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Sample records for near-infra-red nir emitting

  1. 3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near-Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Sensitization of Ho(III) and Pr(III) in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Evan G.; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Palsson, Lars-Olof; Beeby, Andrew; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-05-19

    There is a growing interest in Near Infra-Red (NIR) emission originating from organic complexes of Ln{sup III} cations. As a major impetus, biological tissues are considerably more transparent at these low energy wavelengths when compared to visible radiation, which facilitates deeper penetration of incident and emitted light. Furthermore, the long luminescence lifetimes of Ln{sup III} complexes (eg. Yb{sup III}, {tau}{sub rad} {approx} 1 ms) when compared to typical organic molecules can be utilized to vastly improve signal to noise ratios by employing time-gating techniques. While the improved quantum yield of Yb{sub III} complexes when compared to other NIR emitters favors their use for bioimaging applications, there has also been significant interest in the sensitized emission from other 4f metals such as Ln = Nd, Ho, Pr and Er which have well recognized applications as solid state laser materials (eg. Nd {approx} 1.06 {micro}m, Ho {approx} 2.09 {micro}m), and in telecommunications (eg. Er {approx} 1.54 {micro}m) where they can be used for amplification of optical signals. As a result of their weak (Laporte forbidden) f-f absorptions, the direct excitation of Ln{sup III} cations is inefficient, and sensitization of the metal emission is more effectively achieved using the so-called antenna effect. We have previously examined the properties of several Eu{sup III} complexes which feature 1-hydroxypyridin-2-one (Fig. 1) as the light harvesting chromophore. While the 1,2-HOPO isomer was found to strongly sensitize Eu{sup III}, we noted the analogous Me-3,2-HOPO isomer does not, which prompted further investigation of the properties of this chromophore with other metals.

  2. Me-3,2-HOPO Complexes of Near Infra-Red (NIR) Emitting Lanthanides: Efficient Sensitization of Yb(III) and Nd(III) in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Evan G.; Xu, Jide; Dodani, Sheel; Jocher, Christoph; D' Aleo, Anthony; Seitz, Michael; Raymond, Kenneth

    2009-11-10

    The synthesis, X-ray structure, solution stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes of Yb(III) and Nd(III) using both tetradentate and octadentate ligand design strategies and incorporating the 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-pyridin-2-one (Me-3,2-HOPO) chelate group are reported. Both the Yb(III) and Nd(III) complexes have emission bands in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) region, and this luminescence is retained in aqueous solution ({Phi}{sub tot}{sup Yb} {approx} 0.09-0.22%). Furthermore, the complexes demonstrate very high stability (pYb {approx} 18.8-21.9) in aqueous solution, making them good candidates for further development as probes for NIR imaging. Analysis of the low temperature (77 K) photophysical measurements for a model Gd(III) complex were used to gain an insight into the electronic structure, and were found to agree well with corresponding TD-DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G{sup ++}(d,p) level of theory for a simplified model monovalent sodium complex.

  3. Karakteristik Spektra Absorbansi NIR (Near Infra Red Spektroskopi Kayu Acacia mangium WILLD pada 3 Umur Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Karlinasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pengujian nondestruktif metode near infrared (NIR spektroskopi di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan karakteristik spektra NIR spektroskopi (panjang gelombang 700 nm – 2500 nm kayu Acacia mangium dari 3 umur yaitu 5, 6, dan, 7 tahun. Kayu mangium diperoleh dari daerah Maribaya, Parung Panjang, Bogor. Sampel contoh uji spektra terdiri dari bentuk solid atau padatan dan bentuk serbuk kayu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektra absorban NIR sampel padatan kayu lebih tinggi dibandingkan bentuk sampel serbuk. Umur pohon untuk jenis kayu yang sama tidak memberikan informasi perbedaan pola spektra absorbansi NIR yang nyata untuk setiap lokasi panjang gelombangnya. Penelitian lebih lanjut dapat dilakukan untuk menentukan model pendugaan sifat kimia, fisis dan mekanis kayu menggunakan analisis statistik metode analisis multivariasi. Kata kunci: NIR spektroskopi, Acacia mangium, kayu solid, serbuk kayu    Characteristics of Absorbency Spectra of NIR (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy of Acacia mangium Willd Wood from Three Different Age Abstract Research on non-destructive test of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy method was still limited in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine near infrared (NIR spectroscopy (wavelength range within 780 nm -2500 nm characteristic of wood species of Acacia mangium. The samples were selected from three different ages e.g. 5 year, 6 years, and 7 years grown in Maribaya area of Parung Panjang Distric. The NIR testing samples used were solid wood and ground wood. This study resulted that there was visually no significant difference of absorbance spectra NIR patterns based on wood ages. NIR absorbance spectra had same trend for both solid and ground wood samples in a range of wavelength, although those were in different values. The NIR absorbance spectra values of solid wood samples seemed higher than ground wood samples. Further research is needed to

  4. On-chip integrated functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) photoreceiver for portable brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrani, Ehsan

    Optical brain imaging using functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) offers a direct and noninvasive tool for monitoring of blood oxygenation. fNIRS is a noninvasive, safe, minimally intrusive, and high temporal-resolution technique for real-time and long-term brain imaging. It allows detecting both fast-neuronal and slow-hemodynamic signals. Besides the significant advantages of fNIRS systems, they still suffer from few drawbacks including low spatial-resolution, moderately high-level noise and high-sensitivity to movement. In order to overcome the limitations of currently available non-portable fNIRS systems, we have introduced a new low-power, miniaturized on-chip photodetector front-end intended for portable fNIRS systems. It includes silicon avalanche photodiode (SiAPD), Transimpedance amplifier (TIA), and Quench- Reset circuitry implemented using standard CMOS technologies to operate in both linear and Geiger modes. So it can be applied for both continuous-wave fNIRS (CW-fNIRS) and also single-photon counting applications. Several SiAPDs have been implemented in novel structures and shapes (Rectangular, Octagonal, Dual, Nested, Netted, Quadratic and Hexadecagonal) using different premature edge breakdown prevention techniques. The main characteristics of the SiAPDs are validated and the impact of each parameter and the device simulators (TCAD, COMSOL, etc.) have been studied based on the simulation and measurement results. Proposed techniques exhibit SiAPDs with high avalanche-gain (up to 119), low breakdown-voltage (around 12V) and high photon-detection efficiency (up to 72% in NIR region) in additional to a low dark-count rate (down to 30Hz at 1V excess bias voltage). Three new high gain-bandwidth product (GBW) and low-noise TIAs are introduced and implemented based on distributed-gain concept, logarithmic-amplification and automatic noise-rejection and have been applied in linear-mode of operation. The implemented TIAs offer a power

  5. Determinação de umidade em café cru usando espectroscopia NIR e regressão multivariada Determination of moisture in raw coffee by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio Morgano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A espectroscopia na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR foi usada para determinar o teor de umidade em amostras de café cru. Foram construídos modelos de regressão usando o método dos mínimos quadrados parciais (PLS com diferentes pré-tratamentos de dados e 157 espectros NIR coletados de amostras de café usando um acessório de reflectância difusa, na região entre 4500 e 10000 cm-1. Os espectros originais passaram por diferentes transformações e pré-tratamentos matemáticos, como a transformação Kubelka-Munk; a correção multiplicativa de sinal (MSC; o alisamento com SPLINE e a média móvel, e os dados foram escalados pela variância. O modelo de regressão permitiu determinar o teor de umidade nas amostras de café cru com erro quadrático médio de calibração (SEC de 0,569 g.100 g -1; erro quadrático médio de validação de 0,298 g.100 g -1; coeficiente de correlação (r 0,712 e 0,818 para calibração e validação, respectivamente; e erro relativo médio de 4,1% para amostras de validação.Near infra-red reflectance (NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the moisture content in raw coffee. Different models using partial least squares (PLS with data pre-processing were used. Regression models were built with 157 spectra of the samples of raw coffee collected using a near infrared spectrometer with an accessory of diffuse reflectance, between 4500 and 10000 cm-1. The original NIR spectra went through different transformations and mathematical pre treatments, such as the Kubelka-Munk transformation; multiplicative signal correction (MSC; spline smoothing and movable average, and the data were scaled by variance. The regression model permitted the determination of the moisture content of the raw coffee samples with a standard error of calibration (SEC = 0.569 g.100 g -1; standard error of validation = 0.298 g.100 g -1; correlation coefficient (r 0.712 and 0.818 for calibration and validation, respectively, and average

  6. Challenging Near InfraRed Spectroscopy discriminating ability for counterfeit pharmaceuticals detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storme-Paris, I. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Rebiere, H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Matoga, M. [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Civade, C.; Bonnet, P.-A.; Tissier, M.H. [Laboratories and Control Department, French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS), 635 rue de la Garenne, 34740 Vendargues (France); Chaminade, P., E-mail: pierre.chaminade@u-psud.fr [Groupe de Chimie Analytique de Paris-Sud, EA 4041, IFR 141, School of Pharmacy, Univ Paris-Sud, 5 rue Jean Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-01-25

    This study was initiated by the laboratories and control department of the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) as part of the fight against the public health problem of rising counterfeit and imitation medicines. To test the discriminating ability of Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), worse cases scenarios were first considered for the discrimination of various pharmaceutical final products containing the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) with different excipients, such as generics of proprietary medicinal products (PMP). Two generic databases were explored: low active strength hard capsules of Fluoxetine and high strength tablets of Ciprofloxacin. Then 4 other cases involving suspicious samples, counterfeits and imitations products were treated. In all these cases, spectral differences between samples were studied, giving access to API or excipient contents information, and eventually allowing manufacturing site identification. A chemometric background is developed to explain the optimisation methodology, consisting in the choices of appropriate pretreatments, algorithms for data exploratory analyses (unsupervised Principal Component Analysis), and data classification (supervised cluster analysis, and Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy). Results demonstrate the high performance of NIRS, highlighting slight differences in formulations, such as 2.5% (w/w) in API strength, 1.0% (w/w) in excipient and even coating variations (<1%, w/w) with identical contents, approaching the theoretical limits of NIRS sensitivity. All the different generic formulations were correctly discriminated and foreign PMP, constituted of formulations slightly different from the calibration ones, were also all discriminated. This publication addresses the ability of NIRS to detect counterfeits and imitations and presents the NIRS as an ideal tool to master the global threat of counterfeit drugs.

  7. Multicolour single molecule imaging in cells with near infra-red dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Tynan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The autofluorescence background of biological samples impedes the detection of single molecules when imaging. The most common method of reducing the background is to use evanescent field excitation, which is incompatible with imaging beyond the surface of biological samples. An alternative would be to use probes that can be excited in the near infra-red region of the spectrum, where autofluorescence is low. Such probes could also increase the number of labels that can be imaged in multicolour single molecule microscopes. Despite being widely used in ensemble imaging, there is a currently a shortage of information available for selecting appropriate commercial near infra-red dyes for single molecule work. It is therefore important to characterise available near infra-red dyes relevant to multicolour single molecule imaging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A range of commercially available near infra-red dyes compatible with multi-colour imaging was screened to find the brightest and most photostable candidates. Image series of immobilised samples of the brightest dyes (Alexa 700, IRDye 700DX, Alexa 790 and IRDye 800CW were analysed to obtain the mean intensity of single dye molecules, their photobleaching rates and long period blinking kinetics. Using the optimum dye pair, we have demonstrated for the first time widefield, multi-colour, near infra-red single molecule imaging using a supercontinuum light source in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that near infra-red dyes can be used to avoid autofluorescence background in samples where restricting the illumination volume of visible light fails or is inappropriate. We have also shown that supercontinuum sources are suited to single molecule multicolour imaging throughout the 470-1000 nm range. Our measurements of near infra-red dye properties will enable others to select optimal dyes for single molecule imaging.

  8. X-shooter near infra-red spectrograph cryogenic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Albers, Peter; Lizon, Jean-Louis; van Dael, Pieter; Elswijk, Eddy; Groot, Paul; Hanenburg, Hiddo; Kragt, Jan; Navarro, Ramon; Tromp, Niels; Wulterkens, Gerben

    2008-07-01

    X-shooter is a high-efficiency spectrograph capable of simultaneously observing the complete spectral range of 300- 2500 nm. The instrument will be located at the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. To allow sky back ground limited observations the 120 kg Optical Bench of the NIR Spectrograph and the HAWAII-2RG detector are cooled to 105 K and 82 K respectively. To ensure vibrationless operation the cooling is performed by a LN2 bath-cryostat. The thermal stability requirements for the Optical Box are very tight (order of 100 mK) considering that the NIR-cryostat is subject to telescope movement and LN2 level variations. Large glass optics are limiting the cooldown. To speed up the cooldown the cooling concept of the Optical Box includes the utilization of LN2 heat exchangers. To avoid asymptotic stabilizing times the Optical Box is cooled below the operating temperature. When the optics reach a temperature slightly above the operating temperature the temperature of the Optical Box is quickly brought back to stabilize the optics. Dedicated controllers, strapping and heaters are used for temperature stabilization during steady state. A cryostat hold time of 24 hours with the minimum amount of LN2 in view of the tight mass budget requires strict control of the power budget and careful control of the design margins. This is ensured by precise modeling of the temperature behavior. The thermal model is compared with the actual measured thermal behavior.

  9. Partial loss compensation in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides at near infra-red wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Cesar; Coello, Victor; Han, Zhanghua

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of straight dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polaritons waveguides doped with lead-sulfide quantum dots as a near infra-red gain medium. A loss compensation of ~33% (an optical gain of ~143 cm^−1) was observed in the guided mode. The mode propaga...

  10. Persistent luminescence induced by near infra-red photostimulation in chromium-doped zinc gallate for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suchinder K.; Gourier, Didier; Teston, Eliott; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille; Viana, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of the optical spectroscopy of the Cr3+ doped spinel was initiated by Prof. Georges Boulon more than twenty years ago. More recently persistent luminescence nanoparticles of Cr doped zinc gallate have found interest for in vivo imaging of small animals. Here we evaluated near infra-red (NIR) excitation (or NIR photostimulation) via photo-transfer mechanism as an additional tool for in vivo optical imaging. Investigation of the persistent luminescence induced by NIR photostimulation is studied after either a primary UV (band-to-band excitation) or visible irradiation (direct Cr 3d-3d excitation). UV or visible pre-excited ZnGa2O4:Cr (ZGO:Cr) nanoparticles are kept active during several days thanks to deep traps (with depths 1 eV-1.2 eV) observed in these samples which can be probed through thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) technique showing glow curve maximums at 470 K and 530 K upon visible light excitation. These deep traps are stable at room temperature but can be emptied by NIR light photostimulation. Experiments were carried out to study the photostimulation induced trapping-detrapping in the ZGO:Cr phosphor. Photostimulation was also tested in vivo for small animal optical imaging to offer new perspectives and modalities.

  11. Near infra red spectroscopy as a multivariate process analytical tool for predicting pharmaceutical co-crystal concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Clive; Alwati, Abdolati; Halsey, Sheelagh; Gough, Tim; Brown, Elaine; Kelly, Adrian; Paradkar, Anant

    2016-09-10

    The use of near infra red spectroscopy to predict the concentration of two pharmaceutical co-crystals; 1:1 ibuprofen-nicotinamide (IBU-NIC) and 1:1 carbamazepine-nicotinamide (CBZ-NIC) has been evaluated. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for both co-crystal pairs using sets of standard samples to create calibration and validation data sets with which to build and validate the models. Parameters such as the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient were used to assess the accuracy and linearity of the models. Accurate PLS regression models were created for both co-crystal pairs which can be used to predict the co-crystal concentration in a powder mixture of the co-crystal and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The IBU-NIC model had smaller errors than the CBZ-NIC model, possibly due to the complex CBZ-NIC spectra which could reflect the different arrangement of hydrogen bonding associated with the co-crystal compared to the IBU-NIC co-crystal. These results suggest that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a PAT tool during a variety of pharmaceutical co-crystal manufacturing methods and the presented data will facilitate future offline and in-line NIR studies involving pharmaceutical co-crystals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of sensitivity in continuous wave near infra-red spectroscopy systems by using silicon photomultipliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Roberto; Libertino, Sebania; Sanfilippo, Delfo; Fallica, Giorgio; Lombardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally analyze the signal-to-noise ratio of continuous wave (CW) near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance systems based on light emitting diodes and silicon photomultipliers for high performance low cost NIRS biomedical systems. We show that under suitable experimental conditions such systems exhibit a high SNR, which allows an SDS of 7 cm, to our knowledge the largest ever demonstrated in a CW-NIRs system.

  13. Noninvasive blood glucose sensing using near infra-red spectroscopy and artificial neural networks based on inverse delayed function model of neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasahayam, Swathi; Koppuravuri, Sri Haindavi; Arora, Lavanya; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a non-invasive blood glucose sensing system is presented using near infra-red(NIR) spectroscopy. The signal from the NIR optodes is processed using artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate the glucose level in blood. In order to obtain accurate values of the synaptic weights of the ANN, inverse delayed (ID) function model of neuron has been used. The ANN model has been implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Error in estimating glucose levels using ANN based on ID function model of neuron implemented on FPGA, came out to be 1.02 mg/dl using 15 hidden neurons in the hidden layer as against 5.48 mg/dl using ANN based on conventional neuron model.

