control. Once implemented and optimized, these methods are fast, nondestructive, user friendly, and most importantly, they can be implemented in situ, permitting rapid inference of the process state at any moment. In this work, UV-visible and NIR spectroscopy were used to monitor an activated sludge reactor using in situ immersion probes connected to the respective analyzers by optical fibers. During the monitoring period, disturbances to the biological system were induced to test the ability of each spectroscopic method to detect the changes in the system. Calibration models based on partial least squares (PLS) regression were developed for three key process parameters, namely chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration (N-NO(3)(-)), and total suspended solids (TSS). For NIR, the best results were achieved for TSS, with a relative error of 14.1% and a correlation coefficient of 0.91. The UV-visible technique gave similar results for the three parameters: an error of approximately 25% and correlation coefficients of approximately 0.82 for COD and TSS and 0.87 for N-NO(3)(-) . The results obtained demonstrate that both techniques are suitable for consideration as alternative methods for monitoring and controlling wastewater treatment processes, presenting clear advantages when compared with the reference methods for wastewater treatment process qualification.

  15. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, ...

  16. The frequency of cartilage lesions in non-injured knees with symptomatic meniscus tears: results from an arthroscopic and NIR- (near-infrared) spectroscopic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Gunter; Plettenberg, Holger; Hoffmann, Martin; Klemm, Holm-Torsten; Brochhausen-Delius, Christoph; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2017-06-01

    Are symptomatic tear injuries to the menisci of the knee frequently or always associated with cartilage damage to the corresponding articular surfaces and other joint surfaces, respectively? A total of 137 patients (medial n = 127; lateral n = 10) underwent a meniscus resection. These patients showed no signs of a clear radiographic arthrosis and no MRI-detectable cartilage lesions > grade II. Traumatic injury was ruled out with a thorough medical history. The indication for operation was made exclusively on the basis of distinct, clinically apparent meniscus signs. In addition to the ICRS classification, all articular surfaces were examined spectroscopically (NIRS, near-infrared spectroscopy). In 76.6% (n = 105) of all knees examined, clear cartilage damage (ICRS-grade III/IV) was found. For 43.8%, these were in the area of the patella, while for 34.3% they were in the area of the medial femur, and for 17.5%, in the area of the medial tibial plateau. More rarely, this damage was localized to the area of the trochlea (8.8%) or the lateral joint compartment (femoral 2.2%, tibial 15.3%). There were no significant differences between patients with medial or lateral meniscus lesions with respect to the distribution pattern of the joint injuries. During spectroscopic examination, pathological values were demonstrated (objective evidence of cartilage degeneration) in at least one of the examined articular surfaces (media n = 6, range 1-6). Through our investigations, a high, if not complete, concomitance of degenerative cartilage lesions and degenerative meniscus damage was demonstrated. From this it can be concluded that the entity of "isolated degenerative meniscus damage" clearly does not exist in practice. It is therefore highly probable that degenerative meniscus lesions, as a part of general joint degeneration, are to be interpreted in the context of the development of arthrosis. The practical consequences still are unclear. Patients after partial

  17. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  18. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: → We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. → NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. → Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. → NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. → The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that

  19. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    Graphical abstract: Application of non destructive methods for the monitoring of red wine fermentation in correlation with the evolution of chemical parameters. Highlights: > We monitored time-related changes in red wine fermentation process. > NIR and MIR spectroscopies, electronic nose and tongue were applied. > Data were kinetically modelled to identify critical points during fermentation. > NIR, MIR electronic nose and tongue were able to follow the fermentation process. > The models agreed with the evolution of chemical parameters. - Abstract: Effective fermentation monitoring is a growing need due to the rapid pace of change in the wine industry, which calls for fast methods providing real time information in order to assure the quality of the final product. The objective of this work is to investigate the potential of non-destructive techniques associated with chemometric data analysis, to monitor time-related changes that occur during red wine fermentation. Eight micro-fermentation trials conducted in the Valtellina region (Northern Italy) during the 2009 vintage, were monitored by a FT-NIR and a FT-IR spectrometer and by an electronic nose and tongue. The spectroscopic technique was used to investigate molecular changes, while electronic nose and electronic tongue evaluated the evolution of the aroma and taste profile during the must-wine fermentation. Must-wine samples were also analysed by traditional chemical methods in order to determine sugars (glucose and fructose) consumption and alcohol (ethanol and glycerol) production. Principal Component Analysis was applied to spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, as an exploratory tool, to uncover molecular, aroma and taste modifications during the fermentation process. Furthermore, the chemical data and the PC1 scores from spectral, electronic nose and electronic tongue data were modelled as a function of time to identify critical points during fermentation. The results showed that NIR and MIR

  20. Monitoring hemodynamics and oxygenation of the kidney in rats by a combined near-infrared spectroscopy and invasive probe approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Dirk; Cantow, Kathleen; Arakelyan, Karen; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Flemming, Bert; Skalweit, Angela; Ladwig, Mechthild; Macdonald, Rainer; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a hybrid approach to investigate the dynamics of perfusion and oxygenation in the kidney of rats under pathophysiologically relevant conditions. Our approach combines near-infrared spectroscopy to quantify hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in the renal cortex, and an invasive probe method for measuring total renal blood flow by an ultrasonic probe, perfusion by laser-Doppler fluxmetry, and tissue oxygen tension via fluorescence quenching. Hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation were determined from experimental data by a Monte Carlo model. The hybrid approach was applied to investigate and compare temporal changes during several types of interventions such as arterial and venous occlusions, as well as hyperoxia, hypoxia and hypercapnia induced by different mixtures of the inspired gas. The approach was also applied to study the effects of the x-ray contrast medium iodixanol on the kidney.

  1. Quality-by-design III: application of near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor roller compaction in-process and product quality attributes of immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kona, Ravikanth; Fahmy, Raafat M; Claycamp, Gregg; Polli, James E; Martinez, Marilyn; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with multivariate chemometric models to monitor granule and tablet quality attributes in the formulation development and manufacturing of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) immediate release tablets. Critical roller compaction process parameters, compression force (CFt), and formulation variables identified from our earlier studies were evaluated in more detail. Multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) models were developed during the development stage and used as a control tool to predict the quality of granules and tablets. Validated models were used to monitor and control batches manufactured at different sites to assess their robustness to change. The results showed that roll pressure (RP) and CFt played a critical role in the quality of the granules and the finished product within the range tested. Replacing binder source did not statistically influence the quality attributes of the granules and tablets. However, lubricant type has significantly impacted the granule size. Blend uniformity, crushing force, disintegration time during the manufacturing was predicted using validated PLS regression models with acceptable standard error of prediction (SEP) values, whereas the models resulted in higher SEP for batches obtained from different manufacturing site. From this study, we were able to identify critical factors which could impact the quality attributes of the CIP IR tablets. In summary, we demonstrated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics as a powerful tool to monitor critical quality attributes (CQA) identified during formulation development.

  2. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor cortical plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Stowe, Ann; Hodics, Timea; Alexandrakis, George

    2013-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the human cortex in conjunction with physical rehabilitation has been a valuable approach in facilitating the plasticity of the injured brain. One such method is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) which is a non-invasive method to elicit neural stimulation by delivering current through electrodes placed on the scalp. In order to better understand the effects tDCS has on cortical plasticity, neuroimaging techniques have been used pre and post tDCS stimulation. Recently, neuroimaging methods have discovered changes in resting state cortical hemodynamics after the application of tDCS on human subjects. However, analysis of the cortical hemodynamic activity for a physical task during and post tDCS stimulation has not been studied to our knowledge. A viable and sensitive neuroimaging method to map changes in cortical hemodynamics during activation is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, the cortical activity during an event-related, left wrist curl task was mapped with fNIRS before, during, and after tDCS stimulation on eight healthy adults. Along with the fNIRS optodes, two electrodes were placed over the sensorimotor hand areas of both brain hemispheres to apply tDCS. Changes were found in both resting state cortical connectivity and cortical activation patterns that occurred during and after tDCS. Additionally, changes to surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements of the wrist flexor and extensor of both arms during the wrist curl movement, acquired concurrently with fNIRS, were analyzed and related to the transient cortical plastic changes induced by tDCS.

  3. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) as a process monitoring solution for a production line of roll compaction and tableting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the application of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) supported by chemometric modeling as non-destructive tool for monitoring and assessing the roller compaction and tableting processes was investigated. Based on preliminary risk-assessment, discussion with experts...... compound for both roller compacted ribbons and corresponding tablets. In order to select the optimal process, setting the standard deviation of tablet tensile strength and tablet weight for each tablet batch was considered. Strong linear correlation between tablet tensile strength and amount of fines...... and granule size was established, respectively. These approaches are considered to have a potentially large impact on quality monitoring and control of continuously operating manufacturing lines, such as roller compaction and tableting processes....

  4. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron-Implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquefied CO(2) several kilometres below the ground implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals brugnatellite and coalingite are probable. Two ferric ion bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite with a hydrotalcite-like structure have been characterised by a combination of infrared and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Both the first and second fundamental overtones of these bands are observed in the NIR spectra in the 7030-7235 cm(-1) and 10,490-10,570 cm(-1) regions. Intense (CO(3))(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted. The position of the water bending vibration indicates the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. Split NIR bands at around 8675 and 11,100 cm(-1) indicate that some replacement of magnesium ions by ferrous ions in the mineral structure has occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy is ideal for the assessment of the formation of carbonate minerals.

  5. Near-infrared-spectroscopic study on processing of sounds in the brain; a comparison between native and non-native speakers of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Koichi; Sekimoto, Sotaro; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The result suggested that mother tongue Japanese and non- mother tongue Japanese differ in their pattern of brain dominance when listening to sounds from the natural world-in particular, insect sounds. These results reveal significant support for previous findings from Tsunoda (in 1970). Objectives This study concentrates on listeners who show clear evidence of a 'speech' brain vs a 'music' brain and determines which side is most active in the processing of insect sounds, using with near-infrared spectroscopy. Methods The present study uses 2-channel Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to provide a more direct measure of left- and right-brain activity while participants listen to each of three types of sounds: Japanese speech, Western violin music, or insect sounds. Data were obtained from 33 participants who showed laterality on opposite sides for Japanese speech and Western music. Results Results showed that a majority (80%) of the MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for language, while a majority (62%) of the non-MJ participants exhibited dominance for insect sounds on the side that was dominant for music.

  6. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  7. Spectroscopic investigations of OH- influence on near-infrared fluorescence quenching of Yb3+/Tm3+ co-doped sodium-metaphosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, I.A.A.; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Terrile, M.C.; Nunes, L.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Energy transfer processes were studied in two sets of Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ co-doped sodium-metaphosphate glasses, prepared in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Using Foerster, Dexter, and Miyakawa theoretical models, the energy transfer parameters were calculated. The main ion-ion energy transfer processes analyzed were energy migration among Yb 3+ ions, cross-relaxations between Yb 3+ and Tm 3+ ions, and interactions with OH - radicals. The results indicated that Yb→Tm energy transfer favors 1.8 μm emissions, and there is no evidence of concentration quenching up to 2% Tm 2 O 3 doping. As expected, samples prepared in nitrogen atmosphere present higher fluorescence quantum efficiency than those prepared in air, and this feature is specially noted in the near-infrared region, where the interaction with the OH - radicals is more pronounced

  8. A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic method for the direct analysis of several fodder-related chemical components in drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Li, Shuqi; Lin, Mengfei; Yang, Endian; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2018-05-01

    The drumstick tree has traditionally been used as foodstuff and fodder in several countries. Due to its high nutritional value and good biomass production, interest in this plant has increased in recent years. It has therefore become important to rapidly and accurately evaluate drumstick quality. In this study, we addressed the optimization of Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to analyze crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, iron (Fe), and potassium (K) in a variety of drumstick accessions (N = 111) representing different populations, cultivation programs, and climates. Partial least-squares regression with internal cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. The calibration statistics for these fodder-related chemical components suggest that NIRS can predict these parameters in a wide range of drumstick types with high accuracy. The NIRS calibration models developed in this study will be useful in predicting drumstick forage quality for these five quality parameters.

  9. Optimized Longitudinal Monitoring of Stem Cell Grafts in Mouse Brain Using a Novel Bioluminescent/Near Infrared Fluorescent Fusion Reporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mezzanotte (Laura); Iljas, J.D. (Juvita Delancy); I. Que (Ivo); A. Chan (Albert); E.L. Kaijzel (Eric); R.C. Hoeben (Rob); C.W.G.M. Löwik (Clemens)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBiodistribution and fate of transplanted stem cells via longitudinal monitoring has been successfully achieved in the last decade using optical imaging. However, sensitive longitudinal imaging of transplanted stem cells in deep tissue like the brain remains challenging not only due to

  10. On-line monitoring of extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval PLS and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing need for the effective on-line process monitoring during the manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure quality consistency. In this study, the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to monitor the extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was investigated. A new algorithm of synergy interval PLS with genetic algorithm (Si-GA-PLS) was proposed for modeling. Four different PLS models, namely Full-PLS, Si-PLS, GA-PLS, and Si-GA-PLS, were established, and their performances in predicting two quality parameters (viz. total acid and soluble solid contents) were compared. In conclusion, Si-GA-PLS model got the best results due to the combination of superiority of Si-PLS and GA. For Si-GA-PLS, the determination coefficient (Rp2) and root-mean-square error for the prediction set (RMSEP) were 0.9561 and 147.6544 μg/ml for total acid, 0.9062 and 0.1078% for soluble solid contents, correspondingly. The overall results demonstrated that the NIR spectroscopy technique combined with Si-GA-PLS calibration is a reliable and non-destructive alternative method for on-line monitoring of the extraction process of TCM on the production scale.

  11. Change detection and characterization of volcanic activity using ground based low-light and near infrared cameras to monitor incandescence and thermal signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, Martin; Webley, Peter; Dehn, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge and understanding of precursory events and thermal signatures are vital for monitoring volcanogenic processes, as activity can often range from low level lava effusion to large explosive eruptions, easily capable of ejecting ash up to aircraft cruise altitudes. Using ground based remote sensing techniques to monitor and detect this activity is essential, but often the required equipment and maintenance is expensive. Our investigation explores the use of low-light cameras to image volcanic activity in the visible to near infrared (NIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These cameras are ideal for monitoring as they are cheap, consume little power, are easily replaced and can provide near real-time data. We focus here on the early detection of volcanic activity, using automated scripts, that capture streaming online webcam imagery and evaluate image pixel brightness values to determine relative changes and flag increases in activity. The script is written in Python, an open source programming language, to reduce the overall cost to potential consumers and increase the application of these tools across the volcanological community. In addition, by performing laboratory tests to determine the spectral response of these cameras, a direct comparison of collocated low-light and thermal infrared cameras has allowed approximate eruption temperatures and effusion rates to be determined from pixel brightness. The results of a field campaign in June, 2013 to Stromboli volcano, Italy, are also presented here. Future field campaigns to Latin America will include collaborations with INSIVUMEH in Guatemala, to apply our techniques to Fuego and Santiaguito volcanoes.

  12. Near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of amyloid beta species and monitoring therapy in animal models of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Tian, Yanli; Zhang, Can; Tian, Xiaoyu; Ross, Alana W.; Moir, Robert D.; Sun, Hongbin; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Moore, Anna; Ran, Chongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) molecular imaging has been widely applied to monitoring therapy of cancer and other diseases in preclinical studies; however, this technology has not been applied successfully to monitoring therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although several NIRF probes for detecting amyloid beta (Aβ) species of AD have been reported, none of these probes has been used to monitor changes of Aβs during therapy. In this article, we demonstrated that CRANAD-3, a curcumin analog, is capable of detecting both soluble and insoluble Aβ species. In vivo imaging showed that the NIRF signal of CRANAD-3 from 4-mo-old transgenic AD (APP/PS1) mice was 2.29-fold higher than that from age-matched wild-type mice, indicating that CRANAD-3 is capable of detecting early molecular pathology. To verify the feasibility of CRANAD-3 for monitoring therapy, we first used the fast Aβ-lowering drug LY2811376, a well-characterized beta-amyloid cleaving enzyme-1 inhibitor, to treat APP/PS1 mice. Imaging data suggested that CRANAD-3 could monitor the decrease in Aβs after drug treatment. To validate the imaging capacity of CRANAD-3 further, we used it to monitor the therapeutic effect of CRANAD-17, a curcumin analog for inhibition of Aβ cross-linking. The imaging data indicated that the fluorescence signal in the CRANAD-17–treated group was significantly lower than that in the control group, and the result correlated with ELISA analysis of brain extraction and Aβ plaque counting. It was the first time, to our knowledge, that NIRF was used to monitor AD therapy, and we believe that our imaging technology has the potential to have a high impact on AD drug development. PMID:26199414

  13. Process modeling and control applied to real-time monitoring of distillation processes by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Pedroza, Ricardo H P; Sousa, A O; Lima, Kássio M G; de Juan, Anna

    2017-09-08

    A distillation device that acquires continuous and synchronized measurements of temperature, percentage of distilled fraction and NIR spectra has been designed for real-time monitoring of distillation processes. As a process model, synthetic commercial gasoline batches produced in Brazil, which contain mixtures of pure gasoline blended with ethanol have been analyzed. The information provided by this device, i.e., distillation curves and NIR spectra, has served as initial information for the proposal of new strategies of process modeling and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC). Process modeling based on PCA batch analysis provided global distillation trajectories, whereas multiset MCR-ALS analysis is proposed to obtain a component-wise characterization of the distillation evolution and distilled fractions. Distillation curves, NIR spectra or compressed NIR information under the form of PCA scores and MCR-ALS concentration profiles were tested as the seed information to build MSPC models. New on-line PCA-based MSPC approaches, some inspired on local rank exploratory methods for process analysis, are proposed and work as follows: a) MSPC based on individual process observation models, where multiple local PCA models are built considering the sole information in each observation point; b) Fixed Size Moving Window - MSPC, in which local PCA models are built considering a moving window of the current and few past observation points; and c) Evolving MSPC, where local PCA models are built with an increasing window of observations covering all points since the beginning of the process until the current observation. Performance of different approaches has been assessed in terms of sensitivity to fault detection and number of false alarms. The outcome of this work will be of general use to define strategies for on-line process monitoring and control and, in a more specific way, to improve quality control of petroleum derived fuels and other substances submitted

  14. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for On-line Monitoring of Alkali- Free Cloth /Phenolic Resin Prepreg During Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Dong Huang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A NIR method was developed for the on-line monitoring of alkali-freecloth/phenolic resin prepreg during its manufacturing process. First, the sizing content ofthe alkali-free cloth was analyzed, and then the resin, soluble resin and volatiles content ofthe prepreg was analyzed simultaneously using the FT-NIR spectrometer. Partial leastsquare (PLS regression was used to develop the calibration models, which for the sizingcontent was preprocessed by 1stDER MSC, for the volatile content by 1stDER VN, forthe soluble resin content by 1stDER MSC and for the resin content by the VN spectraldata preprocessing method. RMSEP of the prediction model for the sizing content was0.732 %, for the resin content it was 0.605, for the soluble resin content it was 0.101 andfor volatiles content it was 0.127. The results of the paired t-test revealed that there was nosignificant difference between the NIR method and the standard method. The NIRspectroscopy method could be used to predict the resin, soluble resin and the volatilescontent of the prepreg simultaneously, as well as sizing content of alkali-free cloth. Theprocessing parameters of the prepreg during manufacture could be adjusted quickly withthe help of the NIR analysis results. The results indicated that the NIR spectroscopymethod was sufficiently accurate and effective for the on-line monitoring of alkali-freecloth/phenolic resin prepreg.

  15. Vena cava filters and thrombolytic therapeutic monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deep vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Liu, Weichao; Fang, Xiang; Zhao, Ke; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), happening in inpatients usually and especially with the postoperative population, is a serious disease characterized by an increased incidence. The venography is the golden standard to diagnose DVT. However, it involves invasive contrast agent injection and give patients physical and mental pressure. Functional nearinfrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been reported recently to diagnose DVT. Thrombolytic therapy activates the dissolution system with an exogenous activator that dissolves coronary thrombosis. The vena cava filter is a medical filter used for the treatment of thrombosis and the prevention of pulmonary embolism. Here we attempt to use portable NIRS for the DVT monitoring in the whole process of vena cava filter implantation and thrombolytic treatment, and contrast the patients of untreated, vena cava filter implantation and thrombolytic treatment. 19 DVT patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited. Thereinto, 7 patients have taken vena cava filter implantation, and 6 patients have taken the thrombolytic treatment. It was found that deoxyhemoglobins (Δ[Hb]) fluctuates and even increases in DVT. After vena cava filter implantation, Δ[Hb] increases first, then decreases. However, it emerges the rising trend and converge to the curves of normal subjects in thrombolytic treatment. The oxyhemoglobins (Δ[HbO2]) emerges opposite trend in most paradigms. The findings reveal the potential of fNIRS for monitoring DVT and therapeutic effect evaluation of thrombolysis and vena cava filters.

  16. Near-infrared monitoring and modeling of V1647 Ori in its ongoing 2008–2012 outburst phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Veeman Venkata; Anandarao, Boddapati G.; Janardhan, Padmanabhan; Pandey, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    We present results of the Mt Abu JHK photometric and HI Brackett γ line monitoring of the eruptive young stellar object V1647 Orionis (McNeil's Object) during its ongoing outburst phase in 2008–2012. We discuss JHK color patterns and extinction during the outburst and compare them with those from the previous outburst phase in 2004–2005 and in the intervening quiescent period that lasted about 2 yr. Commencing from early 2012, the object has shown a slow fading out in all the bands. We report brightness variations in the nearby Herbig-Haro object HH22 that are possibly associated with those in V1647 Ori. We also present modeling of the spectral energy distributions of V1647 Ori during both its recent outburst and its quiescent phase. The physical parameters of the protostar and its circumstellar environment obtained from the modeling indicate marked differences between the two phases

  17. [Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  18. Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  19. On-line monitoring the extract process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution using near infrared spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qian; Ru, Qingguo; Liu, Yan; Xu, Lingyan; Liu, Jia; Wang, Yifei; Zhang, Yewen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Qing

    2016-01-01

    An on-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy monitoring method with an appropriate multivariate calibration method was developed for the extraction process of Fu-fang Shuanghua oral solution (FSOS). On-line NIR spectra were collected through two fiber optic probes, which were designed to transmit NIR radiation by a 2 mm flange. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were used comparatively for building the calibration regression models. During the extraction process, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CA) content, total phenolic acids contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC) and soluble solid contents (SSC). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet spectrophotometric method (UV) and loss on drying methods were employed as reference methods. Experiment results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best compared with PLS and iPLS. The calibration models for AC, TPC, TFC and SSC had high values of determination coefficients of (R2) (0.9948, 0.9992, 0.9950 and 0.9832) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0113, 0.0341, 0.1787 and 1.2158), which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIR predicted values. The overall results show that the on line detection method could be feasible in real application and would be of great value for monitoring the mixed decoction process of FSOS and other Chinese patent medicines.

  20. Anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position: monitoring of cerebral oxygenation using combined bispectral index and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Tomomi

    2014-10-01

    Recent research has shown that cerebrovascular complications following shoulder surgery performed in the beach chair position under general anesthesia arise secondary to cerebral ischemia. Appropriate management of cerebral oxygenation is thus one of the primary goals of anesthetic management during such procedures. The present report describes the case of a 65-year-old male patient, in which both bispectral index (BIS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to monitor cerebral oxygenation. During the positioning, we observed an increased suppression ratio (SR) while BIS and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) were at adequate level. In view of the difference in blood pressure between the heart and the base of the brain, blood pressure was maintained to ensure adequate cerebral perfusion. Although intraoperative rSO2 was at or around the cut-off point (a 12% relative decrease from baseline), no marked decrease in BIS or further increase in the SR was observed. Monitoring of cerebral perfusion using combined BIS and NIRS optimized anesthetic management during the performance of arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

  1. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Inoue

    Full Text Available There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank. In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  2. Differences in the Pattern of Hemodynamic Response to Self-Face and Stranger-Face Images in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Sakuta, Yuiko; Shimamura, Keiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Megumi; Otani, Ryoko; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kanazawa, So; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Sakuta, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports concerning the self-face perception in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The purpose of this study was to compare the neuronal correlates of viewing self-face images (i.e. images of familiar face) and stranger-face images (i.e. images of an unfamiliar face) in female adolescents with and without AN. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure hemodynamic responses while the participants viewed full-color photographs of self-face and stranger-face. Fifteen females with AN (mean age, 13.8 years) and 15 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched female controls without AN (mean age, 13.1 years) participated in the study. The responses to photographs were compared with the baseline activation (response to white uniform blank). In the AN group, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) significantly increased in the right temporal area during the presentation of both the self-face and stranger-face images compared with the baseline level. In contrast, in the control group, the concentration of oxy-Hb significantly increased in the right temporal area only during the presentation of the self-face image. To our knowledge the present study is the first report to assess brain activities during self-face and stranger-face perception among female adolescents with AN. There were different patterns of brain activation in response to the sight of the self-face and stranger-face images in female adolescents with AN and controls.

  3. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III supernatant in human albumin separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I + II + III (FI + II + III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (Rp2), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501 g/L, 0.465 g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530 g/L, 0.341 g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI + II + III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS.

  5. Near infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III supernatant in human albumin separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Wang, Fei; Zang, Lixuan; Zang, Hengchang; Alcalà, Manel; Nie, Lei; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Lian

    2017-03-15

    Nowadays, as a powerful process analytical tool, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely applied in process monitoring. In present work, NIRS combined with multivariate analysis was used to monitor the ethanol precipitation process of fraction I+II+III (FI+II+III) supernatant in human albumin (HA) separation to achieve qualitative and quantitative monitoring at the same time and assure the product's quality. First, a qualitative model was established by using principal component analysis (PCA) with 6 of 8 normal batches samples, and evaluated by the remaining 2 normal batches and 3 abnormal batches. The results showed that the first principal component (PC1) score chart could be successfully used for fault detection and diagnosis. Then, two quantitative models were built with 6 of 8 normal batches to determine the content of the total protein (TP) and HA separately by using partial least squares regression (PLS-R) strategy, and the models were validated by 2 remaining normal batches. The determination coefficient of validation (R p 2 ), root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and ratio of performance deviation (RPD) were 0.975, 0.501g/L, 0.465g/L and 5.57 for TP, and 0.969, 0.530g/L, 0.341g/L and 5.47 for HA, respectively. The results showed that the established models could give a rapid and accurate measurement of the content of TP and HA. The results of this study indicated that NIRS is an effective tool and could be successfully used for qualitative and quantitative monitoring the ethanol precipitation process of FI+II+III supernatant simultaneously. This research has significant reference value for assuring the quality and improving the recovery ratio of HA in industrialization scale by using NIRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In-line monitoring of extraction process of scutellarein from Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand-Mazz based on qualitative and quantitative uses of near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongjiang; Jin, Ye; Ding, Haiying; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Liu, Xuesong

    2011-09-01

    The application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for in-line monitoring of extraction process of scutellarein from Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand-Mazz was investigated. For NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm pathlength flow cell were utilized to collect spectra in real-time. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine scutellarein in extract solution. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration model of Savitzky-Golay smoothing NIR spectra in the 5450-10,000 cm(-1) region gave satisfactory predictive results for scutellarein. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of calibration and cross validation were 0.9967 and 0.9811, respectively, and the root mean square error of calibration and cross validation were 0.044 and 0.105, respectively. Furthermore, both the moving block standard deviation (MBSD) method and conformity test were used to identify the end point of extraction process, providing real-time data and instant feedback about the extraction course. The results obtained in this study indicated that the NIR spectroscopy technique provides an efficient and environmentally friendly approach for fast determination of scutellarein and end point control of extraction process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy in the monitoring of film coating and curing process of the prolonged release coated pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasa, Klemen; Hudovornik, Grega; Vrečer, Franc

    2016-10-10

    Although process analytical technology (PAT) guidance has been introduced to the pharmaceutical industry just a decade ago, this innovative approach has already become an important part of efficient pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. PAT tools are especially important in technologically complex operations which require strict control of critical process parameters and have significant effect on final product quality. Manufacturing of prolonged release film coated pellets is definitely one of such processes. The aim of the present work was to study the applicability of the at-line near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) approach in the monitoring of pellet film coating and curing steps. Film coated pellets were manufactured by coating the active ingredient containing pellets with film coating based on polymethacrylate polymers (Eudragit® RS/RL). The NIR proved as a useful tool for the monitoring of the curing process since it was able to determine the extent of the curing and hence predict drug release rate by using partial least square (PLS) model. However, such approach also showed a number of limitations, such as low reliability and high susceptibility to pellet moisture content, and was thus not able to predict drug release from pellets with high moisture content. On the other hand, the at-line NIR was capable to predict the thickness of Eudragit® RS/RL film coating in a wide range (up to 40μm) with good accuracy even in the pellets with high moisture content. To sum up, high applicability of the at-line NIR in the monitoring of the prolonged release pellets production was demonstrated in the present study. The present findings may contribute to more efficient and reliable PAT solutions in the manufacturing of prolonged release dosage forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewald, C.A. (Peter Rassloff Instruments and Services, Norwood, South Africa)

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories.

  10. New applications of near infrared spectroscopy in the food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewald, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The near infrared spectroscopic method of analysis was initially developed for rapid analyses of protein in wheat. A brief explanation of the theory and history of near infrared spectroscopic analysis will be given. Research was done on the application of near infrared spectroscopic (NIR) in the food industry. Especially exciting was the breakthrough achieved in applying NIR to determine the dry solid content of bread. Such application could revolutionise the baking industry. Results will also be presented of research done on the application of NIR techniques for the determination of protein and fat in bread based on dry matter; hardness in wheat; absorption and sedimentation in pasta products; and use in process control in snack products manufacture. The limitations that were found in the application of NIR analysis will also be covered. The developments in NIR technology may result in these methods becoming standard practice in many food laboratories

  11. Necrosis avid near infrared fluorescent cyanines for imaging cell death and their use to monitor therapeutic efficacy in mouse tumor models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Bangwen; Stammes, Marieke A.; van Driel, Pieter B. A. A.; Cruz, Luis J.; Knol-Blankevoort, Vicky T.; Löwik, Martijn A. M.; Mezzanotte, Laura; Que, Ivo; Chan, Alan; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Siebes, Maria; Gottschalk, Sven; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Keereweer, Stijn; Horobin, Richard W.; Hoehn, Mathias; Kaijzel, Eric L.; van Beek, Ermond R.; Snoeks, Thomas J. A.; Löwik, Clemens W. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of tumor necrosis in cancer patients is of diagnostic value as the amount of necrosis is correlated with disease prognosis and it could also be used to predict early efficacy of anti-cancer treatments. In the present study, we identified two near infrared fluorescent (NIRF)

  12. Application of fecal near-infrared spectroscopy and nutritional balance software to monitor diet quality and body condition in beef cows grazing Arizona rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolleson, D R; Schafer, D W

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the nutritional status of range cows is difficult. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of feces has been used to predict diet quality in cattle. When fecal NIRS is coupled with decision support software such as the Nutritional Balance Analyzer (NUTBAL PRO), nutritional status and animal performance can be monitored. Approximately 120 Hereford and 90 CGC composite (50% Red Angus, 25% Tarentaise, and 25% Charolais) cows grazing in a single herd were used in a study to determine the ability of fecal NIRS and NutbalPro to project BCS (1 = thin and 9 = fat) under commercial scale rangeland conditions in central Arizona. Cattle were rotated across the 31,000 ha allotment at 10 to 20 d intervals. Cattle BCS and fecal samples (approximately 500 g) composited from 5 to 10 cows were collected in the pasture approximately monthly at the midpoint of each grazing period. Samples were frozen and later analyzed by NIRS for prediction of diet crude protein (CP) and digestible organic matter (DOM). Along with fecal NIRS predicted diet quality, animal breed type, reproductive status, and environmental conditions were input to the software for each fecal sampling and BCS date. Three different evaluations were performed. First, fecal NIRS and NutbalPro derived BCS was projected forward from each sampling as if it were a "one-time only" measurement. Second, BCS was derived from the average predicted weight change between 2 sampling dates for a given period. Third, inputs to the model were adjusted to better represent local animals and conditions. Fecal NIRS predicted diet quality varied from a minimum of approximately 5% CP and 57% DOM in winter to a maximum of approximately 11% CP and 60% DOM in summer. Diet quality correlated with observed seasonal changes and precipitation events. In evaluation 1, differences in observed versus projected BCS were not different (P > 0.1) between breed types but these values ranged from 0.1 to 1.1 BCS in Herefords and 0.0 to 0.9 in CGC. In

  13. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care unit...

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  15. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the solid-state stability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or excipients in solid dosage forms during manufacturing and storage is mandatory for safeguarding quality of the final products. In this work, the solid-state transformations in tablets prepared as blends...... of piroxicam monohydrate (API), polyvinylpyrrolidone and the lactose forms monohydrate or anhydrate were studied when the tablets were exposed to the 23-120°C range. Multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral images were obtained from the surface of each sample for unveiling the local evolution of the solid......-state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve...

  16. Near-infrared Spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology Tool for Monitoring the Parching Process of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Two Kinds of Chemical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyue; Wang, Weiying; Liu, Yanping; Jiang, Su; Huang, Guo; Ye, Liming

    2017-01-01

    The active ingredients and thus pharmacological efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) at different degrees of parching process vary greatly. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used to develop a new method for rapid online analysis of TCM parching process, using two kinds of chemical indicators (5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural [5-HMF] content and 420 nm absorbance) as reference values which were obviously observed and changed in most TCM parching process. Three representative TCMs, Areca ( Areca catechu L.), Malt ( Hordeum Vulgare L.), and Hawthorn ( Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), were used in this study. With partial least squares regression, calibration models of NIR were generated based on two kinds of reference values, i.e. 5-HMF contents measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 420 nm absorbance measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis), respectively. In the optimized models for 5-HMF, the root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0192, 0.0301, and 0.2600 and correlation coefficients ( R cal ) were 99.86%, 99.88%, and 99.88%, respectively. Moreover, in the optimized models using 420 nm absorbance as reference values, the RMSEP for Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn was 0.0229, 0.0096, and 0.0409 and R cal were 99.69%, 99.81%, and 99.62%, respectively. NIR models with 5-HMF content and 420 nm absorbance as reference values can rapidly and effectively identify three kinds of TCM in different parching processes. This method has great promise to replace current subjective color judgment and time-consuming HPLC or UV/Vis methods and is suitable for rapid online analysis and quality control in TCM industrial manufacturing process. Near-infrared spectroscopy.(NIR) was used to develop a new method for online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.(TCM) parching processCalibration and validation models of Areca, Malt, and Hawthorn were generated by partial least squares regression using 5

  17. In-line and Real-time Monitoring of Resonant Acoustic Mixing by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometric Technology for Process Analytical Technology Applications in Pharmaceutical Powder Blending Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoma; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Hattori, Yusuke; Ashizawa, Kazuhide; Otsuka, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Resonant acoustic ® mixing (RAM) technology is a system that performs high-speed mixing by vibration through the control of acceleration and frequency. In recent years, real-time process monitoring and prediction has become of increasing interest, and process analytical technology (PAT) systems will be increasingly introduced into actual manufacturing processes. This study examined the application of PAT with the combination of RAM, near-infrared spectroscopy, and chemometric technology as a set of PAT tools for introduction into actual pharmaceutical powder blending processes. Content uniformity was based on a robust partial least squares regression (PLSR) model constructed to manage the RAM configuration parameters and the changing concentration of the components. As a result, real-time monitoring may be possible and could be successfully demonstrated for in-line real-time prediction of active pharmaceutical ingredients and other additives using chemometric technology. This system is expected to be applicable to the RAM method for the risk management of quality.

  18. Near infrared detection of ammonium minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Altaner, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Diagnostic near-infrared spectral features have been identified for minerals with ammonium (NH4+) bound in the crystal structure. Near-infrared detection of NH4-bearing minerals may provide useful information for prospecting for certain ore deposits and may provide a better understanding of the nitrogen cycle within geologic environments.-from Authors

  19. Choice and validation of a near infrared spectroscopic application for the identity control of starting materials. practical experience with the EU draft Note for Guidance on the use of near infrared spectroscopy by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenbregt, M J; Caspers, P W J; Hoogerbrugge, R; Barends, D M

    2003-11-01

    Recently the CPMP/CVMP sent out for consultation the draft Note for Guidance (dNfG) on the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by the pharmaceutical industry and the data to be forwarded in part II of the dossier for a marketing authorization. We explored the practicability of this dNfG with respect to the verification of the correct identity of starting materials in a generic tablet-manufacturing site. Within the boundaries of the dNfG, a release procedure was developed for 12 substances containing structurally related compounds and substances differing only in particle size. For the method development literature data were also taken into consideration. Good results were obtained with wavelength correlation (WC), applied on raw spectra or second derivative spectra both without smoothing. The defined threshold of 0.98 for raw spectra differentiated between all molecular structures. Both methods were found to be robust over a period of 1 year. For the differentiation between the different particle sizes a subsequent second chemometric technique had to be used. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) with a probability level of 0.01 proved suitable. Internal and external validation I according to the dNfG showed no incorrect rejections or false acceptances. External validation II according to the dNfG was carried out with 95 potentially interfering substances from which 46 were tested experimentally. Macrogol 400 was not distinguished from macrogol 300. For the complete verification of the identity of macrogol 300 test A of the European Pharmacopoeia is needed in addition to the NIRS application. A release procedure developed with WC applied on raw spectra and SIMCA as a second method, which is different from the preferred method of the dNfG, was tested in practice with good results. We conclude that the dNfG has good practicability and that deviations from the preferred methods of the dNfG can also give good differentiation.

  20. A near-infrared confocal scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungwoo; Yoo, Hongki

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) packages or 3D integrated circuits is a high-performance technique that requires combining several functions in a small volume. Through-silicon vias, which are vertical electrical connections extending through a wafer, can be used to direct signals between stacked chips, thus increasing areal density by stacking and connecting multiple patterned chips. While defect detection is essential in the semiconductor manufacturing process, it is difficult to identify defects within a wafer or to monitor the bonding results between bonded surfaces because silicon and many other semiconductor materials are opaque to visible wavelengths. In this context, near-infrared (NIR) imaging is a promising non-destructive method to detect defects within silicon chips, to inspect bonding between chips and to monitor the chip alignment since NIR transmits through silicon. In addition, a confocal scanner provides high-contrast, optically-sectioned images of the specimen due to its ability to reject out-of-focus noise. In this study, we report an NIR confocal scanner that rapidly acquires high-resolution images with a large field of view through silicon. Two orthogonal line-scanning images can be acquired without rotating the system or the specimen by utilizing two orthogonally configured resonant scanning mirrors. This NIR confocal scanner can be efficiently used as an in-line inspection system when manufacturing semiconductor devices by rapidly detecting defects on and beneath the surface. (paper)

  1. Cerebral hemodynamics in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) the periodic reduction or cessation of breathing due to narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep leads to daytime symptoms and increased cardiovascular risk, including stroke. The higher risk of stroke is related to the impairment in cerebral vascular autoregulation. Continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) therapy at night is the most effective treatment for OSA. However, there is no suitable bedside monitoring method evaluating the treatment efficacy of CPAP therapy, especially to monitor the recovery of cerebral hemodynamics. NIRS is ideally suited for non-invasive monitoring the cerebral hemodynamics during sleep. In this study, we will for first time assess dynamic changes of cerebral hemodynamics during nocturnal CPAP therapy in 3 patients with OSA using NIRS. We found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and blood volume associated with periodic apnea events without CPAP in all OSA patients. These oscillations were gradually attenuated and finally eliminated with the stepwise increments of CPAP pressures. The oscillations were totally eliminated in blood volume earlier than in other hemodynamic parameters. These results suggested that 1) the cerebral hemodynamic oscillations induced by OSA events can effectively be attenuated by CPAP therapy, and 2) blood flow and blood volume recovered first during CPAP therapy, followed by the recovery of oxygen consumption. Our study suggested that NIRS is a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of CPAP therapy in patients with OSA bedside and in real time.

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of OH{sup -} influence on near-infrared fluorescence quenching of Yb{sup 3+}/Tm{sup 3+} co-doped sodium-metaphosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, I.A.A. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, CEP 13566-590, USP-Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: idelma@ifsc.usp.br; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Terrile, M.C.; Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, CEP 13566-590, USP-Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Energy transfer processes were studied in two sets of Yb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} co-doped sodium-metaphosphate glasses, prepared in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Using Foerster, Dexter, and Miyakawa theoretical models, the energy transfer parameters were calculated. The main ion-ion energy transfer processes analyzed were energy migration among Yb{sup 3+} ions, cross-relaxations between Yb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} ions, and interactions with OH{sup -} radicals. The results indicated that Yb{yields}Tm energy transfer favors 1.8 {mu}m emissions, and there is no evidence of concentration quenching up to 2% Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} doping. As expected, samples prepared in nitrogen atmosphere present higher fluorescence quantum efficiency than those prepared in air, and this feature is specially noted in the near-infrared region, where the interaction with the OH{sup -} radicals is more pronounced.

  3. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Büchel, Gabriel E.

    2016-08-03

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M.; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M.; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jö rg; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Near-Infrared Diffuse Optical Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Hielscher

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT is emerging as a viable new biomedical imaging modality. Using near-infrared (NIR light, this technique probes absorption as well as scattering properties of biological tissues. First commercial instruments are now available that allow users to obtain cross-sectional and volumetric views of various body parts. Currently, the main applications are brain, breast, limb, joint, and fluorescence/bioluminescence imaging. Although the spatial resolution is limited when compared with other imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or X-ray computerized tomography (CT, DOT provides access to a variety of physiological parameters that otherwise are not accessible, including sub-second imaging of hemodynamics and other fast-changing processes. Furthermore, DOT can be realized in compact, portable instrumentation that allows for bedside monitoring at relatively low cost. In this paper, we present an overview of current state-of-the -art technology, including hardware and image-reconstruction algorithms, and focus on applications in brain and joint imaging. In addition, we present recent results of work on optical tomographic imaging in small animals.

  6. Potential of a newly developed high-speed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovision) in polymer industrial analyses: monitoring crystallinity and crystal evolution of polylactic acid (PLA) and concentration of PLA in PLA/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Nishii, Takashi; Mizuno, Fumiaki; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate a new high-speed hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) camera named Compovision. Quantitative analyses of the crystallinity and crystal evolution of biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), and its concentration in PLA/poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends were investigated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. This NIR camera can measure two-dimensional NIR spectral data in the 1000-2350 nm region obtaining images with wide field of view of 150 × 250 mm(2) (approximately 100  000 pixels) at high speeds (in less than 5 s). PLA with differing crystallinities between 0 and 50% blended samples with PHB in ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and pure films of 100% PLA and PHB were prepared. Compovision was used to collect respective NIR spectra in the 1000-2350 nm region and investigate the crystallinity of PLA and its concentration in the blends. The partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the crystallinity of PLA were developed using absorbance, second derivative, and standard normal variate (SNV) spectra from the most informative region of the spectra, between 1600 and 2000 nm. The predicted results of PLS models achieved using the absorbance and second derivative spectra were fairly good with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 6.1% and a determination of coefficient (R(2)) of more than 0.88 for PLS factor 1. The results obtained using the SNV spectra yielded the best prediction with the smallest RMSE of 2.93% and the highest R(2) of 0.976. Moreover, PLS models developed for estimating the concentration of PLA in the blend polymers using SNV spectra gave good predicted results where the RMSE was 4.94% and R(2) was 0.98. The SNV-based models provided the best-predicted results, since it can reduce the effects of the spectral changes induced by the inhomogeneity and the thickness of the samples. Wide area crystal evolution of PLA on a plate where a temperature slope of 70-105 °C had occurred was also

  7. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  8. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  9. Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Moderate-spectral-resolution Near-infrared Satellite Measurements: Methodology, Simulations, and Application to GOME-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, J.; Gaunter, L.; Lindstrot, R.; Voigt, M.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Middleton, E. M.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Yoshida, Y.; Frankenberg, C.

    2013-01-01

    Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2). The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0.5 deg × 0.5 deg

  10. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: methodology, simulations, and application to GOME-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications. Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling. Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: atmospheric absorption, surface reflectance, and fluorescence radiance. An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy. The method is then applied to data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2. The GOME-2 fluorescence retrievals display similar spatial structure as compared with those from a simpler technique applied to the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT. GOME-2 enables global mapping of far-red fluorescence with higher precision over smaller spatial and temporal scales than is possible with GOSAT. Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0

  11. The near infrared polarization of NGC 7023

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7023 is a visual reflection nebula whose low optical depth at near infrared wavelengths suggests it may be well-suited to analysis of the near infrared scattering properties of dust. While processes other than scattered light dominate the near infrared emission of NGC 7023, a detectable scattered light component remains, as can be demonstrated by polarization measurements. Polarization at 2.2 μm has been detected at two positions in NGC 7023. The polarization angles at these two positions are perpendicular to the line between each nebular position and the star which illuminates the visual reflection nebulosity, indicating that the polarization mechanism is most likely the scattering of starlight from this star. (author)

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopic study and the Wada test for presurgical evaluation of expressive and receptive language functions in glioma patients: with a case report of dissociated language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Uzuka, Takeo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-02-29

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be useful for the evaluation of language lateralization in healthy subjects, infants, and epileptic patients. This study for the first time investigated the expressive and receptive language functions separately, using NIRS in presurgical glioma patients. We also describe a special case with dissociated pattern of language functions. Ten glioma patients were examined. Using NIRS, the hemodynamic changes during a verb generation task or story listening task were measured in the cerebral hemisphere on either side covering the language areas. Following the NIRS study, the Wada test was performed in all the patients. The NIRS study revealed increases of oxyhemoglobin and decreases of deoxyhemoglobin in the language areas elicited by both tasks. In 9 patients, who were all right-handed, the expressive and receptive language functions were lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results of the NIRS study were completely consistent with those of the Wada test. In the remaining 1 patient with a right sided insular glioma, who was right-handed, the NIRS study revealed stronger activation of the right inferior frontal region during the verb generation task, and stronger activation of the left superior temporal region during the story listening task. This dissociated language function was validated by the Wada test and the postoperative neurological course. These results demonstrate that a NIRS study using our technique is extremely valuable for preoperative assessment of the language functions and exemplifies how a preoperative NIRS study can allow detection of unforeseen language lateralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF K-SELECTED GALAXIES AT z∼ 2.3: COMPARISON OF STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS CODES AND CONSTRAINTS FROM THE REST-FRAME NIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Labbe, Ivo; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn

    2009-01-01

    We present spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of a sample of 34 K-selected galaxies at z∼ 2.3. These galaxies have near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy that samples the rest-frame Balmer/4000 A break as well as deep photometry in 13 broadband filters. New to our analysis is Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data that extend the SEDs into the rest-frame NIR. Comparing parameters determined from SED fits with and without the IRAC data we find that the IRAC photometry significantly improves the confidence intervals of τ, A v , M star , and SFR for individual galaxies, but does not systematically alter the mean parameters of the sample. We use the IRAC data to assess how well current stellar population synthesis codes describe the rest-frame NIR SEDs of young galaxies where discrepancies between treatments of the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch phase of stellar evolution are most pronounced. The models of Bruzual and Charlot, Maraston, and Charlot and Bruzual all successfully reproduce the SEDs of our galaxies with ≤5% differences in the quality of fit; however, the best-fit masses from each code differ systematically by as much as a factor of 1.5, and other parameters vary more, up to factors of 2-3. A comparison of best-fit stellar population parameters from different stellar population synthesis (SPS) codes, dust laws, and metallicities shows that the choice of SPS code is the largest systematic uncertainty in most parameters, and that systematic uncertainties are typically larger than the formal random uncertainties. The SED fitting confirms our previous result that galaxies with strongly suppressed SF account for ∼50% of the K-bright population at z∼ 2.3; however, the uncertainty in this fraction is large due to systematic differences in the specific star formation rates derived from the three SPS models.

  14. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (second report): sensitivity improvement of Fourier-spectroscopic imaging to detect diffuse reflection lights from internal human tissues for healthcare sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Natsumi; Hosono, Satsuki; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We proposed the snapshot-type Fourier spectroscopic imaging for smartphone that was mentioned in 1st. report in this conference. For spectroscopic components analysis, such as non-invasive blood glucose sensors, the diffuse reflection lights from internal human skins are very weak for conventional hyperspectral cameras, such as AOTF (Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter) type. Furthermore, it is well known that the spectral absorption of mid-infrared lights or Raman spectroscopy especially in long wavelength region is effective to distinguish specific biomedical components quantitatively, such as glucose concentration. But the main issue was that photon energies of middle infrared lights and light intensities of Raman scattering are extremely weak. For improving sensitivity of our spectroscopic imager, the wide-field-stop & beam-expansion method was proposed. Our line spectroscopic imager introduced a single slit for field stop on the conjugate objective plane. Obviously to increase detected light intensities, the wider slit width of the field stop makes light intensities higher, regardless of deterioration of spatial resolutions. Because our method is based on wavefront-division interferometry, it becomes problems that the wider width of single slit makes the diffraction angle narrower. This means that the narrower diameter of collimated objective beams deteriorates visibilities of interferograms. By installing the relative inclined phaseshifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected optical systems, the collimated half flux of objective beams derived from single-bright points on objective surface penetrate through the wedge prism and the cuboid glass respectively. These two beams interfere each other and form the infererogram as spatial fringe patterns. Thus, we installed concave-cylindrical lens between the wider slit and objective lens as a beam expander. We successfully obtained the spectroscopic characters of hemoglobin from reflected lights from

  15. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Enabling Routine Functional Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette J; Huppert, Theodore J; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Boas, David A

    2017-12-01

    Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) maps human brain function by measuring and imaging local changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the brain that arise from the modulation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by neural activity. Since its advent over 20 years ago, researchers have exploited and continuously advanced the ability of near infrared light to penetrate through the scalp and skull in order to non-invasively monitor changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentrations that reflect brain activity. We review recent advances in signal processing and hardware that significantly improve the capabilities of fNIRS by reducing the impact of confounding signals to improve statistical robustness of the brain signals and by enhancing the density, spatial coverage, and wearability of measuring devices respectively. We then summarize the application areas that are experiencing rapid growth as fNIRS begins to enable routine functional brain imaging.

  16. Espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo para a monitorização da perfusão tecidual Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring peripheral tissue perfusion in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS tem sido principalmente usada na investigação da oxigenação periférica tecidual de forma não invasiva e contínua. O princípio da espectroscopia consiste na aplicação da luz no comprimento de onda do infravermelho-próximo para avaliar, de forma quantitativa e qualitativa, os componentes moleculares relacionadas à oxigenação tecidual. Baseado na relação das concentrações da deoxiemoglobina e da oxiemoglobina no tecido, a NIRS obtém informações para o cálculo da oxigenação tecidual. Embora possa ser aplicada em qualquer órgão, como método não invasivo é principalmente usada para a monitorização da oxigenação muscular periférica. Os parâmetros medidos pela NIRS podem ser calculados diretamente ou através de intervenções fisiológicas para alterar a circulação no local da aferição, sendo as mais usadas a oclusão arterial e a oclusão venosa. Deste modo, pode-se obter informações sobre a saturação do oxigênio muscular periférico e tecidual, bem como do fluxo sanguíneo e consumo de oxigênio local. Seu uso é direcionado principalmente para a monitorização da oxigenação tecidual periférica durante ressuscitação do choque no trauma e em pacientes sépticos, bem como a monitorização dos distúrbios da microcirculação regional. Esta revisão abordará os princípios físicos da espectroscopia no IV-próximo, e das principais aplicações clínicas deste instrumento de monitorização, com ênfase nos estudos que investigaram a utilidade da NIRS na área de terapia intensiva e também no setor de emergência clínica.Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation based on spectro-photometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a tool to monitor peripheral tissue perfusion in critically ill patient. NIRS principle is based on

  17. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  18. Near infrared face recognition: A literature survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 1574-0137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Literature survey * Biometrics * Face recognition * Near infrared * Illumination invariant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0461834.pdf

  19. Built-in hyperspectral camera for smartphone in visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared lights region (third report): spectroscopic imaging for broad-area and real-time componential analysis system against local unexpected terrorism and disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Wollherr, Dirk; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The distributed networks for information collection of chemical components with high-mobility objects, such as drones or smartphones, will work effectively for investigations, clarifications and predictions against unexpected local terrorisms and disasters like localized torrential downpours. We proposed and reported the proposed spectroscopic line-imager for smartphones in this conference. In this paper, we will mention the wide-area spectroscopic-image construction by estimating 6 DOF (Degrees Of Freedom: parallel movements=x,y,z and rotational movements=θx, θy, θz) from line data to observe and analyze surrounding chemical-environments. Recently, smartphone movies, what were photographed by peoples happened to be there, had worked effectively to analyze what kinds of phenomenon had happened around there. But when a gas tank suddenly blew up, we did not recognize from visible-light RGB-color cameras what kinds of chemical gas components were polluting surrounding atmospheres. Conventionally Fourier spectroscopy had been well known as chemical components analysis in laboratory usages. But volatile gases should be analyzed promptly at accident sites. And because the humidity absorption in near and middle infrared lights has very high sensitivity, we will be able to detect humidity in the sky from wide field spectroscopic image. And also recently, 6-DOF sensors are easily utilized for estimation of position and attitude for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) or smartphone. But for observing long-distance views, accuracies of angle measurements were not sufficient to merge line data because of leverage theory. Thus, by searching corresponding pixels between line spectroscopic images, we are trying to estimate 6-DOF in high accuracy.

  20. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  1. Longitudinal monitoring of tumor antiangiogenic therapy with near-infrared fluorophore-labeled agents targeted to integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xianlei; Ma, Teng; Liu, Hao; Yu, Xinhe; Wu, Yue; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Liu, Zhaofei [Peking University, Medical Isotopes Research Center, Beijing (China); Peking University, Department of Radiation Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Shi, Jiyun; Zhao, Huiyun [Peking University, Medical Isotopes Research Center, Beijing (China); Peking University, Medical and Healthy Analytical Center, Beijing (China)

    2014-07-15

    Optical imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the noninvasive imaging of the biological processes in living subjects. This study aimed to investigate whether optical imaging of integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression can serve as sensitive biomarkers for tumor early response to antiangiogenic therapy. We synthesized two near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agents, CF680R-3PRGD2 and CF750-BevF(ab'){sub 2}, which were designed to specifically bind to integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} and VEGF, respectively. The ability of optical imaging using the two imaging agents for early monitoring the antiangiogenic effect of sunitinib was evaluated. CF680R-3PRGD2 and CF750-BevF(ab'){sub 2} specifically bound to their respective targets in vitro and in HT-29 tumor-bearing nude mice. Sunitinib treatment led to significantly decreased tumor uptake of CF680R-3PRGD2 (e.g., 7.47 ± 1.62 % vs. 4.24 ± 0.16 % on day 4; P < 0.05) and CF750-BevF(ab'){sub 2} (e.g., 7.43 ± 2.43 % vs. 4.04 ± 1.39 % on day 2; P < 0.05) in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that sunitinib-induced changes in tumor uptake of CF680R-3PRGD2 and CF750-BevF(ab'){sub 2} were correlated with changes in the levels of integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} and VEGF. Radiobiodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-3PRGD2 and {sup 125}I-BevF(ab'){sub 2}, the radiocounterparts of CF680R-3PRGD2 and CF750-BevF(ab'){sub 2}, respectively, also validated optical imaging results. Longitudinal monitoring of tumor integrin α{sub v}β{sub 3} and VEGF expression could be used as early biomarkers for tumor response to antiangiogenic therapy. This strategy may facilitate the development of new antiangiogenic drugs, and be used for elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of therapies involving the integrin and the VEGF signaling pathway. (orig.)

  2. Influence of earlobe thickness on near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Tianpei; Li, Si; Li, Lin; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been recognized as a potential technology for noninvasive blood glucose sensing. However, the detected spectral signal is unstable mainly because of (1) the weak light absorption of glucose itself within NIR range, (2) the influence of temperature and individual differences of biotissue. Our previous results demonstrated that the synergistic effect of both transmittance and reflectance could enhance the strength of the detection signal. In this talk, we design a set of experiments to analyze the effect of earlobe thickness on Near Infrared spectroscopic measurement by using home-made optical fiber probe within the wavelength of 1000-1600nm. Firstly, we made a MC simulation of single-layer skin model and five-layer skin model to get the diffused transmittance spectra and diffused reflectance spectra under different optaical path lengths. And then we obtain the spectra of the earlobes from different volunteers by the same way. The experimental results showed that with the increase of the thickness,the light intensity of diffused transmittance decreases, and the light intensity of diffused reflectance remaines substantially unchanged.

  3. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  4. Valorization of onion waste and by-products: MCR-ALS applied to reveal the compositional profiles of alcoholic fermentations of onion juice monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, José-María; Esteban-Díez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Tecedor, Sofía; Pizarro, Consuelo

    2008-11-01

    The overall purpose of the project, of which this study is a part, was to examine the feasibility of onion waste as a support-substrate for the profitable production of food-grade products. This study focused on the efficient production of ethanol from worthless onions by transforming the onion juice into onion liquor via alcoholic fermentation with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The onion bioethanol produced could be later used as a favorable substrate for acetic fermentation to finally obtain onion vinegar. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), coupled with the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, has been used to reveal the compositional and spectral profiles for both substrates and products of alcoholic fermentation runs, that is, total sugars, ethanol, and biomass concentration. The ambiguity associated with the ALS calculation was resolved by applying suitable inequality and equality constraints. The quality of the results provided by the NIR-based MCR-ALS methodology adopted was evaluated by several performance indicators, including the variance explained by the model, the lack of fit and the agreement between the MCR-ALS achieved solution and the results computed by applying previously validated PLS reference models. An additional fermentation run was employed to test the actual predictive ability of the ALS model developed. For all the components resolved in the fermentation system studied (i.e., total sugars, ethanol, and biomass), the final model obtained showed a high predictive ability and suitable accuracy and precision, both in calibration and external validation, confirmed by the very good agreement between the ALS responses and the reference values (the coefficient of determination was, in all cases, very close to 1, and the statistics confirmed that no significant difference was found between PLS reference models and the MCR-ALS methodology applied). Thus, the proven reliability of the MCR-ALS model presented

  5. Gum Arabic authentication and mixture quantification by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yongjiang; Sørensen, Klavs Martin; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method is developed for Gum Arabic authentication based on Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometric methods. On a large industrial collection of authentic gum Arabics, the two major Acacia gum species, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal could be assigned perfectly...... by the NIR spectroscopic method. In addition, a partial least squares (PLS) regression model is calibrated to predict the blending percentage of the two pure gum types, producing an accuracy, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.8%. Sampling of the Gum Arabic ‘tears’ is discussed......, and it was determined that subsamples from three ‘tears’ is required for a representative result. It is concluded that NIR spectroscopy is a very powerful and reliable method for authenticity testing of Gum Arabic species....

  6. Exploring process dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy in lactic fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina; Cieplak, Tomasz; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2016-01-01

    In the industrial production of yoghurt, measurement of pH is normally the only in-line technique applied as a real-time monitoring signalfor following the dynamics during the fermentation process. However, every dairy company would benefit from an in-line technique giving information about...... the chemical composition, physical/textural properties and/or microbial contamination. In this study lactic fermentation batches with the starter bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are explored by in-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The dynamics obtained...

  7. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR s...

  8. WTS: A near-infrared transit survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The WFCAM Transit Survey is a transiting planet survey running on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope targeting M dwarf stars in the near infrared. The survey has been operating since 2007 and gathering photometric time series of about 15000 M dwarf stars brighter than J = 17 mag. We identified and followed-up planet candidates from the most complete field and found two hot Jupiters around non-M dwarf hosts (WTS-1b & WTS-2b but found no planets around the M dwarfs.

  9. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  10. Multi-channel near infrared spectroradiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, G.B.; Biddles, B.J.; D'silva, R.A.; Picot, A.J.; Ackerman, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    A multichannel spectroradiometer has been developed by Sira Ltd. for the study of rapidly varying events in the near infrared. The instrument is being used in the examination of gun flashes, rocket motor exhaust efflux analysis and ordnance or pyrotechnic flash studies. The spectral range of about 1.4 to 5.2 microns is covered in two bands with the first order dispersion from a pair of ruled blazed gratings being imaged onto a pair of detector arrays. Data may be logged at a rate of 1000 complete spectra per second

  11. Sistema de visão por infravermelho próximo para monitoramento de processos de soldagem a arco Near-infrared vision system for arc-welding monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pimenta Mota

    2013-03-01

    desenvolvido proporcionou uma iluminação homogênea e em sincronia com a câmera, sendo que a principal limitação foi o grande tempo de exposição da câmera disponível. Sugere-se, ao final, utilizar o sistema na forma de um seguidor de juntas.Vision, the human being's favorite sense, and its great capacity to obtain, to process and to interpret great amount of visual nature data has been throughout the years a great inspiration for development of techniques and technological devices that reproduce it into a computational system. In welding processes, vision can supply information in inspection and welded joint's quality, in the parameters' monitoring, in trajectory correction and even, finally, in the study of the phenomena involved in the process. However, the luminosity/radiation emitted from the weld arc represents a barrier for these studies based in the process visualization. One of the forms currently used to visualize the process, without the interference of the arc's light, consists of illuminating the process with the near infrared light and, using band pass (interference filters, around this exactly wave length, during the acquisition of the images. A solution for the near infrared illumination, of increasing application, involves the use of laser diodes of high power, with low cost and less complex installation than conventional lasers. Therefore, the proposal of this work is the project, construction and assessment of a vision system for welding processes with low cost and high flexibility. It is based on characterization of the spectrum of the weld arc, definition of a drive topology for the laser diode within its limitations of use and maximizing the emitted luminous power, built of control circuits, selection of optics equipment and components and, finally, project and application of a prototype for visualization of different arc-welding processes. The final assessment of the whole vision system was carried out during TIG and MIG/MAG welding. Although

  12. Comment on "A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study" and "Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite" by Hongfei Cheng et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloprogge, J Theo

    2015-02-05

    In two papers Cheng et al. (2010) reported in this journal on the mid-infrared, near-infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of a halloysite from Hunan Xianrenwan, China. This halloysite contains around 8% of quartz (SiO2) and nearly 9% gibbsite (Al(OH)3). In their interpretation of the spectra these impurities were completely ignored. Careful comparison with a phase pure halloysite from Southern Belgium, synthetic gibbsite, gibbsite from Minas Gerais, and quartz show that these impurities do have a marked influence on the mid-infrared and infrared emission spectra. In the near-infrared, the effect is much less pronounced. Quartz does not show bands in this region and the gibbsite bands will be very weak. Comparison still show that the presence of gibbsite does contribute to the overall spectrum and bands that were ascribed to the halloysite alone do coincide with those of gibbsite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Partial Least Square with Savitzky Golay Derivative in Predicting Blood Hemoglobin Using Near Infrared Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idrus Mohd Nazrul Effendy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a reliable technique that widely used in medical fields. Partial least square was developed to predict blood hemoglobin concentration using NIRS. The aims of this paper are (i to develop predictive model for near infrared spectroscopic analysis in blood hemoglobin prediction, (ii to establish relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum using a predictive model, (iii to evaluate the predictive accuracy of a predictive model based on root mean squared error (RMSE and coefficient of determination rp2. Partial least square with first order Savitzky Golay (SG derivative preprocessing (PLS-SGd1 showed the higher performance of predictions with RMSE = 0.7965 and rp2= 0.9206 in K-fold cross validation. Optimum number of latent variable (LV and frame length (f were 32 and 27 nm, respectively. These findings suggest that the relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum is strong, and the partial least square with first order SG derivative is able to predict the blood hemoglobin using near infrared spectral data.

  14. Spectroscopic and physicochemical measurements for on-line monitoring of used nuclear fuel separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nee, Ko; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of California, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Bryan, S.; Levitskaia, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PO BOX 999, Richland, CA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Separation processes for used nuclear fuel are often complicated and challenging due to the high constraints in purity of the products and safeguards of the process streams. In order to achieve a safe, secure and efficient separation process, the liquid streams in the separation process require close monitoring. Due to the high radiation environment, sampling of the materials is difficult. Availability of a detection technique that is remote, non-destructive and can avoid time-delay caused by retrieving samples would be beneficial and could minimize the exposure to personnel and provide material accountancy to avoid diversion (non-proliferation). For example, Ultra Violet (UV), Visible (Vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy that detect and quantify elements present in used nuclear fuel, e.g. lanthanides, actinides and molecules such as nitrate, can be used. In this work, we have carried out NIR and Raman spectroscopy to study aqueous solutions composed of different concentrations of nitric acid, sodium nitrate, and neodymium at varied temperatures. A chemometric model for online monitoring based on the PLS-Toolbox (MATLAB) software has been developed and validated to provide chemical composition of process streams based on spectroscopic data. In conclusion, both of our NIR and Raman spectra were useful for H{sup +} and NO{sub 3} prediction, and only NIR was helpful for the Nd{sup 3+} prediction.

  15. Development of a new diffuse near-infrared food measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Piao, Renguan

    2006-11-01

    Industries from agriculture to petrochemistry have found near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis useful for quality control and quantitative analysis of materials and products. The general chemical, polymer chemistry, petrochemistry, agriculture, food and textile industries are currently using NIR spectroscopic methods for analysis. In this study, we developed a new sort NIR instrument for food measuring. The instrument consists of a light source, 12 filters to the prismatic part. The special part is that we use a mirror to get two beams of light. And two PbS detectors were used. One detector collected the radiation of one light beam directly and the value was set as the standard instead the standard white surface. Another light beam irradiate the sample surface, and the diffuse light was collected by another detector. The value of the two detectors was compared and the absorbency was computed. We tested the performance of the NIR instrument in determining the protein and fat content of milk powder. The calibration showed the accuracy of the instrument in practice.

  16. Near-infrared imaging spectroscopy for counterfeit drug detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Leitner, Raimund

    2011-06-01

    Pharmaceutical counterfeiting is a significant issue in the healthcare community as well as for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide. The use of counterfeit medicines can result in treatment failure or even death. A rapid screening technique such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could aid in the search for and identification of counterfeit drugs. This work presents a comparison of two laboratory NIR imaging systems and the chemometric analysis of the acquired spectroscopic image data. The first imaging system utilizes a NIR liquid crystal tuneable filter and is designed for the investigation of stationary objects. The second imaging system utilizes a NIR imaging spectrograph and is designed for the fast analysis of moving objects on a conveyor belt. Several drugs in form of tablets and capsules were analyzed. Spectral unmixing techniques were applied to the mixed reflectance spectra to identify constituent parts of the investigated drugs. The results show that NIR spectroscopic imaging can be used for contact-less detection and identification of a variety of counterfeit drugs.

  17. Near-infrared oxygen airglow from the Venus nightside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, D.; Meadows, V. S.; Allen, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Debergh, C.; Maillard, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    Groundbased imaging and spectroscopic observations of Venus reveal intense near-infrared oxygen airglow emission from the upper atmosphere and provide new constraints on the oxygen photochemistry and dynamics near the mesopause (approximately 100 km). Atomic oxygen is produced by the Photolysis of CO2 on the dayside of Venus. These atoms are transported by the general circulation, and eventually recombine to form molecular oxygen. Because this recombination reaction is exothermic, many of these molecules are created in an excited state known as O2(delta-1). The airglow is produced as these molecules emit a photon and return to their ground state. New imaging and spectroscopic observations acquired during the summer and fall of 1991 show unexpected spatial and temporal variations in the O2(delta-1) airglow. The implications of these observations for the composition and general circulation of the upper venusian atmosphere are not yet understood but they provide important new constraints on comprehensive dynamical and chemical models of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere of Venus.

  18. Length-free near infrared measurement of newborn malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Bek, Emily J.; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Jones, Peter W.; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E.; Jin, Craig T.; McEwan, Alistair L.

    2016-11-01

    Under-nutrition in neonates can cause immediate mortality, impaired cognitive development and early onset adult disease. Body fat percentage measured using air-displacement-plethysmography has been found to better indicate under-nutrition than conventional birth weight percentiles. However, air-displacement-plethysmography equipment is expensive and non-portable, so is not suited for use in developing communities where the burden is often the greatest. We proposed a new body fat measurement technique using a length-free model with near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on a single site of the body - the thigh. To remove the need for length measurement, we developed a model with five discrete wavelengths and a sex parameter. The model was developed using air-displacement-plethysmography measurements in 52 neonates within 48 hours of birth. We identified instrumentation required in a low-cost LED-based screening device and incorporated a receptor device that can increase the amount of light collected. This near-infrared method may be suitable as a low cost screening tool for detecting body fat levels and monitoring nutritional interventions for malnutrition in neonates and young children in resource-constrained communities.

  19. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate...... the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and l-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative...... retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those...

  1. Atmospheric CH 4 and H 2 O Monitoring With Near-Infrared InGaAs Laser Diodes by the SDLA, a Balloonborne Spectrometer for Tropospheric and Stratospheric In Situ Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durry, Georges; Megie, Gerard

    1999-12-01

    The Spectrom tre Diodes Laser Accordables (SDLA), a balloonborne spectrometer devoted to the in situ measurement of CH 4 and H 2 O in the atmosphere that uses commercial distributed-feedback InGaAs laser diodes in combination with differential absorption spectroscopy, is described. Absorption spectra of CH 4 (in the 1.653- m region) and H 2 O (in the 1.393- m region) are simultaneously sampled at 1-s intervals by coupling with optical fibers of two near-infrared laser diodes to a Herriott multipass cell open to the atmosphere. Spectra of methane and water vapor in an altitude range of 1 to 31 km recorded during the recent balloon flights of the SDLA are presented. Mixing ratios with a precision error ranging from 5% to 10% are retrieved from the atmospheric spectra by a nonlinear least-squares fit to the spectral line shape in conjunction with in situ simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements.

  2. Near-infrared Spectroscopy in the Brewing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileoni, Valeria; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an exhaustive description of the use of Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy in the brewing industry. This technique is widely used for quality control testing of raw materials, intermediates, and finished products, as well as process monitoring during malting and brewing. In particular, most of the reviewed works focus on the assessment of barley properties, aimed at quickly selecting the best barley varieties in order to produce a high-quality malt leading to high-quality beer. Various works concerning the use of NIR in the evaluation of raw materials, such as barley, malt, hop, and yeast, are also summarized here. The implementation of NIR sensors for the control of malting and brewing processes is also highlighted, as well as the use of NIR for quality assessment of the final product.

  3. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for assessing biochemical changes of cervical tissue associated with precarcinogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-11-07

    Raman spectroscopy measures the inelastically scattered light from tissue that is capable of identifying native tissue biochemical constituents and their changes associated with disease transformation. This study aims to characterize the Raman spectroscopic properties of cervical tissue associated with the multi-stage progression of cervical precarcinogenic sequence. A rapid-acquisition fiber-optic near-infrared (NIR) Raman diagnostic system was employed for tissue Raman spectral measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 68 Raman spectra (23 benign, 29 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 16 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)) were measured from 25 cervical tissue biopsy specimens, as confirmed by colposcopy-histopathology. The semi-quantitative biochemical modeling based on the major biochemicals (i.e., DNA, proteins (histone, collagen), lipid (triolein) and carbohydrates (glycogen)) in cervical tissue uncovers the stepwise accumulation of biomolecular changes associated with progressive cervical precarcinogenesis. Multi-class partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 95.7%, 82.8% and 81.3%; specificities of 100.0%, 92.3% and 88.5%,for discrimination among benign, LSIL and HSIL cervical tissues, respectively. This work suggests that the Raman spectral biomarkers have identified the potential to be used for monitoring the multi-stage cervical precarcinogenesis, forming the foundation of applying NIR Raman spectroscopy for the early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at the molecular level.

  4. Near-Infrared Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy for Tablet Quality Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Talwar, Sameer; Feng, Hanzhou; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a well-established tool for the characterization of solid oral dosage forms manufacturing processes and finished products. In this work, the utility of a traditional single-point NIR measurement was compared with that of a spatially resolved spectroscopic (SRS) measurement for the determination of tablet assay. Experimental designs were used to create samples that allowed for calibration models to be developed and tested on both instruments. Samples possessing a poor distribution of ingredients (highly heterogeneous) were prepared by under-blending constituents prior to compaction to compare the analytical capabilities of the two NIR methods. The results indicate that SRS can provide spatial information that is usually obtainable only through imaging experiments for the determination of local heterogeneity and detection of abnormal tablets that would not be detected with single-point spectroscopy, thus complementing traditional NIR measurement systems for in-line, and in real-time tablet analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Gemini Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous z~6 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present Gemini near-infrared spectroscopic observations of six luminous quasars at z=5.8$\\sim$6.3. Five of them were observed using Gemini-South/GNIRS, which provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.9--2.5 $\\mu$m in cross dispersion mode. The other source was observed in K band...... with Gemini-North/NIRI. We calculate line strengths for all detected emission lines and use their ratios to estimate gas metallicity in the broad-line regions of the quasars. The metallicity is found to be supersolar with a typical value of $\\sim$4 Z_{\\sun}, and a comparison with low-redshift observations...... shows no strong evolution in metallicity up to z$\\sim$6. The FeII/MgII ratio of the quasars is 4.9+/-1.4, consistent with low-redshift measurements. We estimate central BH masses of 10^9 to 10^{10} M_{\\sun} and Eddington luminosity ratios of order unity. We identify two MgII $\\lambda\\lambda$2796...

  6. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy using near-infrared contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, R; Sarder, P; Bloch, S; Culver, J; Achilefu, S

    2012-08-01

    Although single-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is widely used to image molecular processes using a wide range of excitation wavelengths, the captured emission of this technique is confined to the visible spectrum. Here, we explore the feasibility of utilizing near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes with emission >700 nm for FLIM of live cells. The confocal microscope is equipped with a 785 nm laser diode, a red-enhanced photomultiplier tube, and a time-correlated single photon counting card. We demonstrate that our system reports the lifetime distributions of NIR fluorescent dyes, cypate and DTTCI, in cells. In cells labelled separately or jointly with these dyes, NIR FLIM successfully distinguishes their lifetimes, providing a method to sort different cell populations. In addition, lifetime distributions of cells co-incubated with these dyes allow estimate of the dyes' relative concentrations in complex cellular microenvironments. With the heightened interest in fluorescence lifetime-based small animal imaging using NIR fluorophores, this technique further serves as a bridge between in vitro spectroscopic characterization of new fluorophore lifetimes and in vivo tissue imaging. © 2012 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF POST-AGB STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAIJER, RD; WATERS, LBFM; VANDERVEEN, WECJ; GEBALLE, TR

    The results of a medium resolution near-infrared spectral survey of 18 post-AGB candidate stars are presented. Most of the stars have near-infrared hydrogen lines in absorption, which is normal for their spectral types. Three stars, HD 101584, HD 179821 and HD 170756 have the CO first overtone bands

  8. Photographic infrared spectroscopy and near infrared photometry of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swings, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics are tackled in this presentation: spectroscopy and photometry. The following definitions are chosen: photographic infrared spectroscopy (wavelengths Hα<=lambda<1.2 μ); near infrared photometry (wavebands: 1.6 μ<=lambda<=20 μ). Near infrared spectroscopy and photometry of classical and peculiar Be stars are discussed and some future developments in the field are outlined. (Auth.)