  14. An empirical approach to estimate near-infra-red photon propagation and optically induced drug release in brain tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu Verleker, Akshay; Fang, Qianqian; Choi, Mi-Ran; Clare, Susan; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternate empirical approach to estimate near-infra-red (NIR) photon propagation and quantify optically induced drug release in brain metastasis, without relying on computationally expensive Monte Carlo techniques (gold standard). Targeted drug delivery with optically induced drug release is a noninvasive means to treat cancers and metastasis. This study is part of a larger project to treat brain metastasis by delivering lapatinib-drug-nanocomplexes and activating NIR-induced drug release. The empirical model was developed using a weighted approach to estimate photon scattering in tissues and calibrated using a GPU based 3D Monte Carlo. The empirical model was developed and tested against Monte Carlo in optical brain phantoms for pencil beams (width 1mm) and broad beams (width 10mm). The empirical algorithm was tested against the Monte Carlo for different albedos along with diffusion equation and in simulated brain phantoms resembling white-matter (μs'=8.25mm-1, μa=0.005mm-1) and gray-matter (μs'=2.45mm-1, μa=0.035mm-1) at wavelength 800nm. The goodness of fit between the two models was determined using coefficient of determination (R-squared analysis). Preliminary results show the Empirical algorithm matches Monte Carlo simulated fluence over a wide range of albedo (0.7 to 0.99), while the diffusion equation fails for lower albedo. The photon fluence generated by empirical code matched the Monte Carlo in homogeneous phantoms (R2=0.99). While GPU based Monte Carlo achieved 300X acceleration compared to earlier CPU based models, the empirical code is 700X faster than the Monte Carlo for a typical super-Gaussian laser beam.

  15. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smitha Subramanian; Annapurni Subramaniam; Luc Simard; Kim Gillies; A. N. Ramaprakash; G. C. Anupama; C. S. Stalin; Swara Ravindranath; B. Eswar Reddy

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for the production of a near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog (IRGSC) for Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) observations are identified and presented. A methodology to compute the expected J band magnitude of stellar sources from their optical (, , ) magnitudes is developed. The computed and observed J magnitudes of sources in three test fields are compared and the methodology developed is found to be satisfactory for the magnitude range, JVega = 16–22 mag. From this analysis, we found that for the production of final TMT IRGSC (with a limiting magnitude of JVega = 22 mag), we need , , bands optical data which go up to AB ∼ 23 mag. Fine tuning of the methodology developed, such as using Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) template fitting for optimal classification of stars in the fainter end, incorporating spectral libraries in the model, to reduce the scatter, and modification of the existing colour–temperature relation to increase the source density are planned for the subsequent phase of this work.

  16. Process analytical technology: chemometric analysis of Raman and near infra-red spectroscopic data for predicting physical properties of extended release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rakhi B; Tawakkul, Mobin A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a correlation between pharmaceutical properties such as hardness, porosity, and content with prediction models employed using Raman and near infra-red (NIR) spectroscopic methods. Metoprolol tartrate tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation methods. NIR spectroscopy and chemical imaging, and Raman spectra were collected, and hardness, porosity, and dissolution were measured. The NIR PLS model showed a validated correlation coefficient of >0.90 for the predicted versus measured porosity, hardness, and amount of drug with raw and second derivative NIR spectra. Raman spectra correlated porosity of the tablets using raw data for directly compressed tablets and wet granulated tablets (r(2) > 0.90). A very close root-mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values were found in all the cases indicating validity of the calibration models. Raman spectroscopy was used for the first time to predict physical quality attribute such as porosity successfully. Chemical imaging utilizing NIR detector also demonstrated to show physical changes due to compression differences. In conclusion, sensor technologies can be potentially used to predict physical parameters of the matrix tablets.

  17. NaLaF4:Pr3+,Yb3+, an efficient blue to near infra-red quantum cutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guille

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the thermalization losses in solar cells, down-conversion of blue photons into near infra-red photons is a promising solution. In the present paper, we analyse the energy transfer processes between Pr3+ and Yb3+ in NaLaF4 and we show that an efficient quantum-cutting process occurs. Nevertheless, we also show that a back transfer from Yb3+ toward the 1G4 level of Pr3+ ion leading to emission beyond 1 μm reduces the potentiality of this material as a quantum cutter for Si solar cells.

  18. A webcam in Bayer-mode as a light beam profiler for the near infra-red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Gregor; Hochreiner, Armin; Burgholzer, Peter; Berer, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Beam profiles are commonly measured with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) or charge coupled devices (CCD). The devices are fast and reliable but expensive. By making use of the fact that the Bayer-filter in commercial webcams is transparent in the near infra-red (>800 nm) and their CCD chips are sensitive up to about 1100 nm, we demonstrate a cheap and simple way to measure laser beam profiles with a resolution down to around ±1 μm, which is close to the resolution of the knife-edge technique.

  19. Data Processing of the magnetograms for the Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda; Shumko, Sergiy; Chae, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    We want to present the processing result of the vector magnetograms from the Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS) at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NIRIS is a successor of an old magnetograph system at BBSO, which equips with the new infrared detector and the improved Fabry-Perot filter system. While there are several upgrades to the new hardware, there are also some challenges as the data acquisition rate increases and we deal with the a larger detector array. The overall process includes dark and flat correction, image alignment, de-stretch, Stokes parameter selection, calibration of instrumental crosstalk, and Milne-Eddington inversion.

  20. Stealth dicing of sapphire wafers with near infra-red femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit; Kbashi, Hani; Kolpakov, Stanislav; Gordon, Neil; Zhou, Kaiming; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-05-01

    The quality of the reflecting faces after dicing is critical for the fabrication of efficient and stable laser diodes emitting in the green-violet region. However, high-quality faces can be difficult to achieve for devices grown on a sapphire substrate as this material is difficult to cleave cleanly. We have therefore investigated a technology known as "stealth dicing". The technology uses a pulsed laser to damage a plane of material inside of the wafer due to multi-photon absorption instead of cutting through the wafer surface. If the damage is induced in a line of stress points, the sample can then be cleaved easily along the damaged plane to leave a high-quality surface. The use of this technique also reduces thermal damage and debris.

  1. Contribution of Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) to the Evaluation of Healing After Amputation of the Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-14

    A Stabilized Definitive Prosthesis (Procedure 1); Definitive Prosthesis With a Contact Socket (Procedure 1); Patients in the Initial Phase (Temporary Prosthesis, Rehabilitation) Following Unilateral Post- Transtibial Amputation (Procedure 2)

  2. Investigation of neural correlates between perception of pain and hemodynamic response measured in the pre-frontal cortex using functional near infra-red spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri

    Perception of pain is multi-dimensional, comprising three major psychological dimensions: sensory-discriminative, motivational-affective and cognitive-evaluative. This dissertation study investigates the cognitive evaluation of pain, by acquiring functional Near Infra-Red Spectroscopic (fNIRS) measurements from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas, during mechanical and thermal pain stimulation induced on the subject's volar forearm. Clustered-wise analysis on the oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) response from specific PFC areas was followed by categorizing the resulting HbO response into early (0.1--12sec) and late (12.1--25sec) phases. For each respective phase, regression analysis was carried between the HbO-derived parameters and behaviorally measured pain rating. The major findings of this study include: (1) across both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, significant DeltaHbO deactivation was observed during the late phase, in the left hemispheric (LH) anterior PFC (aPFC) or Brodmann area 10 (BA 10). (2) Significant correlates of pain rating were observed in the LH prefrontal areas: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived peak intensity (PI) from LH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under both 41°C and 48°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the LH dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC or BA 46) showed correlation with the pain rating. (3) The significant correlates observed from the right hemispheric (RH) PFC were: (a) under mechanical stimulation, early phase HbO-derived FWHM from the RH aPFC correlated with the pain rating. (b) Under 41°C thermal stimulation, late phase HbO-derived PI from the RH DLPFC area correlated with the pain rating. (4) The late phase HbO-derived time to peak from LH aPFC reflected cognitive discrimination of two different pain levels (41°C and 48°C). The observed trend for DeltaHbO activation and deactivation could possibly be due to synaptic-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction leading to increased or

  3. GaiaNIR: Combining optical and Near-Infra-Red (NIR) capabilities with Time-Delay-Integration (TDI) sensors for a future Gaia-like mission

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, David; Mora, Alcione; Crowley, Cian; McMillan, Paul; Ranalli, Piero; Heiter, Ulrike; Jordi, Carme; Hambly, Nigel; Church, Ross; Anthony, Brown; Tanga, Paolo; Chemin, Laurent; Portail, Jordi; Jiménez-Esteban, Fran; Klioner, Sergei; Mignard, Francois; Fynbo, Johan; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Rybicki, Krzysztof; Anderson, Richard I; Cellino, Alberto; Fabricius, Claus; Davidson, Michael; Lindegren, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    ESA recently called for new "Science Ideas" to be investigated in terms of feasibility and technological developments -- for technologies not yet sufficiently mature. These ideas may in the future become candidates for M or L class missions within the ESA Science Program. With the launch of Gaia in December 2013, Europe entered a new era of space astrometry following in the footsteps of the very successful Hipparcos mission from the early 1990s. Gaia is the successor to Hipparcos, both of which operated in optical wavelengths, and Gaia is two orders of magnitude more accurate in the five astrometric parameters and is surveying four orders of magnitude more stars in a vast volume of the Milky Way. The combination of the Hipparcos/Tycho-2 catalogues with the first early Gaia data release will give improved proper motions over a long ~25 year baseline. The final Gaia solution will also establish a new optical reference frame by means of quasars, by linking the optical counterparts of radio (VLBI) sources definin...

  4. Multifunctional silicon-based light emitting device in standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Huang Bei-Ju; Dong Zan; Chen Hong-Da

    2011-01-01

    A three-terminal silicon-based light emitting device is proposed and fabricated in standard 0.35μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. This device is capable of versatile working modes: it can emit visible to near infra-red (NIR) light (the spectrum ranges from 500 nm to 1000 nm) in reverse bias avalanche breakdown mode with working voltage between 8.35 V-12 V and emit NIR light (the spectrum ranges from 900 nm to 1300 nm) in the forward injection mode with working voltage below 2 V. An apparent modulation effect on the light intensity from the polysilicon gate is observed in the forward injection mode. Furthermore, when the gate oxide is broken down, NIR light is emitted from the polysilicon/oxide/silicon structure. Optoelectronic characteristics of the device working in different modes are measured and compared. The mechanisms behind these different emissions are explored.

  5. Photoswitchable NIR-Emitting Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacchi, Sara; Cantelli, Andrea; Battistelli, Giulia; Guidetti, Gloria; Calvaresi, Matteo; Manzi, Jeannette; Gabrielli, Luca; Ramadori, Federico; Gambarin, Alessandro; Mancin, Fabrizio; Montalti, Marco

    2016-09-05

    Photo-switching of the NIR emission of gold nanoparticles (GNP) upon photo-isomerization of azobenzene ligands, bound to the surface, is demonstrated. Photophysical results confirm the occurrence of an excitation energy transfer process from the ligands to the GNP that produces sensitized NIR emission. Because of this process, the excitation efficiency of the gold core, upon excitation of the ligands, is much higher for the trans form than for the cis one, and t→c photo-isomerization causes a relevant decrease of the GNP NIR emission. As a consequence, photo-isomerization can be monitored by ratiometric detection of the NIR emission upon dual excitation. The photo-isomerization process was followed in real-time through the simultaneous detection of absorbance and luminescence changes using a dedicated setup. Surprisingly, the photo-isomerization rate of the ligands, bound to the GNP surface, was the same as measured for the chromophores in solution. This outcome demonstrated that excitation energy transfer to gold assists photo-isomerization, rather than competing with it. These results pave the road to the development of new, NIR-emitting, stimuli-responsive nanomaterials for theranostics.

  6. Non-contact reflectometric readout of disposable microfluidic devices by near infra-red low-coherence interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rigamonti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are here demonstrating the functionality of infra-red low-coherence reflectometry for the spot optical readout of solution concentrations in commercially available microfluidic devices. Disposable polymeric microfluidic devices composed by 100-µm-deep channels were connected to an external fluidic path that allowed flow-through of water-glucose solutions at different concentrations. Measurements were performed with near-infrared low-power sources, namely a tungsten lamp and a Superluminescent Light Emitting Diode (SLED, allowing the read-out in a wavelength region of minimum invasiveness for biological fluids. The selected optical scheme based on an all-fiber Michelson configuration is well suited for non-contact, remote investigations of the fluids flowing in plastic microfluidic devices, with arbitrary layout and thickness. For the first time, using the SLED, we exploited the double round trip of light in the fluid channel for doubling the sensitivity with respect to the standard single pass set-up, previously demonstrated.

  7. Sulfur doping of M/In2O3 (M=Al,W nanowires with room temperature near infra red emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the growth of Al doped In2O3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism at 800°C using Au as a catalyst. We find that the Al is not incorporated into the cubic bixbyite crystal structure of In2O3 but nevertheless was detected in the form of Al2O3. The nanowires had metallic like conductivities and exhibited photoluminescence at 2.3 eV which shifted to 1.5 eV after exposure to H2S above 500°C due to the formation of β-In2S3 and deep donor to acceptor transitions with a lifetime of ≈1 μs. The near infra red emission was also observed in W/In2O3 but not in W/SnO2 core-shell nanowires after processing under H2S at 600°C, confirming it is related to β-In2S3. The nanowires remain one dimensional up to 900°C due to the shell which is interesting for the fabrication of high temperature nanowire sensors.

  8. Sulfur doping of M/In2O3 (M=Al,W) nanowires with room temperature near infra red emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervos, M.; Mihailescu, C.; Giapintzakis, J.; Othonos, A.; Travlos, A.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the growth of Al doped In2O3 nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism at 800°C using Au as a catalyst. We find that the Al is not incorporated into the cubic bixbyite crystal structure of In2O3 but nevertheless was detected in the form of Al2O3. The nanowires had metallic like conductivities and exhibited photoluminescence at 2.3 eV which shifted to 1.5 eV after exposure to H2S above 500°C due to the formation of β-In2S3 and deep donor to acceptor transitions with a lifetime of ≈1 μs. The near infra red emission was also observed in W/In2O3 but not in W/SnO2 core-shell nanowires after processing under H2S at 600°C, confirming it is related to β-In2S3. The nanowires remain one dimensional up to 900°C due to the shell which is interesting for the fabrication of high temperature nanowire sensors.

  9. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra P Singh; Duggirala Pallamraju

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6∘N, 72.8∘E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm−1 and 1024×1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80∘ along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, $c_{z}$, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period ‘$\\tau$’, the vertical wavelength, $\\lambda _{z}$, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, $\\lambda _{y}$, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters ($\\tau$, $c_{z}$, $\\lambda _{z}$, and $\\lambda _{y}$), and results on the

  10. Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) for ground-based mesospheric OH(6-2) and O2(0-1) intensity and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a new Near InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (NIRIS) which is capable of simultaneous measurements of OH(6-2) Meinel and O2(0-1) atmospheric band nightglow emission intensities. In this spectrographic technique, rotational line ratios are obtained to derive temperatures corresponding to the emission altitudes of 87 and 94 km. NIRIS has been commissioned for continuous operation from optical aeronomy observatory, Gurushikhar, Mount Abu (24.6°N, 72.8°E) since January 2013. NIRIS uses a diffraction grating of 1200 lines mm^{-1} and 1024× 1024 pixels thermoelectrically cooled CCD camera and has a large field-of-view (FOV) of 80° along the slit orientation. The data analysis methodology adopted for the derivation of mesospheric temperatures is also described in detail. The observed NIRIS temperatures show good correspondence with satellite (SABER) derived temperatures and exhibit both tidal and gravity waves (GW) like features. From the time taken for phase propagation in the emission intensities between these two altitudes, vertical phase speed of gravity waves, cz, is calculated and along with the coherent GW time period `τ ', the vertical wavelength, λ z, is obtained. Using large FOV observations from NIRIS, the meridional wavelengths, λ y, are also calculated. We have used one year of data to study the possible cause(s) for the occurrences of mesospheric temperature inversions (MTIs). From the statistics obtained for 234 nights, it appears that in situ chemical heating is mainly responsible for the observed MTIs than the vertical propagation of the waves. Thus, this paper describes a novel near infrared imaging spectrograph, its working principle, data analysis method for deriving OH and O2 emission intensities and the corresponding rotational temperatures at these altitudes, derivation of gravity wave parameters (τ , cz, λ z, and λ y), and results on the statistical study of MTIs that exist in the earth's mesospheric

  11. Gold nanoshells-mediated bimodal photodynamic and photothermal cancer treatment using ultra-low doses of near infra-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankayala, Raviraj; Lin, Chun-Chih; Kalluru, Poliraju; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2014-07-01

    Previously, gold nanoshells were shown to be able to effectively convert photon energy to heat, leading to hyperthermia and suppression of tumor growths in mice. Herein, we show that in addition to the nanomaterial-mediated photothermal effects (NmPTT), gold nanoshells (including, nanocages, nanorod-in-shell and nanoparticle-in-shell) not only are able to absorb NIR light, but can also emit fluorescence, sensitize formation of singlet oxygen and exert nanomaterial-mediated photodynamic therapeutic (NmPDT) complete destruction of solid tumors in mice. The modes of NmPDT and NmPTT can be controlled and switched from one to the other by changing the excitation wavelength. In the in vitro experiments, gold nanocages and nanorod-in-shell show larger percentage of cellular deaths originating from NmPDT along with the minor fraction of NmPTT effects. In contrast, nanoparticle-in-shell exhibits larger fraction of NmPTT-induced cellular deaths together with minor fraction of NmPDT-induced apoptosis. Fluorescence emission spectra and DPBF quenching studies confirm the generation of singlet O2 upon NIR photoirradiation. Both NmPDT and NmPTT effects were confirmed by measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent sodium azide quenching, heat shock protein expression (HSP 70), singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG) sensing, changes in mitochondria membrane potential and apoptosis in the cellular experiments. In vivo experiments further demonstrate that upon irradiation at 980 nm under ultra-low doses (∼150 mW/cm(2)), gold nanocages mostly exert NmPDT effect to effectively suppress the B16F0 melanoma tumor growth. The combination of NmPDT and NmPTT effects on destruction of solid tumors is far better than pure NmPTT effect by 808 nm irradiation and also doxorubicin. Overall, our study demonstrates that gold nanoshells can serve as excellent multi-functional theranostic agents (fluorescence imaging + NmPDT + NmPTT) upon single photon NIR light excitation under