  9. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants : Phase II randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas; Austin, Topun; Van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Franz, Axel R.; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Hagmann, Cornelia; Lemmers, Petra; Van Oeveren, Wim; Pichler, Gerhard; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Riera, Joan; Sanchez, Laura; Winkel, Per; Wolf, Martin; Greisen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. Design: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. Setting Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units in

  10. Imaging of solid tumor using near-infrared emitting purple bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sun A; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung

    2005-01-01

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 is α-3 purple nonsulfur eubacterium with an extensive metabolism. Under anaerobic conditions, it is able to grow by photosynthesis, respiration and fermentation. When grown photosynthetically, it uses wavelengths of light in the near-infrared and contains a reaction center that is the peripheral light-harvesting (LH2) complex. These molecules absorb and emit near-infrared light. Using this near-infrared fluorescent bacterial we investigated its targeting capacity of solid tumor in small animals. R. sphaeroides 2.4.1 strains were cultured in sistrons minimal medium A (SIS) at 32 C. Xenograft tumor model has been established by subcutaneous injection of CT26 mouse colon cancer cell line. 1X10 8 Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells suspended in 100 ul of PBS were injected via tail vein with 1-cc insulin syringe into tumor bearing mouse. In vivo fluorescence imaging has been done after 20 min to 30 days of purple bacteria using indocyanine (ICG) emission filter (Em=810∼835 nm). Near-infrared imaging signal from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was initially detected at liver for 3 days but at the necrotic region of tumor mass thereafter. Total photon flux measured 5.5X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at Day 1. Also it was increased to 7.8X10 8 (p/s/cm 2 /sr) at 12 day. One of important characteristic is that the signal appeared only at central necrosis area. It has been monitored for 36 day. We successfully imaged cancer with near-infrared fluorescence bacteria. Our result indicate that near-infrared fluorescence purple bacteria are able to be used to monitor bacterial trafficking in living tumor models

  11. Ultrafast stimulated Raman spectroscopy in the near-infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    A number of electronic transitions in the near-infrared wavelength region are associated with migration or delocalization of electrons in large molecules or molecular systems. Time-resolved near-infrared Raman spectroscopy will be a powerful tool for investigating the structural dynamic of samples with delocalized electrons. However, the sensitivity of near-infrared spontaneous Raman spectrometers is significantly low due to an extremely small probability of Raman scattering and a low sensitivity of near-infrared detectors. Nonlinear Raman spectroscopy is one of the techniques that can overcome the sensitivity problems and enable us to obtain time-resolved Raman spectra in resonance with near-IR transitions. In this article, the author introduces recent progress of ultrafast time-resolved near-infrared stimulated Raman spectroscopy. Optical setup, spectral and temporal resolution, and applications of the spectrometer are described. (author)

  12. Near Infrared Spectroscopy during pediatric cardiac surgery: errors and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Y; Rubatti, M; Couturier, R

    2011-09-01

    As a result of improvements in early outcomes, long-term neurologicalal outcomes are becoming a major issue in pediatric cardiac surgery. The mechanisms of brain injury are numerous, but a vast majority of injuries are impervious to therapy and only a few are modifiable. The quality of perfusion during cardiac surgery is a modifiable factor and cerebral monitoring during bypass is the way to assess the quality of intra-operative cerebral perfusion. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as a diagnostic tool, has gained in popularity within the perfusion community. However, NIRS is becoming the standard of care before its scientific validation. This manuscript relates four clinical cases, demonstrating the limitations of NIRS monitoring during pediatric cardiac surgery as well as uncertainties about the interpretation of the recorded values. The clinical relevance of cerebral oxymetry is needed before the use of NIRS as a decision making tool. Multimodal brain monitoring with NIRS, trans-cranial Doppler and electroencephalogram are currently under way in several pediatric centers. The benefit of this time-consuming and expensive monitoring system has yet to be demonstrated.

  13. Monitoring Industrial Food Processes Using Spectroscopy & Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dorthe Kjær; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat with unprec......In the last decade rapid spectroscopic measurements have revolutionized quality control in practically all areas of primary food and feed production. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR & NIT) has been implemented for monitoring the quality of millions of samples of cereals, milk and meat...

  14. Quantitative analysis of ice films by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Joseph T.

    1990-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in the Space Transportation System is the possibility of the ice buildup on the external fuel tank surface while it is mounted on the launch pad. During the T-2 hours (and holding) period, the frost/ice thickness on the external tank is monitored/measured. However, after the resumption of the countdown time, the tank surface can only be monitored remotely. Currently, remote sensing is done with a TV camera coupled to a thermal imaging device. This device is capable of identifying the presence of ice, especially if it is covered with a layer of frost. However, it has difficulty identifying transparent ice, and, it is not capable of determining the thickness of ice in any case. Thus, there is a need for developing a technique for measuring the thickness of frost/ice on the tank surface during this two hour period before launch. The external tank surface is flooded with sunlight (natural or simulated) before launch. It may be possible, therefore, to analyze the diffuse reflection of sunlight from the external tank to determine the presence and thickness of ice. The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach. A near-infrared spectrophotometer was used to record spectra of ice. It was determined that the optimum frequencies for monitoring the ice films were 1.03 and 1.255 microns.

  15. Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopic Biofilm Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2004-01-01

    An ultraviolet-absorption spectrometer system has been developed as a prototype instrument to be used in continuous, real-time monitoring to detect the growth of biofilms. Such monitoring is desirable because biofilms are often harmful. For example, biofilms in potable-water and hydroponic systems act as both sources of pathogenic bacteria that resist biocides and as a mechanism for deterioration (including corrosion) of pipes. Biofilms formed from several types of hazardous bacteria can thrive in both plant-growth solutions and low-nutrient media like distilled water. Biofilms can also form in condensate tanks in air-conditioning systems and in industrial heat exchangers. At present, bacteria in potable-water and plant-growth systems aboard the space shuttle (and previously on the Mir space station) are monitored by culture-plate counting, which entails an incubation period of 24 to 48 hours for each sample. At present, there are no commercially available instruments for continuous monitoring of biofilms in terrestrial or spaceborne settings.

  16. Spot fat reduction by red and near infrared LED phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungkyoo; Park, Eal-Whan

    2018-02-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) using light from red and near infrared LEDs or Lasers have been reported effective as noninvasive methods for reducing spot fat. A total of 55 subjects were randomly divided into test groups and control groups for abdominal fat reduction clinical trial using red and near infrared LED phototherapy devices. Red and near infrared light with irradiance of 10 mW/cm2 were irradiated over the abdominal area to the test group for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Control group used sham devices for 30 minutes and followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise. It is expected that red and near infrared LED phototherapy combined with aerobic exercise would be effective and safe for abdominal fat reduction without any side effects.

  17. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  18. Near-infrared branding efficiently correlates light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Derron; Nikić, Ivana; Brinkoetter, Mary; Knecht, Sharmon; Potz, Stephanie; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas

    2011-06-05

    The correlation of light and electron microscopy of complex tissues remains a major challenge. Here we report near-infrared branding (NIRB), which facilitates such correlation by using a pulsed, near-infrared laser to create defined fiducial marks in three dimensions in fixed tissue. As these marks are fluorescent and can be photo-oxidized to generate electron contrast, they can guide re-identification of previously imaged structures as small as dendritic spines by electron microscopy.

  19. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  20. In vivo near infrared (NIRS) sensor attachment using fibrin bioadhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew; Pagano, Roberto; Kwon, Brian; Dumont, Guy; Shadgan, Babak

    2018-02-01

    Background: `Tisseel' (Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL) is a fibrin-based sealant that is commonly used during spine surgery to augment dural repairs. We wish to intra-operatively secure a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor to the dura in order to monitor the tissue hemodynamics of the underlying spinal cord. To determine if `Tisseel' sealant adversely attenuates NIR photon transmission. Methods: We investigated `Tisseel' in both an in vitro and in vivo paradigm. For in vitro testing, we used a 1 mm pathlength cuvette containing either air or `Tisseel' interposed between a NIR light source (760 and 850 nm) and a photodiode detector and compared transmittance. For in vivo testing, a continuous wave (760 and 850 nm) spatiallyresolved NIRS device was placed over the triceps muscle using either conventional skin apposition (overlying adhesive bandage) or bioadhesion with `Tisseel'. Raw optical data and tissue saturation index (TSI%) collected at rest were compared. Results: In-vitro NIR light absorption by `Tisseel' was very high, with transmittance reduced by 95% compared to air. In-vivo muscle TSI% values were 80% with conventional attachment and 20% using fibrin glue. Conclusion: The optical properties of `Tisseel' significantly attenuate NIR light during in-vitro transmittance and critically compromise photon transmission in-vivo.

  1. Emergence of two near-infrared windows for in vivo and intraoperative SERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lucas A; Xue, Ruiyang; Nie, Shuming

    2018-04-06

    Two clear windows in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum are of considerable current interest for in vivo molecular imaging and spectroscopic detection. The main rationale is that near-infrared light can penetrate biological tissues such as skin and blood more efficiently than visible light because these tissues scatter and absorb less light at longer wavelengths. The first clear window, defined as light wavelengths between 650nm and 950nm, has been shown to be far superior for in vivo and intraoperative optical imaging than visible light. The second clear window, operating in the wavelength range of 1000-1700nm, has been reported to further improve detection sensitivity, spatial resolution, and tissue penetration because tissue photon scattering and background interference are further reduced at longer wavelengths. Here we discuss recent advances in developing biocompatible plasmonic nanoparticles for in vivo and intraoperative surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in both the first and second NIR windows. In particular, a new class of 'broad-band' plasmonic nanostructures is well suited for surface Raman enhancement across a broad range of wavelengths allowing a direct comparison of detection sensitivity and tissue penetration between the two NIR window. Also, optimized and encoded SERS nanoparticles are generally nontoxic and are much brighter than near-infrared quantum dots (QDs), raising new possibilities for ultrasensitive detection of microscopic tumors and image-guided precision surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A correlated-k model of radiative transfer in the near-infrared windows of Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.C.C.; Irwin, P.G.J.; Taylor, F.W.; Wilson, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a correlated-k-based model for generating synthetic spectra in the near-infrared window regions, from 1.0 to 2.5 μm, emitted from the deep atmosphere of Venus on the nightside. This approach is applicable for use with any near-infrared instrument, ground-based and space-borne, for analysis of the thermal emissions in this spectral range. We also approach this work with the view of using the model, in conjunction with a retrieval algorithm, to retrieve minor species from the Venus Express/VIRTIS instrument. An existing radiative-transfer model was adapted for Venusian conditions to deal with the prevailing high pressures and temperatures and other conditions. A comprehensive four-modal cloud structure model based on Pollack et al. [Near-infrared light from venus' nightside: a spectroscopic analysis. Icarus 1993;103:1-42], using refractive indices for a 75% H 2 SO 4 25% H 2 O mixture from Palmer and Williams [Optical constants of sulfuric acid; application to the clouds of Venus? Appl Opt 1975;14(1):208-19], was also implemented. We then utilized a Mie scattering algorithm to account for the multiple scattering effect between cloud and haze layers that occur in the Venusian atmosphere. The correlated-k model is shown to produce good agreement with ground-based spectra of Venus in the near infrared, and to match the output from a line-by-line radiative-transfer model to better than 10%

  3. ENSEMBLE VARIABILITY OF NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzuma, S.; Yamaoka, H.

    2012-01-01

    We present the properties of the ensemble variability V for nearly 5000 near-infrared active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the catalog of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (13th Edition) and the SDSS-DR7 quasar catalog. From three near-infrared point source catalogs, namely, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Deep Near Infrared Survey (DENIS), and UKIDSS/LAS catalogs, we extract 2MASS-DENIS and 2MASS-UKIDSS counterparts for cataloged AGNs by cross-identification between catalogs. We further select variable AGNs based on an optimal criterion for selecting the variable sources. The sample objects are divided into subsets according to whether near-infrared light originates by optical emission or by near-infrared emission in the rest frame; and we examine the correlations of the ensemble variability with the rest-frame wavelength, redshift, luminosity, and rest-frame time lag. In addition, we also examine the correlations of variability amplitude with optical variability, radio intensity, and radio-to-optical flux ratio. The rest-frame optical variability of our samples shows negative correlations with luminosity and positive correlations with rest-frame time lag (i.e., the structure function, SF), and this result is consistent with previous analyses. However, no well-known negative correlation exists between the rest-frame wavelength and optical variability. This inconsistency might be due to a biased sampling of high-redshift AGNs. Near-infrared variability in the rest frame is anticorrelated with the rest-frame wavelength, which is consistent with previous suggestions. However, correlations of near-infrared variability with luminosity and rest-frame time lag are the opposite of these correlations of the optical variability; that is, the near-infrared variability is positively correlated with luminosity but negatively correlated with the rest-frame time lag. Because these trends are qualitatively consistent with the properties of radio-loud quasars reported

  4. Effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.

  5. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy can measure training adaptations in adolescent swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jones; Dave Parry; Chris E. Cooper

    2018-01-01

    The development of an underwater near-infrared spectroscopy (uNIRS) device has enabled previously unattainable measurements of peripheral muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation to be taken within the natural aquatic environment. The purposes of this study were (i) to trial the use of uNIRS, in a real world training study, and (ii) to monitor the effects of a swim training program upon muscle oxygenation status in short distance swimming. A total of 14 junior club level swimmers completed a repea...

  6. Normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry for critical dimension monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsu-Ting; Kong, Wei; Terry, Fred Lewis

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, we show that normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used for high-accuracy topography measurements on surface relief gratings. We present both experimental and theoretical results which show that spectroscopic ellipsometry or reflectance-difference spectroscopy at near-normal incidence coupled with vector diffraction theory for data analysis is capable of high-accuracy critical dimension (CD), feature height, and sidewall angle measurements in the extreme submicron regime. Quantitative comparisons of optical and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) topography measurements from a number of 350 nm line/space reactive-ion-etched Si gratings demonstrate the strong potential for in situ etching monitoring. This technique can be used for both ex situ and in situ applications and has the potential to replace the use of CD-SEM measurements in some applications. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Near-infrared observations of IRAS minisurvey galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carico, D.P.; Soifer, B.T.; Elias, J.H.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C.; Persson, C.J.; Persson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Near infrared photometry at J, H, and K was obtained for 82 galaxies from the IRAS minisurvey. The near infrared colors of these galaxies cover a larger range in J-H and H-K than do normal field spiral galaxies, and evidence is presented of a tighter correlation between the near and far infrared emission in far infrared bright galaxies than exists between the far infrared and the visible emission. These results suggest the presence of dust in the far infrared bright galaxies, with hot dust emission contributing to the 2.2 micron emission, and extinction by dust affecting both the near infrared colors and the visible luminosities. In addition, there is some indication that the infrared emission in many of the minisurvey galaxies is coming from a strong nuclear component

  8. Spectroscopy and near infrared upconversion of Er{sup 3+}-doped TZNT glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Krishnaiah, K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Marques-Hueso, J. [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems & Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Suresh, K.; Venkataiah, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Richards, B.S. [Light Technology Institute (LTI), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstrasse 13, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Jayasankar, C.K., E-mail: ckjaya@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we report on the near infrared (NIR) upconversion (UC) and spectroscopic properties of erbium (Er{sup 3+})-doped TeO{sub 2}–ZnO–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–TiO{sub 2} (TZNT) oxide glasses. Judd–Ofelt theory has been applied to investigate the intensity parameters (Ω{sub λ}, λ=2, 4 and 6) which are used to derive radiative properties of the fluorescent levels. The different glasses present high refractive indices, low dispersion and Abbe numbers, as determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Under 980 nm excitation, the NIR emission profile and full width at half maximum have been studied in a broad range of Er{sup 3+} concentrations (0.01–3.0 mol%). On the other side, NIR UC has been obtained by exciting at 1523 nm, showing an increase of the intensity with Er{sup 3+} ion density in the studied range. The decay curves of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level exhibit single exponential nature for all the different concentrations. The lifetime of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level has been found to decrease (3.73–1.20 ms) after an initial increase (3.65–3.73 ms) with increasing of Er{sup 3+} ion concentration. The TZNT samples show broadband UC emission at 1.0 µm, which match with the band gap of silicon. This reveals that the investigated glasses could find application in photonics, for example non-linear optics and photovoltaic’s. - Highlights: • The Er{sup 3+}:TZNT glasses have been synthesized and optically characterized. • Refractive index and Abbe number of the TZNT glasses were measured by Ellipsometry. • Near infrared emission (1400–1600 nm) has been obtained under 980 nm excitation. • Near infrared upconversion at 980 nm has been investigated under 1523 nm excitation.

  9. Near-Infrared Quantum Cutting Long Persistent Luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zehua; Feng, Lin; Cao, Cheng; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    By combining the unique features of the quantum cutting luminescence and long persistent luminescence, we design a new concept called ?near-infrared quantum cutting long persistent luminescence (NQPL)?, which makes it possible for us to obtain highly efficient (>100%) near-infrared long persistent luminescence in theory. Guided by the NQPL concept, we fabricate the first NQPL phosphor Ca2Ga2GeO7:Pr3+,Yb3+. It reveals that both the two-step energy transfer of model (I) and the one-step energy ...

  10. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  11. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, D A; Cristiano, K L; Gutiérrez, J C

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated

  12. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskote, Aparna U; Tume, Lyvonne N; Trieschmann, Uwe; Menzel, Christoph; Cogo, Paola; Brown, Katherine L; Broadhead, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted

  13. Noninvasive detection of change in skeletal muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Luo, Qingming; Xu, Guodong; Li, Pengcheng

    2003-12-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been developed as a non-invasive method to assess O2 delivery, O2 consumption and blood flow, in diverse local muscle groups at rest and during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate local O2 consumption in exercising muscle by use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Ten elite athletes of different sport items were tested in rest and during step incremental load exercise. Local variations of quadriceps muscles were investigated with our wireless NIRS blood oxygen monitor system. The results show that the changes of blood oxygen relate on the sport items, type of muscle, kinetic capacity et al. These results indicate that NIRS is a potential useful tool to detect local muscle oxygenation and blood flow profiles; therefore it might be easily applied for evaluating the effect of athletes training.

  14. Quantifying cerebral hypoxia by near-infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B.; Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Andresen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Tissue oxygenation estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a volume-weighted mean of the arterial and venous hemoglobin oxygenation. In vivo validation assumes a fixed arterial-to-venous volume-ratio (AV-ratio). Regulatory cerebro-vascular mechanisms may change the AV-ratio. We used...

  15. Near infrared spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bappu, M.K.V.; Ganesh, K.S.; Scaria, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    The near-infrared spectra of three Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence and five of the nitrogen sequence have been studied. Wavelength identifications and intensity scans are presented to show the emission line characteristics of these objects in the 6800 A to 8200 A domain of the spectrum. (author)

  16. Near-infrared image guidance in cancer surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, B.E.

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence is a fast developing imaging modality as it provides real-time visual information during surgery (Chapter 1). The ability to detect lymph nodes and tumours that need to be resected can assist the surgeon to improve surgery by reducing

  17. Near infrared photoacoustic detection of heptane in synthetic air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Albu, Mihaela; Willatzen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminations of n-heptane in synthetic air is measured in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range using near infrared photoacoustic detection. We describe the fundamental theory used in the design of the photoacoustic cell for trace gas analysis and determine the detection limit of the cell...

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Jeppesen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We employ a planar metamaterial structure composed of a splitring-resonator (SRR) and paired nano-rods to experimentally realize a spectral response at near-infrared frequencies resembling that of electromagnetically induced transparency. A narrow transparency window associated with low loss...

  19. Near-infrared transillumination photography of intraocular tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jørgen; Ulltang, Erlend; Kjersem, Bård

    2013-10-01

    To present a technique for near-infrared transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours based on the modifications of a conventional digital slit lamp camera system. The Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG) was used for transillumination photography by gently pressing the tip of the background illumination cable against the surface of the patient's eye. Thus the light from the flash unit was transmitted into the eye, leading to improved illumination and image resolution. The modification for near-infrared photography was done by replacing the original camera with a Canon EOS 30D (Canon Inc) converted by Advanced Camera Services Ltd. In this camera, the infrared blocking filter was exchanged for a 720 nm long-pass filter, so that the near-infrared part of the spectrum was recorded by the sensor. The technique was applied in eight patients: three with anterior choroidal melanoma, three with ciliary body melanoma and two with ocular pigment alterations. The good diagnostic quality of the photographs made it possible to evaluate the exact location and extent of the lesions in relation to pigmented intraocular landmarks such as the ora serrata and ciliary body. The photographic procedure did not lead to any complications. We recommend near-infrared transillumination photography as a supplementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation and documentation of anteriorly located intraocular tumours.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was performed perioperatively on the dorsum of the foot in 14 patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass surgery using a prosthesis or the greater saphenous vein. Dual-wavelength continuous light spectroscopy was used to assess changes in tissue saturation before, duri...

  1. Spectroscopic vector analysis for fast pattern quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Younghoon; Ryu, Sungyoon; Lee, Chihoon; Yang, Yusin

    2018-03-01

    In semiconductor industry, fast and effective measurement of pattern variation has been key challenge for assuring massproduct quality. Pattern measurement techniques such as conventional CD-SEMs or Optical CDs have been extensively used, but these techniques are increasingly limited in terms of measurement throughput and time spent in modeling. In this paper we propose time effective pattern monitoring method through the direct spectrum-based approach. In this technique, a wavelength band sensitive to a specific pattern change is selected from spectroscopic ellipsometry signal scattered by pattern to be measured, and the amplitude and phase variation in the wavelength band are analyzed as a measurement index of the pattern change. This pattern change measurement technique is applied to several process steps and verified its applicability. Due to its fast and simple analysis, the methods can be adapted to the massive process variation monitoring maximizing measurement throughput.

  2. Near-infrared analysis of hydrogen-bonding in glass- and rubber-state amorphous saccharide solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Hiyama, Yukio; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis of noncrystalline polyols and saccharides (e.g., glycerol, sorbitol, maltitol, glucose, sucrose, maltose) was performed at different temperatures (30-80 degrees C) to elucidate the effect of glass transition on molecular interaction. Transmission NIR spectra (4,000-12,000 cm(-1)) of the liquids and cooled-melt amorphous solids showed broad absorption bands that indicate random configuration of molecules. Heating of the samples decreased an intermolecular hydrogen-bonding OH vibration band intensity (6,200-6,500 cm(-1)) with a concomitant increase in a free and intramolecular hydrogen-bonding OH group band (6,600-7,100 cm(-1)). Large reduction of the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding band intensity at temperatures above the glass transition (T(g)) of the individual solids should explain the higher molecular mobility and lower viscosity in the rubber state. Mixing of the polyols with a high T(g) saccharide (maltose) or an inorganic salt (sodium tetraborate) shifted both the glass transition and the inflection point of the hydrogen-bonding band intensity to higher temperatures. The implications of these results for pharmaceutical formulation design and process monitoring (PAT) are discussed.

  3. Online process control of a pharmaceutical intermediate in a fluidized-bed drier environment using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märk, Julia; Karner, Martin; Andre, Max; Rueland, Jochen; Huck, Christian W

    2010-05-15

    In the production plant of an antibiotic substance, a new fluidized-bed drier has been installed. For online process control of the drying progress and determination of the ideal drying end point, a continuous near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) measuring setup was implemented to rapidly and simultaneously gain all essential product information. A bypass system outside the drier combined with a robust process probe proved to provide the best sampling system geometry. The spectrometer was equipped with an additional laboratory probe for complementary offline analysis. Multivariate calibrations for product assay, water content, and residual solvent were calculated, optimized, and compared for the two probes. The final root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) for the process probe could be reduced to 0.81% for the product assay, 0.25% for water, and 0.06% for acetone. The laboratory-probe prediction values show good agreement with reference data during the testing period. The calibrations of the process probe were checked by comparing its predictions to those of the validated laboratory probe. The monitoring system could be automated to a large extent, and product quality could be improved considerably. The established technology is of high importance for the pharmaceutical industry carrying out high-throughput routine analysis because of its advantages in terms of of time and cost reductions.

  4. Validation and transferability study of a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for the detection and quantification of ergot bodies in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernández - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Zegers, J.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging has proved its suitability for quality and safety control in the cereal sector by allowing spectroscopic images to be collected at single-kernel level, which is of great interest to cereal control laboratories. Contaminants in cereals

  5. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN YOUNG STARS IN CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Thomas S. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results from a 124 night J, H, K near-infrared monitoring campaign of the dark cloud L 1003 in Cygnus OB7, an active star-forming region. Using three seasons of UKIRT observations spanning 1.5 years, we obtained high-quality photometry on 9200 stars down to J = 17 mag, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.04 mag. On the basis of near-infrared excesses from disks, we identify 30 pre-main-sequence stars, including 24 which are newly discovered. We analyze those stars and find that the NIR excesses are significantly variable. All 9200 stars were monitored for photometric variability; among the field star population, {approx}160 exhibited near-infrared variability (1.7% of the sample). Of the 30 young stellar objects (YSOs), 28 of them (93%) are variable at a significant level. Of the 30 YSOs, twenty-five have near-infrared excess consistent with simple disk-plus-star classical T Tauri models. Nine of these (36%) drift in color space over the course of these observations and/or since Two Micron All Sky Survey observations such that they cross the boundary defining the NIR excess criteria; effectively, they have a transient near-infrared excess. Thus, time-series JHK observations can be used to obtain a more complete sample of disk-bearing stars than single-epoch JHK observations. About half of the YSOs have color-space variations parallel to either the classical T Tauri star locus or a hybrid track which includes the dust reddening trajectory. This indicates that the NIR variability in YSOs that possess accretion disks arises from a combination of variable extinction and changes in the inner accretion disk: either in accretion rate, central hole size, and/or the inclination of the inner disk. While some variability may be due to stellar rotation, the level of variability on the individual stars can exceed a magnitude. This is a strong empirical suggestion that protoplanetary disks are quite dynamic and exhibit more complex activity on short

  6. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  7. Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Hutteman, Merlijn; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van de Velde, C.J.H.; Frangioni, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Paradigm shifts in surgery arise when surgeons are empowered to perform surgery faster, better, and/or less expensively. Optical imaging that exploits invisible near-infrared fluorescent light has the potential to improve cancer surgery outcomes while minimizing anesthesia time and lowering healthcare costs. Because of this, the last few years have witnessed an explosion of proof-of-concept clinical trials in the field. In this review, we introduce the concept of near-infrared fluorescence imaging for cancer surgery, review the clinical trial literature to date, outline the key issues pertaining to imaging system and contrast agent optimization, discuss limitations and leverage, and provide a framework for making the technology available for the routine care of cancer patients in the near future. PMID:23881033

  8. Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Leff, Daniel R; James, David R C; Darzi, Ara W; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the Imperial College near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging analysis (ICNNA) software tool for functional near infrared spectroscopy neuroimaging data. ICNNA is a MATLAB-based object-oriented framework encompassing an application programming interface and a graphical user interface. ICNNA incorporates reconstruction based on the modified Beer-Lambert law and basic processing and data validation capabilities. Emphasis is placed on the full experiment rather than individual neuroimages as the central element of analysis. The software offers three types of analyses including classical statistical methods based on comparison of changes in relative concentrations of hemoglobin between the task and baseline periods, graph theory-based metrics of connectivity and, distinctively, an analysis approach based on manifold embedding. This paper presents the different capabilities of ICNNA in its current version.

  9. Near infrared face recognition using Zernike moments and Hermite kernels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Sheikh, U.U.; Flusser, Jan; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 316, č. 1 (2015), s. 234-245 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-29225S Keywords : face recognition * Zernike moments * Hermite kernel * Decision fusion * Near infrared Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.364, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/flusser-0444205.pdf

  10. Practical guide to interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, Jr, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Containing focused, comprehensive coverage, Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy gives you the tools necessary to interpret NIR spectra. The authors present extensive tables, charts, and figures with NIR absorption band assignments and structural information for a broad range of functional groups, organic compounds, and polymers. They include visual spectral representation of all major compound functional groupings and NIR frequency ranges. Organized by functional group type and chemical structure, based on standard compound classification, the chapters are easy to

  11. ARNICA, the Arcetri near-infrared camera: Astronomical performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L. K.; Lisi, F.; Testi, L.; Baffa, C.; Borelli, S.; Maiolino, R.; Moriondo, G.; Stanga, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Arcetri near-infrared camera ARNICA was built as a users' instrument for the Infrared Telescope at Gornergrat (TIRGO), and is based on a 256x256 NICMOS 3 detector. In this paper, we discuss ARNICA's optical and astronomical performance at the TIRGO and at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Optical performance is evaluated in terms of plate scale, distortion, point spread function, and ghosting. Astronomical performance is characterized by camera efficiency, sensitivity, and spatial uniformity of the photometry.

  12. Burned bones forensic investigations employing near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cascant, Mari Merce; Rubio, Sonia; Gallello, Gianni; Pastor, Agustin; Garrigues, Salvador; De la Guardia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was evaluated, by using chemometric tools, for the study of the environmental impact on burned bones. Spectra of internal and external parts of burned bones, together with sediment samples, were treated by Principal Component Analysis and cluster classification as exploratory techniques to select burned bone samples, less affected by environmental processes, to properly carry out forensic studies. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis was used ...

  13. Near-infrared emission from mesoporous crystalline germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucherif, Abderraouf; Aimez, Vincent; Arès, Richard, E-mail: richard.ares@usherbrooke.ca [Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)-CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard Université, Sherbrooke, J1K OA5, Québec (Canada); Korinek, Andreas [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Mesoporous crystalline germanium was fabricated by bipolar electrochemical etching of Ge wafer in HF-based electrolyte. It yields uniform mesoporous germanium layers composed of high density of crystallites with an average size 5-7 nm. Subsequent extended chemical etching allows tuning of crystallites size while preserving the same chemical composition. This highly controllable nanostructure exhibits photoluminescence emission above the bulk Ge bandgap, in the near-infrared range (1095-1360nm) with strong evidence of quantum confinement within the crystallites.

  14. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de; Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario; Poppi, Ronei J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. → Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. → Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  15. GNIRS-DQS: A Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph Distant Quasar Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandon; Shemmer, Ohad; Brotherton, Michael S.; Andruchow, Ileana; Boroson, Todd A.; Brandt, W. Niel; Cellone, Sergio; Ferrero, Gabriel; Gallagher, Sarah; Green, Richard F.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lira, Paulina; Myers, Adam D.; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Runnoe, Jessie; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Willott, Chris J.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe an ongoing three-year Gemini survey, launched in 2017, that will obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 416 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars between redshifts of 1.5 and 3.5 in the ~1.0-2.5 μm band. These spectra will cover critical diagnostic emission lines, such as Mg II, Hβ, and [O III], in each source. This project will more than double the existing inventory of near-infrared spectra of luminous quasars at these redshifts, including the era of fast quasar growth. Additional rest frame ultraviolet coverage of at least the C IV emission line is provided by the SDSS spectrum of each source. We will utilize the spectroscopic inventory to determine the most accurate and precise quasar black hole masses, accretion rates, and redshifts, and use the results to derive improved prescriptions for UV-based proxies for these parameters. The improved redshifts will establish velocities of quasar outflows that interact with the host galaxies, and will help constrain how imprecise distance estimates bias quasar clustering measurements. Furthermore, our measurements will facilitate a more complete understanding of how the rest-frame UV-optical spectral properties depend on redshift and luminosity, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time. We will make our data immediately available to the public, provide reduced spectra via a dedicated website, and produce a catalog of measurements and fundamental quasar properties.

  16. Analysis of pharmaceutical pellets: An approach using near-infrared chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabin, Guilherme P.; Breitkreitz, Marcia C.; Souza, Andre M. de [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Patricia da; Calefe, Lupercio; Moffa, Mario [Zelus Servicos para Industria Farmaceutica Ltda., Av. Professor Lineu Prestes n. 2242, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Poppi, Ronei J., E-mail: ronei@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging was used for pellets analysis. {yields} Distribution of the components throughout the coatings layers and core of the pellets was estimated. {yields} Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculation of the concentration maps. - Abstract: Pharmaceutical pellets are spherical or nearly spherical multi-unit dosage forms designed to optimize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features of drug release. The distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in the layers and core is a very important parameter for appropriate drug release, especially for pellets manufactured by the process of layer gain. Physical aspects of the sample are normally evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), but it is in many cases unsuitable to provide conclusive chemical information about the distribution of the pharmaceutical ingredients in both layers and core. On the other hand, methods based on spectroscopic imaging can be very promising for this purpose. In this work, a Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging (NIR-CI) method was developed and applied to the analysis of diclophenac sodium pellets. Since all the compounds present in the sample were known in advance, Classical Least Squares (CLS) was used for calculations. The results have shown that the method was capable of providing chemical information about the distribution of the active ingredient and excipients in the core and coating layers and therefore can be complementary to SEM for the pharmaceutical development of pellets.

  17. Quantification of simvastatin in mice plasma by near-infrared and chemometric analysis of spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy UA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Usama A Fahmy Department of Pharmaceutics & Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Time and cost saving is an essential requirement in pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence studies. The aim of this study is to use a simple, fast, and nondestructive near-infrared transmission spectroscopic method to quantify simvastatin (SMV concentrations in mice plasma and also to improve SMV bioavailability by using alpha-lipoic acid as a carrier. Calibration curve was built at a concentration range of 10–250 ng/mL, and HPLC method was considered as a reference method. A partial least squares regression analysis model was used for method development, which gave less root mean square error cross-validation. Comparison of SMV concentrations obtained from both instruments showed no statistically significant differences between all the data. Near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized as a rapid, simple accurate method to quantify drug–plasma concentrations without need for any extraction protocols, and the significant effect of alpha-lipoic acid as a novel carrier to enhance SMV bioavailability is also addressed. Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bioavailability, non invasive, FTIR, pharmacokinetics

  18. Controlling plasmonic properties of epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide in the near-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, R.; Fujita, K.; Murai, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) were grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia single-crystal substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition to examine their plasmonic properties. The dielectric function of ITO was characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Through the concentration of SnO2 in the target, the carrier concentration in the films was modified, which directly leads to the tuning of the dielectric function in the near-infrared region. Variable-angle reflectance spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry shows the dip in the reflection spectrum of p-polarized light corresponding to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) in the near-infrared region. The excitation wavelength of the SPPs was shifted with changing the dielectric functions of ITO, which is reproduced by the calculation using transfer matrix method.

  19. Development of a near-infrared spectroscopy instrument for applications in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J; Stothers, Lynn

    2008-10-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established technology using photons of light in the near infrared spectrum to monitor changes in tissue of naturally occurring chromophores, including oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Technology and methodology have been validated for measurement of a range of physiologic parameters. NIRS has been applied successfully in urology research; however current instruments are designed principally for brain and muscle study. To describe development of a NIRS instrument specifically designed for monitoring changes in chromophore concentration in the bladder detrusor in real time, to facilitate research to establish the role of this non-invasive technology in the evaluation of patients with voiding dysfunction The portable continuous wave NIRS instrument has a 3 laser diode light source (785, 808 and 830 nanometers), fiber optic cables for light transmission, a self adhesive patient interface patch with an emitter and sensor, and software to detect the difference between the light transmitted and received by the instrument. Software incorporated auto-attenuates the optical signals and converts raw optical data into chromophore concentrations displayed graphically. The prototype was designed, tested, and iteratively developed to achieve optimal suprapubic transcutaneous monitoring of the detrusor in human subjects during bladder filling and emptying. Evaluation with simultaneous invasive urodynamic measurement in men and women indicates good specificity and sensitivity of NIRS chromophore concentration changes by receiver operator curve analysis, and correlation between NIRS data and urodynamic pressures. Urological monitoring with this NIRS instrument is feasible and generates data of potential diagnostic value.

  20. Near-near-infrared thermal lens spectroscopy to assess overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M.; Silva, J. R.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Scorza Júnior, R. P.; Lima, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS) in the near-near-infrared region was used to explore the absorptions of overtones and combination bands of sulfentrazone (SFZ) herbicide diluted in methanol. This spectroscopic region was chosen in order to guarantee that only thermal lens effect is noted during the experimental procedure. The results showed that it was possible to detect very low concentrations ( 2 ng/μL) of SFZ in methanol by determining its thermal diffusivity or the absorption coefficient due to the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band. This minimum SFZ concentration is the limit observed by chromatography method. The findings demonstrated that the TLS can be used for precise and accurate assessment of pesticides in ecosystems. Besides, the 3ν(NH) + 1δ(CH) combination band at 960 nm can be used as a marker for SFZ in methanol.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  2. A review of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics in pharmaceutical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Yves; Chalus, Pascal; Maurer, Lene; Lema-Martinez, Carmen; Edmond, Aurélie; Jent, Nadine

    2007-07-27

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a fast and non-destructive analytical method. Associated with chemometrics, it becomes a powerful tool for the pharmaceutical industry. Indeed, NIRS is suitable for analysis of solid, liquid and biotechnological pharmaceutical forms. Moreover, NIRS can be implemented during pharmaceutical development, in production for process monitoring or in quality control laboratories. This review focuses on chemometric techniques and pharmaceutical NIRS applications. The following topics are covered: qualitative analyses, quantitative methods and on-line applications. Theoretical and practical aspects are described with pharmaceutical examples of NIRS applications.