  12. Changes in the arteriolar volume pulse of the finger during various degrees of tilt using near infra-red and red photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, F; Nehring, I; Abicht, J; Baranov, V; Kotov, A; Gartside, I; Gamble, J; Messmer, K

    1998-05-12

    1. Photoplethysmography is a widely used non invasive technique for the measurement of peripheral oxygen saturation. A more detailed analysis of the volume pulse (VP) can indicate alterations in peripheral vascular tone, due to sympathetic stimulation, stress, pain and temperature. - 2. In six healthy male volunteers we investigated changes in the VP resulting from vasoconstriction and vasodilatation induced by varies degrees of tilt. Subjects were subjected 0 degrees tilt followed by head down -8 degrees -15 degrees, -30 degrees -15 degrees, -8 degrees, 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees , 70 degrees, 30 degrees, 15 degrees and 0 degrees. Each tilt stage was sustained for 15 minutes. Both VP - and haemodynamic changes were continuously recorded 30s before and then for 210 s after the imposition of each tilt step. We used a new computer driven soft and hardware for the analysis of the VP. 3. The VP signal was obtained with a sensor emitting 840 nm (NIR) and 640 nm (RED) light into finger tip with a sample rate of 128 Hz. All data was normalised to the initial mean value obtained at 0 degrees tilt. The signal strength parameters amplitude, and area under the curve and the first derivative of the amplitude (flux) as well as time discrete parameters, time of first maximum (Tmax), dicrote wave (Td), volume pulse decrease (Tdec) and fundamental arterial oscillation Tag = Td - Tmax were measured. 4. HR increased significantly during 30 degrees and 70 degrees tilt, but no change in the other hemodynamic parameters was observed. Amplitude, area under the curve and flux of both the Red and the NIR signal increased following head down tilt. A significant decrease of those parameters was found during foot down tilt. 5. No significant changes were found in the time discrete values, neither within each tilt step nor when compared to the initial mean value at 0 degrees tilt. 6. This study reveals that signal strength related parameters such as area under the curve, amplitude and

  13. Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy to Reduce the Phrophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Solders Injured in OEF/OIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    development and approval of a NIRS based diagnostic device for detecting ACS. Regular coordination between the primary clinica l research location (LRMC...Whitesides T . Introduction: ACS is a clinica l diagnosis, wi th poor inter/intra-rater re liability. Currently, pat ients with ACS are be ing missed, and

  14. Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    hypothesis was that NIRS is able to accurately measure oxygenation in injured legs despite these circumstances . METHODS Data was analyzed on 79...10 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and hourly for 8 hours. At euthanasia , CT muscle was collected for muscle damage scoring. Serum creatine kinase (CK

  15. The REM Telescope Detecting the Near Infra-Red Counterparts of Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Prompt Behaviour of Their Optical Continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Zerbi, F M; Ghisellini, G; Rodono, M

    2001-01-01

    Observations of the prompt afterglow of Gamma Ray Burst events are unanimously considered of paramount importance for GRB science and related cosmology. Such observations at NIR wavelengths are even more promising allowing one to monitor high-z Ly-alpha absorbed bursts as well as events occurring in dusty star-forming regions. In these pages we present REM (Rapid Eye Mount), a fully robotized fast slewing telescope equipped with a high throughput NIR (Z', J, H, K') camera dedicated to detecting the prompt IR afterglow. REM can discover objects at extremely high red-shift and trigger large telescopes to observe them. The REM telescope will simultaneously feed ROSS (REM Optical Slitless spectrograph) via a dichroic. ROSS will intensively monitor the prompt optical continuum of GRB afterglows. The synergy between REM-IR cam and ROSS makes REM a powerful observing tool for any kind of fast transient phenomena.

  16. Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Hattori, Akito; Ebina, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2013-12-07

    In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+)), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln(3+), e.g. Y2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), are promising candidates for NIR-NIR bioimaging. Ln(3+)-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er(3+),Yb(3+), have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR-NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.

  17. Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Hattori, Akito; Ebina, Yoshie; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln3+), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln3+, e.g. Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, are promising candidates for NIR-NIR bioimaging. Ln3+-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR-NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near

  18. Temperature dependent NIR emitting lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Anna M; Esquivel, Dolores; Ouwehand, Judith; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J; Van Deun, Rik

    2017-06-28

    Two materials - a mesoporous silica (MS) and a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) functionalized with dipyridyl-pyridazine (dppz) units were grafted with near-infrared (NIR) emitting lanthanide (Nd(3+), Er(3+), Yb(3+)) complexes in an attempt to obtain hybrid NIR emitting materials. The parent materials: dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO were prepared by a hetero Diels-Alder reaction between 3,6-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (dptz) and the double bonds of either ethenylene-bridged PMO (ePMO) or vinyl-silica (vSilica) and subsequent oxidation. The dppz-vSilica is reported here for the first time. The prepared lanthanide-PMO/silica hybrid materials were studied in depth for their luminescence properties at room temperature and chosen Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) samples also at low temperature (as low as 10 K). We show that both the dppz-vSilica and dppz-ePMO materials can be used as "platforms" for obtaining porous materials showing NIR luminescence. To obtain NIR emission these materials can be excited either in the UV or Vis region (into the π→π* transitions of the ligands or directly into the f-f transitions of the Ln(3+) ions). More interestingly, when functionalized with Nd(3+) or Yb(3+)β-diketonate complexes these materials showed interesting luminescence properties over a wide temperature range (10-360 K). The Yb(3+) materials were investigated for their potential use as ratiometric temperature sensors.

  19. Silver nanoclusters emitting weak NIR fluorescence biomineralized by BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoshun; Li, Jianjun; Zhao, Junwu

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal (e.g., gold and silver) nanomaterials possess unique physical and chemical properties. In present work, silver nanoclusters (also known as silver quantum clusters or silver quantum dots) were synthesized by bovine serum albumin (BSA) biomineralization. The synthesized silver nanoclusters were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, upconversion emission spectroscopy, TEM, HRTEM and FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results showed that the average size of the silver nanoclusters was 2.23 nm. Fluorescence results showed that these silver nanoclusters could emit weak near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (the central emission wavelength being about 765 nm). And the central excitation wavelength was about 395 nm, in the UV spectral region. These silver nanoclusters showed an extraordinarily large gap (about 370 nm) between the central excitation wavelength and central emission wavelength. In addition, it was found that these silver nanoclusters possess upconversion emission property. Upconversion emission results showed that the upconversion emission spectrum of the silver nanoclusters agreed well with their normal fluorescence emission spectrum. The synthesized silver nanoclusters showed high stability in aqueous solution and it was considered that they might be confined in BSA molecules. It was found that silver nanoclusters might enhance and broaden the absorption of proteins, and the protein absorption peak showed an obvious red shift (being 7 nm) after the formation of silver nanoclusters.

  20. NIR emitting ytterbium chelates for colourless luminescent solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Alessandro; Monguzzi, Angelo; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Meinardi, Franco; Ronchi, Elisabetta; Moret, Massimo; Cosentino, Ugo; Moro, Giorgio; Simonutti, Roberto; Mauri, Michele; Tubino, Riccardo; Beverina, Luca

    2012-05-14

    A new oxyiminopyrazole-based ytterbium chelate enables NIR emission upon UV excitation in colorless single layer luminescent solar concentrators for building integrated photovoltaics. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  1. Robust optical oxygen sensors based on polymer-bound NIR-emitting platinum(II)-benzoporphyrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutter, L.H.; Müller, B.J.; Koren, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Several advanced optical oxygen sensor materials are presented. They are based on bright NIR-emitting platinum(II)-benzoporphyrins covalently incorporated into a variety of polymeric matrices. The dye-polymer conjugates are prepared either via Suzuki coupling of the brominated porphyrins to the s......Several advanced optical oxygen sensor materials are presented. They are based on bright NIR-emitting platinum(II)-benzoporphyrins covalently incorporated into a variety of polymeric matrices. The dye-polymer conjugates are prepared either via Suzuki coupling of the brominated porphyrins...... dyes showed significant drift of their calibration. Additionally, we present a new synthetic method for preparation of analytically pure benzoporphyrins via simple 1-step template condensation which a promising alternative to the commonly used Lindsey method. © the Partner Organisations 2014....

  2. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Roemi E.; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR), Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) and Long-Wave InfraRed...

  3. NIR FRET Fluorophores for Use as an Implantable Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  4. New confocal microscopy hyperspectral imager for NIR-emitting bioprobes: high spectral resolution for a wide spectral range (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Stéphane; Benayas, Antonio; Quintanilla, Marta; Mangiarini, Francesca; Verhaegen, Marc; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Blais-Ouellette, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Functional nanoscale materials are being extensively investigated for applications in biology and medicine and are ready to make significant contributions in the realization of exciting advancements in diverse areas of diagnostics and therapeutics. Aiming for more accurate, efficient, non-invasive and fast diagnostic tools, the use of near-infrared (NIR) light in the range of the 1st and 2nd biological window (NIR-I: 0.70-0.95 µm; NIR-II: 1.00-1.35 µm) provides deeper penetration depth into biological tissue, better image contrast, reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. Consequently, NIR-based bioimaging became a quickly emerging field and manifold new NIR-emitting bioprobes have been reported. Since commercially available microscopes are not optimized for this kind of NPs, a new microscopy hyperspectral confocal imager has been developed to cover a broad spectral range (400 to 1700 nm) with high spectral resolution. The smallest spectral variation can be easily monitored thanks to the high spectral resolution (as low as 0.2 nm). This is possible thanks to a combination of an EMCCD and an InGaAs camera with a high resolution spectrometer. An extended number of NPs can be excited with a Ti:Sapphire laser, which provides tunable illumination within 690-1040 nm. Cells and tissues can be mapped in less than 100 ms, allowing in-vivo imaging. As a proof of concept, here we present the preliminary results of the spatial distribution of the fluorescence signal intensity from lanthanide doped nanoparticles incorporated into a system of biological interest. The temperature sub-mm gradient - analyzing the spectral features so gathered through an all-optical route is also thoroughly discussed.

  5. Highly luminescent and cytocompatible cationic Ag2S NIR-emitting quantum dots for optical imaging and gene transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Duman, Fatma Demir; Hocaoğlu, İbrahim; Hocaoglu, Ibrahim; Öztürk, Deniz Gülfem; Ozturk, Deniz Gulfem; Gözüaçık, Devrim; Gozuacik, Devrim; Kiraz, Alper; Yağcı Acar, Havva; Yagci Acar, Havva

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale PAPER Cite this: Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 11352 Received 12th January 2015, Accepted 23rd May 2015 DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00189g www.rsc.org/nanoscale Highly luminescent and cytocompatible cationic Ag2S NIR-emitting quantum dots for optical imaging and gene transfection† Fatma Demir Duman,a Ibrahim Hocaoglu,a Deniz Gulfem Ozturk,b Devrim Gozuacik,b Alper Kiraza,c and Havva Yagci Acar*a,d,e The development of non-toxic theranostic nanoparticles capable of del...

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) emitting conjugated polymers for biomedical applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenko, Tatjana; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescent biomedical markers of today such as dye-infiltrated colloids, microgels and quantum dots suffer from fast bleaching, lack surface functionality (for targets or pharmaceutical agents) and potentially leach heavy metals in case of quantum dots (e.g. Cd). By contrast, conjugated polymer particles are non-cytotoxic, exhibit reduced bleaching, as the entire particle consists of fluorophore, they are hydrophobic and show high quantum yields. Consequently, conjugated polymer particles represent ideal materials for biological applications and imaging. However currently, conjugated polymer particles for biomedical imaging usually lack near-infrared (NIR) emission and are polydisperse. Fluorescent agents with emission in the NIR spectrum are interesting for biomedical applications due to their low photo-damage towards biological species and the ability of NIR radiation to penetrate deep into biological tissue.. I will present the development and synthesis of new conjugated polymers particles with fluorescence in the NIR spectral region for bio-imaging and clinical diagnosis. The particle synthesis proceeds in a one-step Pd or Ni-catalyzed dispersion polymerization of functional NIR emitters. The resulting monodisperse conjugated polymer particles are obtained as a dispersion in a non-hazardous solvent. Different sizes in the sub-micrometer range with a narrow size distribution can be produced. Furthermore biological recognition motifs can be easily attached to the conjugated polymers via thiol-yne click-chemistry providing specific tumor targeting without quenching of the fluorescence. References [1] Kuehne AJC, Gather MC, Sprakel J., Nature Commun. 2012, 3, 1088. [2] Repenko T, Fokong S, De Laporte L, Go D, Kiessling F, Lammers T, Kuehne AJC.,Chem Commun 2015, accepted.

  7. Photostable water-dispersible NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots for high-resolution tumor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Lu, Yimei; Peng, Fei; Zhong, Yiling; Zhou, Yanfeng; Jiang, Xiangxu; Su, Yuanyuan; He, Yao

    2013-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR, 700-900 nm) fluorescent quantum dots are highly promising as NIR bioprobes for high-resolution and high-sensitivity bioimaging applications. In this article, we present a class of NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS/ZnS core-shell-shell quantum dots (QDs), which are directly prepared in aqueous phase via a facile microwave synthesis. Significantly, the prepared NIR-emitting QDs possess excellent aqueous dispersibility, strong photoluminescence, favorable biocompatibility, robust storage-, chemical-, and photo-stability, and finely tunable emission in the NIR range (700-800 nm). The QDs are readily functionalized with antibodies for use in immunofluorescent bioimaging, yielding highly spectrally and spatially resolved emission for in vitro and in vivo imaging. In comparison to the large size of 15-30 nm of the conventional NIR QDs, the extremely small size (≈ 4.2 nm or 7.5 nm measured by TEM or DLS, respectively) of our QDs offers great opportunities for high-efficiency and high-sensitivity targeted imaging in cells and animals.

  8. Preparation of multi-coloured different sized fluorescent gold clusters from blue to NIR, structural analysis of the blue emitting Au7 cluster, and cell-imaging by the NIR gold cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Bhattacharjee, Rameswar; Jana, Batakrishna; Datta, Ayan; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-02-07

    Blue, green, orange-red, red and NIR emitting gold quantum clusters have been prepared in aqueous media by using a bioactive peptide glutathione (reduced) at physiological pH. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses show that the core structure sizes of the five different gold clusters are Au7 (blue), Au16 (green), Au19 (orange-red), Au21 (red) and Au22 (NIR). The photo-stability and pH-stability of these quantum clusters have been measured, and these are photo-stable against continuous UV irradiation for a few hours. They also exhibit moderate to good pH-stability within the pH range of 5-12.5. A computational study reveals the organisation of gold atoms in the thiolate-protected blue quantum cluster and its several structural parameters, including the mode of interaction of ligand molecules with Au atoms in the Au7 cluster. Interestingly, it has been found that NIR emitting gold quantum cluster can easily be internalized into the adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A549 cell line). Moreover, a MTT assay indicates that our NIR emitting gold quantum cluster show very low cytotoxicy to A549 cancer cells.

  9. Size and temperature dependence of the photoluminescence properties of NIR emitting ternary alloyed mercury cadmium telluride quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Amardeep M.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arup; Babu Pendyala, Naresh; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Exciton-phonon coupling and nonradiative relaxation processes have been investigated in near-infrared (NIR) emitting ternary alloyed mercury cadmium telluride (CdHgTe) quantum dots. Organically capped CdHgTe nanocrystals of sizes varying from 2.5-4.2 nm have been synthesized where emission is in the NIR region of 650-855 nm. Temperature-dependent (15-300 K) photoluminescence (PL) and the decay dynamics of PL at 300 K have been studied to understand the photophysical properties. The PL decay kinetics shows the transition from triexponential to biexponential on increasing the size of the quantom dots (QDs), informing the change in the distribution of the emitting states. The energy gap is found to be following the Varshni relation with a temperature coefficient of 2.1-2.8  ×  10-4 eV K-1. The strength of the electron-phonon coupling, which is reflected in the Huang and Rhys factor S, is found in the range of 1.17-1.68 for QDs with a size of 2.5-4.2 nm. The integrated PL intensity is nearly constant until 50 K, and slowly decreases up to 140 K, beyond which it decreases at a faster rate. The mechanism for PL quenching with temperature is attributed to the presence of nonradiative relaxation channels, where the excited carriers are thermally stimulated to the surface defect/trap states. At temperatures of different region (<140 K and 140-300 K), traps of low (13-25 meV) and high (65-140 meV) activation energies seem to be controlling the quenching of the PL emission. The broadening of emission linewidth is found to due to exciton-acoustic phonon scattering and exciton-longitudinal optical (LO) phonon coupling. The exciton-acoustic phonon scattering coefficient is found to be enhanced up to 55 μeV K-1 due to a stronger confinement effect. These findings give insight into understanding the photophysical properties of CdHgTe QDs and pave the way for their possible applications in the fields of NIR photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices.

  10. Characterization of Mind Wandering using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier eDurantin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing whether someone is attending to a task has become importantfor educational and professional applications. Such attentional drifts are usually termed mind wandering. The purpose of the current study is to test to what extent a recent neural imaging modality can be used to detect mind wandering episodes. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuro-imaging technique that has never been studied so far to measure mind wandering. The Sustained Attention to Response Task was used to assess when subjects attention leaves a primary task. 16-channel fNIRS data were collected over frontal cortices. We observed significant activations over the medial prefrontal cortex during mind wandering, a brain region associated with the default mode network. fNIRS data were used to classify mind wandering data above chance level. In line with previous brain-imaging studies of mind wandering, our results confirm the ability of fNIRS to detect Default Network activations in the context of mind wandering.

  11. Organic electroluminescent materials and devices emitting in UV and NIR regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A. P.; Bochkarev, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    Literature data on organic materials capable of generating electroluminescence in the UV (200–400 nm) and near-IR (700–2000 nm) spectral ranges are summarized and systematized. Organic, organometallic and coordination compounds are considered. Comparative analysis of materials is performed, and the composition and operating characteristics of light-emitting diodes based on them and possible mechanisms of electroluminescence generation are discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  12. Use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for predicting major components in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; González-Pérez, Claudio; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; González-Cabrera, José Miguel

    2008-04-15

    In the present work the potential of near infra-red spectroscopy technology (NIRS) together with the use of a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of fat, moisture, protein and chlorides contents of commercial cheeses elaborated with mixtures of cow's, ewe's and goat's milk and with different curing times was examined. The probe was applied directly, with no previous sample treatment. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The equations developed for the cheese samples afforded fat, moisture, protein, and chloride contents in the range 13-52%, 10-62%, 20-30%, and 0.7-2.9%, respectively. The multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and prediction corrected standard errors (SEP (C)) obtained were respectively 0.97 and 0.995% for fat; 0.96% and 1.640% for moisture; 0.78% and 0.760% for protein, and 0.89% and 0.112% for chlorides.

  13. In vitro and in vivo investigations of upconversion and NIR emitting Gd₂O₃:Er³⁺,Yb³⁺ nanostructures for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Eva; Takeshita, Hiroyuki; Yamano, Tomoyoshi; Fujiki, Takanori; Kohl, Yvonne; Löw, Karin; Venkatachalam, Nallusamy; Hyodo, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hidehiro; Soga, Kohei

    2012-10-01

    The use of an "over 1000-nm near-infrared (NIR) in vivo fluorescence bioimaging" system based on lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the visible and NIR range under 980-nm excitation is proposed. It may overcome problems of currently used biomarkers including color fading, phototoxicity and scattering. Gd(2)O(3):Er(3+),Yb(3+) nanoparticles and nanorods showing upconversion and NIR emission are synthesized and their cytotoxic behavior is investigated by incubation with B-cell hybridomas and macrophages. Surface modification with PEG-b-PAAc provides the necessary chemical durability reducing the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions. NIR fluorescence microscopy is used to investigate the suitability of the nanostructures as NIR-NIR biomarkers. The in vitro uptake of bare and modified nanostructures by macrophages is investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vivo investigations revealed nanostructures in liver, lung, kidneys and spleen a few hours after injection into mice, while most of the nanostructures have been removed from the body after 24 h.

  14. Interactions between photoexcited NIR emitting CdHgTe quantum dots and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Amardeep M.; Varade, Vaibhav; Konkena, Bharathi; Ramesh, K. P.; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arup; Pendyala, Naresh Babu; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Hydrothermally grown mercury cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdHgTe QDs) are decorated on graphene oxide (GO) sheets through physisorption. The structural change of GO through partial reduction of oxygen functional groups is observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in GO-QDs composites. Raman spectroscopy provides relatively a small change (˜1.1 times) in D/G ratio of band intensity and red shift in G band from 1606 cm-1 to 1594 cm-1 in GO-CdHgTe QDs (2.6 nm) composites, which indicates structural modification of GO network. Steady state and time resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy shows the electronic interactions between photoexcited near infrared emitting CdHgTe QDs and GO. Another interesting observation is PL quenching in the presence of GO, and it is quite effective in the case of smaller size QDs (2.6 nm) compared to the larger size QDs (4.2 nm). Thus, the observed PL quenching is attributed to the photogenerated electron transfer from QDs to GO. The photoexcited electron transfer rate decreases from 2.2 × 109 to 1.5 × 108 s-1 with increasing particle size from 2.6 to 4.2 nm. Photoconductivity measurements on QDs-GO composite devices show nearly 3 fold increase in the current density under photo-illumination, which is a promising aspect for solar energy conversion and other optoelectronic applications.

  15. Vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY)-a new way of using IR and NIR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Erik; Bro, Rasmus; Engelsen, Søren B; Karlberg, Bo; Torgrip, Ralf J O

    2007-05-01

    This work explores a novel method for rearranging 1st order (one-way) infra-red (IR) and/or near infra-red (NIR) ordinary spectra into a representation suitable for multi-way modelling and analysis. The method is based on the fact that the fundamental IR absorption and the first, second, and consecutive overtones of NIR absorptions represent identical chemical information. It is therefore possible to rearrange these overtone regions of the vectors comprising an IR and NIR spectrum into a matrix where the fundamental, 1st, 2nd, and consecutive overtones of the spectrum are arranged as either rows or columns in a matrix, resulting in a true three-way tensor of data for several samples. This tensorization facilitates explorative analysis and modelling with multi-way methods, for example parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), N-way partial least squares (N-PLS), and Tucker models. The vibrational overtone combination spectroscopy (VOCSY) arrangement is shown to benefit from the "order advantage", producing more robust, stable, and interpretable models than, for example, the traditional PLS modelling method. The proposed method also opens the field of NIR for true peak decomposition--a feature unique to the method because the latent factors acquired using PARAFAC can represent pure spectral components whereas latent factors in principal component analysis (PCA) and PLS usually do not.

  16. Highly Luminescent Water-Dispersible NIR-Emitting Wurtzite CuInS2/ZnS Core/Shell Colloidal Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Copper indium sulfide (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) are attractive as labels for biomedical imaging, since they have large absorption coefficients across a broad spectral range, size- and composition-tunable photoluminescence from the visible to the near-infrared, and low toxicity. However, the application of NIR-emitting CIS QDs is still hindered by large size and shape dispersions and low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs). In this work, we develop an efficient pathway to synthesize highly luminescent NIR-emitting wurtzite CIS/ZnS QDs, starting from template Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs), which are converted by topotactic partial Cu+ for In3+ exchange into CIS NCs. These NCs are subsequently used as cores for the overgrowth of ZnS shells (≤1 nm thick). The CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs exhibit PL tunability from the first to the second NIR window (750–1100 nm), with PLQYs ranging from 75% (at 820 nm) to 25% (at 1050 nm), and can be readily transferred to water upon exchange of the native ligands for mercaptoundecanoic acid. The resulting water-dispersible CIS/ZnS QDs possess good colloidal stability over at least 6 months and PLQYs ranging from 39% (at 820 nm) to 6% (at 1050 nm). These PLQYs are superior to those of commonly available water-soluble NIR-fluorophores (dyes and QDs), making the hydrophilic CIS/ZnS QDs developed in this work promising candidates for further application as NIR emitters in bioimaging. The hydrophobic CIS/ZnS QDs obtained immediately after the ZnS shelling are also attractive as fluorophores in luminescent solar concentrators. PMID:28638177

  17. Local Feature Extraction in the Near Infra-Red Domain for Wildlife Mammals Tracking Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trnovszký Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in area of intelligent transportation system is focused on analysis of traffic flow by computer vision techniques. Keypoint analysis represents detection, modelling and recognition of objects in traffic flow and object tracking as well. The main goal of this paper is to propose new approach to detect and modelling 3D objects that move on road surface. At the beginning, basic methods of object recognition and modelling of 3D object are shortly described. The modified algorithm based on background subtraction and creation of 3D model by depth map is proposed. Finally, the results of developed algorithm are depicted through the last part of this paper.

  18. Using near infra-red spectroscopy for characterization of transiting exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Aronson, Erik; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for observing transiting exoplanets with near-infrared high-resolution spectrometers. We aim to create a robust data analysis method for recovering atmospheric transmission spectra from transiting exoplanets over a wide wavelength range in the near infrared. By using an inverse method approach, combined with stellar models and telluric transmission spectra, the method recovers the transiting exoplanet's atmospheric transmittance at high precision over a wide wavelength range. We describe our method and have tested it by simulating observations. This method is capable of recovering transmission spectra of high enough accuracy to identify absorption features from molecules such as O2, CH4, CO2, and H2O. This accuracy is achievable for Jupiter-size exoplanetsat S/N that can be reached for 8m class telescopes using high-resolution spectrometers (R>20 000) during a single transit, and for Earth-size planets and super-Earths transiting late K or M dwarf stars at S/N reachable during observations...

  19. Regression techniques for estimating soil organic carbon contents from VIS/NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, W.; Jarmer, T.; Bayer, A.; Hoffmann, U.; Hunziker, M.; Kuhn, N. J.; Ehlers, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil reflectance spectroscopy is regarded as a promising approach to efficiently obtain densely sampled soil organic carbon (SOC) estimates at various spatial scales. The estimates are usually based on a statistical modeling approach since physical models are mostly not applicable owing to the manifold influences on soil spectra by different soil constituents and properties. Different multivariate statistical methods exist to estimate SOC concentrations in soil samples using visible and near infra-red (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectra. All these techniques face the challenge of generating accurate predictive models with a disproportionate large number of variables compared to the number of observations in such datasets, and in addition highly correlated independent variables. This often results in overfitting and may at the same time reduce the predictive power of such models. In this study, we conduct a rigorous assessment of the predictive ability of different regression techniques (stepwise regression, robust regression with feature selection, lasso, ridge regression, elastic net, principal component (PC) regression, partial least squares (PLS) regression). We apply datasets from different environments to include a wide variety of soils and to investigate the effects of different SOC variances and concentrations on model performance. Our hypothesis is that the predictive ability of regression techniques can be significantly improved by using more advanced techniques such as PLS regression. We discuss our findings with respect to the applicability of SOC estimation from VIS/NIR reflectance spectra in different environments.

  20. Modeling and tissue parameter extraction challenges for free space broadband fNIR brain imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, E.; Manseta, K.; Khwaja, A.; Najafizadeh, L.; Gandjbakhche, A.; Pourrezaei, K.; Daryoush, A. S.

    2011-02-01

    Fiber based functional near infra-red (fNIR) spectroscopy has been considered as a cost effective imaging modality. To achieve a better spatial resolution and greater accuracy in extraction of the optical parameters (i.e., μa and μ's), broadband frequency modulated systems covering multi-octave frequencies of 10-1000MHz is considered. A helmet mounted broadband free space fNIR system is considered as significant improvement over bulky commercial fiber fNIR realizations that are inherently uncomfortable and dispersive for broadband operation. Accurate measurements of amplitude and phase of the frequency modulated NIR signals (670nm, 795nm, and 850nm) is reported here using free space optical transmitters and receivers realized in a small size and low cost modules. The tri-wavelength optical transmitter is based on vertical cavity semiconductor lasers (VCSEL), whereas the sensitive optical receiver is based on either PIN or APD photodiodes combined with transimpedance amplifiers. This paper also has considered brain phantoms to perform optical parameter extraction experiments using broadband modulated light for separations of up to 5cm. Analytical models for predicting forward (transmittance) and backward (reflectance) scattering of modulated photons in diffused media has been modeled using Diffusion Equation (DE). The robustness of the DE modeling and parameter extraction algorithm was studied by experimental verification of multi-layer diffused media phantoms. In particular, comparison between analytical and experimental models for narrow band and broadband has been performed to analyze the advantages of our broadband fNIR system.

  1. Sensitization of visible and NIR emitting lanthanide(III) ions in noncentrosymmetric complexes of hexafluoroacetylacetone and unsubstituted monodentate pyrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair; Iftikhar, K

    2013-11-07

    A series of highly volatile eight-coordinate air and moisture stable lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(hfaa)3(L)2] (Ln = Pr (1), Nd (2), Eu (3), Gd (4), Tb (5), Dy (6), Ho (7), Er (8), Tm (9), and Yb (10); hfaa = anion of hexafluoroacetylacetone and L = pyrazole) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS(+), and NMR studies. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined for the Eu(III) and Dy(III) complexes. These complexes crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c. The lanthanide ion in each of these complexes is eight-coordinate with six oxygen atoms from three hfaa and two N-atoms from two pyrazole units, forming a coordination polyhedron best describable as a distorted square antiprism. The NMR spectra reveal that both the pyrazole units remain attached to the metal in solution and the β-diketonate and pyrazole protons are shifted in opposite directions in the case of paramagnetic complexes. The lanthanide-induced chemical shifts are dipolar in nature. The hypersensitive transitions of Nd(III), Ho(III), and Er(III) are sensitive to the environment (solvent), which is reflected by the oscillator strength and band shape of these transitions. The band shape due to the hypersensitive transition of Nd(III) in noncoordinating chloroform and dichloromethane is similar to those of the typical eight-coordinate Nd(III) β-diketonate complexes. The quantum yield and lifetime of Pr(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Tm(III) in visible and Pr(III), Nd(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), Er(III) Tm(III), and Yb(III) in the NIR region are sizable. The environment around these metal ions is asymmetric, which leads to increased radiative rates and luminescence efficiencies. The quantum yield of the complexes reveal that ligand-to-metal energy transfer follows the order Eu(III) > Tb(III) ≫ Pr(III) > Dy(III) > Tm(III). Both ligands (hfaa and pyrazole) are good sensitizers for all the visible and NIR emitters effectively, except for Tb

  2. Validation of nine-years of MOPITT V5 NIR using MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements: biases and long term stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. J. de Laat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation results from a comparison between Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT V5 Near InfraRed (NIR Carbon Monoxide (CO total column measurements and Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus in-service Aircraft (MOZAIC/In-Service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS aircraft measurements are presented. A good agreement is found between MOPITT and MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements, consistent with results from earlier studies using different validation data and despite large variability in MOPITT CO total columns along the spatial footprint of the MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements. Validation results improve when taking the large spatial footprint of the MOZAIC/IAGOS data into account. No statistically significant drift was detected in the validation results over the period 2002–2010 at global, continental and local (airport scales. Furthermore, for those situations where MOZAIC/IAGOS measurements differed from the MOPITT a priori, the MOPITT measurements clearly outperformed the MOPITT a priori data, indicating that MOPITT NIR retrievals add value to the MOPITT a priori. Results from a high spatial resolution simulation of the chemistry-transport model MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle showed that the most likely explanation for the large MOPITT variability along the MOZAIC-IAGOS profile flight path is related to spatio-temporal CO variability, which should be kept in mind when using MOZAIC/IAGOS profile measurements for validating satellite nadir observations.

  3. Insights on NIRS Sensitivity from a Cross-Linguistic Study on the Emergence of Phonological Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Cristia, Alejandrina; Long, Bria; Vendelin, Inga; Hakuno, Yoko; Dutat, Michel; Filippin, Luca; Cabrol, Dominique; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Each language has a unique set of phonemic categories and phonotactic rules which determine permissible sound sequences in that language. Behavioral research demonstrates that one's native language shapes the perception of both sound categories and sound sequences in adults, and neuroimaging results further indicate that the processing of native phonemes and phonotactics involves a left-dominant perisylvian brain network. Recent work using a novel technique, functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), has suggested that a left-dominant network becomes evident toward the end of the first year of life as infants process phonemic contrasts. The present research project attempted to assess whether the same pattern would be seen for native phonotactics. We measured brain responses in Japanese- and French-learning infants to two contrasts: Abuna vs. Abna (a phonotactic contrast that is native in French, but not in Japanese) and Abuna vs. Abuuna (a vowel length contrast that is native in Japanese, but not in French). Results did not show a significant response to either contrast in either group, unlike both previous behavioral research on phonotactic processing and NIRS work on phonemic processing. To understand these null results, we performed similar NIRS experiments with Japanese adult participants. These data suggest that the infant null results arise from an interaction of multiple factors, involving the suitability of the experimental paradigm for NIRS measurements and stimulus perceptibility. We discuss the challenges facing this novel technique, particularly focusing on the optimal stimulus presentation which could yield strong enough hemodynamic responses when using the change detection paradigm.

  4. Inights on NIRS sensitivity from a cross-linguistic study on the emergence of phonological grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo eMinagawa-Kawai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Each language has a unique set of phonemic categories and phonotactic rules which determine permissible sound sequences in that language. Behavioral research demonstrates that one’s native language shapes the perception of both sound categories and sound sequences in adults, and neuroimaging results further indicate that the processing of native phonemes and phonotactics involves a left-dominant perisylvian brain network. Recent work using a novel technique, functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS, has suggested that a left-dominant network becomes evident towards the end of the first year of life as infants process phonemic contrasts. The present research project attempted to assess whether the same pattern would be seen for native phonotactics. We measured brain responses in Japanese- and French-learning infants to two contrasts: Abuna vs. Abna (a phonotactic contrast that is native in French, but not in Japanese and Abuna vs. Abuuna (a vowel length contrast that is native in Japanese, but not in French. Results did not show a significant response to either contrast in either group, unlike both previous behavioral research on phonotactic processing and NIRS work on phonemic processing. To understand these null results, we performed similar NIRS experiments with Japanese adult participants. These data suggest that the infant null results arise from an interaction of multiple factors, involving the suitability of the experimental paradigm for NIRS measurements and stimulus perceptibility. We discuss the challenges facing this novel technique, particularly focusing on the optimal stimulus presentation which could yield strong enough hemodynamic responses when using the change detection paradigm.