  3. Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    The present work examines bioenergy production from different viewpoints. The three main objectives are: (1) to reveal the relation of technology, sustainability and economy in bioenergy processes; (2) to investigate spectroscopic methods as a tool for analytical monitoring of bioenergy processes; and (3) to develop new chemometric methods for advanced analysis of spectroscopic data. At the first stage, this thesis investigates the technological, ecological, and economic features of renewable-resource-based and de-centralized bioenergy production systems. In different scenarios, small-scale bioethanol production is combined with other technologies that provide renewable energy from residuals of the bioethanol process. The general aim is to substitute fossil energy conventionally used within the bioethanol process. The investigated technologies are biogas production and straw incineration. Agricultural aspects are introduced by sustainable crop rotation concepts that reconcile food, feed, and biofuel production. The sustainability of small-scale bioethanol production in the different scenarios is quantified by an ecological footprint method, the sustainable process index, SPI, and compared to conventional fuels. The main findings are: (i) small-scaled bioethanol production can be operated with 100 % renewable energy supply, (ii) the SPI of bioethanol can be reduced up to 92 % compared to conventional fuels, (iii) a complex trade-off between ecology-of-scale and economy-of-scale is necessary. At the second stage, this thesis approaches bioenergy production processes from an analytical perspective, and presents near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as promising method for fast process monitoring of bioethanol production and biomass characterization. In addition, new analytical methods are presented for a fast determination of the heating value of solid biomass fuel, based on IR and NIR spectroscopy. The main findings are that NIR spectroscopy and appropriate chemometric

  4. Near-Infrared Resonance Energy Transfer Glucose Biosensors in Hybrid Microcapsule Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike McShane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence-based sensing systems offer potential for noninvasive monitoring with implantable devices, but require carrier technologies that provide suitable immobilization, accessibility, and biocompatibility. Recent developments towards this goal include a competitive binding assay for glucose that has been encapsulated in semipermeable microcapsule carriers. This paper describes an extension of this work to increase the applicability to in vivo monitoring, wherein two significant developments are described: (1 a near-infrared resonance energy transfer system for transducing glucose concentration, and (2 novel hybrid organic-inorganic crosslinked microcapsules as carriers. The quenching-based assay is a competitive binding (CB system based on apo-glucose oxidase (AG as the receptor and dextran as the competitive ligand. The encapsulated quencher-labeled dextran and near infrared donor-labeled glucose receptor showed a stable and reversible response with tunable sensitivity of 1–5%/mM over the physiological range, making these transducers attractive for continuous monitoring for biomedical applications.

  5. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy in golf turfgrass management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Ying; Han, Jian-Guo

    2008-07-01

    The management of golf course is different from other turfs. Its particularity lies in its higher and more precise requirement during maintenance compare with other turfs. In case something happened to turf of golf course, more effective and higher speed detecting and resolution are required. Only the data about turf growth and environment were mastered precisely in time, the friendly environmental and scientific management goal could be completed effectively and economically. The near infrared spectroscopy is a new kind of effective, convenient and non-destructive analytical method in the turfgrass management of golf course in recent years. Many factors of turf-soil system in golf course could be determined by near infrared spectroscopy at the same time. In this paper, the existing literature that use of near infrared spectroscopy to study turfgrass and soil nutrient content, soil hygroscopic moisture, feasible fertilizer application time and rate, to fix the time and volume of irrigation, turfgrass visual quality evaluation, turfgrass disease prediction and prevention were reviewed. Most researchers considered the nutrition condition of turf impacted the visual and playing quality of golf course directly and then indirectly influenced most of assistant cultivation such as fertilization, mowing and irrigation and so on. The using of NIRS can detect the nutrient content of turfgrass effectively and estimate the nutrient is excessive or deficient quickly. And then the feasible time and rate of fertilizers can be decided. Comparing with the common judgment ways based on the season fertilization and visual estimation, the using of NIRS can reduce the application of fertilizers on the base of keeping the same turf quality simultaneously. NIRS can analysis many items of soil such as moisture, elements concentration, textures on the spot by the thousands. This method can get lots of cover-all data non-destructively. What's more, NIRS can analysis soil betimes quickly

  6. Near infrared photometry of violent star formation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, J.; Terlevich, R.; Moles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Near infrared broad band photometry and CO indices for a significant number of Violent Star Formation Regions are presented. The existence of a narrow correlation between W (Hβ) and IR colour is confirmed. The interpretation of this relation as an age sequence implies a correlation between CO index and W(Hβ) which is not found. It is argued however that this failure is most likely a consequence of using narrow band filters to determine CO indices in objects with strong emission-line spectra. (author)

  7. Near-infrared laser, time domain, breast tumour detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joblin, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The use of near-infrared laser, time domain techniques have been proposed for some time now as an alternative to X-ray mammography, as a means of mass screening for breast disease. The great driving force behind this research has been that near-infrared photons are a non-ionising radiation, which affords a greater degree of patient safety than when using X-rays. This would mean that women at risk of breast disease could be screened with a near-infrared laser imaging system, much more regularly than with an X-ray mammography system, which should allow for the earlier detection and treatment of breast disease. This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the performance of a near-infrared, time domain breast imaging system. The performance of the imaging system is characterised by the resolution and contrast parameters, which were studied using a numerical finite difference calculation method. The finite difference method is used to solve the diffusion equation for the photon transport through the inhomogeneous breast tissue medium. Optimal performance was found to be obtained with short photon times of flight. However the signal to noise ratio decreases rapidly as the photon time of flight is decreased. The system performance will therefore be limited by the noise equivalent power of the time resolved detection system, which is the signal incident on the time resolved detection system which gives a signal to noise ratio of 1:1. Photon times of flight shorter than 500 ps are not practical with current technology, which places limits on the resolution and contrast. The photon signal throughput can be increased by increasing the size of the laser beam width, by increasing the size of the aperture stop of the detector, by increasing the laser pulse duration or decreasing the detector time resolution. Best system performance is found by optimising these parameters for a given time gating and detector system characteristic (NEP). It was found that the

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy system with a remote fiber-optic probe was developed and demonstrated to measure the water content of high-level radioactive wastes from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in richland Washington. The technology was developed as a cost-effective and safer alternative to the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique in use as the baseline. This work was supported by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) in cooperation with the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program

  9. Near-infrared spectral imaging Michelson interferometer for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, C. W.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The design and operation of an imaging Michelson interferometer-spectrometer used for near-infrared (0.8 micron to 2.5 microns) spectral imaging are reported. The system employs a rapid scan interferometer modified for stable low resolution (250/cm) performance and a 42 element PbS linear detector array. A microcomputer system is described which provides data acquisition, coadding, and Fourier transformation for near real-time presentation of the spectra of all 42 scene elements. The electronic and mechanical designs are discussed and telescope performance data presented.

  10. Variability of HBV 475 in the near infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    In the spectral range lambdalambda5800-8750, HBV 475 show important spectral variations between 1969 and 1974. Sometimes the ''hot component'' spectrum dominates (many emission lines), sometimes the ''cool component'' is preponderent (many molecular absorption TiO bands). On August 4 1974, June 6 1975 and August 9 1981, the author extended the observations up to 1.1μ. The spectra is presented and the emissions briefly discussed. These near infrared observations confirm the symbiotic nature of HBV 475 and allow specification of the spectral type of the cool component. (Auth.)

  11. Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fei; Dai, Jin; Chen, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    Radiation absorbers have increasingly been attracting attention as crucial components for controllable thermal emission, energy harvesting, modulators, etc. However, it is still challenging to realize thin absorbers which can operate over a wide spectrum range. Here, we propose and experimentally...... demonstrate thin, broadband, polarization-insensitive and omnidirectional absorbers working in the near-infrared range. We choose titanium (Ti) instead of the commonly used gold (Au) to construct nano-disk arrays on the top of a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated Au substrate, with the quality (Q) factor...

  12. Near-infrared dental imaging using scanning fiber endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaxuan; Lee, Robert; Sadr, Alireza; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 1300-1500nm has the potential to outperform or augment other dental imaging modalities such as fluorescence imaging, owing to its lower scattering coefficient in enamel and trans- parency on stains and non-cariogenic plaque. However, cameras in this wavelength range are bulky and expensive, which lead to difficulties for in-vivo use and commercialization. Thus, we have proposed a new imaging device combining the scanning fiber endoscopy (SFE) and NIR imaging technology. The NIR SFE system has the advantage of miniature size (1.6 mm), flexible shaft, video frame rate (7Hz) and expandable wide field-of-view (60 degrees). Eleven extracted human teeth with or without occlusal caries were scanned by micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) to obtain 3D micro-CT images, which serve as the standard for comparison. NIR images in reflection mode were then taken on all the occlusal surfaces, using 1310nm super luminescent diode and 1460nm laser diode respectively. Qualitative comparison was performed between near-infrared im- ages and micro-CT images. Enamel demineralization in NIR appeared as areas of increased reflectivity, and distinguished from non-carious staining at the base of occlusal fissures or developmental defects on cusps. This preliminary work presented proof for practicability of combining NIR imaging technology with SFE for reliable and noninvasive dental imaging with miniaturization and low cost.

  13. Patient identification using a near-infrared laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manit, Jirapong; Bremer, Christina; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new biometric approach where the tissue thickness of a person's forehead is used as a biometric feature. Given that the spatial registration of two 3D laser scans of the same human face usually produces a low error value, the principle of point cloud registration and its error metric can be applied to human classification techniques. However, by only considering the spatial error, it is not possible to reliably verify a person's identity. We propose to use a novel near-infrared laser-based head tracking system to determine an additional feature, the tissue thickness, and include this in the error metric. Using MRI as a ground truth, data from the foreheads of 30 subjects was collected from which a 4D reference point cloud was created for each subject. The measurements from the near-infrared system were registered with all reference point clouds using the ICP algorithm. Afterwards, the spatial and tissue thickness errors were extracted, forming a 2D feature space. For all subjects, the lowest feature distance resulted from the registration of a measurement and the reference point cloud of the same person. The combined registration error features yielded two clusters in the feature space, one from the same subject and another from the other subjects. When only the tissue thickness error was considered, these clusters were less distinct but still present. These findings could help to raise safety standards for head and neck cancer patients and lays the foundation for a future human identification technique.

  14. Near infrared spectroscopy for qualitative comparison of pharmaceutical batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Roeseler, C; Ulmschneider, M

    2004-11-19

    Pharmaceuticals are produced according to current pharmacopoeias, which require quality parameters. Tablets of identical formulation, produced by different factories should have the same properties before and after storage. In this article, we analyzed samples having two different origins before and after storage (30 degrees C, 75% relative moisture). The aim of the study is to propose two approaches to understand the differences between origins and the storage effect by near infrared spectroscopy. In the first part, the main wavelengths are identified in transmittance and reflectance near infrared spectra in order to identify the major differences between the samples. In this paper, this approach is called fingerprinting. In the second part, principal component analysis (PCA) is computed to confirm the fingerprinting interpretation. The two interpretations show the differences between batches: physical aspect and moisture content. The manufacturing process is responsible for the physical differences between batches. During the storage, changes are due to the increase of moisture content and the decrease of the active content.

  15. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad Kamran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF is modeled by using two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters. The HRF model is supposed to be linear combination of HRF, baseline and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown. An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on twelve free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using ten real and fifteen simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis, i.e., (t-value >tcritical and p-value < 0.05.

  16. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  17. Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan G.; Elwell, Clare E.; Delpy, Dave T.; Beard, Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use pulsed near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy to determine the oxygen saturation (SO2) of a saline suspension of red blood cells in vitro. The photoacoustic measurements were made in a cuvette which formed part of a larger circuit through which the red blood cell suspension was circulated. Oxygen saturation of the red blood cell suspension was altered between 2-3% to 100% in step increments using a membrane oxygenator and at each increment an independent measurement of oxygen saturation was made using a co-oximeter. An optical parametric oscillator laser system provided nanosecond excitation pulses at a number of wavelengths in the near-infrared spectrum (740-1040nm) which were incident on the cuvette. The resulting acoustic signals were detected using a broadband (15MHz) Fabry-Perot polymer film transducer. The optical transport coefficient and amplitude were determined from the acoustic signals as a function of wavelength. These data were then used to calculate the relative concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin, using their known specific absorption coefficients and an empirically determined wavelength dependence of optical scattering over the wavelength range investigated. From this, the oxygen saturation of the suspension was derived with an accuracy of +/-5% compared to the co-oximeter SO2 measurements.

  18. The rapid measurement of soil carbon stock using near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono; Bustan

    2018-03-01

    As a soil pool stores carbon (C) three times higher than an atmospheric pool, the depletion of C stock in the soil will significantly increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, causing global warming. However, the monitoring or measurement of soil C stock using conventional procedures is time-consuming and expensive. So it requires a rapid and non-destructive technique that is simple and does not need chemical substances. This research is aimed at testing whether near-infrared (NIR) technology is able to rapidly measure C stock in the soil. Soil samples were collected from an agricultural land at the sub-district of Kayangan, North Lombok, Indonesia. The coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analyzed using conventional procedure (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) was used to develop models from soil C data measured by conventional analysis and from spectral data scanned by NIRS. The best model was moderately successful to measure soil C stock in the study area in North Lombok. This indicates that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the change of soil C stock in the soil.

  19. Estimation of raw material performance in mammalian cell culture using near infrared spectra combined with chemometrics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Christie, Andrew; Liu, Jun Jay; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variability in raw materials and their impacts on product quality is of critical importance in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. For this purpose, several spectroscopic techniques have been studied for raw material characterization, providing fast and nondestructive ways to measure quality of raw materials. However, investigations of correlation between spectra of raw materials and cell culture performance have been scarce due to their complexity and uncertainty. In this study, near-infrared spectra and bioassays of multiple soy hydrolysate lots manufactured by different vendors were analyzed using chemometrics approaches in order to address variability of raw materials as well as correlation between raw material properties and corresponding cell culture performance. Principal component analysis revealed that near-infrared spectra of different soy lots contain enough physicochemical information about soy hydrolysates to allow identification of lot-to-lot variability as well as vendor-to-vendor differences. The identified compositional variability was further analyzed in order to estimate cell growth and protein production of two mammalian cell lines under the condition of varying soy dosages using partial least square regression combined with optimal variable selection. The performance of the resulting models demonstrates the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy as a robust lot selection tool for raw materials while providing a biological link between chemical composition of raw materials and cell culture performance. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. A Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Method for the Detection of Oral Cancers in Mice Using an Indocyanine Green-Labeled Podoplanin Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Akihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Inada, Shunko; Kato, Toshio; Nakata, Susumu; Yatabe, Yasushi; Goto, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Norio; Kurita, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Hayao; Yoshida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Podoplanin is distinctively overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma than oral benign neoplasms and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma but its diagnostic application is quite limited. Here, we report a new near-infrared fluorescence imaging method using an indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a desktop/a handheld ICG detection device for the visualization of oral squamous cell carcinoma-xenografted tumors in nude mice. Both near-infrared imaging methods using a desktop (in vivo imaging system: IVIS) and a handheld device (photodynamic eye: PDE) successfully detected oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors in nude mice in a podoplanin expression-dependent manner with comparable sensitivity. Of these 2 devices, only near-infrared imaging methods using a handheld device visualized oral squamous cell carcinoma xenografts in mice in real time. Furthermore, near-infrared imaging methods using the handheld device (PDE) could detect smaller podoplanin-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors than a non-near-infrared, autofluorescence-based imaging method. Based on these results, a near-infrared imaging method using an ICG-labeled anti-podoplanin antibody and a handheld detection device (PDE) allows the sensitive, semiquantitative, and real-time imaging of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors and therefore represents a useful tool for the detection and subsequent monitoring of malignant oral neoplasms in both preclinical and some clinical settings.

  1. Change of tumor vascular reactivity during tumor growth and postchemotherapy observed by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Songhyun; Jeong, Hyeryun; Seong, Myeongsu; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. To monitor chemotherapeutic efficacy for breast cancer, medical imaging systems such as x-ray mammography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging have been used. Currently, it can take up to 3 to 6 weeks to see the tumor response from chemotherapy by monitoring tumor volume changes. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict breast cancer treatment efficacy earlier than tumor volume changes by monitoring tumor vascular reactivity during inhalational gas interventions. The results show that the amplitude of oxy-hemoglobin changes (vascular reactivity) during hyperoxic gas inhalation is well correlated with tumor growth and responded one day earlier than tumor volume changes after chemotherapy. These results may imply that NIRS with respiratory challenges can be useful in early detection of tumor and in the prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy.

  2. Near infrared group IV optoelectronics and novel pre-cursors for CVD epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun, Ramsey Michael

    Near infrared and mid infrared optoelectronic devices have become increasingly important for the telecommunications, security, and medical imaging industries. The addition of nitrogen to III-V alloys has been widely studied as a method of modifying the band gap for mid infrared (IR) applications. In xGa1-xSb1-y Ny/InAs strained-layer superlattices with type-II (staggered) energy offsets on GaSb substrates, were modeled using eight-band k˙p simulations to analyze the superlattice miniband energies. Three different zero-stress strain balance conditions are reported: fixed superlattice period thickness, fixed InAs well thickness, and fixed InxGa1-xSb 1-yNy barrier thickness. Optoelectronics have traditionally been the realm of III-V semiconductors due to their direct band gap, while integrated circuit chips have been the realm of Group IV semiconductors such as silicon because of its relative abundance and ease of use. Recently the alloying of Sn with Ge and Si has been shown to allow direct band-gap light emission. This presents the exciting prospect of integrating optoelectronics into current Group IV chip fabrication facilities. However, new approaches for low temperature growth are needed to realize these new SiGeSn alloys. Silicon-germanium epitaxy via ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition has the advantage of allowing low process temperatures. Deposition processes are sensitive to substrate surface preparation and the time delay between oxide removal and epitaxial growth. A new monitoring process utilizing doped substrates and defect decoration etching is demonstrated to have controllable and unique sensitivity to interfacial contaminants. Doped substrates were prepared and subjected to various loading conditions prior to the growth of typical Si/SiGe bilayers. The defect densities were correlated to the concentration of interfacial oxygen suggesting this monitoring process may be an effective complement to monitoring via secondary ion mass spectrometry

  3. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 duricrust. Finally, we evaluate the influence of reflectance geometrical effects on the multispectral and spectroscopic data of the martian surface.

  4. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis guided Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Volumetric estimates of fibroglandular fraction and breast density from tomosynthesis reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Michaelsen, Kelly E; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W; Poplack, Steven P; Karellas, Andrew; Paulsen, Keith D

    A multimodality system combining a clinical prototype digital breast tomosynthesis with its imaging geometry modified to facilitate near-infrared spectroscopic imaging has been developed. The accuracy of parameters recovered from near-infrared spectroscopy is dependent on fibroglandular tissue content. Hence, in this study, volumetric estimates of fibroglandular tissue from tomosynthesis reconstructions were determined. A kernel-based fuzzy c-means algorithm was implemented to segment tomosynthesis reconstructed slices in order to estimate fibroglandular content and to provide anatomic priors for near-infrared spectroscopy. This algorithm was used to determine volumetric breast density (VBD), defined as the ratio of fibroglandular tissue volume to the total breast volume, expressed as percentage, from 62 tomosynthesis reconstructions of 34 study participants. For a subset of study participants who subsequently underwent mammography, VBD from mammography matched for subject, breast laterality and mammographic view was quantified using commercial software and statistically analyzed to determine if it differed from tomosynthesis. Summary statistics of the VBD from all study participants were compared with prior independent studies. The fibroglandular volume from tomosynthesis and mammography were not statistically different ( p =0.211, paired t-test). After accounting for the compressed breast thickness, which were different between tomosynthesis and mammography, the VBD from tomosynthesis was correlated with ( r =0.809, p 0.99, paired t-test), and was linearly related to, the VBD from mammography. Summary statistics of the VBD from tomosynthesis were not statistically different from prior studies using high-resolution dedicated breast computed tomography. The observation of correlation and linear association in VBD between mammography and tomosynthesis suggests that breast density associated risk measures determined for mammography are translatable to tomosynthesis

  5. Continuing ARAS visible spectroscopic monitoring of the slow classical nova Sct 2017 = ASASSN-17hx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Joan; Berardi, Paolo; Sollecchia, Umberto; Lester, Tim; Bohlsen, Terry; Luckas, Paul; Campos, Fran; Franco, Lorenzo; Garde, Olivier; Buil, Christian; Edlin, Jim; Teyssier, François

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our continuing spectroscopic monitoring of the slow classical nova Sct 2017 = ASASSN-17hx (Atel# 10523, #10524, #10527, #10558, #10736) as part of the ongoing program by members of the ARAS group.

  6. Application of miniaturized near-infrared spectroscopy for quality control of extemporaneous orodispersible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wen Chin; Widjaja, Effendi; Khong, Yuet Mei; Gokhale, Rajeev; Chan, Sui Yung

    2018-02-20

    Extemporaneous oral preparations are routinely compounded in the pharmacy due to a lack of suitable formulations for special populations. Such small-scale pharmacy preparations also present an avenue for individualized pharmacotherapy. Orodispersible films (ODF) have increasingly been evaluated as a suitable dosage form for extemporaneous oral preparations. Nevertheless, as with all other extemporaneous preparations, safety and quality remain a concern. Although the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) recommends analytical testing of compounded preparations for quality assurance, pharmaceutical assays are typically not routinely performed for such non-sterile pharmacy preparations, due to the complexity and high cost of conventional assay methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Spectroscopic methods including Raman, infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy have been successfully applied as quality control tools in the industry. The state-of-art benchtop spectrometers used in those studies have the advantage of superior resolution and performance, but are not suitable for use in a small-scale pharmacy setting. In this study, we investigated the application of a miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectrometer as a quality control tool for identification and quantification of drug content in extemporaneous ODFs. Miniaturized near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is suitable for small-scale pharmacy applications in view of its small size, portability, simple user interface, rapid measurement and real-time prediction results. Nevertheless, the challenge with miniaturized NIR spectroscopy is its lower resolution compared to state-of-art benchtop equipment. We have successfully developed NIR spectroscopy calibration models for identification of ODFs containing five different drugs, and quantification of drug content in ODFs containing 2-10mg ondansetron (OND). The qualitative model for drug identification produced 100% prediction accuracy. The quantitative

  7. The Kepler and K2 Near-Infrared Transit Survey (KNITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Knicole; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Barentsen, Geert; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius de Miranda; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler mission discovered a plethora of transiting exoplanets after observing a single region of the Galaxy for four years. After a second reaction wheel failed, NASA's Kepler spacecraft was repurposed as K2 to observe different fields along the ecliptic in ~80 day campaigns. To date, K2 has discovered ~130 exoplanets along with another ~400 candidates. The exoplanets that have been confirmed or validated from Kepler and K2 have been primarily subject to spectroscopic observations, high-resolution imaging, or statistical methods. However, most of these, along with all the remaining candidate exoplanets, have had no follow-up transit photometry. In addition, recent studies have shown that for single-planet systems, statistical validation alone can be unreliable and additional follow-up observations are required to reveal the true nature of the system. I will present the latest results from an ongoing program to use the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for near-infrared transit photometry of Kepler and K2 exoplanets and candidates. Our program of high-precision, high-cadence, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared transit photometry is providing new measurements of the transit ephemerides and planetary radii as well as weeding out false positives lurking within the candidate lists. To date, 25 K2 and 5 Kepler targets have been observed with WIYN. I will also describe upcoming observations with WIYN that will take place in January 2018 as part of a campaign to observe exoplanet transits in the near-infrared simultaneously with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 16. Our program ultimately provides a vetted sample of exoplanets that could be targeted in the future by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and also demonstrates WIYN’s capabilities for observations of exoplanets to be discovered by NASA's all-sky Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from

  8. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Béjar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/. Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramírez, K. Peña, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: karla.pena@uantof.cl [Unidad de Astronomía de la Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. U. de Antofagasta. 02800 Antofagasta (Chile)

    2017-06-10

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7–0.98 μ m) and near-infrared (1.11–1.34 μ m and 0.8–2.5 μ m) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates ( J = 18.2–19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0–L4.5 and M9–L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership and planetary masses (6–13 M {sub Jup}). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ∼75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350–1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s{sup −2}], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ∼200–300 K and masses in the interval 6–13 M {sub Jup} may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.

  9. Medium-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomohaci, R.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Mendigutía, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present medium-resolution (R ∼ 7000) near-infrared echelle spectroscopic data for 36 massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) drawn from the Red MSX Source survey. This is the largest sample observed at this resolution at these wavelengths of MYSOs to date. The spectra are characterized mostly by emission from hydrogen recombination lines and accretion diagnostic lines. One MYSO shows photospheric H I absorption, a comparison with spectral standards indicates that the star is an A-type star with a low surface gravity, implying that the MYSOs are probably swollen, as also suggested by evolutionary calculations. An investigation of the Brγ line profiles shows that most are in pure emission, while 13 ± 5 per cent display P Cygni profiles, indicative of outflow, while less than 8 ± 4 per cent have inverse P Cygni profiles, indicative of infall. These values are comparable with investigations into the optically bright Herbig Be stars, but not with those of Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars, consistent with the notion that the more massive stars undergo accretion in a different fashion than lower mass objects that are undergoing magnetospheric accretion. Accretion luminosities and rates as derived from the Br γ line luminosities agree with results for lower mass sources, providing tentative evidence for massive star formation theories based on scaling of low-mass scenarios. We present Br γ/Br12 line profile ratios exploiting the fact that optical depth effects can be traced as a function of Doppler shift across the lines. These show that the winds of MYSOs in this sample are nearly equally split between constant, accelerating and decelerating velocity structures. There are no trends between the types of features we see and bolometric luminosities or near-infrared colours.

  10. A near infrared laser frequency comb for high precision Doppler planet surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bally J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most exciting area of astronomical research today is the study of exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, engaging the imagination not just of the astronomical community, but of the general population. Astronomical instrumentation has matured to the level where it is possible to detect terrestrial planets orbiting distant stars via radial velocity (RV measurements, with the most stable visible light spectrographs reporting RV results the order of 1 m/s. This, however, is an order of magnitude away from the precision needed to detect an Earth analog orbiting a star such as our sun, the Holy Grail of these efforts. By performing these observations in near infrared (NIR there is the potential to simplify the search for distant terrestrial planets by studying cooler, less massive, much more numerous class M stars, with a tighter habitable zone and correspondingly larger RV signal. This NIR advantage is undone by the lack of a suitable high precision, high stability wavelength standard, limiting NIR RV measurements to tens or hundreds of m/s [1, 2]. With the improved spectroscopic precision provided by a laser frequency comb based wavelength reference producing a set of bright, densely and uniformly spaced lines, it will be possible to achieve up to two orders of magnitude improvement in RV precision, limited only by the precision and sensitivity of existing spectrographs, enabling the observation of Earth analogs through RV measurements. We discuss the laser frequency comb as an astronomical wavelength reference, and describe progress towards a near infrared laser frequency comb at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the University of Colorado where we are operating a laser frequency comb suitable for use with a high resolution H band astronomical spectrograph.

  11. Noninvasive imaging of multiple myeloma using near infrared fluorescent molecular probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Deep; Zhou, Haiying; Bollerman-Nowlis, Alex; Shokeen, Monica; Akers, Walter J.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal gammopathy and osteolytic bone lesions. Multiple myeloma is most commonly diagnosed in late disease stages, presenting with pathologic fracture. Early diagnosis and monitoring of disease status may improve quality of life and long-term survival for multiple myeloma patients from what is now a devastating and fatal disease. We have developed a near-infrared targeted fluorescent molecular probe with high affinity to the α4β1 integrin receptor (VLA-4)overexpressed by a majority of multiple myeloma cells as a non-radioactive analog to PET/CT tracer currently being developed for human diagnostics. A near-infrared dye that emits about 700 nm was conjugated to a high affinity peptidomimmetic. Binding affinity and specificity for multiple myeloma cells was investigated in vitro by tissue staining and flow cytometry. After demonstration of sensitivity and specificity, preclinical optical imaging studies were performed to evaluate tumor specificity in murine subcutaneous and metastatic multiple myeloma models. The VLA-4-targeted molecular probe showed high affinity for subcutaneous MM tumor xenografts. Importantly, tumor cells specific accumulation in the bone marrow of metastatic multiple myeloma correlated with GFP signal from transfected cells. Ex vivo flow cytometry of tumor tissue and bone marrow further corroborated in vivo imaging data, demonstrating the specificity of the novel agent and potential for quantitative imaging of multiple myeloma burden in these models.

  12. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy can measure training adaptations in adolescent swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Parry, Dave; Cooper, Chris E

    2018-01-01

    The development of an underwater near-infrared spectroscopy (uNIRS) device has enabled previously unattainable measurements of peripheral muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation to be taken within the natural aquatic environment. The purposes of this study were (i) to trial the use of uNIRS, in a real world training study, and (ii) to monitor the effects of a swim training program upon muscle oxygenation status in short distance swimming. A total of 14 junior club level swimmers completed a repeated swim sprint test before and after an eight week endurance training program. A waterproof, portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy device was attached to the vastus lateralis . uNIRS successfully measured changes in muscle oxygenation and blood volume in all individuals; rapid sub-second time resolution of the device was able to demonstrate muscle oxygenation changes during the characteristic swim movements. Post training heart rate recovery and swim performance time were significantly improved. uNIRS data also showed significant changes. A larger rise in deoxyhemoglobin during individual sprints suggested training induced an increase in muscle oxygen extraction; a faster recovery time for muscle oxygenation suggested positive training induced changes and significant changes in muscle blood flow also occur. As a strong correlation was seen between an increased reoxygenation rate and an improved swim performance time, these findings support the use of uNIRS as a new performance analysis tool in swimming.

  13. Underwater near-infrared spectroscopy can measure training adaptations in adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of an underwater near-infrared spectroscopy (uNIRS device has enabled previously unattainable measurements of peripheral muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation to be taken within the natural aquatic environment. The purposes of this study were (i to trial the use of uNIRS, in a real world training study, and (ii to monitor the effects of a swim training program upon muscle oxygenation status in short distance swimming. A total of 14 junior club level swimmers completed a repeated swim sprint test before and after an eight week endurance training program. A waterproof, portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy device was attached to the vastus lateralis. uNIRS successfully measured changes in muscle oxygenation and blood volume in all individuals; rapid sub-second time resolution of the device was able to demonstrate muscle oxygenation changes during the characteristic swim movements. Post training heart rate recovery and swim performance time were significantly improved. uNIRS data also showed significant changes. A larger rise in deoxyhemoglobin during individual sprints suggested training induced an increase in muscle oxygen extraction; a faster recovery time for muscle oxygenation suggested positive training induced changes and significant changes in muscle blood flow also occur. As a strong correlation was seen between an increased reoxygenation rate and an improved swim performance time, these findings support the use of uNIRS as a new performance analysis tool in swimming.

  14. Near-Infrared Trigged Stimulus-Responsive Photonic Crystals with Hierarchical Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jun; Li, Yao; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di

    2017-10-04

    Stimuli-responsive photonic crystals (PCs) trigged by light would provide a novel intuitive and quantitative method for noninvasive detection. Inspired by the flame-detecting aptitude of fire beetles and the hierarchical photonic structures of butterfly wings, we herein developed near-infrared stimuli-responsive PCs through coupling photothermal Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), with hierarchical photonic structured butterfly wing scales as the template. The nanoparticles within 10 s transferred near-infrared radiation into heat that triggered the phase transition of PNIPAM; this almost immediately posed an anticipated effect on the PNIPAM refractive index and resulted in a composite spectrum change of ∼26 nm, leading to the direct visual readout. It is noteworthy that the whole process is durable and stable mainly owing to the chemical bonding formed between PNIPAM and the biotemplate. We envision that this biologically inspired approach could be utilized in a broad range of applications and would have a great impact on various monitoring processes and medical sensing.

  15. Polarimetry and photometry of active quasars at visual and near-infrared wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    The optical and near-infrared continua of highly luminous BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects and optically violent variable (OVV) quasars are studied through simultaneous broad-band photometry and linear polarimetry. Nineteen BL Lacs and OVVs were monitored during a ∼1 1/2-year period, with the major aim of characterizing the wavelength-dependent polarization exhibited by these objects. Optical (UBVRI) observations were conducted at the UCSD/U. Minn. 1.5-m telescope on Mt. Lemmon, Arizona. Simultaneous (within 1 hr.) near-infrared (JHK) measurements were made using the KPNO 2.1-m telescope. Most of the BL Lac objects exhibit large variations in polarization and brightness on time scale of less than a week. The degree of fractional linear polarization (P) is not observed to be related to brightness or optical spectral index. Most BL Lacs did not show a preferred polarization position angle (theta). Wavelength-dependent P and theta are observed in almost all BL Lacs, but not always simultaneously. The OVV quasar 1156 + 295 shows behavior very similar to the BL Lac objects. 3C 345 Exhibited polarization properties that are quite different from those of the BL Lacs. This object showed a clear correlation between brightness and P

  16. Near-infrared-responsive, superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadee Vittur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a new type of nanomaterial, namely superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains with optical extinctions in the near infrared (NIR. The Au@Co nanochains were synthesized via a one-pot galvanic replacement route involving a redox-transmetalation process in aqueous medium, where Au salt was reduced to form Au shells on Co seed templates, affording hollow Au@Co nanochains. The Au shells serve not only as a protective coating for the Co nanochain cores, but also to give rise to the optical properties of these unique nanostructures. Importantly, these bifunctional, magneto-optical Au@Co nanochains combine the advantages of nanophotonics (extinction at ca. 900 nm and nanomagnetism (superparamagnetism and provide a potentially useful new nanoarchitecture for biomedical or catalytic applications that can benefit from both activation by light and manipulation using an external magnetic field.

  17. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... tomography (133Xe-SPECT) and the corrected BFI value. It was concluded, that it was not possible to obtain reliable BFI data with the ICG CW-NIRS method. NIRS measurements of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) may be a reliable method to investigate vascular alterations in neurovascular diseases......, but this requires an acceptable LFOs variation between hemispheres and over time in the healthy brain. The second study therefore investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in LFOs with NIRS. It was shown that NIRS might be useful in assessing LFOs between hemispheres, as well as interhemispheric phase...

  18. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  19. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola Groes; Spielmann, Nelly; Ringer, Simone K.

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a piglet model: readings are influenced by the colour of the cover Clausen NG1,2, Spielmann N1,3, Weiss M1,3, Ringer SK4 1Children’s Research Center, University Children’s Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland; 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Odense....... The rSO2 was measured by placing NIRS sensors in the supra glabellar region. In 12 animals sensors were covered with a uni-coloured pink (P) napkin and a turquoise (T) napkin in a random order (Setting A). In further 13 animals sensors were covered with blue-coloured surgical drape (SD) and a napkin...... with a reddish SantaClaus (SC) motive (Setting B). Uncovered (UC) baseline values were captured and measurements obtained for a period of three minutes. During measurements, the animals were kept in normoterm, normotensive, normoglycaemic and normoxic condition. Inspired oxygen fraction and ventilatory settings...

  20. Usefulness of portable near infrared spectroscopy in olive breeding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Moreno, L.

    2012-11-01

    The usefulness of portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a simple and efficient method to determine some of the main selection traits in olive breeding is evaluated in this work. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression from samples collected in different selection steps of the breeding work and under different experimental conditions. The results showed that accurate enough models (values of correlation between actual and predicted constituent higher than 0.9) were obtained for oil and moisture content in both cross validation and prediction results. Portable NIR spectroscopy could be used for selection of genotypes on the basis of these characters, providing similar ranking of genotypes than reference methods both in different selection steps of the breeding process (progenies and selection plots) and different experimental conditions (on-tree or under laboratory conditions). The advantages of this technique to improve the efficiency of the evaluation process in olive breeding programs are discussed. (Author) 21 refs.

  1. Componential distribution analysis of food using near infrared ray image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Noriko; Ohba, Kimie

    2008-11-01

    The components of the food related to the "deliciousness" are usually evaluated by componential analysis. The component content and type of components in the food are determined by this analysis. However, componential analysis is not able to analyze measurements in detail, and the measurement is time consuming. We propose a method to measure the two-dimensional distribution of the component in food using a near infrared ray (IR) image. The advantage of our method is to be able to visualize the invisible components. Many components in food have characteristics such as absorption and reflection of light in the IR range. The component content is measured using subtraction between two wavelengths of near IR light. In this paper, we describe a method to measure the component of food using near IR image processing, and we show an application to visualize the saccharose in the pumpkin.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy in the development of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Eetu; Sandler, Niklas

    2007-02-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has rapidly grown partly due to demands of process analytical applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Furthermore, newest regulatory guidelines have advanced the increase of the use of NIR technologies. The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of measurements makes NIR a powerful tool in characterization of pharmaceutical solids. These benefits among others often make NIR advantageous over traditional analytical methods. However, in addition to NIR, a wide variety of other tools are naturally also available for analysis in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, and those can often be more suitable for a given application. The versatility and rapidness of NIR will ensure its contribution to increased process understanding, better process control and improved quality of drug products. This review concentrates on the use of NIR spectroscopy from a process research perspective and highlights recent applications in the field.

  3. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non-linear...... models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS......-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration...

  4. Very bright, near-infrared single photon emitters in diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. M. Lau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate activation of bright diamond single photon emitters in the near infrared range by thermal annealing alone, i.e., without ion implantation. The activation is crucially dependent on the annealing ambient. The activation of the single photon emitters is only observed when the sample is annealed in forming gas (4% H2 in Ar above temperatures of 1000 °C. By contrast, no emitters are activated by annealing in vacuum, oxygen, argon or deuterium. The emitters activated by annealing in forming gas exhibit very bright emission in the 730-760 nm wavelength range and have linewidths of ∼1.5-2.5 nm at room temperature.

  5. Brain plasticity and rehabilitation by using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balconi Michela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review elucidated the use of optical imaging technique (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS to better explain the brain plasticity for learning mechanisms, rehabilitation and post-traumatic brain recovery. Some recent applications were discussed, with specific focus on the usability of integrated measures (such as electroencephalography, EEG-NIRS; Transcranial Magnet Stimulation, TMS-NIRS to study plasticity and its dynamic effects. NIRS-Neurofeedback and NIRS-BCI (Brain Computer Interface were also explored as possible tools to produce a specific long-lasting learning in relationship with a specific cognitive domain. Finally a proficient domain where NIRS was found to be useful to test neuroplasticity is the interpersonal brain-to-brain coupling, termed “hyperscanning”, a new emerging paradigm in neuroscience which measures brain activity from two or more people simultaneously.

  6. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieters, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters

  7. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  8. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  9. Spectral classification by the near infrared photometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tignanelli, H.L.; Feinstein, A.