  5. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR), Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) and Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR) imagery and a sequential algorithm that combines a registration procedure, a multi-class SVM classifier, a K-means clustering and a linear regression for estimating the ground bearing capacity. To evaluate the feasibility and capabilities of the presented approach, several experimental tests were carried out in a sandy-loam terrain. The proposed solution offers notable benefits such as its non-invasiveness to the soil, its spatial coverage without the need for exhaustive manual measurements and its real time operation. Therefore, it can be very useful in decision making processes that tend to reduce ground damage during agricultural and forestry operations. PMID:26083227

  6. Determination of inorganic elements in animal feeds by NIRS technology and a fibre-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Pérez, Claudio; Villaescusa-García, Virginia

    2006-05-15

    In the present work we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of the mineral composition of animal feeds. The method allows immediate control of the feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using forty samples of animal feeds allowed the determination of Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P, Zn and Cu, with a standard error of prediction (SEP(C)) and a correlation coefficient (RSQ) of 0.129 and 0.859 for Fe; 0.175 and 0.816 for Mn; 5.470 and 0.927 for Ca; 2.717 and 0.862 for Na; 4.397 and 0.891 for K; 2.226 and 0.881 for P; 0.153 and 0.764 for Zn, and 0.095 and 0.918 for Cu, respectively. The robustness of the method was checked by applying it to 10 animal feeds samples of unknown mineral composition in the external validation.

  7. Automated Cart with VIS/NIR Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M. Lefcourt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A system to take high-resolution Visible/Near Infra-Red (VIS/NIR hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence images in outdoor fields using ambient lighting or a pulsed laser (355 nm, respectively, for illumination purposes was designed, built, and tested. Components of the system include a semi-autonomous cart, a gated-intensified camera, a spectral adapter, a frequency-triple Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet laser, and optics to convert the Gaussian laser beam into a line-illumination source. The front wheels of the cart are independently powered by stepper motors that support stepping or continuous motion. When stepping, a spreadsheet is used to program parameters of image sets to be acquired at each step. For example, the spreadsheet can be used to set delays before the start of image acquisitions, acquisition times, and laser attenuation. One possible use of this functionality would be to establish acquisition parameters to facilitate the measurement of fluorescence decay-curve characteristics. The laser and camera are mounted on an aluminum plate that allows the optics to be calibrated in a laboratory setting and then moved to the cart. The system was validated by acquiring images of fluorescence responses of spinach leaves and dairy manure.

  8. VIS-NIR, SWIR and LWIR Imagery for Estimation of Ground Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemi Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground bearing capacity has become a relevant concept for site-specific management that aims to protect soil from the compaction and the rutting produced by the indiscriminate use of agricultural and forestry machines. Nevertheless, commonly known techniques for its estimation are cumbersome and time-consuming. In order to alleviate these difficulties, this paper introduces an innovative sensory system based on Visible-Near InfraRed (VIS-NIR, Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR and Long-Wave InfraRed (LWIR imagery and a sequential algorithm that combines a registration procedure, a multi-class SVM classifier, a K-means clustering and a linear regression for estimating the ground bearing capacity. To evaluate the feasibility and capabilities of the presented approach, several experimental tests were carried out in a sandy-loam terrain. The proposed solution offers notable benefits such as its non-invasiveness to the soil, its spatial coverage without the need for exhaustive manual measurements and its real time operation. Therefore, it can be very useful in decision making processes that tend to reduce ground damage during agricultural and forestry operations.

  9. A Gaussian mixture model based adaptive classifier for fNIRS brain-computer interfaces and its testing via simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Jiang, Yi-han; Duan, Lian; Zhu, Chao-zhe

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising brain imaging technology for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Future clinical uses of fNIRS will likely require operation over long time spans, during which neural activation patterns may change. However, current decoders for fNIRS signals are not designed to handle changing activation patterns. The objective of this study is to test via simulations a new adaptive decoder for fNIRS signals, the Gaussian mixture model adaptive classifier (GMMAC). Approach. GMMAC can simultaneously classify and track activation pattern changes without the need for ground-truth labels. This adaptive classifier uses computationally efficient variational Bayesian inference to label new data points and update mixture model parameters, using the previous model parameters as priors. We test GMMAC in simulations in which neural activation patterns change over time and compare to static decoders and unsupervised adaptive linear discriminant analysis classifiers. Main results. Our simulation experiments show GMMAC can accurately decode under time-varying activation patterns: shifts of activation region, expansions of activation region, and combined contractions and shifts of activation region. Furthermore, the experiments show the proposed method can track the changing shape of the activation region. Compared to prior work, GMMAC performed significantly better than the other unsupervised adaptive classifiers on a difficult activation pattern change simulation: 99% versus  <54% in two-choice classification accuracy. Significance. We believe GMMAC will be useful for clinical fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces, including neurofeedback training systems, where operation over long time spans is required.

  10. Use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for predicting major components in bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, I; Hernández-Hierro, J M; Barros-Ferreiro, N; Cordón Marcos, C; García-Villanova, R J

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for determination of the major components in bee pollen. The method allows immediate control of the bee pollen without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe to the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using 45 samples of bee pollen allowed the measurement of protein, moisture, ash, reducing sugars, and pH with multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and prediction corrected standard errors (SEPC) of 0.91, 0.56% for protein, of 0.78 and 0.49% for moisture; 0.92 and 0.049% for ash; 0.81 and 1.32g of glucose/100g of bee pollen; 0.84 and 0.15 for pH, respectively. The prediction capacity of the pattern was checked by applying it to samples of unknown pollen in external validation.

  11. A combined NIR-CI, SEM, ESEM and X-ray nondestructive examination for the characterization of composite polymeric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nita, Loredana E.; Chiriac, Aurica P., E-mail: achiriac1@yahoo.com [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2012-03-15

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto the surfaces of methyl methacrylate copolymer with 2,3 epoxypropyl methacrylate to obtain a biocompatibilized composite is evidenced. The polymeric matrix was prepared using {beta}-cyclodextrin as tensioactive as well as with and without the presence of a continuous external magnetic field (MF) of 1,500-Gs intensity during synthesis. The coupling of BSA was made with or without the presence of MF. The presence of BSA on the polymer's surface is confirmed through the nondestructive techniques: near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), SEM, ESEM and X-ray studies. The {zeta} potential evaluation of the prepared biocompatibilized particles attests their stability. The study also underlines the assistance of the MF in the adsorption process, concretized in the growing of the BSA adsorbed amount onto polymeric matrices.Graphical abstractNear-infra red chemical imaging was used for information about the spatial distribution of the components comprising the bioactive system.

  12. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  13. Visible to near infra red absorption in natural dye (Mondo Grass Berry) for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigala, Duleepa; Desilva, L. A. A.; Perera, A. G. U.

    2012-03-01

    The development of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is an exciting field in the low cost renewable energy production. Two major draw backs in the DSSCs are the narrow spectral response and the short term stability. Research on development of artificial dyes for broadening the response is important in finding a solution. Work presented here shows a broad spectral response with a natural dye extracted from a Mondo Grass berry (Ophiopogonjaponicus).The dye is extracted by crushing the berries and filtering to remove the pulp. A DSSC sensitized with Mondo Grass dye, and with TiO2 film screen printed on a Florien doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass and baked for 30 minutes at 450 C as the working electrode and Iodine/triiodide red-ox electrolyte as the hole collector was tested for its performance. An open circuit photovoltage of 495 mV and a short circuit photocurrent of 0.6 mA/cm2were observed under a simulated lamp equivalent to 1 sun illumination. The broad spectral response from 400 nm to 750 nm was also observed for the Mondo Grass dye compared to other natural dyes consists of anthocyanins or tannins.

  14. Non-contact reflectometric readout of disposable microfluidic devices by near infra-red low-coherence interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We are here demonstrating the functionality of infra-red low-coherence reflectometry for the spot optical readout of solution concentrations in commercially available microfluidic devices. Disposable polymeric microfluidic devices composed by 100-µm-deep channels were connected to an external fluidic path that allowed flow-through of water-glucose solutions at different concentrations. Measurements were performed with near-infrared low-power sources, namely a tungsten lamp and a Superluminesc...

  15. Influence of galaxy stellar mass and observed wavelength on disc breaks in S$^4$G, NIRS0S, and SDSS data

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Jarkko; Salo, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Breaks in the surface brightness profiles in the outer regions of galactic discs are thought to have formed by various internal and external processes, and by studying the breaks we aim to better understand what processes are responsible for the evolution of the outer discs. We use a large well-defined sample to study how common the breaks are, and whether their properties depend on galaxy stellar mass or observed wavelength. We study radial surface brightness profiles of 753 galaxies, obtained from the $3.6 \\mu m$ images of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S$^4$G), and the $K_s$-band data from the Near InfraRed S0-Sa galaxy Survey (NIRS0S), covering a wide range of galaxy morphologies and stellar masses. Optical SDSS or Liverpool telescope data was used for 480 of these galaxies. We find that in low-mass galaxies the single exponential discs (Type I) are most common, and that their fraction decreases with increasing galaxy stellar mass. The fraction of down-bending (Type II) discs increas...

  16. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  17. Spectral Characterization of a Prototype SFA Camera for Joint Visible and NIR Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Gouton, Pierre; Clerc, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Multispectral acquisition improves machine vision since it permits capturing more information on object surface properties than color imaging. The concept of spectral filter arrays has been developed recently and allows multispectral single shot acquisition with a compact camera design. Due to filter manufacturing difficulties, there was, up to recently, no system available for a large span of spectrum, i.e., visible and Near Infra-Red acquisition. This article presents the achievement of a prototype of camera that captures seven visible and one near infra-red bands on the same sensor chip. A calibration is proposed to characterize the sensor, and images are captured. Data are provided as supplementary material for further analysis and simulations. This opens a new range of applications in security, robotics, automotive and medical fields. PMID:27367690

  18. Spectral Characterization of a Prototype SFA Camera for Joint Visible and NIR Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multispectral acquisition improves machine vision since it permits capturing more information on object surface properties than color imaging. The concept of spectral filter arrays has been developed recently and allows multispectral single shot acquisition with a compact camera design. Due to filter manufacturing difficulties, there was, up to recently, no system available for a large span of spectrum, i.e., visible and Near Infra-Red acquisition. This article presents the achievement of a prototype of camera that captures seven visible and one near infra-red bands on the same sensor chip. A calibration is proposed to characterize the sensor, and images are captured. Data are provided as supplementary material for further analysis and simulations. This opens a new range of applications in security, robotics, automotive and medical fields.

  19. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower and soybean are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpful for crop management. We developed and validated calibration models for Near-infrar...

  20. Noninvasive determination of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of adult heads by time-resolved reflectance measurements for functional near infra-red spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanifuji, T; Wang, L

    2014-01-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μ(a) and μ'(s)) of adult heads have been noninvasively determined by time-resolved reflectance measurements. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis was used to calculate time-resolved reflectance from realistic adult head models with brain grooves containing a non-scattering layer. In vivo time-resolved reflectances of human heads were measured by a system composed of a time-correlated single photon counter and a diode laser. By minimizing the objective functions that compare theoretical and experimental time resolved reflectances, μ(a) and μ'(s) of brain were determined. It became clear that time-resolved measurements have enough sensitivity to determine both μ(a) and μ'(s) for superficial tissues, gray matter and white matter, except μ(s) for white matter.

  1. NIR Analysis for Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been found to be a useful technique to characterize raw materials and finished textile products, and NIR methods and techniques continue to find increasingly diverse and wide-ranging quantitative and qualitative applications in the textile industry. NIR methods ...

  2. Early Oxygen-Utilization and Brain Activity in Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tataranno, ML; Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris; Toet, MC; Lemmers, Petra M A; van de Vosse, R.; Van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J N L

    2015-01-01

    The combined monitoring of oxygen supply and delivery using Near-InfraRed spectroscopy (NIRS) and cerebral activity using amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) could yield new insights into brain metabolism and detect potentially vulnerable conditions soon after birth. The relationship between NIRS and qu

  3. NIR-LEDs lighting system for enhancing Brix distinction with saving energy to agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Kil; Kim, Yang-Gyu; Park, Ahn-Jin; Jang, Won-Geun; Park, Youngsik

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the sugar content prediction determination system in optical non-contact type based on the near infrared light emitting diode (NIR-LED) lamp is proposed. As the result NIR-LED lamp reduced 86% of the energy consumption compared to the case of Halogen lamp in the same process of sugar content determination. And the result of prediction of sugar content by NIR-LED lamp is shown to as near the same level of Halogen lamp system.

  4. Diversity of nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments in forested upland and wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Braker, Gesche; Tiedje, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in forested upland and marsh soil was investigated using molecular methods. nirK gene fragments could be amplified from both soils, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only from...... the marsh soil. PCR products were cloned and screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and representative fragments were sequenced. The diversity of nirK clones was lower than the diversity of nirS clones. Among the 54 distinct nirK RFLP patterns identified in the two soils, only one...... marsh clones and all upland clones. Only a few of the nirK clone sequences branched with those of known denitrifying bacteria. The nirS clones formed two major clusters with several subclusters, but all nirS clones showed less than 80% identity to nirS sequences from known denitrifying bacteria. Overall...

  5. Maturation of the cytochrome cd 1 nitrite reductase NirS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires transient interactions between the three proteins NirS, NirN and NirF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic cytochrome cd 1 nitrite reductase NirS occurring in denitrifying bacteria such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains the essential tetrapyrrole cofactors haem c and haem d 1. Whereas the haem c is incorporated into NirS by the cytochrome c maturation system I, nothing is known about the insertion of the haem d 1 into NirS. Here, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that NirS interacts with the potential haem d 1 insertion protein NirN in vivo. This NirS–NirN inter...

  6. Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes for biosensing with high operating stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takahiko; Nakanotani, Hajime; Hara, Shigeo; Hirohata, Toru; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate highly stable NIR organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on a system using excitonic energy transfer from thermally activated delay fluorescence molecules to NIR fluorophores. The NIR OLEDs showed an electroluminescence peak at 780 nm and robust operational stability with 2% loss of the initial radiant flux after 1000 h under a constant current density of 10 mA/cm2. The variation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation can be detected using the NIR OLEDs as a light source.

  7. Lanthanide NIR luminescence for telecommunications, bioanalyses and solar energy conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Claude; G.; Bünzli; V.

    2010-01-01

    Present-day advanced technologies heavily rely on the exciting magnetic and spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions. In particular, their ability to generate well-characterized and intense near-infrared (NIR) luminescence is exploited in any modern fiber-optic telecommunication network. In this feature article, we first summarize the whereabouts underlying the design of highly luminescent NIR molecular edifices and materials. We then focus on describing the main trends in three applications related to this spectral range: telecommunications, biosciences, and solar energy conversion. In telecommunications, efforts concentrate presently on getting easily processable polymer-based waveguide amplifiers. Upconversion nanophosphors emitting in the visible after NIR excitation are now ubiquitous in many bioanalyses while their application to bio-imaging is still in its early stages; however, highly sensitive NIR-NIR systems start to be at hand for both in vitro and in vivo imaging, as well as dual probes combining magnetic resonance and optical imaging. Finally, both silicon-based and dye-sensitized solar cells benefit from the downconversion and upconversion capabilities of lanthanide ions to harvest UV and NIR solar light and to boost the overall quantum efficiency of these next-generation devices.

  8. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    , analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  9. Cover materials excluding Near Infrared radiation: what is the best strategy in mild climates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and only warms the greenhouse and crop and doe

  10. Cover materials excluding near infrared radiation: effect on greenhouse climate and plant processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.; Dai, J.

    2008-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and warms the greenhouse and crop and does con

  11. Assessing the effects of subtropical forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution using remote sensing data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available space-borne multispectral sensor. RapidEye consists of five spectral bands in the visible to near infra-red (NIR) and has a spatial resolution of 5 m. MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index derived from the RapidEye explained 50 % of the variance in leaf N...

  12. PLS2 regression as a tool for selection of optimal analytical modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Esbensen, Kim

    , analytical modalities. We here present results from a feasibility study, where Fourier Transform Near InfraRed (FT-NIR), Fourier Transform Mid InfraRed (FT-MIR), and Raman laser spectroscopy were applied on the same set of samples obtained from a pilot-scale beer brewing process. Quantitative PLS1 models...

  13. On children's dyslexia with NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhuo; Li, Chengjun; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Yao, Bin; Song, Ranran; Wu, Hanrong

    2003-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a kind of prevalent psychologic disease. Some functional imaging technologies, such as FMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of dyslexics. NIRS is a kind of novel technology which is more and more widely being used for study of the cognitive psychology. However, there aren"t reports about the dyslexic research using NIRS to be found until now. This paper introduces a NIRS system of four measuring channels. Brain activities of dyslexic subjects and normal subjects during reading task were studied with the NIRS system. Two groups of subjects, the group of dyslexia and the group of normal, were appointed to perform two reading tasks. At the same time, their cortical activities were measured with the NIRS system. This experimental result indicates that the brain activities of the dyslexic group were significantly higher than the control group in BA 48 and that NIRS can be used for the study of human brain activity.

  14. The incidence of nirS and nirK and their genetic heterogeneity in cultivated denitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Kim; Gevers, Dirk; Vanparys, Bram; Wittebolle, Lieven; Geets, Joke; Boon, Nico; De Vos, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Gene sequence analysis of nirS and nirK, both encoding nitrite reductases, was performed on cultivated denitrifiers to assess their incidence in different bacterial taxa and their taxonomical value. Almost half of the 227 investigated denitrifying strains did not render an nir amplicon with any of five previously described primers. NirK and nirS were found to be prevalent in Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, respectively, nirK was detected in the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and nirS and nirK with equal frequency in the Gammaproteobacteria. These observations deviated from the hitherto reported incidence of nir genes in bacterial taxa. NirS gene phylogeny was congruent with the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny on family or genus level, although some strains did group within clusters of other bacterial classes. Phylogenetic nirK gene sequence analysis was incongruent with the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. NirK sequences were also found to be significantly more similar to nirK sequences from the same habitat than to nirK sequences retrieved from highly related taxa. This study supports the hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer events of denitrification genes have occurred and underlines that denitrification genes should not be linked with organism diversity of denitrifiers in cultivation-independent studies.

  15. Near infra-red photoimmunotherapy with anti-CEA-IR700 results in extensive tumor lysis and a significant decrease in tumor burden in orthotopic mouse models of pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Maawy

    Full Text Available Photoimmunotherapy (PIT of cancer utilizes tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies conjugated to a photosensitizer phthalocyanine dye IR700 which becomes cytotoxic upon irradiation with near infrared light. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of PIT on human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. The binding capacity of anti-CEA antibody to BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells was determined by FACS analysis. An in vitro cytotoxicity assay was used to determine cell death following treatment with PIT. For in vivo determination of PIT efficacy, nude mice were orthotopically implanted with BxPC-3 pancreatic tumors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP. After tumor engraftment, the mice were divided into two groups: (1 treatment with anti-CEA-IR700 + 690 nm laser and (2 treatment with 690 nm laser only. Anti-CEA-IR700 (100 μg was administered to group (1 via tail vein injection 24 hours prior to therapy. Tumors were then surgically exposed and treated with phototherapy at an intensity of 150 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes. Whole body imaging was done subsequently for 5 weeks using an OV-100 small animal imaging system. Anti-CEA-IR700 antibody bound to the BxPC3 cells to a high degree as shown by FACS analysis. Anti-CEA-IR700 caused extensive cancer cell killing after light activation compared to control cells in cytotoxicity assays. In the orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer, the anti-CEA-IR700 group had significantly smaller tumors than the control after 5 weeks (p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the body weights of mice in the anti-CEA-IR700 and control groups indicating that PIT was well tolerated by the mice.

  16. Study of near infra red femtosecond laser induced particles using transmission electron microscopy and low pressure impaction: Implications for laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis of natural monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abzac, Francois-Xavier, E-mail: dabzac@lmtg.obs-mip.fr [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Chmeleff, Jerome [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Datas, Lucien [TEMSCAN - CIRIMAT - Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, 31400 Toulouse (France); Poitrasson, Franck [GET - UMR 5563 CNRS - Universite de Toulouse - IRD - OMP, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-09-15

    The characteristics of infra red femtosecond laser-induced aerosols are studied for monazite (LREE, Th(PO{sub 4})) ablation and correlations are established with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) signals. Critical parameters are tested within wide ranges of values in order to cover the usual laser ablation -ICP-MS analysis conditions: pulse energy (0.15 < E{sub 0} < 1 mJ/pulse), pulse width (60 < {tau} < 3000 fs), ablation time (t {<=} 10 min) and transport length (l {<=} 6.3 m). Transmission electron microscopy reveals that aerosols are made of agglomerates of {approx} 10 nm particles and 20-300 nm phosphorus depleted condensed spherical particles. These structures are not affected by any laser ablation parameter. Particle counting is performed using electronic low pressure impaction. Small changes on particle size distribution are noticed. They may be induced either by a peak of ablation rate in the first 15 s at high fluence (larger particles) or the loss of small particles during transport. We found a positive correlation between I (ICP-MS mean signal intensity in cps) and N (particle density in cm{sup -3}) when varying E{sub 0} and t, suggesting that N is controlled by the irradiance (P{sub 0} in W{center_dot}cm{sup -2}). Elemental ratio measurements show a steady state signal after the initial high ablation rate (mass load effect in the plasma torch) and before a late chemical fractionation, induced by poor extraction of bigger, early condensed spherical particles from the deepening crater. Such chemical fractionation effects remain within uncertainties, however. These effects can be limited by monitoring E{sub 0} to shorten the initial transient state and delay the attainment of an unfavorable crater aspect ratio. Most adopted settings are for the first time deduced from aerosol characteristics, for infra red femtosecond laser ablation. A short transport (l < 4.0 m) limits the agglomeration of particles by collision process along the tube. Short {tau} is preferred because of higher P{sub 0}, yet no benefit is found on ICP-MS signal intensity under 200 fs. Under such pulse widths the increased particle production induces more agglomeration during transport, thereby resulting in higher mass load effects that reduce the ionization efficiency of the plasma torch. Thus, pulse energy must be set to get an optimal balance between the need for a high signal/background ratio and limitation of mass load effects in the plasma torch. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser induced particles morphology is not affected by any ablation parameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No benefit is found in using pulse durations shorter than 200 fs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slight fractionation is due to mass load effect in the ICP at early ablation time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slight fractionation is due to poor evacuation of large particles at late ablation time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stable phase of signal during acquisition can be enhanced by using adapted ablation parameters.

  17. NIR fluorophore-hollow gold nanosphere complex for cancer enzyme-triggered detection and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Wheeler, Damon; Zhang, Jin Z; Achilefu, Samuel; Kang, Kyung A

    2013-01-01

    Hollow gold nanospheres (HGN) may be delicately tuned to absorb near infrared light (NIR) by tailoring the diameter-to-shell ratio. This unique property can be utilized for enhancing the contrast for the NIR and X-ray/CT imaging, and also noninvasive and local, photothermal hyperthermia by conjugating cancer-targeting molecules on the particle surface. In addition, when an NIR fluorophore is placed on the surface of the NIR-tuned HGNs, the fluorescence can be significantly quenched due to the emitted light absorption by the HGNs. Combining the NIR fluorescence quenching property of HGNs and the enzyme secreting nature of cancer, we have developed a novel enzyme-triggered NIR contrast agent for cancer detection with high specificity. NIR fluorophore Cypate (Indocyanine Green based) was conjugated to HGN via a short spacer for fluorescence quenching. The spacer contains an enzyme-substrate-motif (G-G-R) that can be cleaved by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, a breast cancer enzyme). The nano-complex normally does not emit fluorescence but, in the presence of uPA, the fluorescence was restored, providing high specificity. The enzyme-specific emission allows us to characterize the nature of the cancer (e.g., invasive, metastatic, etc.). Once the cancer is detected, the same HGNs can be used to deliver heat to the cancer site for cancer-specific hyperthermia.

  18. Photonic MEMS for NIR in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, T C; Cole, G D; Goddard, L L; Behymer, E

    2007-07-03

    We report on a novel sensing technique combining photonics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for the detection and monitoring of gas emissions for critical environmental, medical, and industrial applications. We discuss how MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be exploited for in-situ detection and NIR spectroscopy of several gases, such as O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub x}, CH{sub 4}, HF, HCl, etc., with estimated sensitivities between 0.1 and 20 ppm on footprints {approx}10{sup -3} mm{sup 3}. The VCSELs can be electrostatically tuned with a continuous wavelength shift up to 20 nm, allowing for unambiguous NIR signature determination. Selective concentration analysis in heterogeneous gas compositions is enabled, thus paving the way to an integrated optical platform for multiplexed gas identification by bandgap and device engineering. We will discuss here, in particular, our efforts on the development of a 760 nm AlGaAs based tunable VCSEL for O{sub 2} detection.

  19. Influence of galaxy stellar mass and observed wavelength on disc breaks in S4G, NIRS0S, and SDSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki

    2016-11-01

    Context. Breaks in the surface brightness profiles in the outer regions of galactic discs are thought to have formed by various internal (e.g. bar resonances) and external (e.g. galaxy merging) processes. By studying the disc breaks we aim to better understand what processes are responsible for the evolution of the outer discs of galaxies, and galaxies in general. Aims: We use a large well-defined sample to study how common the disc breaks are, and whether their properties depend on galaxy mass. By using both optical and infrared data we study whether the observed wavelength affects the break features as a function of galaxy mass and Hubble type. Methods: We studied the properties of galaxy discs using radial surface brightness profiles of 753 galaxies, obtained from the 3.6 μm images of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), and the Ks-band data from the Near InfraRed S0-Sa galaxy Survey (NIRS0S), covering a wide range of galaxy morphologies (-2 ≤ T ≤ 9) and stellar masses (8.5 ≲ log 10(M∗/M⊙) ≲ 11). In addition, optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) or Liverpool telescope data was used for 480 of these galaxies. Results: We find that in low-mass galaxies the single exponential profiles (Type I) are most common, and that their fraction decreases with increasing galaxy stellar mass. The fraction of down-bending (Type II) profiles increases with stellar mass, possibly due to more common occurrence of bar resonance structures. The up-bending (Type III) profiles are also more common in massive galaxies. The observed wavelength affects the scalelength of the disc of every profile type. Especially the scalelength of the inner disc (hi) of Type II profiles increases from infrared to u-band on average by a factor of 2.2. Consistent with the previous studies, but with a higher statistical significance, we find that Type II outer disc scalelengths (ho) in late-type and low mass galaxies (T > 4, log 10(M∗/M⊙) ≲ 10.5) are shorter in

  20. Instrumentation and method for measuring NIR light absorbed in tissue during MR imaging in medical NIRS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllylä, Teemu S.; Sorvoja, Hannu S. S.; Nikkinen, Juha; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Myllylä, Risto A.

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to provide a cost-effective method for examining human tissue, particularly the brain, by the simultaneous use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Due to its compatibility requirements, MRI poses a demanding challenge for NIRS measurements. This paper focuses particularly on presenting the instrumentation and a method for the non-invasive measurement of NIR light absorbed in human tissue during MR imaging. One practical method to avoid disturbances in MR imaging involves using long fibre bundles to enable conducting the measurements at some distance from the MRI scanner. This setup serves in fact a dual purpose, since also the NIRS device will be less disturbed by the MRI scanner. However, measurements based on long fibre bundles suffer from light attenuation. Furthermore, because one of our primary goals was to make the measuring method as cost-effective as possible, we used high-power light emitting diodes instead of more expensive lasers. The use of LEDs, however, limits the maximum output power which can be extracted to illuminate the tissue. To meet these requirements, we improved methods of emitting light sufficiently deep into tissue. We also show how to measure NIR light of a very small power level that scatters from the tissue in the MRI environment, which is characterized by strong electromagnetic interference. In this paper, we present the implemented instrumentation and measuring method and report on test measurements conducted during MRI scanning. These measurements were performed in MRI operating rooms housing 1.5 Tesla-strength closed MRI scanners (manufactured by GE) in the Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology at the Oulu University Hospital.

  1. Near-infrared (NIR) up-conversion optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Yamashita, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions have been long-awaited for the comprehensive and quantitative understanding of neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders. Recently, it has become possible for the neuronal activity to be optically manipulated using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin (ChR)-2. However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light, which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light (650-1450 nm) penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called ‘imaging window’. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate ChRs since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Here, we created a new type of optogenetic system which consists of the donor LNPs and the acceptor ChRs. The NIR laser irradiation emitted visible light from LNPs, then induced the photo-reactive responses in the near-by cells that expressed ChRs. However, there remains room for large improvements in the energy efficiency of the LNP-ChR system.

  2. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  3. Online process analysis by NIRS; Online Prozessanalyse mit NIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andree, Helga [TENIRS GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nearinfrared-spectroscopy (NIRS) is a quick optical measurement system. It is meanwhile state of the art in many laboratory applications, such as feed analysis. Beyond that, NIRS is well suited as a multivariate inline-analysis-system for in-situ process-monitoring in biogas plants. First TENIRS pilot applications in full scale biogas plants deliver continuously DM, ODM, acetic-acid-equivalent, buffer-capacity, pH, ammonium and nitrogen. Advantages of NIRS as an integrated process-analysis-system derive from the contact-less, permanent measurement directly in the sample-stream, which allows representative complete monitoring of the entire process, simultaneous measurement of a wide range of parameters and the concurrent monitoring of multiple substrate streams. (orig.)

  4. Hemodynamic signals in fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Y

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was originally designed for clinical monitoring of tissue oxygenation, and it has also been developed into a useful tool in neuroimaging studies, with the so-called functional NIRS (fNIRS). With NIRS, cerebral activation is detected by measuring the cerebral hemoglobin (Hb), where however, the precise correlation between NIRS signal and neural activity remains to be fully understood. This can in part be attributed to the situation that NIRS signals are inherently subject to contamination by signals arising from extracerebral tissue. In recent years, several approaches have been investigated to distinguish between NIRS signals originating in cerebral tissue and signals originating in extracerebral tissue. Selective measurements of cerebral Hb will enable a further evolution of fNIRS. This chapter is divided into six sections: first a summary of the basic theory of NIRS, NIRS signals arising in the activated areas, correlations between NIRS signals and fMRI signals, correlations between NIRS signals and neural activities, and the influence of a variety of extracerebral tissue on NIRS signals and approaches to this issue are reviewed. Finally, future prospects of fNIRS are described. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-infrared (NIR) optogenetics using up-conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions for a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders have long been awaited. Recently, it has become possible to optically manipulate the neuronal activity using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called `imaging window'. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), which are composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Neuron-glioma-hybrid ND-7/23 cells were cultured with LNP(NaYF4:Sc/Yb/Er) particles (peak emission, 543 nm) and transfected to express C1V1 (peak absorbance, 539 nm), a chimera of ChR1 and VChR1. The photocurrents were generated in response to NIR laser light (976 nm) to a level comparable to that evoked by a filtered Hg lamp (530-550 nm). NIR light pulses also evoked action potentials in the cultured neurons that expressed C1V1. It is suggested that the green luminescent light emitted from LNPs effectively activated C1V1 to generate the photocurrent. With the optimization of LNPs, acceptor photo-reactive biomolecules and optics, this system could be applied to non-invasively actuate neurons deep in the brain.

  6. Rare-Earth-Based Nanoparticles with Simultaneously Enhanced Near-Infrared (NIR)-Visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR Dual-Conversion Luminescence for Multimodal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dandan; Xu, Xiang; Hu, Min; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Jian; Meng, Lingjie

    2016-04-05

    Multifunctional NaGdF4 :Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @NaGdF4 :Nd(3+) core-shell nanoparticles (called Gd:Yb(3+),Er(3+),Nd(3+) @Gd:Nd(3+) NPs) with simultaneously enhanced near-infrared (NIR)-visible (Vis) and NIR-NIR dual-conversion (up and down) luminescence (UCL/DCL) properties were successfully synthesized. The resulting core-shell NPs simultaneously emitted enhanced UCL at 522, 540, and 660 nm and DCL at 980 and 1060 nm under the excitation of a 793 nm laser. The enhanced UCL and DCL can be explained by complex energy-transfer processes, Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) →Er(3+) and Nd(3+) →Yb(3+) , respectively. The effects of Nd(3+) concentration and shell thickness on the UCL/DCL properties were systematically investigated. The UCL and DCL properties of NPs were observed under the optimal conditions: a shell Nd(3+) content of 20 % and a shell thickness of approximately 5 nm. Moreover, the Gd:Yb(3+) ,Er(3+) ,Nd(3+) @Gd:20 % Nd(3+) NPs exhibited remarkable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties similar to that of a clinical agent, Omniscan. Thus, the core-shell NPs with excellent UCL/DCL/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties have great potential for both in vitro and in vivo multimodal bioimaging.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NIR spectra of 10 PNe in LMC and SMC (Mashburn+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C.; Madonna, S.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Roederer, I. U.; Geballe, T. R.

    2017-02-01

    In Table 1, we provide an observing log and nebular and stellar parameters for our sample. Nine of the 10 PNe were observed with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrograph on the 6.5m Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in 2013 January 21, 22 and August 11, 12. We used a 0.75" slit width to provide a resolution R=4800 in echelle mode, covering the spectral range 0.83-2.45um. LMC SMP 62 and SMC SMP 20 were observed in the K band with the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) on the 8.1m Gemini South telescope (resolving power of R=4000 in the wavelength range 2.1-2.3um) in 2006 August 16. The data were taken in queue mode under observing program GS-2006B-Q-51. (2 data files).

  8. Cultivar classification of Apulian olive oils: Use of artificial neural networks for comparing NMR, NIR and merceological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Giulio; Del Coco, Laura; Ragone, Rosa; Zelasco, Samanta; Perri, Enzo; Montemurro, Cinzia; Valentini, Raffaele; Naso, David; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2017-03-15

    The development of an efficient and accurate method for extra-virgin olive oils cultivar and origin authentication is complicated by the broad range of variables (e.g., multiplicity of varieties, pedo-climatic aspects, production and storage conditions) influencing their properties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied on several analytical datasets, namely standard merceological parameters, near-infra red data and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints, obtained on mono-cultivar olive oils of four representative Apulian varieties (Coratina, Ogliarola, Cima di Mola, Peranzana). We analyzed 888 samples produced at a laboratory-scale during two crop years from 444 plants, whose variety was genetically ascertained, and on 17 industrially produced samples. ANN models based on NMR data showed the highest capability to classify cultivars (in some cases, accuracy>99%), independently on the olive oil production process and year; hence, the NMR data resulted to be the most informative variables about the cultivars.

  9. Taking NIRS to the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage nutritive value (i.e., forage quality) impacts livestock health and performance, but determining the quality of forages for grazing animals is difficult. In the 1970s, development and application of bench-top near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques to assess forage quality proved to be ...

  10. A career in agriculture and NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having spent the last three decades in research and most of that dealing with the application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy (NIRS) to animal agriculture has led to observations about NRS in general and career decisions in particular. For example, over the last two decades NIRS has moved from ...