    1985-01-01

    From the analysis of the measurements of KM-type stars done in the near infrared (1 to 3.5 microns: the JHKL bands of Johnsons's system), with an 83 cm reflector and a PbS detector at La Plata Observatory, we try to establish a new photometric classification system that discriminates luminosity class by means of certain parameters defined by infrared colours and infrared magnitudes. Data compiled and homogenized by J.Koornneef of southern bright stars in those bands were also included. The results give us information about the spectral types and reddening of those stars. We also indicate how to calculate the radiation excess that those stars could have. (author)

  10. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamitsu Shinichiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychosomatic and developmental behavioral medicine in pediatrics has been the subject of significant recent attention, with infants, school-age children, and adolescents frequently presenting with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms. These may be a consequence of insecurity of attachment, reduced self-confidence, and peer -relationship conflicts during their developmental stages. Developmental cognitive neuroscience has revealed significant associations between specific brain lesions and particular cognitive dysfunctions. Thus, identifying the biological deficits underlying such cognitive dysfunction may provide new insights into therapeutic prospects for the management of those symptoms in children. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, and especially functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, have contributed significant findings to the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience in pediatrics. We present here a comprehensive review of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic and behavioral disorders.

  11. Design of planar chiral metamaterials for near-infrared regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sabri; Turkmen, Mustafa; Topaktas, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Planar chiral metamaterials (PCMs) comprising double-layer dielectric-metal-dielectric resonant structures in the shape of a windmill are presented for near-infrared regime. The circular dichroism is retrieved from transmission spectra. Effects of used materials on circular dichroism characteristics of PCM arrays are investigated for the first time. The dependence of spectral characteristics on the geometrical parameters of the PCMs is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The observations indicated that the circular dichroism characteristics of the proposed PCM arrays are strongly dependent on the type of metal and dielectric materials. Due to the enhanced chiroptical near-field response and tunable spectral behavior, proposed PCM arrays may have potential for biosensing applications of chiral biomolecules.

  12. Diverse Near-Infrared Resonant Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-08

    The ability of near-infrared (NIR) light to penetrate tissues deeply and to target malignant sites with high specificity via precise temporal and spatial control of light illumination makes it useful for diagnosing and treating diseases. Owing to their unique biocompatibility, surface chemistry and optical properties, gold nanostructures offer advantages as in vivo NIR photosensitizers. This chapter describes the recent progress in the varied use of NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for NIR-light-mediated diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We begin by describing the unique biological, chemical and physical properties of gold nanostructures that make them excellent candidates for biomedical applications. From here, we make an account of the basic principles involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications where gold nanostructures have set foot. Finally, we review recent developments in the fabrication and use of diverse NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for cancer imaging and cancer therapy.

  13. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad A; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M N

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > t critical and p-value < 0.05).

  14. Brain functional near infrared spectroscopy in human infants : cerebral cortical haemodynamics coupled to neuronal activation in response to sensory stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartocci, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of cortical activation in the neonatal brain is crucial in the study of brain development, as it provides precious information for how the newborn infant processes external or internal stimuli. Thus far functional studies of neonates aimed to assess cortical responses to certain external stimuli are very few, due to the lack of suitable techniques to monitor brain activity of the newborn. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been found to be suitable for func...

  15. [Research on optimal modeling strategy for licorice extraction process based on near-infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Suo, Tong-Chuan; Yu, He-Shui; Li, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    The manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products is always accompanied by processing complex raw materials and real-time monitoring of the manufacturing process. In this study, we investigated different modeling strategies for the extraction process of licorice. Near-infrared spectra associate with the extraction time was used to detemine the states of the extraction processes. Three modeling approaches, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and parallel factor analysis-PLSR (PARAFAC-PLSR), were adopted for the prediction of the real-time status of the process. The overall results indicated that PCA, PLSR and PARAFAC-PLSR can effectively detect the errors in the extraction procedure and predict the process trajectories, which has important significance for the monitoring and controlling of the extraction processes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy does not detect hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anton; Secher, Niels H.; Hirasawa, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Continuous non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be important during anaesthesia and several options are available. We evaluated the CerOx monitor that employs ultrasound tagged near infrared spectroscopy to estimate changes in a CBF index (CFI).Methods: Seven...... healthy males (age 21-26 years) hyperventilated and were administered phenylephrine to increase mean arterial pressure by 20-30 mmHg. Frontal lobe tissue oxygenation (ScO2) and CFI were obtained using the CerOx and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean) was determined....... Administration of phenylephrine was not associated with any changes in MCAvmean, ICAf, ECAf, ScO2, SkBF, SskinO2, or CFI.Conclusion: The CerOx was able to detect a stable CBF during administration of phenylephrine. However, during hyperventilation MCAvmean and ICAf decreased while CFI increased, likely due...

  17. Polarized near-infrared autofluorescence imaging combined with near-infrared diffuse reflectance imaging for improving colonic cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2010-11-08

    We evaluate the diagnostic feasibility of the integrated polarized near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) and NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) imaging technique developed for colonic cancer detection. A total of 48 paired colonic tissue specimens (normal vs. cancer) were measured using the integrated NIR DR (850-1100 nm) and NIR AF imaging at the 785 nm laser excitation. The results showed that NIR AF intensities of cancer tissues are significantly lower than those of normal tissues (ppolarization conditions gives a higher diagnostic accuracy (of ~92-94%) compared to non-polarized NIR AF imaging or NIR DR imaging. Further, the ratio imaging of NIR DR to NIR AF with polarization provides the best diagnostic accuracy (of ~96%) among the NIR AF and NIR DR imaging techniques. This work suggests that the integrated NIR AF/DR imaging under polarization condition has the potential to improve the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  18. Fast and Simultaneous Determination of Pu(Ⅳ) and Nitric Acid in Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Sample by Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ding-ming; ZHANG; Li-hua; WANG; Ling; GONG; Yan-ping; FAN; De-jun; YI; Bao-shan; CHEN; Qiang; JI; Yong-chao; WU; Ji-zong

    2013-01-01

    Determination of Pu(Ⅳ)and nitric acid plays significant role in nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to control process accurately and timely.Coupling C-T fixed-type grating with InGaAs detector,a new novel analytical system for simultaneous measurement of nitric acid and Pu(Ⅳ)was developed by our working group.After obtaining near infrared absorptive spectra by the spectroscopic instrument,the spectra data

  19. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  20. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  1. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of the near-infrared spectroscopy in the pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is currently the fastest-growing and the most versatile analytical method not only in the pharmaceutical sciences but also in the industry. This review focuses on recent NIR applications in the pharmaceutical technology. This article covers monitoring, by NIR, of many manufacturing processes, such as granulation, mixing or drying, in order to determine the end-point of these processes. In this paper, apart from basic theoretical information concerning the NIR spectra, there are included determinations of the quality and quantity of pharmaceutical compounds. Some examples of measurements and control of physicochemical parameters of the final medicinal products, such as hardness, porosity, thickness size, compression strength, disintegration time and potential counterfeit are included. Biotechnology and plant drug analysis using NIR is also described. Moreover, some disadvantages of this method are stressed and future perspectives are anticipated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the fermentation of cocoa by correlating denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles and near infrared spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Snitkjær, Pia; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2008-01-01

    demonstrating the microbial succession taking place during the fermentation. Subsequently the DGGE spectra were correlated to the NIR spectra using Partial Least Squares regression models (PLS2). Correlations of 0.87 (bacterial derived DGGE spectra) and 0.81 (yeast derived DGGE spectra) were obtained indicating......Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste and flavour, and has to be fermented, dried and roasted in order to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavour and taste. During the fermentation microbial activity outside the cocoa beans induces biochemical and physical changes inside the beans...... of the beans and the chemical processes inside the beans have been carried out previously. Recently it has been shown that Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) offers an efficient tool for monitoring the microbiological changes taking place during the fermentation of cocoa. Near Infrared (NIR...

  4. Precision of coherence analysis to detect cerebral autoregulation by near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, GH; Christensen, KB; Leung, TS

    2010-01-01

    Coherence between spontaneous fluctuations in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and the cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy signal can detect cerebral autoregulation. Because reliable measurement depends on signals with high signal-to-noise ratio, we hypothesized that coherence is more precisely...... determined when fluctuations in ABP are large rather than small. Therefore, we investigated whether adjusting for variability in ABP (variabilityABP) improves precision. We examined the impact of variabilityABP within the power spectrum in each measurement and between repeated measurements in preterm infants....... We also examined total monitoring time required to discriminate among infants with a simulation study. We studied 22 preterm infants (GAABP within the power spectrum did not improve the precision. However, adjusting...

  5. Near-infrared sub-bandgap all-silicon photodetectors: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Maurizio; Coppola, Giuseppe; Iodice, Mario; Rendina, Ivo; Sirleto, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  6. Near-Infrared Sub-Bandgap All-Silicon Photodetectors: State of the Art and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sirleto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent breakthroughs, silicon photonics is now the most active discipline within the field of integrated optics and, at the same time, a present reality with commercial products available on the market. Silicon photodiodes are excellent detectors at visible wavelengths, but the development of high-performance photodetectors on silicon CMOS platforms at wavelengths of interest for telecommunications has remained an imperative but unaccomplished task so far. In recent years, however, a number of near-infrared all-silicon photodetectors have been proposed and demonstrated for optical interconnect and power-monitoring applications. In this paper, a review of the state of the art is presented. Devices based on mid-bandgap absorption, surface-state absorption, internal photoemission absorption and two-photon absorption are reported, their working principles elucidated and their performance discussed and compared.

  7. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for quality analysis of agricultural and food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C. B.; Jayas, D. S.; Paliwal, J.; White, N. D. G.

    2010-04-01

    Agricultural and food processing industries are always looking to implement real-time quality monitoring techniques as a part of good manufacturing practices (GMPs) to ensure high-quality and safety of their products. Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is gaining popularity as a powerful non-destructive tool for quality analysis of several agricultural and food products. This technique has the ability to analyse spectral data in a spatially resolved manner (i.e., each pixel in the image has its own spectrum) by applying both conventional image processing and chemometric tools used in spectral analyses. Hyperspectral imaging technique has demonstrated potential in detecting defects and contaminants in meats, fruits, cereals, and processed food products. This paper discusses the methodology of hyperspectral imaging in terms of hardware, software, calibration, data acquisition and compression, and development of prediction and classification algorithms and it presents a thorough review of the current applications of hyperspectral imaging in the analyses of agricultural and food products.

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy in the study of polymorphic transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Marcel [Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Unity, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: marcel.blanco@uab.es; Alcala, Manel [Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Unity, Faculty of Sciences, Autonomous University of Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez, Josep M. [Laboratorios Menarini S.A., c/. Alfons XII, 587, E-08918 Badalona, Barcelona (Spain); Torras, Ester [Laboratorios Menarini S.A., c/. Alfons XII, 587, E-08918 Badalona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-05-17

    The potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the characterization of polymorphs in the active principle of a commercial formulation prior to and after the manufacturing process was assessed. Polymorphism in active principles is extremely significant to the pharmaceutical industry. Polymorphic changes during the production of commercial pharmaceutical formulations can alter some properties of the resulting end-products. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methodology was used to obtain the 'pure' NIR spectrum for the active principle without the need to pretreat samples. This methodology exposed the polymorphic transformation of Dexketoprofen Trometamol (DKP) in both laboratory and production samples obtained by wet granulation. No polymorphic transformation, however, was observed in samples obtained by direct compaction. These results were confirmed using by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Pure crystalline polymorphs of DKP were available in the laboratory but amorphous form was not, nevertheless the developed methodology allows the identification of amorphous and crystal forms in spite of the lack of pure DKP.

  9. Thermal consequences of colour and near-infrared reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Newton, Elizabeth; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2017-07-05

    The importance of colour for temperature regulation in animals remains controversial. Colour can affect an animal's temperature because all else being equal, dark surfaces absorb more solar energy than do light surfaces, and that energy is converted into heat. However, in reality, the relationship between colour and thermoregulation is complex and varied because it depends on environmental conditions and the physical properties, behaviour and physiology of the animal. Furthermore, the thermal effects of colour depend as much on absorptance of near-infrared ((NIR), 700-2500 nm) as visible (300-700 nm) wavelengths of direct sunlight; yet the NIR is very rarely considered or measured. The few available data on NIR reflectance in animals indicate that the visible reflectance is often a poor predictor of NIR reflectance. Adaptive variation in animal coloration (visible reflectance) reflects a compromise between multiple competing functions such as camouflage, signalling and thermoregulation. By contrast, adaptive variation in NIR reflectance should primarily reflect thermoregulatory requirements because animal visual systems are generally insensitive to NIR wavelengths. Here, we assess evidence and identify key research questions regarding the thermoregulatory function of animal coloration, and specifically consider evidence for adaptive variation in NIR reflectance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed.

  11. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  12. IRDye78 Conjugates for Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Zaheer

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of human malignancies by near-infrared (NIR fluorescence will require the conjugation of cancer-specific ligands to NIR fluorophores that have optimal photoproperties and pharmacokinetics. IRDye78, a tetra-sulfonated heptamethine indocyanine NIR fluorophore, meets most of the criteria for an in vivo imaging agent, and is available as an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for conjugation to low-molecular-weight ligands. However, IRDye78 has a high charge-to-mass ratio, complicating purification of conjugates. It also has a potentially labile linkage between fluorophore and ligand. We have developed an ion-pairing purification strategy for IRDye78 that can be performed with a standard C18 column under neutral conditions, thus preserving the stability of fluorophore, ligand, and conjugate. By employing parallel evaporative light scatter and absorbance detectors, all reactants and products are identified, and conjugate purity is maximized. We describe reversible and irreversible conversions of IRDye78 that can occur during sample purification, and describe methods for preserving conjugate stability. Using seven ligands, spanning several classes of small molecules and peptides (neutral, charged, and/or hydrophobic, we illustrate the robustness of these methods, and confirm that IRDye78 conjugates so purified retain bioactivity and permit NIR fluorescence imaging of specific targets.

  13. Near infrared spectroscopy based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganatha, Sitaram; Hoshi, Yoko; Guan, Cuntai

    2005-04-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides users with an alternative output channel other than the normal output path of the brain. BCI is being given much attention recently as an alternate mode of communication and control for the disabled, such as patients suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or "locked-in". BCI may also find applications in military, education and entertainment. Most of the existing BCI systems which rely on the brain's electrical activity use scalp EEG signals. The scalp EEG is an inherently noisy and non-linear signal. The signal is detrimentally affected by various artifacts such as the EOG, EMG, ECG and so forth. EEG is cumbersome to use in practice, because of the need for applying conductive gel, and the need for the subject to be immobile. There is an urgent need for a more accessible interface that uses a more direct measure of cognitive function to control an output device. The optical response of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) denoting brain activation can be used as an alternative to electrical signals, with the intention of developing a more practical and user-friendly BCI. In this paper, a new method of brain-computer interface (BCI) based on NIRS is proposed. Preliminary results of our experiments towards developing this system are reported.

  14. MIRIS observation of near-infrared diffuse Galactic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yosuke; Sano, Kei; Matsuura, Shuji; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Il-Jong; Seo, Hyun Jong; Han, Wonyong; Lee, DaeHee; Moon, Bongkon; Park, Wonkee; Park, Younsik; Kim, MinGyu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsumura, Kohji; Shirahata, Mai; Arai, Toshiaki; Ienaka, Nobuyuki

    2018-06-01

    We report near-infrared (IR) observations of high Galactic latitude clouds to investigate diffuse Galactic light (DGL), which is starlight scattered by interstellar dust grains. The observations were performed at 1.1 and 1.6 μm with a wide-field camera instrument, the Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) onboard the Korean satellite STSAT-3. The DGL brightness is measured by correlating the near-IR images with a far-IR 100 μm map of interstellar dust thermal emission. The wide-field observation of DGL provides the most accurate DGL measurement achieved to-date. We also find a linear correlation between optical and near-IR DGL in the MBM32 field. To study interstellar dust properties in MBM32, we adopt recent dust models with and without μm-sized very large grains and predict the DGL spectra, taking into account the reddening effect of the interstellar radiation field. The result shows that the observed color of the near-IR DGL is closer to the model spectra without very large grains. This may imply that dust growth in the observed MBM32 field is not active owing to the low density of its interstellar medium.

  15. Near-infrared light-responsive dynamic wrinkle patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fudong; Hou, Honghao; Yin, Jie; Jiang, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic micro/nanopatterns provide an effective approach for on-demand tuning of surface properties to realize a smart surface. We report a simple yet versatile strategy for the fabrication of near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive dynamic wrinkles by using a carbon nanotube (CNT)-containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer as the substrate for the bilayer systems, with various functional polymers serving as the top stiff layers. The high photon-to-thermal energy conversion of CNT leads to the NIR-controlled thermal expansion of the elastic CNT-PDMS substrate, resulting in dynamic regulation of the applied strain (ε) of the bilayer system by the NIR on/off cycle to obtain a reversible wrinkle pattern. The switchable surface topological structures can transfer between the wrinkled state and the wrinkle-free state within tens of seconds via NIR irradiation. As a proof-of-concept application, this type of NIR-driven dynamic wrinkle pattern was used in smart displays, dynamic gratings, and light control electronics.

  16. Screening experiments of ecstasy street samples using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, N; Kovar, K A

    1999-12-20

    Twelve different sets of confiscated ecstasy samples were analysed applying both near infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (1100-2500 nm) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The sets showed a large variance in composition. A calibration data set was generated based on the theory of factorial designs. It contained 221 N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA) samples, 167 N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDE), 111 amphetamine and 106 samples without a controlled substance, which will be called placebo samples thereafter. From this data set, PLS-1 models were calculated and were successfully applied for validation of various external laboratory test sets. The transferability of these results to confiscated tablets is demonstrated here. It is shown that differentiation into placebo, amphetamine and ecstasy samples is possible. Analysis of intact tablets is practicable. However, more reliable results are obtained from pulverised samples. This is due to ill-defined production procedures. The use of mathematically pretreated spectra improves the prediction quality of all the PLS-1 models studied. It is possible to improve discrimination between MDE and MDMA with the help of a second model based on raw spectra. Alternative strategies are briefly discussed.

  17. Peripheral nerve recruitment curve using near-infrared stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautrebande, Marie; Doguet, Pascal; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Delbeke, Jean; Nonclercq, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    In the context of near-infrared neurostimulation, we report on an experimental hybrid electrode allowing for simultaneous photonic or electrical neurostimulation and for electrical recording of evoked action potentials. The electrode includes three contacts and one optrode. The optrode is an opening in the cuff through which the tip of an optical fibre is held close to the epineurium. Two contacts provide action potential recording. The remaining contact, together with a remote subcutaneous electrode, is used for electric stimulation which allows periodical assessment of the viability of the nerve during the experiment. A 1470 nm light source was used to stimulate a mouse sciatic nerve. Neural action potentials were not successfully recorded because of the electrical noise so muscular activity was used to reflect the motor fibres stimulation. A recruitment curve was obtained by stimulating with photonic pulses of same power and increasing duration and recording the evoked muscular action potentials. Motor fibres can be recruited with radiant exposures between 0.05 and 0.23 J/cm2 for pulses in the 100 to 500 μs range. Successful stimulation at short duration and at a commercial wavelength is encouraging in the prospect of miniaturisation and practical applications. Motor fibres recruitment curve is a first step in an ongoing research work. Neural action potential acquisition will be improved, with aim to shed light on the mechanism of action potential initiation under photonic stimulation.

  18. Near-infrared free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker-Finch, Simeon C.; McIntosh, Keith R.; Yan, Di; Fong, Kean Chern; Kho, Teng C.

    2014-01-01

    Free carrier absorption in heavily doped silicon can have a significant impact on devices operating in the infrared. In the near infrared, the free carrier absorption process can compete with band to band absorption processes, thereby reducing the number of available photons to optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this work, we fabricate 18 heavily doped regions by phosphorus and boron diffusion into planar polished silicon wafers; the simple sample structure facilitates accurate and precise measurement of the free carrier absorptance. We measure and model reflectance and transmittance dispersion to arrive at a parameterisation for the free carrier absorption coefficient that applies in the wavelength range between 1000 and 1500 nm, and the range of dopant densities between ∼10 18 and 3 × 10 20  cm −3 . Our measurements indicate that previously published parameterisations underestimate the free carrier absorptance in phosphorus diffusions. On the other hand, published parameterisations are generally consistent with our measurements and model for boron diffusions. Our new model is the first to be assigned uncertainty and is well-suited to routine device analysis

  19. The near-infrared continua of BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.; Ward, M.J.; Hyland, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accurate photometry at J, H and K (1.2 to 2.2 μm) has been secured of 53 BL Lac objects. A power-law continuum is an exceptionally good fit to the data, and the colours are distinct from those of quasars. There is no indication of the additional infrared continuum seen in quasars and which is believed to arise in circumnuclear dust. We argue that dust is very scarce in the nuclei of BL Lac objects, and thus we expect gas to be equally scarce. Hence we attribute the lack of optical emission lines to an absence of ionized nuclear gas. We further argue that BL Lac objects could underlie quasars, the latter exhibiting line and thermal continuum emission at ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared wavelengths due to the presence of circumnuclear gas and dust. The strong-lined optically violent variable quasars have colours typical of BL Lac objects rather than quasars, and may represent intermediate cases. The JHK colours of the BL Lac objects overlap with those of the empty-radio-field infrared sources. Such objects probably represent the redder extreme of a range of spectral indices in BL Lac objects. (author)

  20. Turbid Media Extinction Coefficient for Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T; Gurdev, L; Vankov, O; Stoyanov, D; Avramov, L

    2015-01-01

    In this work, extended investigations are performed of the extinction coefficient of Intralipid-20% dilutions in distilled water depending on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths in the red and near-infrared regions covering the so-called tissue optical window. The extinction is measured by using an approach we have developed recently based on the features of the spatial intensity distribution of laser-radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The measurements are conducted using separately two dilution- containing plexiglass boxes of different sizes and volumes, in order to prove the appropriateness of the assumption of semi-infinite turbid medium. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid – 10% and Intralipid – 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. It is estimated as well that the wavelengths around 1320 nm would be advantageous for deep harmless sensing and diagnostics of tissues

  1. Fully Automated Lipid Pool Detection Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pociask

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detecting and identifying vulnerable plaque, which is prone to rupture, is still a challenge for cardiologist. Such lipid core-containing plaque is still not identifiable by everyday angiography, thus triggering the need to develop a new tool where NIRS-IVUS can visualize plaque characterization in terms of its chemical and morphologic characteristic. The new tool can lead to the development of new methods of interpreting the newly obtained data. In this study, the algorithm to fully automated lipid pool detection on NIRS images is proposed. Method. Designed algorithm is divided into four stages: preprocessing (image enhancement, segmentation of artifacts, detection of lipid areas, and calculation of Lipid Core Burden Index. Results. A total of 31 NIRS chemograms were analyzed by two methods. The metrics, total LCBI, maximal LCBI in 4 mm blocks, and maximal LCBI in 2 mm blocks, were calculated to compare presented algorithm with commercial available system. Both intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement and correlation between used methods. Conclusions. Proposed algorithm is fully automated lipid pool detection on near infrared spectroscopy images. It is a tool developed for offline data analysis, which could be easily augmented for newer functions and projects.

  2. NEAR-INFRARED LINEAR POLARIZATION OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Bejar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Manchado, A.; Pena Ramirez, K.; Goldman, B.; Caballero, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on near-infrared J- and H-band linear polarimetric photometry of eight ultracool dwarfs (two late-M, five L0-L7.5, and one T2.5) with known evidence for photometric variability due to dust clouds, anomalous red infrared colors, or low-gravity atmospheres. The polarimetric data were acquired with the LIRIS instrument on the William Herschel Telescope. We also provide mid-infrared photometry in the interval 3.4-24 μm for some targets obtained with Spitzer and WISE, which has allowed us to confirm the peculiar red colors of five sources in the sample. We can impose modest upper limits of 0.9% and 1.8% on the linear polarization degree for seven targets with a confidence of 99%. Only one source, 2MASS J02411151-0326587 (L0), appears to be strongly polarized (P ∼ 3%) in the J band with a significance level of P/σ P ∼ 10. The likely origin of its linearly polarized light and rather red infrared colors may reside in a surrounding disk with an asymmetric distribution of grains. Given its proximity (66 ± 8 pc), this object becomes an excellent target for the direct detection of the disk.

  3. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness by near-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Ying, Zeqiang; Hao, Dongmei; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yimin; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and there is a need to measure the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layer thickness and to understand the distribution of body fat. A device was designed to illuminate the body parts by near-infrared (NIR), measure the backscattered light, and predict the SAT layer thickness. The device was controlled by a single-chip microcontroller (SCM), and the thickness value was presented on a liquid crystal display (LCD). There were 30 subjects in this study, and the measurements were performed on 14 body parts for each subject. The paper investigated the impacts of pressure and skin colour on the measurement. Combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector regression (SVR), the measurement accuracy of SAT layer thickness was 89.1 % with a mechanical caliper as reference. The measuring range was 5–11 mm. The study provides a non-invasive and low-cost technique to detect subcutaneous fat thickness, which is more accessible and affordable compared to other conventional techniques. The designed device can be used at home and in community.

  4. Assessment of hyaline cartilage matrix composition using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palukuru, Uday P; McGoverin, Cushla M; Pleshko, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the sample. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy has shown promise for the study of cartilage composition. In the current study NIR spectroscopy was used to identify the contributions of individual components of cartilage in the NIR spectra by assessment of the major cartilage components, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, in pure component mixtures. The NIR spectra were obtained using homogenous pellets made by dilution with potassium bromide. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated to predict composition in bovine cartilage samples. Characteristic absorbance peaks between 4000 and 5000 cm(-1) could be attributed to components of cartilage, i.e. collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Prediction of the amount of collagen and chondroitin sulfate in tissues was possible within 8% (w/dw) of values obtained by gold standard biochemical assessment. These results support the use of NIR spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo applications to assess matrix composition of cartilage tissues, especially when tissue destruction should be avoided. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  6. Predictive evaluation of pharmaceutical properties of direct compression tablets containing theophylline anhydrate during storage at high humidity by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuta; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideji; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline anhydrate (TA) in tablet formulation is transformed into monohydrate (TH) at high humidity and the phase transformation affected dissolution behavior. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIR) method is applied to predict the change of pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets during storage at high humidity. The tablet formulation containing TA, lactose, crystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate was compressed at 4.8 kN. Pharmaceutical properties of TA tables were measured by NIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, dissolution test and tablet hardness. TA tablet was almost 100% transformed into TH after 24 hours at RH 96%. The pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets, such as tablet hardness, 20 min dissolution amount (D20) and increase of tablet weight (TW), changed with the degree of hydration. Calibration models for TW, tablet hardness and D20 to predict the pharmaceutical properties at high-humidity conditions were developed on the basis of the NIR spectra by partial least squares regression analysis. The relationships between predicted and actual measured values for TW, tablet hardness and D20 had straight lines, respectively. From the results of NIR-chemometrics, it was confirmed that these predicted models had high accuracy to monitor the tablet properties during storage at high humidity.

  7. Application of a novel combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and a humidity-controlled 96-well plate to the characterization of the polymorphism of imidafenacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tokuji; Mori, Hirotoshi; Otsuka, Makoto

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to apply a currently available chemometric near-infrared spectroscopy technique to the characterization of the polymorphic properties of drug candidates. The technique requires only small quantities of samples and is therefore applicable to drugs in the early stages of development. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy and a patented 96-well plate divided into 32 individual, humidity-controlled, three-well compartments was used in the characterization of a hygroscopic drug, imidafenacin, which has two polymorphs and one pseudo-polymorph. Characterization was also conducted with powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results were compared with those from routinely used conventional analyses. Both the microanalysis and conventional analysis successfully characterised the substance (transformation and relative stability among the two polymorphs and a pseudo-polymorph) depending on the storage conditions. Near-infrared spectroscopic analyses utilizing a humidity-controlled 96-well plate required only small amounts of the sample for characterization under the various conditions of relative humidity. Near-infrared microanalysis can be applied to polymorphic studies of small quantities of a drug candidate. The results also suggest that the method will predict the behaviors of a hygroscopic candidate in solid pharmaceutical preparations at the early stages of drug development. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  8. Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy application for sea salt quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-10-26

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode was explored with the objective of discriminating sea salts according to their quality type (traditional salt vs "flower of salt") and geographical origin (Atlantic vs Mediterranean). Sea salts were also analyzed in terms of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations to support spectroscopic results. High concentrations of Mg(2+) and K(+) characterized Atlantic samples, while a high Ca(2+) content was observed in traditional sea salts. A partial least-squares discriminant analysis model considering the 8500-7500 cm(-1) region permitted the discrimination of salts by quality types. The regions 4650-4350 and 5900-5500 cm(-1) allowed salts classification according to their geographical origin. It was possible to classify correctly 85.3 and 94.8% of the analyzed samples according to the salt type and to the geographical origin, respectively. These results demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy is a suitable and very efficient tool for sea salt quality evaluation.

  9. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  10. UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW BASED ON THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W., E-mail: shuwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-06-10

    Whether the near-infrared (NIR) extinction law is universal has long been a debated topic. Based on the APOGEE H-band spectroscopic survey, a key project of SDSS-III, the intrinsic colors of a large number of giant stars are accurately determined from the stellar effective temperature. Taking advantage of this and using a sample of 5942 K-type giants, the NIR extinction law is carefully revisited. The color excess ratio E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), representative of the NIR extinction law, shows no dependence on the color excess when E(J – K {sub S}) changes from ∼0.3 to ∼4.0, which implies a universal NIR extinction law from diffuse to dense regions. The constant value of E(J – H)/E(J – K {sub S}), 0.64, corresponds to a power law index of 1.95. The other two ratios, E(H – K {sub S})/E(J – K {sub S}) and E(J – H)/E(H – K {sub S}), are 0.36 and 1.78, respectively. The results are consistent with the MRN dust size distribution.

  11. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF GALACTIC STELLAR CLUSTERS DETECTED ON SPITZER/GLIMPSE IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, Maria; Davies, Ben; Figer, Donald F.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Schuller, Frederic; Menten, Karl M.; Habing, Harm J.; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G.

    2009-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of massive stars in three stellar clusters located in the direction of the inner Galaxy. One of them, the Quartet, is a new discovery while the other two were previously reported as candidate clusters identified on mid-infrared Spitzer images (GLIMPSE20 and GLIMPSE13). Using medium-resolution (R = 900-1320) H and K spectroscopy, we firmly establish the nature of the brightest stars in these clusters, yielding new identifications of an early WC and two Ofpe/WN9 stars in the Quartet and an early WC star in GLIMPSE20. We combine this information with the available photometric measurements from Two Micron All Sky Survey, to estimate cluster masses, ages, and distances. The presence of several massive stars places the Quartet and GLIMPSE20 among the small sample of known Galactic stellar clusters with masses of a few 10 3 M sun , and ages from 3 to 8 Myr. We estimate a distance of about 3.5 kpc for GLIMPSE20 and 6.0 kpc for Quartet. The large number of giant stars identified in GLIMPSE13 indicates that it is another massive (∼6500 M sun ) cluster, but older, with an age between 30 and 100 Myr, at a distance of about 3 kpc.

  12. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  13. A consensus successive projections algorithm--multiple linear regression method for analyzing near infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Chen, Xiaojing; Li, Limin; Chen, Huiling; Ruan, Xiukai; Liu, Wenbin

    2015-02-09

    The successive projections algorithm (SPA) is widely used to select variables for multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling. However, SPA used only once may not obtain all the useful information of the full spectra, because the number of selected variables cannot exceed the number of calibration samples in the SPA algorithm. Therefore, the SPA-MLR method risks the loss of useful information. To make a full use of the useful information in the spectra, a new method named "consensus SPA-MLR" (C-SPA-MLR) is proposed herein. This method is the combination of consensus strategy and SPA-MLR method. In the C-SPA-MLR method, SPA-MLR is used to construct member models with different subsets of variables, which are selected from the remaining variables iteratively. A consensus prediction is obtained by combining the predictions of the member models. The proposed method is evaluated by analyzing the near infrared (NIR) spectra of corn and diesel. The results of C-SPA-MLR method showed a better prediction performance compared with the SPA-MLR and full-spectra PLS methods. Moreover, these results could serve as a reference for combination the consensus strategy and other variable selection methods when analyzing NIR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic Alternatives to Quantum Dots for Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescent Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Ohnishi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging provides the surgeon with real-time image guidance during cancer and other surgeries. We have previously reported the use of NIR fluorescent quantum dots (QDs for sentinel lymph node (SLN mapping. However, because of concerns over potential toxicity, organic alternatives to QDs will be required for initial clinical studies. We describe a family of 800 nm organic heptamethine indocyanine-based contrast agents for SLN mapping spanning a spectrum from 775 Da small molecules to 7 MDa nanocolloids. We provide a detailed characterization of the optical and physical properties of these contrast agents and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. We present robust methods for the covalent conjugation, purification, and characterization of proteins with tetra-sulfonated heptamethine indocyanines, including mass spectroscopic site mapping of highly substituted molecules. One contrast agent, NIR fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA800, emerged as the molecule with the best overall performance with respect to entry to lymphatics, flow to the SLN, retention in the SLN, fluorescence yield and reproducibility. This preclinical study, performed on large animals approaching the size of humans, should serve as a foundation for future clinical studies.

  15. Design of a portable near infrared system for topographic imaging of the brain in babies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Tullis, Iain D.C.; Everdell, Nicholas; Leung, Terence; Gibson, Adam; Meek, Judith; Delpy, David T.

    2004-01-01

    A portable topographic near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging system has been developed to provide real-time temporal and spatial information about the cortical response to stimulation in unrestrained infants. The optical sensing array is lightweight, flexible, and easy to apply to infants ranging from premature babies in intensive care to children in a normal environment. The sensor pad consists of a flexible double-sided circuit board onto which are mounted multiple sources (light-emitting diodes) and multiple detectors (p-i-n photodiodes), all electrically encapsulated in silicone rubber. The control electronics are housed in a box with a medical grade isolated power supply and linked to a PC fitted with a data acquisition card, the signal acquisition and analysis being performed using LABVIEW TM . The signal output is displayed as an image of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO 2 ], [Hb]) changes at a frame rate of 3 Hz. Experiments have been conducted on phantoms to determine the sensitivity of the system, and the results have been compared to theoretical simulations. The system has been tested in volunteers by imaging changes in forearm muscle oxygenation, following blood pressure cuff occlusion to obtain typical [Hb] and [HbO 2 ] plots

  16. Design of a portable near infrared system for topographic imaging of the brain in babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithianathan, Tharshan; Tullis, Iain D. C.; Everdell, Nicholas; Leung, Terence; Gibson, Adam; Meek, Judith; Delpy, David T.

    2004-10-01

    A portable topographic near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) imaging system has been developed to provide real-time temporal and spatial information about the cortical response to stimulation in unrestrained infants. The optical sensing array is lightweight, flexible, and easy to apply to infants ranging from premature babies in intensive care to children in a normal environment. The sensor pad consists of a flexible double-sided circuit board onto which are mounted multiple sources (light-emitting diodes) and multiple detectors (p-i-n photodiodes), all electrically encapsulated in silicone rubber. The control electronics are housed in a box with a medical grade isolated power supply and linked to a PC fitted with a data acquisition card, the signal acquisition and analysis being performed using LABVIEW™. The signal output is displayed as an image of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HbO2], [Hb]) changes at a frame rate of 3 Hz. Experiments have been conducted on phantoms to determine the sensitivity of the system, and the results have been compared to theoretical simulations. The system has been tested in volunteers by imaging changes in forearm muscle oxygenation, following blood pressure cuff occlusion to obtain typical [Hb] and [HbO2] plots.

  17. Prefrontal cerebral blood volume patterns while playing video games--a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Nagano, Miki; Yamashita, Yushiro; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2006-06-01

    Video game playing is an attractive form of entertainment among school-age children. Although this activity reportedly has many adverse effects on child development, these effects remain controversial. To investigate the effect of video game playing on regional cerebral blood volume, we measured cerebral hemoglobin concentrations using near-infrared spectroscopy in 12 normal volunteers consisting of six children and six adults. A Hitachi Optical Topography system was used to measure hemoglobin changes. For all subjects, the video game Donkey Kong was played on a Game Boy device. After spectroscopic probes were positioned on the scalp near the target brain regions, the participants were asked to play the game for nine periods of 15s each, with 15-s rest intervals between these task periods. Significant increases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were observed in four of the adults during video game playing. On the other hand, significant decreases in bilateral prefrontal total-hemoglobin concentrations were seen in two of the children. A significant positive correlation between mean oxy-hemoglobin changes in the prefrontal region and those in the bilateral motor cortex area was seen in adults. Playing video games gave rise to dynamic changes in cerebral blood volume in both age groups, while the difference in the prefrontal oxygenation patterns suggested an age-dependent utilization of different neural circuits during video game tasks.

  18. Photometric redshifts for weak lensing tomography from space: the role of optical and near infrared photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, F. B.; Amara, A.; Capak, P.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lahav, O.; Rhodes, J.

    2008-07-01

    We study in detail the photometric redshift requirements needed for tomographic weak gravitational lensing in order to measure accurately the dark energy equation of state. In particular, we examine how ground-based photometry (u, g, r, i, z, y) can be complemented by space-based near-infrared (near-IR) photometry (J, H), e.g. onboard the planned DUNE satellite. Using realistic photometric redshift simulations and an artificial neural network photo-z method we evaluate the figure of merit for the dark energy parameters (w0, wa). We consider a DUNE-like broad optical filter supplemented with ground-based multiband optical data from surveys like the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS and LSST. We show that the dark energy figure of merit would be improved by a factor of 1.3-1.7 if IR filters are added onboard DUNE. Furthermore we show that with IR data catastrophic photo-z outliers can be removed effectively. There is an interplay between the choice of filters, the magnitude limits and the removal of outliers. We draw attention to the dependence of the results on the galaxy formation scenarios encoded into the mock galaxies, e.g. the galaxy reddening. For example, very deep u-band data could be as effective as the IR. We also find that about 105-106 spectroscopic redshifts are needed for calibration of the full survey.

  19. Generalized Beer-Lambert model for near-infrared light propagation in thick biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Manish; Ayyalasomayajula, Kalyan R.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2016-07-01

    The attenuation of near-infrared (NIR) light intensity as it propagates in a turbid medium like biological tissue is described by modified the Beer-Lambert law (MBLL). The MBLL is generally used to quantify the changes in tissue chromophore concentrations for NIR spectroscopic data analysis. Even though MBLL is effective in terms of providing qualitative comparison, it suffers from its applicability across tissue types and tissue dimensions. In this work, we introduce Lambert-W function-based modeling for light propagation in biological tissues, which is a generalized version of the Beer-Lambert model. The proposed modeling provides parametrization of tissue properties, which includes two attenuation coefficients μ0 and η. We validated our model against the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the gold standard for modeling NIR light propagation in biological tissue. We included numerous human and animal tissues to validate the proposed empirical model, including an inhomogeneous adult human head model. The proposed model, which has a closed form (analytical), is first of its kind in providing accurate modeling of NIR light propagation in biological tissues.

  20. Near infrared spectrometric technique for testing fruit quality: optimisation of regression models using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Umezuruike L.

    2016-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained extensive use in quality evaluation. It is arguably one of the most advanced spectroscopic tools in non-destructive quality testing of food stuff, from measurement to data analysis and interpretation. NIR spectral data are interpreted through means often involving multivariate statistical analysis, sometimes associated with optimisation techniques for model improvement. The objective of this research was to explore the extent to which genetic algorithms (GA) can be used to enhance model development, for predicting fruit quality. Apple fruits were used, and NIR spectra in the range from 12000 to 4000 cm-1 were acquired on both bruised and healthy tissues, with different degrees of mechanical damage. GAs were used in combination with partial least squares regression methods to develop bruise severity prediction models, and compared to PLS models developed using the full NIR spectrum. A classification model was developed, which clearly separated bruised from unbruised apple tissue. GAs helped improve prediction models by over 10%, in comparison with full spectrum-based models, as evaluated in terms of error of prediction (Root Mean Square Error of Cross-validation). PLS models to predict internal quality, such as sugar content and acidity were developed and compared to the versions optimized by genetic algorithm. Overall, the results highlighted the potential use of GA method to improve speed and accuracy of fruit quality prediction.

  1. Hemodynamic measurements in deep brain tissues of humans by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Oda, Motoki; Yamaki, Etsuko; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Yamashita, Daisuke; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Homma, Shu; Yamashita, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), we measured the human head in transmittance mode to obtain the optical properties, tissue oxygenation, and hemodynamics of deep brain tissues in 50 healthy adult volunteers. The right ear canal was irradiated with 3-wavelengths of pulsed light (760, 795, and 835nm), and the photons passing through the human head were collected at the left ear canal. Optical signals with sufficient intensity could be obtained from 46 of the 50 volunteers. By analyzing the temporal profiles based on the photon diffusion theory, we successfully obtained absorption coefficients for each wavelength. The levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb), total hemoglobin (tHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) were then determined by referring to the hemoglobin spectroscopic data. Compared with the SO2 values for the forehead measurements in reflectance mode, the SO2 values of the transmittance measurements of the human head were approximately 10% lower, and tHb values of the transmittance measurements were always lower than those of the forehead reflectance measurements. Moreover, the level of hemoglobin and the SO2 were strongly correlated between the human head measurements in transmittance mode and the forehead measurements in the reflectance mode, respectively. These results demonstrated a potential application of this TRS system in examining deep brain tissues of humans.

  2. Direct noninvasive observation of near infrared photobleaching of autofluorescence in human volar side fingertips in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Wright, Colin; Lewis-Clark, Eric; Shaheen, G.; Geier, Roman; Chaiken, J.

    2010-02-01

    Human transdermal in vivo spectroscopic applications for tissue analysis involving near infrared (NIR) light often must contend with broadband NIR fluorescence that, depending on what kind of spectroscopy is being employed, can degrade signal to noise ratios and dynamic range. Such NIR fluorescence, i.e. "autofluorescence" is well known to originate in blood tissues and various other endogenous materials associated with the static tissues. Results of recent experiments on human volar side fingertips in vivo are beginning to provide a relative ordering of the contributions from various sources. Preliminary results involving the variation in the bleaching effect across different individuals suggest that for 830 nm excitation well over half of the total fluorescence comes from the static tissues and remainder originates with the blood tissues, i.e. the plasma and the hematocrit. Of the NIR fluorescence associated with the static tissue, over half originates with products of well-known post-enzymatic glycation reactions, i.e. Maillard chemistry, in the skin involving glucose and other carbohydrates and skin proteins like collagen and cytosol proteins.

  3. The near-infrared spectrum of ethynyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory E.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2016-01-01

    Transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure three strong vibronic bands in the near infrared spectrum of the C 2 H, ethynyl, radical not previously observed in the gas phase. The radical was produced by ultraviolet excimer laser photolysis of either acetylene or (1,1,1)-trifluoropropyne in a slowly flowing sample of the precursor diluted in inert gas, and the spectral resolution was Doppler-limited. The character of the upper states was determined from the rotational and fine structure in the observed spectra and assigned by measurement of ground state rotational combination differences. The upper states include a 2 Σ + state at 6696 cm −1 , a second 2 Σ + state at 7088 cm −1 , and a 2 Π state at 7110 cm −1 . By comparison with published calculations [R. Tarroni and S. Carter, J. Chem. Phys 119, 12878 (2003); Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)], the vibronic character of these levels was also assigned. The observed states contain both X 2 Σ + and A 2 Π electronic characters. Several local rotational level perturbations were observed in the excited states. Kinetic measurements of the time-evolution of the ground state populations following collisional relaxation and reactive loss of the radicals formed in a hot, non-thermal, population distribution were made using some of the strong rotational lines observed. The case of C 2 H may be a good place to investigate the behavior at intermediate pressures of inert colliders, where the competition between relaxation and reaction can be tuned and observed to compare with master equation models, rather than deliberately suppressed to measure thermal rate constants.

  4. The near-infrared spectrum of ethynyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Anh T., E-mail: anhle@bnl.gov; Hall, Gregory E., E-mail: gehall@bnl.gov [Department of Energy and Photon Sciences, Division of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Sears, Trevor J., E-mail: sears@bnl.gov, E-mail: trevor.sears@stonybrook.edu [Department of Energy and Photon Sciences, Division of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Chemistry Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure three strong vibronic bands in the near infrared spectrum of the C{sub 2}H, ethynyl, radical not previously observed in the gas phase. The radical was produced by ultraviolet excimer laser photolysis of either acetylene or (1,1,1)-trifluoropropyne in a slowly flowing sample of the precursor diluted in inert gas, and the spectral resolution was Doppler-limited. The character of the upper states was determined from the rotational and fine structure in the observed spectra and assigned by measurement of ground state rotational combination differences. The upper states include a {sup 2}Σ{sup +} state at 6696 cm{sup −1}, a second {sup 2}Σ{sup +} state at 7088 cm{sup −1}, and a {sup 2}Π state at 7110 cm{sup −1}. By comparison with published calculations [R. Tarroni and S. Carter, J. Chem. Phys 119, 12878 (2003); Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)], the vibronic character of these levels was also assigned. The observed states contain both X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} and A{sup 2}Π electronic characters. Several local rotational level perturbations were observed in the excited states. Kinetic measurements of the time-evolution of the ground state populations following collisional relaxation and reactive loss of the radicals formed in a hot, non-thermal, population distribution were made using some of the strong rotational lines observed. The case of C{sub 2}H may be a good place to investigate the behavior at intermediate pressures of inert colliders, where the competition between relaxation and reaction can be tuned and observed to compare with master equation models, rather than deliberately suppressed to measure thermal rate constants.

  5. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  6. Effect of mechanical optical clearing on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelson, Christopher R; Vogt, William C; King-Casas, Brooks; LaConte, Stephen M; Rylander, Christopher G

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is a broadly utilized technology with many emerging applications including clinical diagnostics, sports medicine, and functional neuroimaging, to name a few. For functional brain imaging NIR light is delivered at multiple wavelengths through the scalp and skull to the brain to enable spatial oximetry measurements. Dynamic changes in brain oxygenation are highly correlated with neural stimulation, activation, and function. Unfortunately, NIRS is currently limited by its low spatial resolution, shallow penetration depth, and, perhaps most importantly, signal corruption due to light interactions with superficial non-target tissues such as scalp and skull. In response to these issues, we have combined the non-invasive and rapidly reversible method of mechanical tissue optical clearing (MOC) with a commercially available NIRS system. MOC utilizes a compressive loading force on tissue, causing the lateral displacement of blood and water, while simultaneously thinning the tissue. A MOC-NIRS Breath Hold Test displayed a ∼3.5-fold decrease in the time-averaged standard deviation between channels, consequentially promoting greater channel agreement. A Skin Pinch Test was implemented to negate brain and muscle activity from affecting the recorded signal. These results displayed a 2.5-3.0 fold increase in raw signal amplitude. Existing NIRS instrumentation has been further integrated within a custom helmet device to provide a uniform force distribution across the NIRS sensor array. These results showed a gradual decrease in time-averaged standard deviation among channels with an increase in applied pressure. Through these experiments, and the development of the MOC-NIRS helmet device, MOC appears to provide enhancement of NIRS technology beyond its current limitations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. SEARCHING FOR WATER EARTHS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Over 500 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have now been discovered, but only a handful are small enough that they might be rocky terrestrial planets like Venus, Earth, and Mars. Recently, it has been proposed that observations of variability in scattered light (both polarized and total flux) from such terrestrial-sized exoplanets could be used to determine if they possess large surface oceans, an important indicator of potential habitability. Observing such oceans at visible wavelengths would be difficult, however, in part because of obscuration by atmospheric scattering. Here, we investigate whether observations performed in the near-infrared (NIR), where Rayleigh scattering is reduced, could improve the detectability of exoplanet oceans. We model two wavebands of the NIR which are 'window regions' for an Earth-like atmosphere: 1.55-1.75 μm and 2.1-2.3 μm. Our model confirms that obscuration in these bands from Rayleigh scattering is very low, but aerosols are generally the limiting factor throughout the wavelength range for Earth-like atmospheres. As a result, observations at NIR wavelengths are significantly better at detecting oceans than those at visible wavelengths only when aerosols are very thin by Earth standards. Clouds further dilute the ocean reflection signature. Hence, other techniques, e.g., time-resolved color photometry, may be more effective in the search for liquid water on exoplanet surfaces. Observing an exo-Earth at NIR wavelengths does open the possibility of detecting water vapor or other absorbers in the atmosphere, by comparing scattered light in window regions to that in absorption bands.

  8. Near-infrared mapping of spiral barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, P.; Rouan, D.; Lacombe, F.

    1990-01-01

    The results presented were obtained with a 32 x 32 InSb charge injection device (CID) array cooled at 4K, at the f/36 cassegrain focus of the 3m60 Canada-France-Hawaii telescope with a spatial resolution of 0.5 inches per pixel. The objects presented are spiral barred galaxies mapped at J(1.25 microns), H(1.65 microns) and K(2.2 microns). The non-axisymetric potential due to the presence of a bar induces dynamical processes leading to the confinement of matter and peculiar morphologies. Infrared imaging is used to study the link between various components. Correlations with other wavelengths ranges and 2-colors diagrams ((J-H), (H-K)) lead to the identification of star forming regions, nucleus. Maps show structures connected to the central core. The question is, are they flowing away or toward the nucleus. Observations of M83 lead to several conclusions. The star forming region, detected in the visible and the infrared cannot be very compact and must extend to the edge of the matter concentration. The general shape of the near-infrared emission and the location of radio and 10 micron peaks suggest the confinement of matter between the inner Linblad resonances localized from CO measurements about 100 and 400 pc. The distribution of color indices in the arc from southern part to the star forming region suggests an increasing amount of gas and a time evolution eventually triggered by supernova explosions. Close to the direction of the bar, a bridge-like structure connects the arc to the nucleus with peculiar color indices

  9. Near-infrared (NIR) optogenetics using up-conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions for a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders have long been awaited. Recently, it has become possible to optically manipulate the neuronal activity using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called `imaging window'. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), which are composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Neuron-glioma-hybrid ND-7/23 cells were cultured with LNP(NaYF4:Sc/Yb/Er) particles (peak emission, 543 nm) and transfected to express C1V1 (peak absorbance, 539 nm), a chimera of ChR1 and VChR1. The photocurrents were generated in response to NIR laser light (976 nm) to a level comparable to that evoked by a filtered Hg lamp (530-550 nm). NIR light pulses also evoked action potentials in the cultured neurons that expressed C1V1. It is suggested that the green luminescent light emitted from LNPs effectively activated C1V1 to generate the photocurrent. With the optimization of LNPs, acceptor photo-reactive biomolecules and optics, this system could be applied to non-invasively actuate neurons deep in the brain.

  10. Near infrared measurements of SPICAM AOTF spectrometer on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Fedorova, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.; Rodin, A.; Stepanov, A.; Grigoriev, A.; Dimarellis, E.; Kalinnikov, Yu. K.

    The Near-Infrared channel of SPICAM, a lightweight (800 g) acousto-optical tuneable filter (AOTF) spectrometer observes the atmosphere and the surface of Mars from Mars Express orbiter. The spectrometer covers the spectral range between 1000 and 1700 nm with the resolving power λ /Δ λ superior to 1300. Signal-to noise ratio in individual Mars spectra varies from 30 to 100 and more depending on observation conditions. The total column abundance of water vapour is measured in nadir at 1380 nm simultaneously with ozone measured in the UV channel of SPICAM. Moreover, the O21Δ g emission at 1270 nm produced by photodissociation of ozone above 15-20km is systematically observed in nadir at the background of bright disk constraining (with the UV measurements of total ozone) its vertical distribution. Airmass reference is provided self-consistently from carbon dioxide measurements at 1430 and 1580 nm. At LS≈ 280 clear spectral signatures of CO2 and H2O ices has been detected at the permanent South Polar Cap (simultaneously with OMEGA and PFS findings) and above 55N. Limb measurements show that at the time when TES/MGS measurements indicate very clear atmosphere, the dust at the limb is observed up to 50-60km. We will present description of the spectrometer and its characterization, and describe the collected data, including nadir, limb and solar occultation measurements. Spectro-polarimetry capabilities of the AOTF will be discussed. This is the first experience of AOTF use in deep space, and we believe that a 800-g instrument capable to measure water vapour and much more on Mars should become a routine climate/environment tool on future missions.

  11. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  12. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  13. Has the time come to use near-infrared spectroscopy as a routine clinical tool in preterm infants undergoing intensive care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Leung, Terence; Wolf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several instruments implementing spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to monitor tissue oxygenation are now approved for clinical use. The neonatal brain is readily assessible by NIRS and neurodevelopmental impairment is common in children who were in need of intensive care during...

  14. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Safieva, Ravilya Z.; Lomakina, Ekaterina I.

    2010-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive (vibrational spectroscopy based) measurement technique for many multicomponent chemical systems, including products of petroleum (crude oil) refining and petrochemicals, food products (tea, fruits, e.g., apples, milk, wine, spirits, meat, bread, cheese, etc.), pharmaceuticals (drugs, tablets, bioreactor monitoring, etc.), and combustion products. In this paper we have compared the abilities of nine different multivariate classification methods: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares (PLS) classification, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), probabilistic neural network (PNN), and multilayer perceptron (ANN-MLP) - for gasoline classification. Three sets of near infrared (NIR) spectra (450, 415, and 345 spectra) were used for classification of gasolines into 3, 6, and 3 classes, respectively, according to their source (refinery or process) and type. The 14,000-8000 cm -1 NIR spectral region was chosen. In all cases NIR spectroscopy was found to be effective for gasoline classification purposes, when compared with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography (GC). KNN, SVM, and PNN techniques for classification were found to be among the most effective ones. Artificial neural network (ANN-MLP) approach based on principal component analysis (PCA), which was believed to be efficient, has shown much worse results. We hope that the results obtained in this study will help both further chemometric (multivariate data analysis) investigations and investigations in the sphere of applied vibrational (infrared/IR, near-IR, and Raman) spectroscopy of sophisticated multicomponent systems.

  15. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomakina, Ekaterina I. [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-25

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive (vibrational spectroscopy based) measurement technique for many multicomponent chemical systems, including products of petroleum (crude oil) refining and petrochemicals, food products (tea, fruits, e.g., apples, milk, wine, spirits, meat, bread, cheese, etc.), pharmaceuticals (drugs, tablets, bioreactor monitoring, etc.), and combustion products. In this paper we have compared the abilities of nine different multivariate classification methods: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares (PLS) classification, K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machines (SVM), probabilistic neural network (PNN), and multilayer perceptron (ANN-MLP) - for gasoline classification. Three sets of near infrared (NIR) spectra (450, 415, and 345 spectra) were used for classification of gasolines into 3, 6, and 3 classes, respectively, according to their source (refinery or process) and type. The 14,000-8000 cm{sup -1} NIR spectral region was chosen. In all cases NIR spectroscopy was found to be effective for gasoline classification purposes, when compared with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or gas chromatography (GC). KNN, SVM, and PNN techniques for classification were found to be among the most effective ones. Artificial neural network (ANN-MLP) approach based on principal component analysis (PCA), which was believed to be efficient, has shown much worse results. We hope that the results obtained in this study will help both further chemometric (multivariate data analysis) investigations and investigations in the sphere of applied vibrational (infrared/IR, near-IR, and Raman) spectroscopy of sophisticated multicomponent systems.

  16. Early tumor detection afforded by in vivo imaging of near-infrared II fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhimin; Dang, Xiangnan; Huang, Xing; Muzumdar, Mandar D; Xu, Eric S; Bardhan, Neelkanth Manoj; Song, Haiqin; Qi, Ruogu; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Ting; Wei, Wei; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Birrer, Michael J; Belcher, Angela M; Ghoroghchian, P Peter

    2017-07-01

    Cell-intrinsic reporters such as luciferase (LUC) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) have been commonly utilized in preclinical studies to image tumor growth and to monitor therapeutic responses. While extrinsic reporters that emit near infrared I (NIR-I: 650-950 nm) or near-infrared II (NIR-II: 1000-1700 nm) optical signals have enabled minimization of tissue autofluorescence and light scattering, it has remained unclear as to whether their use has afforded more accurate tumor imaging in small animals. Here, we developed a novel optical imaging construct comprised of rare earth lanthanide nanoparticles coated with biodegradable diblock copolymers and doped with organic fluorophores, generating NIR-I and NIR-II emissive bands upon optical excitation. Simultaneous injection of multiple spectrally-unique nanoparticles into mice bearing tumor implants established via intraperitoneal dissemination of LUC + /RFP + OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells enabled direct comparisons of imaging with extrinsic vs. intrinsic reporters, NIR-II vs. NIR-I signals, as well as targeted vs. untargeted exogenous contrast agents in the same animal and over time. We discovered that in vivo optical imaging at NIR-II wavelengths facilitates more accurate detection of smaller and earlier tumor deposits, offering enhanced sensitivity, improved spatial contrast, and increased depths of tissue penetration as compared to imaging with visible or NIR-I fluorescent agents. Our work further highlights the hitherto underappreciated enhancements in tumor accumulation that may be achieved with intraperitoneal as opposed to intravenous administration of nanoparticles. Lastly, we found discrepancies in the fidelity of tumor uptake that could be obtained by utilizing small molecules for in vivo as opposed to in vitro targeting of nanoparticles to disseminated tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast characterization of solid organic waste content with near infrared spectroscopy in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Jimenez, Julie; Lemoine, Margaux; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The development of anaerobic digestion involves both co-digestion of solid wastes and optimization of the feeding recipe. Within this context, substrate characterisation is an essential issue. Although it is widely used, the biochemical methane potential is not sufficient to optimize the operation of anaerobic digestion plants. Indeed the biochemical composition in carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and the chemical oxygen demand of the inputs are key parameters for the optimisation of process performances. Here we used near infrared spectroscopy as a robust and less-time consuming tool to predict the solid waste content in carbohydrates, lipids and nitrogen, and the chemical oxygen demand. We built a Partial Least Square regression model with 295 samples and validated it with an independent set of 46 samples across a wide range of solid wastes found in anaerobic digestion units. The standard errors of cross-validation were 90mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 2.5∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 7.2∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 99mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. The standard errors of prediction were 53mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 carbohydrates, 3.2∗10 -2 g⋅gTS -1 lipids, 8.6∗10 -3 g⋅gTS -1 nitrogen and 83mgO 2 ⋅gTS -1 chemical oxygen demand. These results show that near infrared spectroscopy is a new fast and cost-efficient way to characterize solid wastes content and improve their anaerobic digestion monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  19. Incorporating spectroscopic on-line monitoring as a method of detection for a Lewis cell setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Forrest D.; Casella, Amanda J.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    A Lewis cell was designed and constructed for investigating solvent extraction systems by spectrophotometrically monitoring both the organic and aqueous phases in real time. This new Lewis cell was tested and shown to perform well compared to other previously reported Lewis cell designs. The advantage of the new design is that the spectroscopic measurement allows determination of not only metal ion concentrations, but also information regarding chemical speciation—information not available with previous Lewis cell designs. For convenience, the new Lewis cell design was dubbed COSMOFLEX (COntinuous Spectroscopic MOnitoring of Forrest’s Liquid-liquid EXtraction cell).

  20. Near infrared and visible face recognition based on decision fusion of LBP and DCT features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guodong; Xiong, Jinquan

    2018-03-01

    Visible face recognition systems, being vulnerable to illumination, expression, and pose, can not achieve robust performance in unconstrained situations. Meanwhile, near infrared face images, being light- independent, can avoid or limit the drawbacks of face recognition in visible light, but its main challenges are low resolution and signal noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, near infrared and visible fusion face recognition has become an important direction in the field of unconstrained face recognition research. In order to extract the discriminative complementary features between near infrared and visible images, in this paper, we proposed a novel near infrared and visible face fusion recognition algorithm based on DCT and LBP features. Firstly, the effective features in near-infrared face image are extracted by the low frequency part of DCT coefficients and the partition histograms of LBP operator. Secondly, the LBP features of visible-light face image are extracted to compensate for the lacking detail features of the near-infrared face image. Then, the LBP features of visible-light face image, the DCT and LBP features of near-infrared face image are sent to each classifier for labeling. Finally, decision level fusion strategy is used to obtain the final recognition result. The visible and near infrared face recognition is tested on HITSZ Lab2 visible and near infrared face database. The experiment results show that the proposed method extracts the complementary features of near-infrared and visible face images and improves the robustness of unconstrained face recognition. Especially for the circumstance of small training samples, the recognition rate of proposed method can reach 96.13%, which has improved significantly than 92.75 % of the method based on statistical feature fusion.

  1. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  2. In vivo comparison of near infrared lasers for skin welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakoğlu, Haşim Ozgür; Gülsoy, Murat

    2010-05-01

    The skin closure abilities of near infrared lasers and suturing were compared by histological examination and mechanical tensile tests during a 21-day healing period. One-centimeter incisions on the dorsal skin of Wistar rats were treated by one of the closing techniques: (a) soldering, using an 809 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s) with 25% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 2.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG); (b) direct welding with a 980 nm diode laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (c) direct welding with a 1,070 nm fiber laser (0.5 W, 5 s); (d) suturing. Six spots (79.61 J/cm(2) for each spot) were applied through the incisions. Healing was inspected on the 1st, 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st post-operative days. The closure index (CI), thermally altered area (TAA), granulation area (GA) and epidermal thickness (ET) were determined by histological examination. Tensile tests were performed at a 5 mm/min crosshead speed up to the first opening along the incision. Immediate superficial closure with high CI values was found for the laser-irradiated incisions at the early phase of recovery. Clear welds without thermal damage were observed for the group irradiated at 1,070 nm. For the sutured group, the incisions remained unclosed for the first day, and openings through the incision were observed. At the end of the 21-day recovery period, no differences between experimental groups were observed in terms of the CI, GA and ET values. However, the tensile strength of the groups irradiated at 980 nm and 1,070 nm was found to be higher than that of the sutured incisions. The laser welding techniques were found to be reliable in terms of immediate and mechanically strong closure compared with suturing. Of them, 1,070 nm laser welding yielded noticeably stronger bonds, with minimal scarring at the end of the 21-days of recovery.

  3. Effects of Near-Infrared Laser on Neural Cell Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki-Oda, Noriko; Kataoka, Yosky; Yamada, Hisao; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared laser has been used to relieve patients from various kinds of pain caused by postherpetic neuralgesia, myofascial dysfunction, surgical and traumatic wound, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinically, He-Ne (λ=632.8 nm, 780 nm) and Ga-Al-As (805 ± 25 nm) lasers are used to irradiate trigger points or nerve ganglion. However the precise mechanisms of such biological actions of the laser have not yet been resolved. Since laser therapy is often effective to suppress the pain caused by hyperactive excitation of sensory neurons, interactions with laser light and neural cells are suggested. As neural excitation requires large amount of energy liberated from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), we examined the effect of 830-nm laser irradiation on the energy metabolism of the rat central nervous system and isolated mitochondria from brain. The diode laser was applied for 15 min with irradiance of 4.8 W/cm2 on a 2 mm-diameter spot at the brain surface. Tissue ATP content of the irradiated area in the cerebral cortex was 19% higher than that of the non-treated area (opposite side of the cortex), whereas the ADP content showed no significant difference. Irradiation at another wavelength (652 nm) had no effect on either ATP or ADP contents. The temperature of the brain tissue was increased 4.5-5.0 deg. C during the irradiation of both 830-nm and 652-nm laser light. Direct irradiation of the mitochondrial suspension did not show any wavelength-dependent acceleration of respiration rate nor ATP synthesis. These results suggest that the increase in tissue ATP content did not result from the thermal effect, but from specific effect of the laser operated at 830 nm. Electrophysiological studies showed the hyperpolarization of membrane potential of isolated neurons and decrease in membrane resistance with irradiation of the laser, suggesting an activation of potassium channels. Intracellular ATP is reported to regulate some kinds of potassium channels. Possible mechanisms

  4. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosawa R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rikuei Hirosawa,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Seiji Nishida,2 Takuya Ishida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Yuichi Takei,3 Kenji Fukui1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 2Maizuru Medical Center, Kyoto, 3Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma, Japan Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy has helped our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and has advantages including noninvasiveness, lower cost, and ease of use compared with other imaging techniques, like functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verbal fluency task is the most common and well established task used to assess cognitive activation during near-infrared spectroscopy. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, may play important roles in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. This study aimed to evaluate hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with OCD using near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task and to compare these with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex responses in healthy controls. Methods: Twenty patients with OCD and 20 controls matched for age, gender, handedness, and estimated intelligence quotient participated in this study. The verbal fluency task was used to elicit near-infrared spectroscopic activation and consisted of a 30-second pre-task, followed by three repetitions of a 20-second verbal fluency task (total 60 seconds, followed by a 70-second post-task period. The near-infrared spectroscopy experiment was conducted on the same day as surveys of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Z-scores for changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin were compared between the OCD patients and controls in 14 channels set over the

  5. Research on visible and near infrared spectral-polarimetric properties of soil polluted by crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-yan; Zhou, Pu-cheng; Pan, Bang-long

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil can impose detrimental effects on forest health and quality of agricultural products. To manage such consequences, oil leak indicators should be detected quickly by monitoring systems. Remote sensing is one of the most suitable techniques for monitoring systems, especially for areas which are uninhabitable and difficulty to access. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. During the course of reflecting light-wave, the surface of soil polluted by crude oil will cause polarimetric properties which are related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the spectralpolarimetric properties for soil polluted by crude oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain multi-angle visible and near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of soil polluted by crude oil. And then, the change rule between polarimetric properties with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle, waveband of the detector as well as different grain size of soil were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for soil polluted by crude oil.

  6. [Identification of Animal Whole Blood Based on Near Infrared Transmission Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Peng-xi; Zhang, Ting-ting

    2016-01-01

    The inspection and classification for blood products are important but complicated in import-export ports or inspection and quarantine departments. For the inspection of whole blood products, open sampling can cause pollution and virulence factors in bloods samples may even endanger inspectors. Thus non-contact classification and identification methods for whole bloods of animals are needed. Spectroscopic techniques adopted in the flowcytometry need sampling blood cells during the detection; therefore they can not meet the demand of non-contact identification and classification for whole bloods of animals. Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze the molecular structure and chemical bonds of detected samples under the condition of non-contact. To find a feasible spectroscopic approach of non-contact detection for the species variation in whole blood samples, a near infrared transmitted spectra (NITS, 4 497.669 - 7 506.4 cm(-1)) experiment of whole blood samples of three common animals including chickens, dogs and cats has been conducted. During the experiment, the spectroscopic resolution is 5 cm(-1), and each spectrogram is an average of 5 measured spectral data. Experimental results show that all samples have a sharp absorption peak between 5 184 and 5 215 cm(-1), and a gentle absorption peak near 7 000 cm(-1). Besides, the NITS curves of different samples of same animals are similar, and only have slight differences in the whole transmittance. A correlation coefficient (CC) is induced to distinguish the differences of the three animals' whole bloods in NITS curves, and the computed CCs between NITS curves of different samples of the same animals, are greater than 0.99, whereas CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of different animals are from 0.509 48 to 0.916 13. Among which CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of chickens and cats are from 0.857 23 to 0.912 44, CCs between NITS curves of the whole bloods of

  7. Combined wavelet transform-artificial neural network use in tablet active content determination by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalus, Pascal; Walter, Serge; Ulmschneider, Michel

    2007-05-22

    The pharmaceutical industry faces increasing regulatory pressure to optimize quality control. Content uniformity is a basic release test for solid dosage forms. To accelerate test throughput and comply with the Food and Drug Administration's process analytical technology initiative, attention is increasingly turning to nondestructive spectroscopic techniques, notably near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS). However, validation of NIRS using requisite linearity and standard error of prediction (SEP) criteria remains a challenge. This study applied wavelet transformation of the NIR spectra of a commercial tablet to build a model using conventional partial least squares (PLS) regression and an artificial neural network (ANN). Wavelet coefficients in the PLS and ANN models reduced SEP by up to 60% compared to PLS models using mathematical spectra pretreatment. ANN modeling yielded high-linearity calibration and a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.996.

  8. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium-infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium-infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.

  9. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M.; He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong

    2017-01-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK s . We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K s . We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  10. Near-infrared mapping of ARP 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690) - colliding galaxies unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.; Decher, R.; Gatley, I.; Edinburgh Royal Observatory, England)

    1985-01-01

    Near-infrared maps and multicolor photometry of the interacting galaxies IC 694 and NGC 3690 which form Arp 299 (= Markarian 171) are presented. These data reveal for the first time the distribution of nuclei and old red stars in a cataclysmically interacting system. The nuclei are considerably offset from the visual centroids of the galaxies but not from the mass centroids. The near-infrared colors of the most active regions are strongly affected by extinction, emission form hot dust, and bremsstrahlung. Near-infrared emission is also identified with secondary regions of star formation, probably resulting from the galaxies interaction. 24 references

  11. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  12. A miniaturized near infrared spectrometer for non-invasive sensing of bio-markers as a wearable healthcare solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungmok; Druzhin, Vladislav V.; Anikanov, Alexey G.; Afanasyev, Sergey V.; Shchekin, Alexey; Medvedev, Anton S.; Morozov, Alexander V.; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Sang Kyu; Moon, Hyunseok; Jang, Hyeongseok; Shim, Jaewook; Park, Jongae

    2017-02-01

    A novel miniaturized near-infrared spectrometer readily mountable to wearable devices for continuous monitoring of individual's key bio-markers was proposed. Spectrum is measured by sequential illuminations with LED's, having independent spectrum profiles and a continuous detection of light radiations from the skin tissue with a single cell PD. Based on Tikhonov regularization with singular value decomposition, a spectrum resolution less than 10nm was reconstructed based on experimentally measured LED profiles. A prototype covering first overtone band (1500-1800nm) where bio-markers have pronounced absorption peaks was fabricated and verified of its performance. Reconstructed spectrum shows that the novel concept of miniaturized spectrometer is valid.

  13. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  14. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  15. EPR, UV-Visible, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Dolomite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lakshmi Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolomite mineral samples having white and light green colors of Indian origin have been characterized by EPR, optical, and NIR spectroscopy. The optical spectrum exhibits a number of electronic bands due to presence of Fe(III ions in the mineral. From EPR studies, the parameters of g for Fe(III and g,A, and D for Mn(II are evaluated and the data confirm that the ions are in distorted octahedron. Optical absorption studies reveal that Fe(III is in distorted octahedron. The bands in NIR spectra are due to the overtones and combinations of water molecules. Thus EPR and optical absorption spectral studies have proven useful for the study of the solid state chemistry of dolomite.

  16. Near-infrared spectroscopic survey of galactic B[e] stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muratore, M.F.; Kraus, Michaela; de Wit, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2012), s. 123-126 E-ISSN 1669-9521. [Asociación Argentina de Astronomía : Reunion Anual. Mar del Plata, 17.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198; GA MŠk 7AMB12AR021 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : circumstellar * CO emission * spectrograph VLT/CRIRES Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www. astronomia argentina.org.ar/b55/boletin_55.pdf

  17. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J.S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts. 68 refs

  18. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of the starburst core of M82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. F.; Gaffney, N.; Carr, J. S.; Joy, M.

    1990-01-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy of the M82 starburst core is presented, including complete J, H, and K band spectra with a resolution of 0.0035-micron for the inner 60 pc of the galaxy. Also, spatial profiles along the starburst ridge are presented for Br-gamma, molecular hydrogen, and forbidden Fe II line fluxes. Emission from shocked molecular hydrogen is detected from the core of M82. The distribution of features across the starburst disk are mapped to study the relationships between spectral diagnostics. The observations are used to test the appropriateness of single-beam, aggregate models for studying the physical conditions in starbursts.

  19. Multichannel wearable system dedicated for simultaneous electroencephalography/near-infrared spectroscopy real-time data acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Etienne; Lesage, Frederic; Pouliot, Philippe; Nguyen, Dang; Le Lan, Jerome; Sawan, Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    Functional neuroimaging is becoming a valuable tool in cognitive research and clinical applications. The clinical context brings specific constraints that include the requirement of a high channel count to cover the whole head, high sensitivity for single event detection, and portability for long-term bedside monitoring. For epilepsy and stroke monitoring, the combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is expected to provide useful clinical information, and efforts have been deployed to create prototypes able to simultaneously acquire both measurement modalities. However, to the best of our knowledge, existing systems lack portability, NIRS sensitivity, or have low channel count. We present a battery-powered, portable system with potentially up to 32 EEG channels, 32 NIRS light sources, and 32 detectors. Avalanche photodiodes allow for high NIRS sensitivity and the autonomy of the system is over 24 h. A reduced channel count prototype with 8 EEG channels, 8 sources, and 8 detectors was tested on phantoms. Further validation was done on five healthy adults using a visual stimulation protocol to detect local hemodynamic changes and visually evoked potentials. Results show good concordance with literature regarding functional activations and suggest sufficient performance for clinical use, provided some minor adjustments were made.

  20. Which experimental model can sensitively indicate brain death by functional near-infrared spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Liu, Weichao; Fang, Xiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Brain death is defined as permanent loss of the brain functions. The evaluation of it has many meanings, such as the relief of organ transplantation stress and family burden. However, it is hard to be judged precisely. The standard clinical tests are expensive, time consuming and even dangerous, and some auxiliary methods have limitations. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), monitoring cerebral hemodynamic responses noninvasively, evaluate brain death in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which experimental mode can monitor brain death patient more sensitively. Here, we attempt to use our fNIRS to evaluate brain death and find which experimental mode is effective. In order to discuss the problem, we detected eleven brain death patients and twenty normal patients under natural state. They were provided different fraction of inspiration O2 (FIO2) in different phase. We found that the ratio of Δ[HbO2] (the concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin) to Δ[Hb] (the concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin) in brain death patients is significantly higher than normal patients in FIO2 experiment. Combined with the data analysis result, restore oxygen change process and low-high-low paradigm is more sensitively.

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopy for detection of vascular compromise in paediatric supracondylar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowno, Justin J; De Lima, Jonathan; Quick, Tom J; Carpenter, Eleanor C; Gibbons, Paul J; Little, David G

    2014-01-01

    Children suffering supracondylar fractures of the humerus are at risk of vascular compromise, which is currently assessed clinically, although other modalities such as angiography, pulse oximetry, Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography have been used. We sought to ascertain whether tissue haemoglobin oxygenation (StO 2 ) measurement could distinguish between patients with and without clinical vascular compromise following supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We prospectively observed StO 2  using near-infrared spectroscopy in 29 paediatric patients with supracondylar fractures requiring operative manipulation. The injured and uninjured volar forearm compartments were monitored immediately before and after fracture reduction. The relationship between StO 2  in the injured and uninjured limb, and the presence of pre-operative vascular compromise was assessed. Seven out of 29 children presented with vascular compromise. Patients with clinical vascular compromise had significantly lower pre-reduction StO 2  (63.5% ± 15%, mean ± standard deviation), compared to those without compromise (80.9% ± 10%). StO 2  normalized following surgery in all children with vascular compromise. These improvements in muscle StO 2  were associated, in all patients, with the clinical return of pulses and resolution of neurological symptoms if present. StO 2  monitoring can identify patients with clinical vascular compromise, can identify the return of adequate perfusion following operative correction of supracondylar fractures, and may be a useful adjunct to clinical assessment. (paper)

  3. Characterization of herbal powder blends homogeneity using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of powder blend is essential to obtain uniform contents for the tablets and capsules. Near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy with fiber-optic probe was used as an on-line technique for monitoring the homogeneity of pharmaceutical blend during the blending process instead of the traditional techniques, such as high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC method. In this paper NIRS with a SabIR diffuse reflectance fiber-optic probe was used to monitor the blending process of coptis powder and lactose (excipient with different contents, and further qualitative methods, like similarity, moving block of standard deviation and mean square were used for calculation purposes with the collected spectra after the pretreatment of multiplicative signal correction (MSC and second derivative. Correlation spectrum was used for the wavelength selection. Four different coptis were blended with lactose separately to validate the proposed method, and the blending process of "liu wei di huang" pill was also simulated in bottles to verify this method on multiple herbal blends. The overall results suggest that NIRS is a simple, effective and noninvasive technique can be successfully applied to the determination of homogeneity in the herbal blend.