  11. [Potential Applicability of Fecal NIRs: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Du, Zhou-he; Bai, Shi-qie; Zuo, Yan-chun; Zhou, Xiao-kang; Kou, Jing; Yan, Jia-jun; Zhang, Jian-bo; Li, Ping; You, Ming-hong; Zhang, Yu; Li, Da-xu; Zhang, Chang-bing; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is an inexpensive, rapid, environment-friendly and non-invasive analytical technique that has been extensively applied in the analysis of the dietary attributes and the animal products. Acquisition of dietary attributes is essential for nutritional diagnoses to provide animals with reasonable diet. Traditionally, the calibration equations for the prediction of dietary attributes (e. g. crude protein) are developed from feed NIR spectra and the results of conventional chemical analysis (i. e. reference data). It is difficult to obtain the NIR spectra of forages consumed by grazing animals, so the method of this calibration is inappropriate for free-grazing herbivores. Feces, as the animal's metabolites, contain the information about both the animal's diet and the animal itself. Recently, Fecal-NIRS (F. NIRS) has been directly used to monitor diet information (botanical composition, chemical composition and digestibility), based on correlation between reference data and fecal NIR profile. Subsequently, some additional application (such as sex and species discrimination, reproductive and parasite status) of F. NIRS also is outlined. In the last, application of NIRS in animal manure is summarized. NIRS was shown to be an alternative to conventional wet chemical methods for analyzing some nutrient concentrations in animal manure rapidly. Overall, this paper proves that F. NIRS is a rapid and valid tool for the determination of the dietary attributes and of the physiological status of animal, although more efforts need to be done to improve the accuracy of the F. NIRS technique. Several researchers in English have reviewed the applications of F. NIRS. In China, however, there is a paucity of research and application regarding F. NIRS. We expect that this paper in Chinese will be helpful to the development of F. NIRS in China. At the same time, we propose NIRS as a simple and rapid analytical method for predicting the main

  12. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  13. Design and synthesis of polymer-functionalized NIR fluorescent dyes--magnetic nanoparticles for bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Swee Kuan; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lakshmi, Jeeva Lavanya; Dolmanan, Surani Bin; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan; Ho, Vincent H B; Vijayaragavan, Vimalan; Hariharan, Anushya; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Bhakoo, Kishore K; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ahmed, Sohail; Zhang, Yong; Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2013-08-27

    The fluorescent probes having complete spectral separation between absorption and emission spectra (large Stokes shift) are highly useful for solar concentrators and bioimaging. In bioimaging application, NIR fluorescent dyes have a greater advantage in tissue penetration depth compared to visible-emitting organic dyes or inorganic quantum dots. Here we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of an amphiphilic polymer, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhyride)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR) IR-820 dye and its conjugates with iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Our results demonstrate that the Stokes shift of unmodified dye can be tuned (from ~106 to 208 nm) by the functionalization of the dye with polymer and MNPs. The fabrication of bimodal probes involves (i) the synthesis of NIR fluorescent dye (IR-820 cyanine) functionalized with ethylenediamine linker in high yield, >90%, (ii) polymer conjugation to the functionalized NIR fluorescent dye, and (iii) grafting the polymer-conjugated dyes on iron oxide MNPs. The resulting uniform, small-sized (ca. 6 nm) NIR fluorescent dye-magnetic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a wider emissive range (800-1000 nm) and minimal cytotoxicity. Our preliminary studies demonstrate the potential utility of these NPs in bioimaging by means of direct labeling of cancerous HeLa cells via NIR fluorescence microscopy and good negative contrast enhancement in T2-weighted MR imaging of a murine model.

  14. Optical and morphological properties of infrared emitting functionalized silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Malvindi, M.A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies@Unile, Via Barsanti, Arnesano, I-73010 Lecce (Italy); Agnello, S., E-mail: simonpietro.agnello@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Buscarino, G.; Alessi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Pompa, P.P. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnologies@Unile, Via Barsanti, Arnesano, I-73010 Lecce (Italy); Gelardi, F.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    The loading process of functionalized silica nanoparticles was investigated in order to obtain nanoparticles having functional groups on their surface and Near-Infrared (NIR) emission properties. The NIR emission induced by O{sub 2} loading was studied in silica nanoparticles, produced by pyrogenic and microemulsion methods, with size ranging from 20 to 120 nm. Loading was carried out by thermal treatments in O{sub 2} atmosphere up to 400 °C and 90 bar. The effects of the thermal treatments on the NIR emission and on the structural properties were studied by luminescence and Raman techniques, whereas the morphological features were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Our data show that silica nanoparticles produced by pyrogenic technique can be loaded with O{sub 2} at lower temperature than the ones obtained by microemulsion and have a higher luminescence intensity due to the internal porosity of the latter. The treatments do not affect the nanosize of the microemulsion particles and provide NIR emitting probes of selected size. Post-processing surface functionalization of the pyrogenic nanoparticles does not affect their emission properties and provides high efficiency NIR emitters with functionalized surface. - Highlights: • Pyrogenic and microemulsion silica nanoparticles with near infrared emission. • Functionalization of nanoparticles does not change the NIR emission. • Porosity limits the emission properties of nanoparticles.

  15. Next generation NIR fluorophores for tumor imaging and fluorescence-guided surgery: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ashanul; Faizi, Md Serajul Haque; Rather, Jahangir Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad S

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases responsible for the major causes of mortality and morbidity among people of all ages. Even though medical sciences have made enormous growth, complete treatment of this deadly disease is still a challenging task. Last few decades witnessed an impressive growth in the design and development of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores with and without recognition moieties for molecular recognitions, imaging and image guided surgeries. The present article reviews recently reported NIR emitting organic/inorganic fluorophores that targets and accumulates in organelle/organs specifically for molecular imaging of cancerous cells. Near infrared (NIR probe) with or without a tumor-targeting warhead have been considered and discussed for their applications in the field of cancer imaging. In addition, challenges persist in this area are also delineated in this review.

  16. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S;

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analytical techniques is a simple, fast and low cost method of high dimensional phenotyping compared to usual chemical techniques. To use this method there is no need for special sample preparation. The aim of this study is to use NIRS data to predict plant traits...... (e.g. dry matter, protein content, etc.) for the next generation. In total 1984 NIRS data from 995 ryegrass families (first cut) were used. The Absorption of radiation in the region of 960 – 1690 nm in every 2 nm distance produced 366 bins to represent the NIRS spectrum. The amount of genetic...

  17. Near-Infrared Hyper-spectral Image Analysis of Astaxanthin Concentration in Fish Feed Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Kobayashi, K.;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of predicting concentration levels of synthetic astaxanthin coating of aquaculture feed pellets by hyper-spectral image analysis in the near infra-red (NIR) range and optical filter design. The imaging devices used were a Videometer...... for prediction of the concentration level. The results show that it is possible to predict the level of synthetic astaxanthin coating using either hyper-spectral imaging or three bandpass filters (BPF)....

  18. Greenhouse cooling by NIR-reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Braak, van der N.; Dueck, T.A.; Marissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wageningen UR investigated the potential of several NIR-filtering methods to be applied in horticulture. In this paper the analysis of the optical properties of available NIR-filtering materials is given including a calculation method to quantify the energy reduction under these materials and to est

  19. Using Massive Multivariate NIRS Data in Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Greve-Pedersen, Morten; Jensen, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analytical techniques is a simple, fast and low cost method of high dimensional phenotyping compared to usual chemical techniques. To use this method there is no need for special sample preparation. The aim of this study is to use NIRS data to predict plant traits...

  20. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Cadmium Based Nanoparticles Emitting from 400 - 750 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Presland, Katayune

    2010-01-01

    This thesis concerns the synthesis of cadmium based nanoparticles that emitted from 400 to the near infrared (NIR) region. Once synthesised they can be possibly used as biomarkers once encapsulated in microspheres. A brief introduction to the area of nanomaterials is also provided.The focus of this thesis is split into three main categories. Firstly core/shell nanoparticles were synthesised due to their ability to emit over a large range of wavelengths. Alloyed nanoparticles were then syn...

  1. Sediment denitrifier community composition and nirS gene expression investigated with functional gene microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, C.A.; Jackson, G.A.; Ward, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    total RNA extracts) targets were hybridized to the same array to compare the profiles of community composition at the DNA (relative abundance) and mRNA (gene expression) levels. Only the three dominant denitrifying groups (in terms of relative strength of DNA hybridization signal) were detected at the m......A functional gene microarray was used to investigate denitrifier community composition and nitrite reductase (nirS) gene expression in sediments along the estuarine gradient in Chesapeake Bay, USA. The nirS oligonucleotide probe set was designed to represent a sequence database containing 539...

  2. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.

  3. Exploring the ability of the nalidixate to sensitize visible and near-infrared emitting lanthanide(III) cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Liasotkyi, Valerii S.; Golovach, Iurii P.; Doga, Pavel G.; Antonovich, Valery P.; Petoud, Stéphane; Meshkova, Svetlana B.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a strong interest has been directed towards near-infrared (NIR) emitting lanthanide(III) compounds as they do possess complementary advantages in respect to organic molecules and semi-conductor nanocrystals, especially in the fields of biological analysis and imaging. To benefit from their emission, a key requirement to fulfill is the sensitization of lanthanide(III) cations with an appropriate chromophore. This condition is especially challenging to address for the lanthanide(III) cations emitting in the NIR. The quest for new chromophores well adapted to the NIR-emitting lanthanide(III) ions is an important direction of research in order to broaden the rationalization of the parameters that control the sensitization process. In this work, we have investigated the ability of a readily available chromophoric ligand, the nalidixic acid, to sensitize lanthanide(III) cations with a specific interest for those emitting in the NIR. We have therefore performed an extensive study of the luminescence properties of lanthanide(III) complexes emitting in the visible and in the NIR ranges formed in situ upon mixing the corresponding Ln(III) nitrates (Ln(III)  =  Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb) with nalidixic acid (HNA) in a 1:3 molar ratio in the presence of a base. Luminescence spectra, quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes have been measured and discussed. The red emission of Eu with a quantum yield value of 5.90(3)%, red and NIR of Pr (7(1) · 10-4 and 5.6(1) · 10-4%) and Ho (9.3(2) · 10-4 and 2.8(1) · 10-4%), green of Tb (5.21(5)%), yellow and NIR of Dy (0.51(2) and 0.065(4)%), orange and NIR of Sm (0.147(5) and 0.037(2)%), as well as NIR of Nd (0.0321(2)%) and Yb (0.021(1)%) were observed. These results and analysis show that the nalidixate is a versatile chromophoric ligand that is suitable for the sensitization of nine different lanthanide(III) cations, five of them emitting in the NIR.

  4. WIRELESS DISTRIBUTED ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY – WDA-NIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SAFAIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The wireless distributed acquisition system for near infrared spectroscopy (WDA-NIRS is a portable, ultra-compact, continuous wave (CW NIRS system. Its main advantage is that it allows continuous synchronized multi-site hemodynamic monitoring. The WDA-NIRS system calculates online changes in hemoglobin concentration based on modified Beer–Lambert law and the tissue oxygenation index based on the spatial-resolved spectroscopy method. It consists of up to seven signal acquisition units, sufficiently small to be easily attached to any part of the body. These units are remotely synchronized by a PC base station for independent acquisition of NIRS signals. Each acquisition module can be freely adapted to individual requirements such as local skin properties and the microcirculation of interest, e.g., different muscles, brain, skin, etc. For this purpose, the light emitted by each LED can be individually, interactively or automatically adjusted to local needs. Furthermore, the user can freely create an emitter time-multiplexing protocol and choose the detector sensitivity most suitable to a particular situation. The potential diagnostic value of this advanced device is demonstrated by three typical applications.

  5. Intein-mediated site-specific conjugation of Quantum Dots to proteins in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skourides Paris A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe an intein based method to site-specifically conjugate Quantum Dots (QDs to target proteins in vivo. This approach allows the covalent conjugation of any nanostructure and/or nanodevice to any protein and thus the targeting of such material to any intracellular compartment or signalling complex within the cells of the developing embryo. We genetically fused a pleckstrin-homology (PH domain with the N-terminus half of a split intein (IN. The C-terminus half (IC of the intein was conjugated to QDs in vitro. IC-QD's and RNA encoding PH-IN were microinjected into Xenopus embryos. In vivo intein-splicing resulted in fully functional QD-PH conjugates that could be monitored in real time within live embryos. Use of Near Infra Red (NIR-emitting QDs allowed monitoring of QD-conjugates within the embryo at depths where EGFP is undetectable demonstrating the advantages of QD's for this type of experiment. In conclusion, we have developed a novel in vivo methodology for the site-specific conjugation of QD's and other artificial structures to target proteins in different intracellular compartments and signaling complexes.

  6. NIRS in clinical neurology - a 'promising' tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrig, Hellmuth

    2014-01-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become a relevant research tool in neuroscience. In special populations such as infants and for special tasks such as walking, NIRS has asserted itself as a low resolution functional imaging technique which profits from its ease of application, portability and the option to co-register other neurophysiological and behavioral data in a 'near natural' environment. For clinical use in neurology this translates into the option to provide a bed-side oximeter for the brain, broadly available at comparatively low costs. However, while some potential for routine brain monitoring during cardiac and vascular surgery and in neonatology has been established, NIRS is largely unknown to clinical neurologists. The article discusses some of the reasons for this lack of use in clinical neurology. Research using NIRS in three major neurologic diseases (cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and headache) is reviewed. Additionally the potential to exploit the established position of NIRS as a functional imaging tool with regard to clinical questions such as preoperative functional assessment and neurorehabilitation is discussed.

  7. Au nanorods modulated NIR fluorescence and singlet oxygen generation of water soluble dendritic zinc phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuefei; He, Xiaohong; Wei, Shiliang; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-11-15

    A novel cyano-terminated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-CN) exhibiting visible near infrared (vis-NIR) emitting around 690nm in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent has been synthesized. Furthermore, the peripheral cyano groups of newly synthesized zinc phthalocyanine were hydrolyzed in strong basic solution, leading to water soluble carboxylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-COOH) with completely quenched fluorescence in aqueous solution. Interestingly, we found that the NIR fluorescence of aqueous ZnPc-COOH was dramatically recovered in the presence of gold nanorods (Au NR), which was due to the alternation of ZnPc-COOH molecules self-assembling via electrostatic interaction between cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the surface of Au NR and peripheral carboxyl of ZnPc-COOH. In addition, ZnPc-COOH/Au NR conjugates demonstrated an improved singlet oxygen generation, which could be served as potential bioimaging probe and photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

  8. Magnetic Field Effects on Triplet-Triplet Annihilation in Solutions: Modulation of Visible/NIR Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2013-08-01

    Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) presents interest for such areas as photovoltaics and imaging. Usually energy upconversion is observed as p-type delayed fluorescence from molecules whose triplet states are populated via energy transfer from a suitable triplet donor, followed by TTA. Magnetic field effects (MFE) on delayed fluorescence in molecular crystals are well known; however, there exist only a few examples of MFE on TTA in solutions, and all of them are limited to UV-emitting materials. Here we present MFE on TTA-mediated visible and near infrared (NIR) emission, sensitized by far-red absorbing metalloporphyrins in solutions at room temperature. In addition to visible delayed fluorescence from annihilator, we also observed NIR emission from the sensitizer, occurring as a result of triplet-triplet energy transfer back from annihilator, termed "delayed phosphorescence". This emission also exhibits MFE, but opposite in sign to the annihilator fluorescence.

  9. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicácia P. Machado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy. To determine pears' soluble solids (SS and pulp firmness (PF, it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.Recentemente, técnicas não destrutivas como a espectroscopia Vis/NIR têm sido utilizadas para avaliar as características de maturação e qualidade das peras. O trabalho tem como objetivo validar as leituras por espectroscopia Vis/NIR, como forma não destrutiva de avaliar as características qualitativas em peras das cultivares Williams, Packams e Carrick produzidas em condições brasileiras. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, Pelotas/RS e o instrumento utilizado para determinar a qualidade dos frutos de forma não destrutiva foi o espectrofotômetro NIR-Case (SACMI, Imola, Itália. Para a determinação de sólidos solúveis (SS e firmeza

  10. NIR optimerer produktionen af gammeldags modnede sild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Vibeke Tølbøl; Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    2005-01-01

    Måling med nærinfrarødt (NIR) lys er et godt supplement til de nuværende metoder til at følge modningen af sild saltede i tønder. Det viser resultaterne af et forskningsprojekt udført i samarbejde mellem Lykkeberg A/S, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser og Den Kgl Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Ved hjælp...... af avanceret matematik er det nemt og hurtigt at bestemme modningsgraden af sild direkte fra en NIR måling....

  11. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial...... processes and had a large variability for most of the parameters. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to make the prediction models based on NIR spectra taken at 30 and 40 °C. Using proper wavelength range allowed to get models for prediction of fat, protein and amount of total solids with very...