  4. Shed a light in fatigue detection with near-infrared spectroscopy during long-lasting driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Fatigue driving is one of the leading roles to induce traffic accident and injury, which urgently desires a novel technique to monitor the fatigue level at driving. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is capable of noninvasive monitoring brain-activities-related hemodynamic responses. Here, we developed a fINRS imager and setup a classic psychological experiment to trigger visual divided attention which varied responding to driving fatigue, and attempted to record the drive-fatigue-level correlated hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. 7 volunteers were recruited to take 7 hours driving and the experimental test was repeated every 1 hour and 8 times in total. The hemodynamic response were extracted and graphed with pseudo image. The analysis on the relationship between the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic response and fatigue level finally displayed that the oxyhemoglobin concentration in one channel of left prefrontal lobe increased with driving duration in significant correlation. And the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the prefrontal lobe varied with driving duration as well. The findings indicated the potential of fNIRSmeasured hemodynamic index in some sensitive spot of prefrontal lobe as a driving fatigue indicator and the promising use of fNIRS in traffic safety field.

  5. Challenges in the noninvasive detection of body composition using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive detection of body composition plays a significant role in the improvement of life quality and reduction in complications of the patients, and the near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy, with the advantages of painlessness and convenience, is considered as the most promising tool for the online noninvasive monitoring of body composition. However, quite different from other fields of online detection using NIR spectroscopy, such as food safety and environment monitoring, noninvasive detection of body composition demands higher precision of the instruments as well as more rigorousness of measurement conditions. Therefore, new challenges emerge when NIR spectroscopy is applied to the noninvasive detection of body composition, which, in this paper, are first concluded from the aspects of measurement methods, measurement conditions, instrument precision, multi-component influence, individual difference and novel weak-signal extraction method based on our previous research in the cutting-edge field of NIR noninvasive blood glucose detection. Moreover, novel ideas and approaches of our group to solve these problems are introduced, which may provide evidence for the future development of noninvasive blood glucose detection, and further contribute to the noninvasive detection of other body compositions using NIR spectroscopy.

  6. Imaging Brain Function with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Unconstrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Balardin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the neural correlates of motor and cognitive processes under naturalistic experimentation is challenging due to the movement constraints of traditional brain imaging technologies. The recent advent of portable technologies that are less sensitive to motion artifacts such as Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS have been made possible the study of brain function in freely-moving participants. In this paper, we describe a series of proof-of-concept experiments examining the potential of fNIRS in assessing the neural correlates of cognitive and motor processes in unconstrained environments. We show illustrative applications for practicing a sport (i.e., table tennis, playing a musical instrument (i.e., piano and violin alone or in duo and performing daily activities for many hours (i.e., continuous monitoring. Our results expand upon previous research on the feasibility and robustness of fNIRS to monitor brain hemodynamic changes in different real life settings. We believe that these preliminary results showing the flexibility and robustness of fNIRS measurements may contribute by inspiring future work in the field of applied neuroscience.

  7. Chemoinformetrical evaluation of dissolution property of indomethacin tablets by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Tanabe, Hideaki; Osaki, Kazuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa). Dissolution tests were performed in phosphate buffer, and the time required for 75% dissolution (T75) and mean dissolution time (MDT) were calculated. DRNIR and TNIR spectra were recorded, and the both NIR spectra used to establish a calibration model for predicting the dissolution properties by principal component regression analysis (PCR). The T75 and MDT increased as the compression pressure increased, since tablet porosity decreased with increasing pressure. Intensity of the DRNIR spectra of the compressed tablets decreased as the compression pressure increased. However, the intensity of TNIR spectra increased along with the pressure. The calibration models used to evaluate the dissolution properties of tablets were established by using PCR based on both DRNIR and TNIR spectra of the tablets. The multiple correlation coefficients of the relationship between the actual and predictive T75 by the DRNIR and TNIR methods were 0.831 and 0.962, respectively. It is possible to predict the dissolution properties of pharmaceutical preparations using both DRNIR and TNIR chemoinformetric methods. The TNIR method was more accurate for predictions of the dissolution behavior of tablets than the DRNIR method. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (p<0.05)], representing the primary tissue Raman features (e.g., 854, 937, 1095, 1253, 1311, 1445, and 1654 cm(-1)). Confocal Raman spectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  9. Variable selection in near-infrared spectroscopy: Benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Smirnov, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    During the past several years, near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) spectroscopy has increasingly been adopted as an analytical tool in various fields from petroleum to biomedical sectors. The NIR spectrum (above 4000 cm -1 ) of a sample is typically measured by modern instruments at a few hundred of wavelengths. Recently, considerable effort has been directed towards developing procedures to identify variables (wavelengths) that contribute useful information. Variable selection (VS) or feature selection, also called frequency selection or wavelength selection, is a critical step in data analysis for vibrational spectroscopy (infrared, Raman, or NIRS). In this paper, we compare the performance of 16 different feature selection methods for the prediction of properties of biodiesel fuel, including density, viscosity, methanol content, and water concentration. The feature selection algorithms tested include stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR-step), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLS), (modified) changeable size moving window partial least squares (CSMWPLS/MCSMWPLSR), searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS), successive projections algorithm (SPA), uninformative variable elimination (UVE, including UVE-SPA), simulated annealing (SA), back-propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN), Kohonen artificial neural network (K-ANN), and genetic algorithms (GAs, including GA-iPLS). Two linear techniques for calibration model building, namely multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression/projection to latent structures (PLS/PLSR), are used for the evaluation of biofuel properties. A comparison with a non-linear calibration model, artificial neural networks (ANN-MLP), is also provided. Discussion of gasoline, ethanol-gasoline (bioethanol), and diesel fuel data is presented. The results of other spectroscopic

  10. Post-maximum Near-infrared Spectra of SN 2014J: A Search for Interaction Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, D. J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Marion, G. H.; Diamond, T. R.; Joshi, V.; Parrent, J. T.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Venkataraman, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic and photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. The 17 NIR spectra span epochs from +15.3 to +92.5 days after B-band maximum light, while the {{JHK}}s photometry include epochs from -10 to +71 days. These data are used to constrain the progenitor system of SN 2014J utilizing the Paβ line, following recent suggestions that this phase period and the NIR in particular are excellent for constraining the amount of swept-up hydrogen-rich material associated with a non-degenerate companion star. We find no evidence for Paβ emission lines in our post-maximum spectra, with a rough hydrogen mass limit of ≲ 0.1 M ⊙, which is consistent with previous limits in SN 2014J from late-time optical spectra of the Hα line. Nonetheless, the growing data set of high-quality NIR spectra holds the promise of very useful hydrogen constraints. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory under program GN-2014A-Q-8 (PI: Sand). Gemini is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  11. Near-infrared (JHK) spectroscopy of young stellar and substellar objects in orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingraham, P.; Albert, L.; Doyon, R.; Artigau, E.

    2014-01-01

    We performed low-resolution (R ∼ 40) near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) multi-object spectroscopy of 240 isolated point sources having apparent H-band magnitudes between 9 and 18 in the central 5' × 6' of the Orion Trapezium cluster. The observations were performed over four nights at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope using the visiting instrument SIMON, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph. We present the spectra of 104 objects with accurately derived spectral types including 7 new objects having masses below the hydrogen-burning limit, and 6 objects with masses below the deuterium-burning limit. The spectral classification is performed by fitting previously classified spectral templates of dwarf stars (K4-M3) and optically classified young stellar and substellar objects (M4-L0), to the entire 0.9-2.4 μm spectral energy distribution in order to assign a spectral type and visual extinction for each object. Of the 104 objects studied, 44 have been previously classified spectroscopically using various techniques. We perform a rigorous comparison between the previous classifications and our own and find them to be in good agreement. Using the dereddened H-band magnitudes, the classified objects are used to create an Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the cluster. We find that the previous age estimates of ∼1 Myr to be consistent with our results. Consistent with previous studies, numerous objects are observed to have luminosities several magnitudes above the 1 Myr isochrone. Numerous objects exhibiting emission features in the J band are also reported

  12. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  13. Thermal Infrared and Visible to Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Chert and Amorphous Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.; Cady, S. L.; Knauth, P.

    2009-03-01

    We look in detail at the thermal infrared and visible to near-infrared spectra of various forms of chert and amorphous silica and compare the spectral variations between samples with variations in physical and chemical characteristics.

  14. Near-Infrared Wireless Optical Communication with Particulates In-Suspension over the Underwater Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee; Guo, Yong; Ng, Tien Khee; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared-based underwater wireless optical communication link using an 808-nm laser diode to mitigate the particle scattering effect in turbid medium. An improvement in the error performance is observed with increasing

  15. Near-Infrared Wireless Optical Communication with Particulates In-Suspension over the Underwater Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee

    2017-05-08

    We demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared-based underwater wireless optical communication link using an 808-nm laser diode to mitigate the particle scattering effect in turbid medium. An improvement in the error performance is observed with increasing concentrations.

  16. Nanoscale control of Ag nanostructures for plasmonic fluorescence enhancement of near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Fang; Pang, Jing S.; Centeno, Anthony; Ryan, Mary P.; Riley, D. Jason; Alford, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    of increasing the sensitivity of protein detection in clinical applications. We report the use of tunable plasmonic silver nanostructures for the fluorescence enhancement of a near-infrared (NIR) dye (Alexa Fluor 790). Extensive fluorescence enhancement of ∼2

  17. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  18. A NEW GAS CELL FOR HIGH-PRECISION DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivielso, L.; Esparza, P.; MartIn, E. L.; Maukonen, D.; Peale, R. E.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared could become the leading method for discovering extra-solar planets around very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. In order to help to achieve an accuracy of ∼m s -1 , we are developing a gas cell which consists of a mixture of gases whose absorption spectral lines span all over the near-infrared region. We present the most promising mixture, made of acetylene, nitrous oxide, ammonia, chloromethanes, and hydrocarbons. The mixture is contained in a small size 13 cm long gas cell and covers most of the H and K bands. It also shows small absorptions in the J band, but they are few and not sharp enough for near-infrared wavelength calibration. We describe the working method and experiments, and compare our results with the state of the art for near-infrared gas cells.

  19. Near-Infrared Scintillation of Liquid Argon: Recent Results Obtained with the NIR Facility at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, C. O. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Tilly, E. [Sewanee U.

    2018-03-19

    After a short review of previous attempts to observe and measure the near-infrared scintillation in liquid argon, we present new results obtained with NIR, a dedicated cryostat at the Fermilab Proton Assembly Building (PAB). The new results give confidence that the near-infrared light can be used as the much needed light signal in large liquid argon time projection chambers.11 pages,

  20. Transcranial red and near infrared light transmission in a cadaveric model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Jagdeo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Low level light therapy has garnered significant interest within the past decade. The exact molecular mechanisms of how red and near infrared light result in physiologic modulation are not fully understood. Heme moieties and copper within cells are red and near infrared light photoreceptors that induce the mitochondrial respiratory chain component cytochrome C oxidase, resulting in a cascade linked to cytoprotection and cellular metabolism. The copper centers in cytochrome C oxidase have a broad absorption range that peaks around 830 nm. Several in vitro and in vivo animal and human models exist that have demonstrated the benefits of red light and near infrared light for various conditions. Clinical applications for low level light therapy are varied. One study in particular demonstrated improved durable functional outcomes status post-stroke in patients treated with near infrared low level light therapy compared to sham treatment [1]. Despite previous data suggesting the beneficial effect in treating multiple conditions, including stroke, with low level light therapy, limited data exists that measures transmission in a human model. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate this idea, we measured the transmission of near infrared light energy, using red light for purposes of comparison, through intact cadaver soft tissue, skull bones, and brain using a commercially available LED device at 830 nm and 633 nm. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that near infrared measurably penetrates soft tissue, bone and brain parenchyma in the formalin preserved cadaveric model, in comparison to negligible red light transmission in the same conditions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that near infrared light can penetrate formalin fixed soft tissue, bone and brain and implicate that benefits observed in clinical studies are potentially related to direct action of near infrared light on neural tissue.

  1. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  2. Effect of motion artifacts and their correction on near-infrared spectroscopy oscillation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selb, Juliette; Yücel, Meryem A; Phillip, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy is prone to contamination by motion artifacts (MAs). Motion correction algorithms have previously been proposed and their respective performance compared for evoked rain activation studies. We study instead the effect of MAs on "oscillation" data which...... in the frequency band around 0.1 and 0.04 Hz, suggesting a physiological origin for the difference. We emphasize the importance of considering MAs as a confounding factor in oscillation-based functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies....

  3. Prediction of tablets disintegration times using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a nondestructive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, Evone S

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this study are to user near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy to measure the disintegration time of a series of tablets compacted at different compressional forces, calibrate NIR data vs. laboratory equipment data, develop a model equation, validate the model, and test the model's predictive ability. Seven theophylline tablet formulations of the same composition but with different disintegration time values (0.224, 1.141, 2.797, 5.492, 9.397, 16.8, and 30.092 min) were prepared along with five placebo tablet formulations with different disintegration times. Laboratory disintegration time was compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data. Linear regression, quadratic, cubic, and partial least square techniques were used to determine the relationship between disintegration time and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in disintegration time produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations, which depended on the mathematical technique used for regression, were developed from the calibration of disintegration time using laboratory equipment vs. the near-infrared diffuse reflectance for each formulation. The results of NIR disintegration time were similar to laboratory tests. The near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method is an alternative nondestructive method for measurement of disintegration time of tablets.

  4. Near-infrared metallicities, radial velocities, and spectral types for 447 nearby M dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rojas-Ayala, Barbara [Centro de Astrofsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Covey, Kevin [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Lloyd, James P., E-mail: enewton@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 226 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present metallicities, radial velocities, and near-infrared (NIR) spectral types for 447 M dwarfs determined from moderate resolution (R ≈ 2000) NIR spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF)/SpeX. These M dwarfs are primarily targets of the MEarth Survey, a transiting planet survey searching for super Earths around mid-to-late M dwarfs within 33 pc. We present NIR spectral types for each star and new spectral templates for the IRTF in the Y, J, H, and K-bands, created using M dwarfs with near-solar metallicities. We developed two spectroscopic distance calibrations that use NIR spectral type or an index based on the curvature of the K-band continuum. Our distance calibration has a scatter of 14%. We searched 27 NIR spectral lines and 10 spectral indices for metallicity sensitive features, taking into account correlated noise in our estimates of the errors on these parameters. We calibrated our relation using 36 M dwarfs in common proper pairs with an F-, G-, or K-type star of known metallicity. We validated the physical association of these pairs using proper motions, radial velocities, and spectroscopic distance estimates. Our resulting metallicity calibration uses the sodium doublet at 2.2 μm as the sole indicator for metallicity. It has an accuracy of 0.12 dex inferred from the scatter between the metallicities of the primaries and the estimated metallicities of the secondaries. Our relation is valid for NIR spectral types from M1V to M5V and for –1.0 dex < [Fe/H] < +0.35 dex. We present a new color-color metallicity relation using J – H and J – K colors that directly relates two observables: the distance from the M dwarf main sequence and equivalent width of the sodium line at 2.2 μm. We used radial velocities of M dwarf binaries, observations at different epochs, and comparison between our measurements and precisely measured radial velocities to demonstrate a 4 km s{sup –1} accuracy.

  5. Characterization and Predictive Value of Near Infrared 2-Deoxyglucose Optical Imaging in Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Studying the uptake of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG analogs such as 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] fluoroglucose (FDG is a common approach to identify and monitor malignancies and more recently chronic inflammation. While pancreatitis is a common cause for false positive results in human studies on pancreatic cancer using FDG, the relevance of these findings to acute pancreatitis (AP is unknown. FDG has a short half-life. Thus, with an aim to accurately characterize the metabolic demand of the pancreas during AP in real-time, we studied the uptake of the non-radioactive, near infrared fluorescence labelled 2-deoxyglucose analog, IRDye® 800CW 2-DG probe (NIR 2-DG; Li-Cor during mild and severe biliary AP.Wistar rats (300 g; 8-12/group were administered NIR 2-DG (10 nM; I.V.. Mild and severe biliary AP were respectively induced by biliopancreatic duct ligation (DL alone or along with infusing glyceryl trilinoleate (GTL; 50 μL/100 g within 10 minutes of giving NIR 2-DG. Controls (CON only received NIR 2-DG. Imaging was done every 5-10 minutes over 3 hrs. Average Radiant Efficiency [p/s/cm²/sr]/[μW/cm²] was measured over the pancreas using the IVIS 200 in-vivo imaging system (PerkinElmer using the Living Image® software and verified in ex vivo pancreata. Blood amylase, lipase and pancreatic edema, necrosis were measured over the course of AP.NIR 2-DG uptake over the first hour was not influenced by AP induction. However, while the signal declined in controls and rats with mild AP, there was significantly higher retention of NIR 2-DG in the pancreas after 1 hour in those with GTL pancreatitis. The increase was > 3 fold over controls in the GTL group and was verified to be in the pancreas ex vivo. In vitro, pancreatic acini exposed to GTL had a similar increase in NIR 2-DG uptake which was followed by progressively worse acinar necrosis. Greater retention of NIR 2-DG in vivo was associated with worse pancreatic necrosis, reduced ATP concentrations and mortality

  6. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  7. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy based neurofeedback of prefrontal cortex activity: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Barth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurofeedback is a promising tool for treatment and rehabilitation of several patient groups. In this proof of principle study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS based neurofeedback of frontal cortical areas was investigated in healthy adults. Main aims were the assessment of learning, the effects on performance in a working memory (n-back task and the impact of applied strategies on regulation.13 healthy participants underwent 8 sessions of NIRS based neurofeedback within two weeks to learn to voluntarily up-regulate hemodynamic activity in prefrontal areas. An n-back task in pre-/post measurements was used to monitor neurocognitive changes. Mean oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb amplitudes over the course of the sessions as well as during the n-back task were evaluated. 12 out of 13 participants were able to regulate their frontal hemodynamic response via NIRS neurofeedback. However, no systematic learning effects were observed in frontal O2Hb amplitudes over the training course in our healthy sample. We found an impact of applied strategies in only 5 out of 13 subjects. Regarding the n-back task, neurofeedback appeared to induce more focused and specific brain activation compared to pre-training measurement. NIRS based neurofeedback is a feasible and potentially effective method, with an impact on activation patterns in a working memory task. Ceiling effects might explain the lack of a systematic learning pattern in healthy subjects. Clinical studies are needed to show effects in patients exhibiting pathological deviations in prefrontal function.

  9. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Mihara

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  10. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy technology in extraction and concentration process of Reduning injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Fei; Zuo, Xiang-Yun; Bi, Yu-An; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; L, Ping; Xiao, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To establish a rapid quantitative analysis method for the content of chlorogenic acid and solid content in the extraction liquid concentration process during the production of Reduning injection by using the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in order to reflect the concentration state in a real-time manner and really realize the quality control of concentrating process of the extraction and concentration process. The samples during the Jinqing extraction liquid concentration process were collected. After the removal of abnormal samples, the spectra pretreatment and the wave band selection, the quantitative calibration model between NIR spectra and chlorogenic acid HPLC analytical value and solid content was established by using PLS algorithm, and unknown samples were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the chlorogenic acid content and the solid content were respectively 0.992 1 and 0.994 0, and the correlation coefficients of the verification model were respectively 0.994 4 and 0.998 4, with the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.814 6 and 2.656 1 and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.704 6 and 1.876 7 respectively, and the relative standard errors of predictions (RSEP) were 6.01% and 2.93% respectively. The method is simple, rapid, nondestructive, accurate and reliable, thus could be adopted for the fast monitoring of the chlorogenic acid content and the solid content during the concentration process of Reduning injection extraction liquid.

  11. Tracking single cells in live animals using a photoconvertible near-infrared cell membrane label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Alicia L; Fujisaki, Joji; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith M; Turcotte, Raphaël; Spencer, Joel A; Celso, Cristina Lo; Scadden, David T; Strom, Terry B; Lin, Charles P

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel photoconversion technique to track individual cells in vivo using a commercial lipophilic membrane dye, DiR. We show that DiR exhibits a permanent fluorescence emission shift (photoconversion) after light exposure and does not reacquire the original color over time. Ratiometric imaging can be used to distinguish photoconverted from non-converted cells with high sensitivity. Combining the use of this photoconvertible dye with intravital microscopy, we tracked the division of individual hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the calvarium bone marrow of live mice. We also studied the peripheral differentiation of individual T cells by tracking the gain or loss of FoxP3-GFP expression, a marker of the immune suppressive function of CD4(+) T cells. With the near-infrared photoconvertible membrane dye, the entire visible spectral range is available for simultaneous use with other fluorescent proteins to monitor gene expression or to trace cell lineage commitment in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  12. Combining near-infrared spectroscopy with electroencephalography and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsi, Tiina; Kotilahti, Kalle; Mäki, Hanna; Nissilä, Ilkka; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the usability of a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device in multimodal measurements. We combined NIRS with electroencephalography (EEG) to record hemodynamic responses and evoked potentials simultaneously, and with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate hemodynamic responses to repetitive TMS (rTMS). Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) to 3, 6, and 12 s stimuli consisting of pattern-reversing checkerboards were successfully recorded in the NIRS/EEG measurement, and ipsi- and contralateral hemodynamic responses to 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz rTMS in the NIRS/TMS measurement. In the NIRS/EEG measurements, the amplitudes of the hemodynamic responses increased from 3- to 6-s stimulus, but not from 6- to 12-s stimulus, and the VEPs showed peaks N75, P100, and N135. In the NIRS/TMS measurements, the 2-Hz stimulus produced the strongest hemodynamic responses compared to the 0.5- and 1-Hz stimuli. In two subjects oxyhemoglobin concentration decreased and in one increased as a consequence of the 2-Hz rTMS. To locate the origin of the measured NIRS responses, methods have to be developed to investigate TMS-induced scalp muscle contractions. In the future, multimodal measurements may prove useful in monitoring or treating diseases such as stroke or Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Intracranial Hematoma Detection by Near Infrared Spectroscopy in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service: Practical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Patrick; Bossers, Sebastiaan M; Schwarte, Lothar A

    2017-01-01

    In (helicopter) emergency medical services, (H)EMS, the prehospital detection of intracranial hematomas should improve patient care and the triage to specialized neurosurgical hospitals. Recently, noninvasive detection of intracranial hematomas became possible by applying transcranial near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Herein, second-generation devices are currently available, for example, the Infrascanner 2000 (Infrascan), that appear suited also for prehospital (H)EMS applications. Since (H)EMS operations are time-critical, we studied the Infrascanner 2000 as a "first-time-right" monitor in healthy volunteers ( n = 17, hospital employees, no neurologic history). Further, we studied the implementation of the Infrascanner 2000 in a European HEMS organization (Lifeliner 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The principal results of our study were as follows: The screening for intracranial hematomas in healthy volunteers with first-time-right intention resulted in a marked rate of virtual hematomas (false positive results, i.e., 12/17), rendering more time consuming repeat measurements advisable. The results of the implementation of the Infrascanner in HEMS suggest that NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection is feasible in the HEMS setting. However, some drawbacks exist and their possible solutions are discussed. Future studies will have to demonstrate how NIRS-based intracranial hematoma detection will improve prehospital decision making in (H)EMS and ultimately patient outcome.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of HER2 Receptor Expression In Vivo by Near-Infrared Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chernomordik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 overexpression in breast cancers is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Current techniques for estimating this important characteristic use ex vivo assays that require tissue biopsies. We suggest a novel noninvasive method to characterize HER2 expression in vivo, using optical imaging, based on HER2-specific probes (albumin-binding domain–fused-(ZHER2:3422-Cys Affibody molecules [Affibody AB, Solna, Sweden], labeled with Alexa Fluor 750 [Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA] that could be used concomitantly with HER2-targeted therapy. Subcutaneous tumor xenografts, expressing different levels of HER2, were imaged with a near-infrared fluorescence small-animal imaging system at several times postinjection of the probe. The compartmental ligand-receptor model was used to calculate HER2 expression from imaging data. Correlation between HER2 amplification/overexpression in tumor cells and parameters, directly estimated from the sequence of optical images, was observed (eg, experimental data for BT474 xenografts indicate that initial slope, characterizing the temporal dependence of the fluorescence intensity detected in the tumor, linearly depends on the HER2 expression, as measured ex vivo by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the same tumor. The results obtained from tumors expressing different levels of HER2 substantiate a similar relationship between the initial slope and HER2 amplification/overexpression. This work shows that optical imaging, combined with mathematical modeling, allows noninvasive monitoring of HER2 expression in vivo.

  15. SPECT Perfusion Imaging Demonstrates Improvement of Traumatic Brain Injury With Transcranial Near-infrared Laser Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Theodore A; Morries, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern affecting civilians and military personnel. Near-infrared (NIR) light has shown benefits in animal models and human trials for stroke and in animal models for TBI. Diodes emitting low-level NIR often have lacked therapeutic efficacy, perhaps failing to deliver sufficient radiant energy to the necessary depth. In this case report, a patient with moderate TBI documented in anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) received 20 NIR treatments in the course of 2 mo using a high-power NIR laser. Symptoms were monitored by clinical examination and a novel patient diary system specifically designed for this patient population. Clinical application of these levels of infrared energy for this patient with TBI yielded highly favorable outcomes with decreased depression, anxiety, headache, and insomnia, whereas cognition and quality of life improved. Neurological function appeared to improve based on changes in the SPECT by quantitative analysis. NIR in the power range of 10-15 W at 810 and 980 nm can safely and effectively treat chronic symptoms of TBI.

  16. WIRELESS DISTRIBUTED ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY – WDA-NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SAFAIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The wireless distributed acquisition system for near infrared spectroscopy (WDA-NIRS is a portable, ultra-compact, continuous wave (CW NIRS system. Its main advantage is that it allows continuous synchronized multi-site hemodynamic monitoring. The WDA-NIRS system calculates online changes in hemoglobin concentration based on modified Beer–Lambert law and the tissue oxygenation index based on the spatial-resolved spectroscopy method. It consists of up to seven signal acquisition units, sufficiently small to be easily attached to any part of the body. These units are remotely synchronized by a PC base station for independent acquisition of NIRS signals. Each acquisition module can be freely adapted to individual requirements such as local skin properties and the microcirculation of interest, e.g., different muscles, brain, skin, etc. For this purpose, the light emitted by each LED can be individually, interactively or automatically adjusted to local needs. Furthermore, the user can freely create an emitter time-multiplexing protocol and choose the detector sensitivity most suitable to a particular situation. The potential diagnostic value of this advanced device is demonstrated by three typical applications.

  17. [Evaluating fatigue resistance effect of health food by near-infrared tissue oximeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Ding, Hai-shu; Ye, Da-tian

    2009-09-01

    Currently, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) seriously affects people's normal living and work. In the present paper, the physiological parameters, such as tissue oxygenation saturation and heart rate, were used to evaluate the subjects' fatigue degree, and the fatigue resistance capsule and coffee were taken as a measure to adjust the fatigue. Human tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) can be monitored noninvasively and in real time by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) based on spatially-resolved spectroscopy. Aiming at those brainworkers who need to work in an office for a long time; two static experiments were designed to evaluate the fatigue degree of the subjects who either take the fatigue resistance capsules/coffee or not. The rSO2 and heart rate (HR) of the subjects in the experiment group and contrast group were measured respectively for fatigue evaluation. This work particularly analyzed the changes in rSO2 in these two groups. The results show that the rSO2 of subjects in the experiment group evidently increased compared to that in the contrast group when the subjects took the fatigue resistance capsule or coffee, thereby show that the health food can reduce the fatigue to a certain extent.

  18. Assessment of the dynamics of human glymphatic system by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu; Harju, Markus; Korhonen, Vesa; Bykov, Alexander; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-08-12

    Fluctuations in brain water content has attracted increasing interest, particularly as regards studies of the glymphatic system, which is connected with the complex organization of dural lymphatic vessels, responsible for cleaning tissue. Disturbances of glymphatic circulation are associated with several brain disorders, including dementia. This article introduces an approach to noninvasive measurement of water dynamics in the human brain utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We demonstrate the possibility to sense dynamic variations of water content between the skull and grey matter, for instance, in the subarachnoid space. Measured fluctuations in water content, especially in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are assumed to be correlated with the dynamics of glymphatic circulation. The sampling volume for the NIRS optode was estimated by Monte Carlo modelling for the wavelengths of 660, 740, 830 and 980 nm. In addition, using combinations of these wavelengths, this article presents the calculation models for quantifying water and haemodynamics. The presented NIRS technique allows long-term functional brain monitoring, including sleeping time. Furthermore, it is used in combination with different magnetic neuroimaging techniques, particularly magnetic resonance encephalography. Using the combined setup, we report the preliminary results on the interaction between CSF and blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Measurement of oxygen consumption during muscle flaccidity exercise by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K.; Fukawa, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative measurement oxygen consumption in the muscles is important to evaluate the effect of the exercise. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring muscle oxygenation. However, measurement results are affected by blood volume change due to changes in the blood pressure. In order to evaluate changes in blood volume and to improve measurement accuracy, we proposed a calculation method of three-wavelength measurement with considering the scattering factor and the measurement with monitoring blood flow for measuring the temporal change of the oxygen concentration more precisely. We applied three-wavelength light source (680nm, 808nm and 830nm) for the continued wave measurement. Two detectors (targeted detector and the reference detector) were placed near the target muscle and apart from it. We measured the blood flow by controlling the intravascular pressure and the oxygen consumption with the handgrip exercise in the forearm. The measured results show that the scattering factor contains the artifact at the surface and the blood flow in the artery and the vein in the same phase. The artifact and the blood flow in the same phase are reduced from the oxygenated and the deoxygenated hemoglobin densities. Thus our proposed method is effective for reducing the influence of the artifact and the blood flow in the same phase from the oxygen consumption measurement. Further, it is shown that the oxygen consumption is measured more accurately by subtracting the blood flow measured by the reference detector.

  20. Fecal near infrared spectroscopy to discriminate physiological status in giant pandas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Wiedower

    Full Text Available Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca monitoring and research often require accurate estimates of population size and density. However, obtaining these estimates has been challenging. Innovative technologies, such as fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS, may be used to differentiate between sex, age class, and reproductive status as has been shown for several other species. The objective of this study was to determine if FNIRS could be similarly used for giant panda physiological discriminations. Based on samples from captive animals in four U.S. zoos, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 78% of samples from adult males, 81% from adult females, 85% from adults, 89% from juveniles, 75% from pregnant and 70% from non-pregnant females. However, diet had an impact on the success of the calibrations. When diet was controlled for plant part such that "leaf only" feces were evaluated, FNIRS calibrations correctly identified 93% of samples from adult males and 95% from adult females. These data show that FNIRS has the potential to differentiate between the sex, age class, and reproductive status in the giant panda and may be applicable for surveying wild populations.

  1. Predicting glycogen concentration in the foot muscle of abalone using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Miriam; Brown, Malcolm R; Ward, Louise R; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A

    2011-06-15

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict glycogen concentrations in the foot muscle of cultured abalone. NIR spectra of live, shucked and freeze-dried abalones were modelled against chemically measured glycogen data (range: 0.77-40.9% of dry weight (DW)) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The calibration models were then used to predict glycogen concentrations of test abalone samples and model robustness was assessed from coefficient of determination of the validation (R2(val)) and standard error of prediction (SEP) values. The model for freeze-dried abalone gave the best prediction (R2(val) 0.97, SEP=1.71), making it suitable for quantifying glycogen. Models for live and shucked abalones had R2(val) of 0.86 and 0.90, and SEP of 3.46 and 3.07 respectively, making them suitable for producing estimations of glycogen concentration. As glycogen is a taste-active component associated with palatability in abalone, this study demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a rapid method to monitor the factors associated with abalone quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyaniline nanoparticles for near-infrared photothermal destruction of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith Inés, E-mail: inesilla.yslas@gmail.com; Ibarra, Luis Exequiel [Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Departamento de Biología Molecular (Argentina); Molina, María Alejandra; Rivarola, Claudia; Barbero, Cesar Alfredo [Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Departamento de Química (Argentina); Bertuzzi, Mabel Lucía; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia, E-mail: vrivarola@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Departamento de Biología Molecular (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    Polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI-Nps) have been used in several applications; however, there are few publications related to the use in the photothermal therapy. PANI-Nps have high optical absorbance in the near-infrared region and in this wavelength range, biological systems are relatively transparent. For this reason, these materials can be used to absorb energy and to generate heat that destroys cancer cells selectively. PANI-Nps with average size of ca. 200 nm and neutral zeta potential were synthesized and characterized by DLS, SEM, and zeta potential. The kinetics of incorporation of PANI-Nps into LM2 cell line was monitored using UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The analysis of cell viability after PANI-Nps exposure shows that these nanoparticles are not cytotoxic even at high concentration and show no change in cell morphology and metabolic activity. Furthermore, we found that nanoparticle cell uptake reaches the maximum value c.a. 3 h after incubation. Cells were targeted by Pani-Nps and irradiated, resulting in significant elevation of intracellular ROS and heat production. One of the mechanisms of PANI-Nps-mediated photothermal killing of cancer cells apparently involved oxidative stress resulting in apoptotic cell death.

  3. Near-infrared spectrometry in pregnancy: progress and perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recently used to monitor brain circulation in cardiac surgery, carotid endarteriectomy, neurosurgery and robotic surgery. According to the few studies used NIRS in pregnancy, it may be helpful to assess the impact of severe forms of preeclampsia on brain circulation, to evaluate the efficacy of different treatments.

  4. Best Practices for the Application of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Operator State Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Hylton, Alan G.; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuronal measurement technique with many advantages for application in operational and training contexts. Instrumentation and protocol improvements, however, are required to obtain useful signals and produce expeditiously self-applicable, comfortable and unobtrusive headgear. Approaches for improving the validity and reliability of fNIRS data for the purpose of sensing the mental state of commercial aircraft operators are identified, and an exemplary system design for attentional state monitoring is outlined. Intelligent flight decks of the future can be responsive to state changes to optimally support human performance. Thus, the identification of cognitive performance decrement, such as lapses in operator attention, may be used to predict and avoid error-prone states. We propose that attentional performance may be monitored with fNIRS through the quantification of hemodynamic activations in cortical regions which are part of functionally-connected attention and resting state networks. Activations in these regions have been shown to correlate with behavioral performance and task engagement. These regions lie beneath superficial tissue in head regions beyond the forehead. Headgear development is key to reliably and robustly accessing locations beyond the hair line to measure functionally-connected networks across the whole head. Human subject trials using both fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) will be used to test this system. Data processing employs Support Vector Machines for state classification based on the fNIRS signals. If accurate state classification is achieved based on sensed activation patterns, fNIRS will be shown to be useful for monitoring attentional performance.

  5. Phenobarbital and neonatal seizures affect cerebral oxygen metabolism: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Max D; Plegue, Melissa A; Chervin, Ronald D; Barks, John D E; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2015-07-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures oxygen metabolism and is increasingly used for monitoring critically ill neonates. The implications of NIRS-recorded data in this population are poorly understood. We evaluated NIRS monitoring for neonates with seizures. In neonates monitored with video-electroencephalography, NIRS-measured cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) and systemic O2 saturation were recorded every 5 s. Mean rSO2 was extracted for 1-h blocks before, during, and after phenobarbital doses. For each electrographic seizure, mean rSO2 was extracted for a period of three times the duration of the seizure before and after the ictal pattern, as well as during the seizure. Linear mixed models were developed to assess the impact of phenobarbital administration and of seizures on rSO2 and fractional tissue oxygen extraction. For 20 neonates (estimated gestational age: 39.6 ± 1.5 wk), 61 phenobarbital doses and 40 seizures were analyzed. Cerebral rSO2 rose (P = 0.005), and fractional tissue oxygen extraction declined (P = 0.018) with increasing phenobarbital doses. rSO2 declined during seizures, compared with baseline and postictal phases (baseline 81.2 vs. ictal 77.7 vs. postictal 79.4; P = 0.004). Fractional tissue oxygen extraction was highest during seizures (P = 0.002). Cerebral oxygen metabolism decreases after phenobarbital administration and increases during seizures. These small, but clear, changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism merit assessment for potential clinical impact.

  6. Near-infrared quantum dots for HER2 localization and imaging of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Sarwat B; Rouhi, Sepideh; Taniguchi, Shohei; Yang, Shi Yu; Green, Mark; Keshtgar, Mo; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dots are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique photophysical properties that allow them to be used as diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic agents, particularly in medical and surgical oncology. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots can be visualized in deep tissues because the biological window is transparent to these wavelengths. Their small sizes and free surface reactive groups that can be conjugated to biomolecules make them ideal probes for in vivo cancer localization, targeted chemotherapy, and image-guided cancer surgery. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu) is overexpressed in 25%-30% of breast cancers. The current methods of detection for HER2 status, including immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, are used ex vivo and cannot be used in vivo. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of near-infrared-emitting quantum dots for HER2 localization in fixed and live cancer cells as a first step prior to their in vivo application. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dots were characterized and their in vitro toxicity was established using three cancer cell lines, ie, HepG2, SK-BR-3 (HER2-overexpressing), and MCF7 (HER2-underexpressing). Mouse antihuman anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody was conjugated to the near-infrared-emitting quantum dots. In vitro toxicity studies showed biocompatibility of SK-BR-3 and MCF7 cell lines with near-infrared-emitting quantum dots at a concentration of 60 μg/mL after one hour and 24 hours of exposure. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot antiHER2-antibody bioconjugates successfully localized HER2 receptors on SK-BR-3 cells. Near-infrared-emitting quantum dot bioconjugates can be used for rapid localization of HER2 receptors and can potentially be used for targeted therapy as well as image-guided surgery.

  7. Detection and monitoring of neurotransmitters--a spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Lee, Kendall H; Durrer, William G; Bennet, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed, and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue.  Dopamine, adenosine, and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in distilled water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they interdiffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting nonoverlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds.  Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific microscale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.  Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  8. The application of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS for the quantitative analysis of hydrocortisone in primary materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PITTAS

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS, coupled with fiber optic probes, has been shown to be a quick and reliable analytical tool for quality assurance and quality control in the pharmaceutical industry, both for verifications of raw materials and quantification of the active ingredients in final products. In this paper, a typical pharmaceutical product, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, is used as an example for the application of NIR spectroscopy for quality control. In order to develop an NIRS method with higher precision and accuracy than the official UV/VIS spectroscopic method (BP '99, 19 samples, taken from one year’s production and several prepared in the laboratory, having a hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration in the range from 89.05%to 95.83 %, were analysed by NIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy. Three frequency ranges: 5939.73–5627.32 cm-1; 4863.64 – 4574.36 cm-1; 4308.23–4200.24 cm-1, with the best positive correlation between the changes in the spectral and concentration data, were chosen. The validity of the developed NIRS chemometric method for the determination of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration, constructed by the partial least squares (PLS regression technique, is discussed. A correlation coefficient of 0.9758 and a standard error of cross validation (RMSECVof 1.06%were found between the UV/VI Sand òhe NIR spectroscopic results of the hydrocortisone sodium succinate concentration in the samples.

  9. Near infrared fluorescent chlorophyll nanoscale liposomes for sentinel lymph node mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lina; Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using in vivo near infrared fluorescence imaging has attracted great attention during the past few years. Here we report on the early use of poorly water-soluble chlorophyll with near infrared fluorescence extracted from the leaf of Chimonanthus salicifolius, for mouse axillary SLN mapping. Methods and results To improve the water solubility and SLN targeting of the chlorophyll, we encapsulated the chlorophyll in nanoscale liposomes. The liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites obtained were spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 21.7 ± 6.0 nm. The nanocomposites dispersed well in water, and in aqueous suspension they exhibited brighter near infrared fluorescence than chlorophyll alone. After incubation of the nanocomposites with normal liver cells (QSG-7701) and macrophage cells (Ana-1) for no more than 48 hours, there was no obvious reduction in cell viability. When the nanocomposites were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the axillary SLN was found to be strongly fluorescent and was easily visualized in real time without a requirement for surgery. The intensity of the near infrared fluorescence emitted by the SLN was obviously brighter than that emitted by the SLN of another mouse that had been intradermally injected with chlorophyll alone. Conclusion Our data show that the liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites could have great potential for clinical SLN mapping due to their lack of toxicity, bright near infrared fluorescence, and small diameter. PMID:22787402

  10. Near-infrared polarization and color of Comet Halley: What can we learn about the grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, T.Y.; Knacke, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The near infrared polarization and JHK colors of light scattered by dust grains in comet Halley were measured over a wide range in phase angle and heliocentric distance. Colors were redder than solar with no statistically significant variation with phase angle, heliocentric distance, or pre- and post-perihelion. This suggests that the grain population did not change drastically over time and that the data may be combined and modeled. However, short term variations in visible polarization and dust albedo were seen in Halley. Also, near infrared colors became systematically bluer after the observations were completed. The near infrared colors of Halley fall in the range of those of other comets. The near infrared polarization is similar to the visible polarization of Halley and other comets in showing a negative branch at small phase angles and an approximately linear rise toward positive values at larger phase angles. Mie theory calculations and a size distribution based on spacecraft data were used to model the near infrared polarization and color of comet Halley. Numerous lines of evidence point to the presence of dark, absorbing, probably carbonaceous materials in comets

  11. Quantitative wound healing studies using a portable, low cost, handheld near-infrared optical scanner: preliminary sensitivity and specificity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jiali; Rodriguez, Suset; Jayachandran, Maanasa; Solis, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Perez-Clavijo, Francesco; Wigley, Stephen; Godavarty, Anuradha

    2016-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers are devastating complications that are still un-recognized. To date, clinicians employ visual inspection of the wound site during its standard 4-week of healing process via monitoring of surface granulation. A novel ultra-portable near-infrared optical scanner (NIROS) has been developed at the Optical Imaging Laboratory that can perform non-contact 2D area imaging of the wound site. From preliminary studies it was observed that the nonhealing wounds had a greater absorption contrast with respect to the normal site, unlike in the healing wounds. Currently, non-contact near-infrared (NIR) imaging studies were carried out on 22 lower extremity wounds at two podiatric clinics, and the sensitivity and specificity of the scanner evaluated. A quantitative optical biometric was developed that differentiates healing from non-healing wounds, based on the threshold values obtained during ROC analysis. In addition, optical images of the wound obtained from weekly imaging studies are also assessed to determine the ability of the device to predict wound healing consistently on a periodic basis. This can potentially impact early intervention in the treatment of lower extremity ulcers when an objective and quantitative wound healing approach is developed. Lastly, the incorporation of MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) to automate the process of image acquisition, image processing and image analysis realizes the potential of NIROS to perform non-contact and real-time imaging on lower extremity wounds.

  12. In situ sensing of subsurface contamination--part I: near-infrared spectral characterization of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavarioti, Maria; Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Pourjabbar, Anahita; Ghandehari, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    There is an imperative need for a chemical sensor capable of remote, in situ, long-term monitoring of chemical species at sites containing toxic chemical spills, specifically at chemical waste dumps, landfills, and locations with underground storage tanks. In the current research, a series of experiments were conducted measuring the near-infrared optical absorption of alkanes, aromatics, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A spectral library was then developed to characterize the optical spectra of liquid hydrocarbons. Near-infrared analysis was chosen due to compatibility with optical fibers. The goal was to differentiate between classes of hydrocarbons and to also discriminate between compounds within a class of similar molecular structures. It was observed that unique absorption spectra can be obtained for each hydrocarbon, and this uniqueness can be used to discriminate between hydrocarbons from different families. Statistical analyses, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient (Spearman and Pearson methods), were attempted to match absorption spectra from an unknown hydrocarbon with the database with limited success. An algorithm was subsequently written to identify the characteristic peaks of each hydrocarbon that could be used to match data from an unknown chemical species with the database.

  13. Rapid Measurement of Soil Carbon in Rice Paddy Field of Lombok Island Indonesia Using Near Infrared Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono, S.; Bustan, B.

    2018-02-01

    Measuring soil organic carbon (C) using conventional analysis is tedious procedure, time consuming and expensive. It is needed simple procedure which is cheap and saves time. Near infrared technology offers rapid procedure as it works based on the soil spectral reflectance and without any chemicals. The aim of this research is to test whether this technology able to rapidly measure soil organic C in rice paddy field. Soil samples were collected from rice paddy field of Lombok Island Indonesia, and the coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analysed using conventional analysis (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) Models were developed using data of soil C analysed using conventional analysis and data from soil spectral reflectance. The models were moderately successful to measure soil C in rice paddy field of Lombok Island. This shows that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the C change in rice paddy soil.

  14. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L.; Özel, Tuğba; Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract

  15. Near-infrared fluorescent aza-BODIPY dye-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles for optical cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, Casey L.; Dorsey, Christopher L. [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Özel, Tuğba [Texas State University, Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program (United States); Barnes, Eugenia M.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Betancourt, Tania, E-mail: tb26@txstate.edu [Texas State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Nanoparticles are being readily investigated as carriers for the delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents for the detection, monitoring, and treatment of cancer and other diseases. In the present work, the preparation of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a near-infrared fluorescent aza-boron dipyrromethene (NIR-BODIPY) derivative, and their use as contrast agents for optical imaging in cancer are described. Nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of amphiphilic block copolymers of poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol). The size, morphology, dye loading, spectral properties, quantum yield, cytocompatibility, and in vitro NIR imaging potential of the nanoparticles in breast and ovarian cancer cells were evaluated. Spherical nanoparticles of 30–70 nm in diameter were loaded with 0.73 w/w% BODIPY derivative. At this loading, the dye presented a fluorescence quantum yield in the same order of magnitude as in solution. Nanoparticle suspensions at concentrations up to 580 μg/mL were cytocompatible to breast (MDA-MB-231) and ovarian (SKOV-3 and Caov-3) cancer cells after a four-hour incubation period. Fluorescence microscopy images demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to act as imaging agents in all three cell lines in as little as 1 hour. The results shown indicate the potential of these NIR-BODIPY-loaded nanoparticles as contrast agents for near-infrared optical imaging in cancer.Graphical abstract.

  16. Near-Infrared Imaging Method for the In Vivo Assessment of the Biodistribution of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Tasciotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of new nanoparticle-based technologies for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, understanding the fate of nanoparticles in the body is crucial. We recently developed a multistage vector delivery system comprising biodegradable and biocompatible nanoporous silicon particles (first-stage microparticles [S1MPs] able to host, protect, and deliver second-stage therapeutic and diagnostic nanoparticles (S2NPs on intravenous injection. This delivery system aims at sequentially overcoming the biologic barriers en route to the target delivery site by separating and assigning tasks to the coordinated logic-embedded vectors constituting it. In this work, by conjugating a near-infrared dye on the surface of the S1MP without compromising the porous structure and potential loading of S2NPs, we were able to monitor the in vivo distribution of S1MPs in healthy mice using an optical imaging system. It was observed that particles predominantly accumulated in the liver and spleen at the end of 24 hours. Further quantification of S1MPs in the major organs of the animals by elemental analysis of silicon using inductively coupled plasma-atomic electron spectroscopy verified the accuracy of in vivo near-infrared imaging as a tool for evaluation of nanovector biodistribution.

  17. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  18. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy to evaluate anti-G straining maneuvers in centrifuge training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asao; Kikukawa, Azusa; Kimura, Mikihiko; Inui, Takuo; Miyamoto, Yoshinori

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has emerged as an easily manageable noninvasive method for the continuous monitoring of cerebral cortical oxygenation during +Gz exposure. NIRS is also used to evaluate pilot trainees' ability to adequately perform anti-G straining maneuvers in the course of centrifuge training. This study aimed to determine the general patterns and individual differences in NIRS recordings during +Gz exposure. There were 22 healthy male cadets who participated in the study. The centrifuge training profiles included a gradual onset run (GOR, onset rate of 0.1 Gz x s(-1)) and short-term repeated exposures, with Gz levels from 4 to 7 Gz at an onset rate of 1.0 Gz x s(-1) (rapid onset run, ROR). Cortical tissue hemoglobin saturation (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) and changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) were recorded from the right forehead during the period of Gz exposure. Most of the subjects successfully performed an anti-G straining maneuver and maintained or increased the cerebral oxygenation level during Gz exposure. In four subjects, however, oxygenation decline was observed at levels over 4 Gz, even though their anti-G systems were functioning. In contrast to the O2Hb response, TOI, which reflects intracranial oxygenation changes, was decreased during the anti-G straining maneuver at Gz onset or during the countdown to a ROR exposure. Although NIRS is an effective tool for monitoring anti-G straining maneuver performance, it should be carefully evaluated in terms of intracranial oxygenation results.

  19. Ultrasensitive near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced probe for in vivo nitroreductase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Sun, Yun; Li, Jiachang; Su, Qianqian; Yuan, Wei; Dai, Yu; Han, Chunmiao; Wang, Qiuhong; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2015-05-20

    Nitroreductase (NTR) can be overexpressed in hypoxic tumors, thus the selective and efficient detection of NTR is of great importance. To date, although a few optical methods have been reported for the detection of NTR in solution, an effective optical probe for NTR monitoring in vivo is still lacking. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent detection probe for NTR. In this study, five NIR cyanine dyes with fluorescence reporting structure decorated with different nitro aromatic groups, Cy7-1-5, have been designed and explored for possible rapid detection of NTR. Our experimental results presented that only a para-nitro benzoate group modified cyanine probe (Cy7-1) could serve as a rapid NIR fluorescence-enhanced probe for monitoring and bioimaging of NTR. The structure-function relationship has been revealed by theoretical study. The linker connecting the detecting and fluorescence reporting groups and the nitro group position is a key factor for the formation of hydrogen bonds and spatial structure match, inducing the NTR catalytic ability enhancement. The in vitro response and mechanism of the enzyme-catalyzed reduction of Cy7-1 have been investigated through kinetic optical studies and other methods. The results have indicated that an electro-withdrawing group induced electron-transfer process becomes blocked when Cy7-1 is catalytically reduced to Cy7-NH2 by NTR, which is manifested in enhanced fluorescence intensity during the detection process. Confocal fluorescence imaging of hypoxic A549 cells has confirmed the NTR detection ability of Cy7-1 at the cellular level. Importantly, Cy7-1 can detect tumor hypoxia in a murine hypoxic tumor model, showing a rapid and significant enhancement of its NIR fluorescence characteristics suitable for fluorescence bioimaging. This method may potentially be used for tumor hypoxia diagnosis.

  20. Immediate in vivo target-specific cancer cell death after near infrared photoimmunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunaga Makoto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near infrared (NIR photoimmunotherapy (PIT is a new type of cancer treatment based on a monoclonal antibody (mAb-NIR phthalocyanine dye, (IR700 conjugate. In vitro cancer-specific cell death occurs during NIR light exposure in cells previously incubated with mAb-IR700 conjugates. However, documenting rapid cell death in vivo is more difficult. Methods A luciferase-transfected breast cancer cell (epidermal growth factor receptor+, MDA-MB-468luc cells was produced and used for both in vitro and in vivo experiments for monitoring the cell killing effect of PIT. After validation of cytotoxicity with NIR exposure up to 8 J/cm2in vitro, we employed an orthotopic breast cancer model of bilateral MDA-MB-468luc tumors in female athymic mice, which subsequently received a panitumumab-IR700 conjugate in vivo. One side was used as a control, while the other was treated with NIR light of dose ranging from 50 to 150 J/cm2. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI was performed before and after PIT. Results Dose-dependent cell killing and regrowth was successfully monitored by the BLI signal in vitro. Although tumor sizes were unchanged, BLI signals decreased by >95% immediately after PIT in vivo when light intensity was high (>100 J/cm2, however, in mice receiving lower intensity NIR (50 J/cm2, tumors recurred with gradually increasing BLI signal. Conclusion PIT induced massive cell death of targeted tumor cells immediately after exposure of NIR light that was demonstrated with BLI in vivo.

  1. Poor agreement between transcranial Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy-based estimates of cerebral blood flow changes in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toksvang, Linea N; Plovsing, Ronni R; Petersen, Marie W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) may be valuable in critically ill patients with sepsis. In this study, we compared spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD)-derived estimates of noradrenaline-associated changes...... in CBF in such patients. METHODS: Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was elevated by increasing the noradrenaline infusion rate in eight mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. The associated changes in CBF were assessed by simultaneous ipsilateral......-derived estimates with a relative bias of 14% and limits of agreement of -18% to 45% change in CBF. CONCLUSION: Our findings stress that TCD and NIRS cannot be used interchangeably for monitoring changes in cerebral haemodynamics in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving vasopressor treatment...

  2. Near-infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigs, D.E.; Freelin, J.M.; Hieftje, G.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored

  3. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-infrared Synoptic Survey. V. Period–Luminosity Relations of Miras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenlong; Macri, Lucas M. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); He, Shiyuan; Huang, Jianhua Z. [Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kanbur, Shashi M. [Department of Physics, The State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Ngeow, Chow-Choong, E-mail: lmacri@tamu.edu [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2017-10-01

    We study the near-infrared properties of 690 Mira candidates in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on time-series observations at JHK{sub s}. We use densely sampled I -band observations from the OGLE project to generate template light curves in the near-infrared and derive robust mean magnitudes at those wavelengths. We obtain near-infrared Period–Luminosity relations for oxygen-rich Miras with a scatter as low as 0.12 mag at K{sub s}. We study the Period–Luminosity–Color relations and the color excesses of carbon-rich Miras, which show evidence for a substantially different reddening law.

  4. Low-cost near-infrared imaging device for inspection of historical manuscripts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) or sometimes called black light is a waveform beyond visible light and it is not detectable by human eyes. However electronic sensors such as the type used in digital cameras are able to detect signals in the infrared band. To avoid distortion in the pictures obtained near-infrared is blocked by optical filters inserted in digital cameras. By carrying out minor modification allowing near-infrared signal to be imaged while blocking the visible signal, the camera is turned into a low-cost NIR imaging instrument. NIR imaging can be a useful tool in historical manuscript study or restoration. A few applications have been successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiment using the instrument available in MINT. However, due to unavailability of historical items, easily available texts and paintings are used in the demonstrations. This paper reports achievements of early work on the application of digital camera in the detection of damaged prints or writings. (Author)

  5. Near-infrared light absorption by brown carbon in the ambient atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C.; Hoffer, A.; Beres, N. D.; Moosmüller, H.; Liu, C.; Green, M.; Kim, S. W.; Engelbrecht, J. P.; Gelencser, A.

    2017-12-01

    Organic aerosols have been assumed to have little-to-no absorption in the red and near-infrared spectral regions of solar radiation, even though a class of organic aerosols were shown to absorb significantly in these spectral regions. Here, we show that ambient atmospheric data from commonly-used 7-wavelength aethalometers contain evidence of abundant near-infrared light absorption by organic aerosol. This evidence comes from the absorption Ångström exponent over 880 950 nm, which often exceeds values explainable by fresh or coated black carbon, or mineral dust. This evidence is not due to an artifact from the instrument random errors or biases, either. The best explanation for these large 880/950 nm absorption Ångström exponent values in the aethalometer data is near-infrared light absorption by tar balls. Tar balls are among common particles from forest fire.

  6. Background and state of the art of near infrared spectroscopy in the forest sector base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, G.I.B. de; Magalhães, W.L.E.; Carneiro, M.E.; Viana, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme [pt

  7. Near-infrared observations of the far-infrared source V region in NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Joyce, R.R.; Simon, M.; Simon, T.

    1982-01-01

    We have observed a very red near-infrared source at the center of NGC 6334 FIRS V, a far-infrared source suspected of variability by McBreen et al. The near-infrared source has deep ice and silicate absorption bands, and its half-power size at 20 μm is approx.15'' x 10''. Over the past 2 years we have observed no variability in the near-infrared flux. We have also detected an extended source of H 2 line emission in this region. The total luminosity in the H 2 v-1--0 S(1) line, uncorrected for extinction along the line of sight, is 0.3 L/sub sun/. Detection of emission in high-velocity wings of the J = 1--0 12 CO line suggests that the H 2 emission is associated with a supersonic gas flow

  8. pnCCD for photon detection from near-infrared to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Hartmann, Robert; Herrmann, Sven; Holl, Peter; Lutz, Gerhard; Strueder, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    A pnCCD is a special type of charge-coupled device developed for spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays with high time resolution and quantum efficiency. Its most famous application is the operation on the XMM-Newton satellite, an X-ray astronomy mission that was launched by the European space agency in 1999. The excellent performance of the focal plane camera has been maintained for more than 6 years in orbit. The energy resolution in particular has shown hardly any degradation since launch. In order to satisfy the requirements of future X-ray astronomy missions as well as those of ground-based experiments, a new type of pnCCD has been developed. This 'frame-store pnCCD' shows an enhanced performance compared to the XMM-Newton type of pnCCD. Now, more options in device design and operation are available to tailor the detector to its respective application. Part of this concept is a programmable analog signal processor, which has been developed for the readout of the CCD signals. The electronic noise of the new detector has a value of only 2 electrons equivalent noise charge (ENC), which is less than half of the figure achieved for the XMM-Newton-type pnCCD. The energy resolution for the Mn-K α line at 5.9 keV is approximately 130 eV FWHM. We have close to 100% quantum efficiency for both low- and high-energy photon detection (e.g. the C-K line at 277 eV, and the Ge-K α line at 10 keV, respectively). Very high frame rates of 1000 images/s have been achieved due to the ultra-fast readout accomplished by the parallel architecture of the pnCCD and the analog signal processor. Excellent spectroscopic performance is shown even at the relatively high operating temperature of -25 deg. C that can be achieved by a Peltier cooler. The applications of the low-noise and fast pnCCD detector are not limited to the detection of X-rays. With an anti-reflective coating deposited on the photon entrance window, we achieve high quantum efficiency also for near-infrared and optical

  9. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    blinded to group allocation. RESULTS: The 86 infants randomised to the NIRS group had a median burden of hypoxia and hyperoxia of 36.1%hours (interquartile range 9.2-79.5%hours) compared with 81.3 (38.5-181.3) %hours in the control group, a reduction of 58% (95% confidence interval 35% to 73%, P....001). In the experimental group the median burden of hypoxia was 16.6 (interquartile range 5.4-68.1) %hours, compared with 53.6 (17.4-171.3) %hours in the control group (P=0.0012). The median burden of hyperoxia was similar between the groups: 1.2 (interquartile range 0.3-9.6) %hours in the experimental group compared...... oxygenation using NIRS in combination with a dedicated treatment guideline during the first 72 hours of life (experimental) compared with blinded NIRS oxygenation monitoring with standard care (control). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the time spent outside the target range of 55...

  10. Hierarchical Models for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the Optical and Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, G.; Kirshner, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova optical and near infrared light curves. Since the near infrared light curves are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction and reddening, the combination of near infrared and optical data better constrains the host galaxy extinction and improves the precision of distance predictions to SN Ia. A hierarchical probabilistic model coherently accounts for multiple random and uncertain effects, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations across phase and wavelength, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances. An improved BayeSN MCMC code is implemented for computing probabilistic inferences for individual supernovae and the SN Ia and host galaxy dust populations. I use this hierarchical model to analyze nearby Type Ia supernovae with optical and near infared data from the PAIRITEL, CfA3, and CSP samples and the literature. Using cross-validation to test the robustness of the model predictions, I find that the rms Hubble diagram scatter of predicted distance moduli is 0.11 mag for SN with optical and near infrared data versus 0.15 mag for SN with only optical data. Accounting for the dispersion expected from random peculiar velocities, the rms intrinsic prediction error is 0.08-0.10 mag for SN with both optical and near infrared light curves. I discuss results for the inferred intrinsic correlation structures of the optical-NIR SN Ia light curves and the host galaxy dust distribution captured by the hierarchical model. The continued observation and analysis of Type Ia SN in the optical and near infrared is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  11. The Development of Novel Near-Infrared (NIR Tetraarylazadipyrromethene Fluorescent Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel structures of an near-infrared (NIR tetraarylazadipyrromethene (aza-BODIPY series have been prepared. We designed the core structure containing two amido groups at the para-position of the aromatic rings. The amido group was incorporated to secure insensitivity to pH and to ensure a bathochromic shift to the NIR region. Forty members of aza-BODIPY compounds were synthesized by substitution of the acetyl group with commercial amines on the alpha bromide. The physicochemical properties and photostability were investigated and the fluorescence emission maxima (745~755 nm were found to be in the near infrared (NIR range of fluorescence.

  12. Observation of near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Satio; Koizumi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Uyama, Kiichiro.

    1981-01-01

    The near-infrared surface brightness of the large Magellanic cloud was observed by an infrared telescope carried by a balloon. The balloon flight was made at Australian Balloon Launching Station. The brightness distribution of 2.4 Mu m radiation was obtained. A part of Bar was bright, and the expansion of the contour at the east end of Bar corresponded to the 30 Dor region. Many near-infrared sources distribute in this region. Discussions on the color and brightness of the center of Bar and the 30 Dor region are presented. (Kato, T.)

  13. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  14. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.

    2014-04-01

    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  15. Towards a near infrared spectroscopy-based estimation of operator attentional state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Derosière

    Full Text Available Given the critical risks to public health and safety that can involve lapses in attention (e.g., through implication in workplace accidents, researchers have sought to develop cognitive-state tracking technologies, capable of alerting individuals engaged in cognitively demanding tasks of potentially dangerous decrements in their levels of attention. The purpose of the present study was to address this issue through an investigation of the reliability of optical measures of cortical correlates of attention in conjunction with machine learning techniques to distinguish between states of full attention and states characterized by reduced attention capacity during a sustained attention task. Seven subjects engaged in a 30 minutes duration sustained attention reaction time task with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS monitoring over the prefrontal and the right parietal areas. NIRS signals from the first 10 minutes of the task were considered as characterizing the 'full attention' class, while the NIRS signals from the last 10 minutes of the task were considered as characterizing the 'attention decrement' class. A two-class support vector machine algorithm was exploited to distinguish between the two levels of attention using appropriate NIRS-derived signal features. Attention decrement occurred during the task as revealed by the significant increase in reaction time in the last 10 compared to the first 10 minutes of the task (p<.05. The results demonstrate relatively good classification accuracy, ranging from 65 to 90%. The highest classification accuracy results were obtained when exploiting the oxyhemoglobin signals (i.e., from 77 to 89%, depending on the cortical area considered rather than the deoxyhemoglobin signals (i.e., from 65 to 66%. Moreover, the classification accuracy increased to 90% when using signals from the right parietal area rather than from the prefrontal cortex. The results support the feasibility of developing cognitive tracking

  16. Strategy in short-term memory for pictures in childhood: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Takada, Yui; Kimura, Naoko; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Hara, Toshiro

    2011-02-01

    In Baddeley's working memory model, verbalizable visual material such as pictures are recoded into a phonological form and then rehearsed, while auditory material is rehearsed directly. The recoding and rehearsal processes are mediated by articulatory control process in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Developmentally, the phonological strategy for serially-presented visual material emerges around 7 years of age, while that for auditory material is consistently present by 4 years of age. However, the strategy change may actually be correlated with memory ability as this usually increases with age. To investigate the relationship between the strategy for pictures and memory ability, we monitored the left VLPFC activation in 5 to 11 year-old children during free recall of visually- or auditorily-presented familiar objects using event-related near-infrared spectroscopy. We hypothesized that the phonological strategy of rehearsal and recoding for visual material would provoke greater activation than only rehearsal for auditory material in the left VLPFC. Therefore, we presumed that the activation difference for visual material compared with auditory material in the left VLPFC may represent the tendency to use a phonological strategy. We found that the activation difference in the left VLPFC showed a significant positive correlation with memory ability but not with age, suggesting that children with high memory ability make more use of phonological strategy for pictures. The present study provides functional evidence that the strategy in short-term memory for pictures shifts gradually from non-phonological to phonological as memory ability increases in childhood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ventilation modalities on near-infrared spectroscopy in surgically corrected CDH infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Andrea; Giliberti, Paola; Landolfo, Francesca; Valfrè, Laura; Columbo, Claudia; Mondi, Vito; Capolupo, Irma; Dotta, Andrea; Bagolan, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring tissue oxygenation and perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral and splanchnic NIRS changes in CDH operated infants enrolled into the VICI trial and therefore randomized for ventilatory modalities. CDH newborns enrolled into the VICI trial (Netherlands Trial Register, NTR 1310) were randomized at birth for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) or conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) according to the trial. Cerebral oxygenation (rSO2C) and splanchnic oxygenation (rSO2S) were obtained by NIRS (INVOS 5100; Somanetics, Troy, MI) before and after surgery. Variations in rSO2C and rSO2S were evaluated. Mann-Whitney test and one-way ANOVA were used as appropriate. p<0.05 was considered significant. Thirteen VICI trial patients underwent surgical repair between March 2011 and December 2012, and were enrolled in the study. Seven patients were assigned to HFOV and six to CMV group respectively. During surgery, a significant reduction in rSO2C (p=0.0001) and rSO2S (p=0.005) were observed. HFOV patients experienced prolonged reduction in rSO2C value (p=0.003) while rSO2S did not vary between HFOV and CMV (p=0.94). Surgical CDH repair was associated with decrease of cerebral and splanchnic oxygenation, regardless of ventilation. Patients ventilated by HFOV need a longer time interval to recovery normal rSO2C values, than those ventilated by CMV. This may be owing to a different impact of HFOV on patients' hemodynamic status with a higher impairment on total venous return and its negative consequences on cardiac output. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic review of near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygenation during non-cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bay Nielsen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is used to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation (rScO2 during cardiac surgery but is less established during non-cardiac surgery. This systematic review aimed i to determine the non-cardiac surgical procedures that provoke a reduction in rScO2 and ii to evaluate whether an intraoperative reduction in rScO2 influences postoperative outcome. The PubMed and Embase database were searched from inception until April 30, 2013 and inclusion criteria were intraoperative NIRS determined rScO2 in adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The type of surgery and number of patients included were recorded. There was included 113 articles and evidence suggests that rScO2 is reduced during thoracic surgery involving single lung ventilation, major abdominal surgery, hip surgery, and laparascopic surgery with the patient placed in anti-Tredelenburg’s position. Shoulder arthroscopy in the beach chair and carotid endarterectomy with clamped internal carotid artery also cause pronounced cerebral desaturation. A >20% reduction in rScO2 coincides with indices of regional and global cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy. Following thoracic surgery, major orthopedic and abdominal surgery the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction might be related to intraoperative cerebral desaturation. In conclusion, certain non-cardiac surgical procedures is associated with an increased risk for the occurrence of regional cerebral oxygenation. Evidence for an association between cerebral desaturation and postoperative outcome parameters other than cognitive dysfunction needs to be established.

  19. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  20. Potential applications of near infrared auto-fluorescence spectral polarized imaging for assessment of food quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The current growing of food industry for low production costs and high efficiency needs for maintenance of high-quality standards and assurance of food safety while avoiding liability issues. Quality and safety of food depend on physical (texture, color, tenderness etc.), chemical (fat content, moisture, protein content, pH, etc.), and biological (total bacterial count etc.) features. There is a need for a rapid (less than a few minutes) and accurate detection system in order to optimize quality and assure safety of food. However, the fluorescence ranges for known fluorophores are limited to ultraviolet emission bands, which are not in the tissue near infrared (NIR) "optical window". Biological tissues excited by far-red or NIR light would exhibit strong emission in spectral range of 650-1,100 nm although no characteristic peaks show the emission from which known fluorophores. The characteristics of the auto-fluorescence emission of different types of tissues were found to be different between different tissue components such as fat, high quality muscle food. In this paper, NIR auto-fluorescence emission from different types of muscle food and fat was measured. The differences of fluorescence intensities of the different types of muscle food and fat emissions were observed. These can be explained by the change of the microscopic structure of physical, chemical, and biological features in meat. The difference of emission intensities of fat and lean meat tissues was applied to monitor food quality and safety using spectral polarized imaging, which can be detect deep depth fat under the muscle food up to several centimeter.

  1. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy to probe sensorimotor region activation during electrical stimulation-evoked movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Ferrari, Marco; Quaresima, Valentina; Kerr, Graham; Perrey, Stephane

    2017-11-07

    This study used non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) neuroimaging to monitor bilateral sensorimotor region activation during unilateral voluntary (VOL) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked movements. In eight healthy male volunteers, fNIRS was used to measure relative changes in oxyhaemoglobin (O 2 Hb) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) concentrations from a cortical sensorimotor region of interest in the left (LH) and right (RH) hemispheres during NMES-evoked and VOL wrist extension movements of the right arm. NMES-evoked movements induced significantly greater activation (increase in O 2 Hb and concomitant decrease in HHb) in the contralateral LH than in the ipsilateral RH (O 2 Hb: 0·44 ± 0·16 μM and 0·25 ± 0·22 μM, P = 0·017; HHb: -0·19 ± 0·10 μM and -0·12 ± 0·09 μM, P = 0·036, respectively) as did VOL movements (0·51 ± 0·24 μΜ and 0·34 ± 0·21 μM, P = 0·031; HHb: -0·18 ± 0·07 μΜ and -0·12 ± 0·04 μΜ, P = 0·05, respectively). There was no significant difference between conditions for O 2 Hb (P = 0·144) and HHb (P = 0·958). fNIRS neuroimaging enables quantification of bilateral sensorimotor regional activation profiles during voluntary and NMES-evoked wrist extension movements. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Direct cortical hemodynamic mapping of somatotopy of pig nostril sensation by functional near-infrared cortical imaging (fNCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Minako; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sano, Toshifumi; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Rizki, Edmi Edison; Mizutani, Tsutomu; Katura, Takusige; Dan, Ippeita; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-05-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique for the noninvasive monitoring of human brain activation states utilizing the coupling between neural activity and regional cerebral hemodynamics. Illuminators and detectors, together constituting optodes, are placed on the scalp, but due to the presence of head tissues, an inter-optode distance of more than 2.5cm is necessary to detect cortical signals. Although direct cortical monitoring with fNIRS has been pursued, a high-resolution visualization of hemodynamic changes associated with sensory, motor and cognitive neural responses directly from the cortical surface has yet to be realized. To acquire robust information on the hemodynamics of the cortex, devoid of signal complications in transcranial measurement, we devised a functional near-infrared cortical imaging (fNCI) technique. Here we demonstrate the first direct functional measurement of temporal and spatial patterns of cortical hemodynamics using the fNCI technique. For fNCI, inter-optode distance was set at 5mm, and light leakage from illuminators was prevented by a special optode holder made of a light-shielding rubber sheet. fNCI successfully detected the somatotopy of pig nostril sensation, as assessed in comparison with concurrent and sequential somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurements on the same stimulation sites. Accordingly, the fNCI system realized a direct cortical hemodynamic measurement with a spatial resolution comparable to that of SEP mapping on the rostral region of the pig brain. This study provides an important initial step toward realizing functional cortical hemodynamic monitoring during neurosurgery of human brains. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H M; Fritzsche, J; Tkatsch, H; Waag, F; Karch, K; Henze, K; Delbeck, S; Budde, J

    2013-01-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences. (paper)

  4. Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, H. M.; Fritzsche, J.; Tkatsch, H.; Waag, F.; Karch, K.; Henze, K.; Delbeck, S.; Budde, J.

    2013-11-01

    Mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy is introduced as a versatile analytical method for characterizing liquid and solid chemicals as obtained from petrochemistry and biotechnology processes. Besides normal transmission measurements, special equipment with silver halide fiber-optic probes allowing efficient analysis based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection, and an accessory for near-infrared diffuse reflection measurements, are presented. The latter technique can be used advantageously for powdered samples such as microalgae biomass and polysaccharides, as well as for different tissues such as meat samples. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods, which can be used for industrial process monitoring and chemical quality control applications, are discussed, and have been used in several research projects of BSc students within their degree course of bio- and nano-technologies of our University of Applied Sciences.

  5. Confirming LBV Candidates Through Variability: A Photometric and Spectroscopic Monitoring Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy; Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2013-02-01

    Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars represent an extremely rare class of luminous massive stars with high mass loss rates. The paucity ( 12) of confirmed Galactic LBV precludes determining a solid evolutionary connection between LBV and other intermediate (e.g. Ofpe/WN9, WNL) phases in the life of very massive stars. We've been conducting an optical/near-IR spectral survey of a large subset of central stars residing within newly discovered it Spitzer nebulae and have identified over two dozen new candidate LBVs (cLBVs) based on spectral similarity alone; confirming them as bona fide LBVs requires demonstrating 1-3 mag photometric and spectroscopic variability. This marks a significant advancement in the study of massive stars, far outweighing the return from many studies searching for LBVs and WRs the past several decades. Monitoring from semesters 2011B-2012A already has confirmed one new cLBV as a bona fide LBV. We propose to continue optical-IR photometric monitoring of these cLBVS with the 1.3m. Chiron, replacing the RC spectrograph on the 1.5m, now allows high-resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring of bright cLBVs, 11 of which are proposed herein. Spectra are important for understanding the physics driving photometric variability, properties of the wind, and allow analysis of line profiles.

  6. Hydrate formation during wet granulation studied by spectroscopic methods and multivariate analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna; Rantanen, Jukka; Karjalainen, Milja

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to follow hydrate formation of two structurally related drugs, theophylline and caffeine, during wet granulation using fast and nondestructive spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Anhydrous theophylline and caffeine were granulated with purified water. Charge-coupled device (CCD......) Raman spectroscopy was compared with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in following hydrate formation of drugs during wet granulation (off-line). To perform an at-line process analysis, the effect of water addition was monitored by NIR spectroscopy and principal components analysis (PCA). The changes...

  7. Monitoring the composition of the Cd1-zZnzTe heteroepitaxial layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, M. V.; Shvets, V. A.; Azarov, I. A.; Rykhlytski, S. V.; Sidorov, Yu. G.; Spesivtsev, E. V.; Shamirzaev, T. S.

    2010-01-01

    A hardware-software complex based on a spectroscopic ellipsometer integrated into a molecular beam epitaxy installation and destined to monitor the composition of the Cd 1 -z Zn z Te alloy at small values of z is described. Methodical features of determination of the composition of growing layers by the spectra of ellipsometric parameters are considered. The procedure of determination of the composition by the absorption edge that allows measuring this parameter accurate to 1.2% is developed. Problems are considered the solutions of which will allow one to increase the resolution by the composition. In particular, maintaining a stable temperature during growth is required for this purpose.

  8. Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL; Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL

    2011-03-15

    A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

  9. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine → creatinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine → creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ∼240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  10. Optical and near-infrared study of the AM Herculis-type binary CW 1103 + 254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); Watts, D J [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Sherrington, M R [Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy

    1985-07-15

    The AM Herculis-type binary CW 1103+254 has been observed using optical and near-infrared photometry and polarimetry, and optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry. It is found that from such a set of observations it is relatively easy to distinguish all the main components of