  12. Light-emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Daniel R.; Hagstrom, Erika; Pace, Aaron K.; Sisto, Krisanne; Hirano-Ali, Stefanie A.; Desai, Shraddha

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the early 1990s, the biological significance of light-emitting diodes was realized. Since this discovery, various light sources have been investigated for their cutaneous effects. Study design: A Medline search was performed on light-emitting diode lights and their therapeutic effects between 1996 and 2010. Additionally, an open-label, investigator-blinded study was performed using a yellow light-emitting diode device to treat acne, rosacea, photoaging, alopecia areata, and androgenetic alopecia. Results: The authors identified several case-based reports, small case series, and a few randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of four different wavelengths of light-emitting diodes. These devices were classified as red, blue, yellow, or infrared, and covered a wide range of clinical applications. The 21 patients the authors treated had mixed results regarding patient satisfaction and pre- and post-treatment evaluation of improvement in clinical appearance. Conclusion: Review of the literature revealed that differing wavelengths of light-emitting diode devices have many beneficial effects, including wound healing, acne treatment, sunburn prevention, phototherapy for facial rhytides, and skin rejuvenation. The authors’ clinical experience with a specific yellow light-emitting diode device was mixed, depending on the condition being treated, and was likely influenced by the device parameters. PMID:26155326

  13. Aqueous synthesis of MPA-capped CdTe nanocrystals emitted in near infrared with high quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongqiang; Liu, Ning; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Yuanna; Shi, Ruixia; Ma, Qian; Zhang, Aiyu

    2014-07-01

    The high luminescent near infrared (NIR)--emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the stabilized molecules had been sucessfully fabricated by a facile and simple water-reflux method. By virtue of the characterizations for the as-prepared MPA-capped CdTe NCs, such as UV-Vis absorption, steady-state photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL spectra and PL image, the optical properties, diameters and morphologies of the CdTe NCs were investigated detailedly. With the increase of reflux time, the PL peak wavelength of NCs gradually shifted from red light to NIR spectra range within 7 h, and the PL quantum yield (QY) was increased firstly and then decreased slightly. It was worth noted that the NCs still showed a relative high PL QY of 47% as well as a narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL spectra even when the NCs emitted at the NIR wavelength of 754 nm. In addition, the average PL lifetime also exhibited an obvious increase as the growth of CdTe NCs due to the formation of thin CdS shell on the surface of CdTe. The PL stabilities for these NIR-emitting NCs (754 nm) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer solution with various concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 M were also checked accordingly, and the results indicated that the as-prepared NIR-emitting CdTe NCs had a satisfied PL stability, implying a potential application in the biological field. Hopefully, all the superiority of these NIR-emitting CdTe NCs, such as high PL QY and PL lifetime, narrow FWHM of PL spectra, high PL stability in PBS solution, would make them to be a good candidate for biological applications in future.

  14. Agricultural applications of NIR reflectance and transmittance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy technologies for rapid determination of quality parameters in agriculture, including applications within crop product quality, feed and food quality, manure quality, soil analyses etc...

  15. The effect of nitrate addition on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln genes in acidified Norway spruce forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kaåa, Jiří; Antrå¯Čková, Hana Å.

    2010-05-01

    The denitrification is the main biotic process leading to loses of fixed nitrogen as well as removal of excess of nitrate (NO3-) from the soil environment. The reduction of NO2- to nitric oxide (NO) distinguishes the 'true' denitrifiers from other nitrate-respiring bacteria. This reaction is catalyzed by two different types of nitrite reductases, either a cytochrome cd1 encoded by nirS gene (nirS denitrifiers) or a Cu-containing enzyme encoded by nirK gene (nirK denitrifiers). The nirS denitrifiers are located mostly in rhizosphere, while the nirK denitrifiers are more abundant in bulk soil. These two groups can be also classified as markers of denitrification. Glutamine synthetase is one of the main bacterial NH4+ assimilating enzymes; it is coded by glnI gene. Glutamine synthetase is mostly active when N is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. There is recent evidence that the activity may be affected by the presence of alternative N source (i.e. NO3-). However, in anaerobic condition NO3- can be used also by the denitrifying bacteria so there may be strong competition for this nutrient. The laboratory experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of nitrates (NO3-) on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln gene copy numbers. The amount of NO3- corresponded to the actual atmospheric depositions on experimental sites in the Bohemian Forest. Litter organic layer (0-5cm of soil) was used for laboratory incubation experiment. Four replicates of control (no addition of NO3-), and NO3-addition were incubated anaerobically for one month. After the incubation DNA was extracted and the number of nirK, nirS and gln gene copies was determined using qPCR (SYBRGreen methodology). Results showed that the addition of NO3- significantly increased the number of nirK and nirS denitrifiers from 5.9x106 to 1.1x107 and from not detectable amount to 1.4x106, respectively. The gln gene copy number was also higher after NO3-addition. However, the difference was not statistically

  16. Development of PCR primer systems for amplification of nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) to detect denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braker, G.; Witzel, K.P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Limnologie, Ploen (Germany); Fesefeldt, A. [Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Mikrobiologie

    1998-10-01

    A system was developed for the detection of denitrifying bacteria by the application of specific nitrite reductase gene fragments with PCR. Primer sequences were found for the amplification of fragments from both nitrite reductase genes (nirK and nirS) after comparative sequence analysis. Whenever amplification was tried with these primers, the known nir type of denitrifying laboratory cultures could be confirmed. Likewise, the method allowed a determination of the nir type of five laboratory strains. The nirK gene could be amplified from Blastobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, and Alcaligenes sp. (DSM 30128); the nirS gene was amplified from Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 530 and from the denitrifying isolate IFAM 3698. For each of the two genes, at least one primer combination amplified successfully for all of the test strains. Specific amplification products were not obtained wit h nondenitrifying bacteria or with strains of the other nir type. The specificity of the amplified products was confirmed by subsequent sequencing. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples. This was shown by applying the generally amplifying primer combination for each nir gene developed in this study to total DNA preparations from aquatic habitats.

  17. NIR-red spectral space based new method for soil moisture monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN ZhiMing; QIN QiMing; GHULAN Abduwasit; WANG DongDong

    2007-01-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster that occurs frequently. Soil moisture has been the main issue in remote monitoring of drought events as the most direct and important variable describing the drought. Spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil moisture evidently affect surface evapotranspiration, agricultural water demand, etc. In this paper, a new simple method for soil moisture monitoring is developed using near-infrared versus red (NIR-red) spectral reflectance space. First, NIR-red spectral reflectance space is established using atmospheric and geometric corrected ETM+ data, which is manifested by a triangle shape, in which different surface covers have similar spatial distribution rules. Next, the model of soil moisture monitoring by remote sensing (SMMRS) is developed on the basis of the distribution characteristics of soil moisture in the NIR-red spectral reflectance space. Then, the SMMRS model is validated by comparison with field measured soil moisture data at different depths. The results showed that satellite estimated soil moisture by SMMRS is highly accordant with field measured data at 5 cm soil depth and average soil moisture at 0―20 cm soil depths, correlation coefficients are 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. This paper concludes that, being simple and effective, the SMMRS model has great potential to estimate surface moisture conditions.

  18. NIR-red spectral space based new method for soil moisture monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GHULAN; Abduwasit

    2007-01-01

    Drought is a complex natural disaster that occurs frequently. Soil moisture has been the main issue in remote monitoring of drought events as the most direct and important variable describing the drought. Spatio-temporal distribution and variation of soil moisture evidently affect surface evapotranspiration, agricultural water demand, etc. In this paper, a new simple method for soil moisture monitoring is de- veloped using near-infrared versus red (NIR-red) spectral reflectance space. First, NIR-red spectral reflectance space is established using atmospheric and geometric corrected ETM+ data, which is manifested by a triangle shape, in which different surface covers have similar spatial distribution rules. Next, the model of soil moisture monitoring by remote sensing (SMMRS) is developed on the basis of the distribution characteristics of soil moisture in the NIR-red spectral reflectance space. Then, the SMMRS model is validated by comparison with field measured soil moisture data at different depths. The results showed that satellite estimated soil moisture by SMMRS is highly accordant with field measured data at 5 cm soil depth and average soil moisture at 0―20 cm soil depths, correlation coef- ficients are 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. This paper concludes that, being simple and effective, the SMMRS model has great potential to estimate surface moisture conditions.

  19. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    -consuming and costly, and it is therefore desirable to have a rapid and less expensive method, which makes it possible to carry out more analyses in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N, starch and is today used routinely by grain traders....... The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter, crude protein, crude ash, crude oils and fats, EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. All samples were ground on a laboratory mill and scans were obtained using a QFA-Flex 400 FT-NIR instrument...

  20. Emission tunable, cyto/hemocompatible, near-IR-emitting Ag2S quantum dots by aqueous decomposition of DMSA

    OpenAIRE

    Birer, Özgür; Hocaoğlu, İbrahim; Demir, Fatma; Kiraz, Alper; Grandfils, Christian; Acar, Havva Yağcı; Sevrin, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Size tunable aqueous Ag2S quantum dots emitting in the near-infrared region were synthesized through decomposition of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in water. The resulting NIR QDs are highly cyto- and hemocompatible, have quantum yields as high as 6.5% and are effective optical imaging agents based on in vitro evaluation.

  1. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  2. Red Emitting VCSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  3. Light-Emitting Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  4. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  5. Design and synthesis of small molecules for NIR-operating light emitting and sensing devices

    OpenAIRE

    Buccheri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Organic chemistry of dyes and pigments offers a large number of synthetic tools for the production of innovative compounds to match the requirements of modern materials science. Near-infrared portion of the spectrum (700-2500 nm) is of particular interest, with application in bioimaging, photodynamic therapy, night vision, telecommunications and sensors. Among the thousands of different organic structure present in the literature, organic complexes of neutral tetrahedral boron (III), subphtha...

  6. Sol-gel silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy); Artizzu, Flavia [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Cagliari and Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy); Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Sol-gel silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato complex (YbClQ{sub 4}) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ{sub 4} are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-gel approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.

  7. Sol-gel silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figus, Cristiana; Quochi, Francesco; Artizzu, Flavia; Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Sol-gel silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato complex (YbClQ4) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ4 are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-gel approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.

  8. NIR sensitivity analysis with the VANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Justin T.; Goodin, Christopher T.; Baylot, Alex E.

    2016-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) cameras, with peak sensitivity around 905-nm wavelengths, are increasingly used in object detection applications such as pedestrian detection, occupant detection in vehicles, and vehicle detection. In this work, we present the results of simulated sensitivity analysis for object detection with NIR cameras. The analysis was conducted using high performance computing (HPC) to determine the environmental effects on object detection in different terrains and environmental conditions. The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE) was used to simulate highresolution models for environment, terrain, vehicles, and sensors. In the experiment, an active fiducial marker was attached to the rear bumper of a vehicle. The camera was mounted on a following vehicle that trailed at varying standoff distances. Three different terrain conditions (rural, urban, and forest), two environmental conditions (clear and hazy), three different times of day (morning, noon, and evening), and six different standoff distances were used to perform the sensor sensitivity analysis. The NIR camera that was used for the simulation is the DMK firewire monochrome on a pan-tilt motor. Standoff distance was varied along with environment and environmental conditions to determine the critical failure points for the sensor. Feature matching was used to detect the markers in each frame of the simulation, and the percentage of frames in which one of the markers was detected was recorded. The standoff distance produced the biggest impact on the performance of the camera system, while the camera system was not sensitive to environment conditions.

  9. fNIRS-based online deception decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Su; Hong, Keum-Shik; Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    2012-04-01

    Deception involves complex neural processes in the brain. Different techniques have been used to study and understand brain mechanisms during deception. Moreover, efforts have been made to develop schemes that can detect and differentiate deception and truth-telling. In this paper, a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based online brain deception decoding framework is developed. Deploying dual-wavelength fNIRS, we interrogate 16 locations in the forehead when eight able-bodied adults perform deception and truth-telling scenarios separately. By combining preprocessed oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin signals, we develop subject-specific classifiers using the support vector machine. Deception and truth-telling states are classified correctly in seven out of eight subjects. A control experiment is also conducted to verify the deception-related hemodynamic response. The average classification accuracy is over 83.44% from these seven subjects. The obtained result suggests that the applicability of fNIRS as a brain imaging technique for online deception detection is very promising.

  10. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks.

  11. Toward a fully integrated wireless wearable EEG-NIRS bimodal acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaie, J.; Grebe, R.; Abrishami Moghaddam, H.; Wallois, F.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Interactions between neuronal electrical activity and regional changes in microcirculation are assumed to play a major role in physiological brain activity and the development of pathological disorders, but have been poorly elucidated to date. There is a need for advanced diagnostic tools to investigate the relationships between these two physiological processes.Approach. To meet these needs, a wireless wearable system has been developed, which combines a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as a light source and silicon photodiodes as a detector with an integrated electroencephalography (EEG) system. Main results. The main advantages over currently available devices are miniaturization and integration of a real-time electrical and hemodynamic activity monitor into one wearable device. For patient distributed monitoring and creating a body-area network, up to seven same devices can be connected to a single base station (PC) synchronously. Each node presents enhanced portability due to the wireless communication and highly integrated components resulting in a small, lightweight signal acquisition device. Further progress includes the individual control of LEDs output to automatically or interactively adjust emitted light to the actual local situation online, the use of silicon photodiodes with a safe low-voltage power supply, and an integrated three dimensional accelerometer for movement detection for the identification of motion artifacts. Significance. The device was tested and validated using our enhanced EEG-NIRS tissue mimicking fluid phantom for sensitivity mapping. Typical somatotopic electrical evoked potential experiments were performed to verify clinical applicability.

  12. Estimating the spatial resolution of fNIRS sensors for BCI purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajidy, Rand Kasim; Kirch, Robert D.; Christ, Olaf; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-03-01

    Differential near infrared sensors recently sparked a growing interest as a promising measuring modality for brain computer interfacing. In our study we present the design and characterization of novel, differential functional NIRS sensors, intended to record hemodynamic changes of the human motor cortex in the hand-area during motor imagery tasks. We report on the spatial characterization of a portable, multi-channel NIRS system with one module consisting of two central light emitting diodes (LED) (770 nm and 850 nm) and four symmetric pairs of radially aligned photodiodes (PD) resembling a plus symbol. The other sensor module features four similar, differential light paths crossing in the center of a star. Characterization was performed on a concentric, double beaker phantom, featuring a PBS/intralipid/blood mixture (97/1/2%). In extension of previous work, the inner, oxygenated beaker was covered by neoprene sleeves with holes of various sizes, thus giving an estimate on the spatial limits of the NIRS sensor's measurement volume. The star shaped sensor module formed a diffuse focus of approximately 3 cm in diameter at 1.4 cm depth, whereas the plus shaped arrangement suggested a concentric ring of four separate regions of interest, overall larger than 6 cm. The systems measurement sensitivity could be improved by removing ambient light from the sensing photodiodes by optical filtering. Altogether, we conclude that both our novel fNIRS design as well as its electronics perform well in the double-layered oxygenation phantom and are thus suitable for in-vivo testing.

  13. Pharmaceutical applications using NIR technology in the cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Luiz; Borges, Marco A.

    2017-05-01

    NIR technology has been available for a long time, certainly more than 50 years. Without any doubt, it has found many niche applications, especially in the pharmaceutical, food, agriculture and other industries due to its flexibility. There are a number of advantages over other existing analytical technologies we can list, for example virtually no need for sample preparation; usually NIR does not demand sample destruction and subsequent discard; NIR provides fast results; NIR does not require extensive operator training and carries small operating costs. However, the key point about NIR technology is the fact that it's more related to statistics than chemistry or, in other words, we are more concerned about analyzing and distinguishing features within the data than looking deep into the chemical entities themselves. A simple scan reading in the NIR range usually involves huge inflows of data points. Usually we decompose the signals into hundreds of predictor variables and use complex algorithms to predict classes or quantify specific content. NIR is all about math, especially by converting chemical information into numbers. Easier said than done. A NIR signal is a very complex one. Usually the signal responses are not specific to a particular material, rather, each grouṕs responses add up, thus providing low specificity of a spectral reading. This paper proposes a simple and efficient method to analyze and compare NIR spectra for the purpose of identifying the presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients in finished products using low cost NIR scanning devices connected to the internet cloud.

  14. 传感器几何结构对近红外组织氧合检测仪灵敏度的影响%The Influence of Probe Geometry on the Sensitivity of Tissue Oximeter Using near Infra-red Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 丁海曙; 林方

    2000-01-01

    近红外组织氧合检测仪基于强散射条件下修正的朗伯-比耳吸收定律,通过连续记录多个近红外波长下光密度随生理状态的变化,从而可达到对人体组织中光的吸收体(氧合血红蛋白,还原血红蛋白,细胞色素氧化酶等)浓度变化的定量检测.本文利用蒙特卡罗仿真方法对光在多层生物组织模型中的平均穿透深度、光子平均飞行距离和空间灵敏度分布进行了仿真,结果表明,传感器几何结构,即光源与光检测器之间的距离是影响检测灵敏度的重要因素,适当增加这一距离有助于深层组织生化信息的提取和测量灵敏度的提高,但是它又受到信噪比降低的限制.针对特定的组织部位,存在着最优的光源~探测器距离.

  15. NIR-NIR fluorescence: A new genre of fingermark visualisation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roberto S P; Hallett, Peter M; Foster, Doug

    2016-05-01

    A preliminary study reveals that finely divided cuprorivaite powder may be used to efficiently develop and subsequently image latent fingermarks across a range of highly patterned, coloured non-porous and semi-porous substrates using near infrared illumination and imaging. Problematic multi-coloured backgrounds provide very little interference under the illumination conditions used, and invoked fluorescence observed, when using this material. This is the first reported example of a NIR-NIR fluorophore for use within latent fingermark visualisation and offers the potential for application at the scene and in the laboratory.

  16. The NIRS Analysis Package: noise reduction and statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Tomer; Rubin, Denis; Carlson, Joshua M; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2011-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique that can be used to measure cortical hemodynamic responses to specific stimuli or tasks. While analyses of NIRS data are normally adapted from established fMRI techniques, there are nevertheless substantial differences between the two modalities. Here, we investigate the impact of NIRS-specific noise; e.g., systemic (physiological), motion-related artifacts, and serial autocorrelations, upon the validity of statistical inference within the framework of the general linear model. We present a comprehensive framework for noise reduction and statistical inference, which is custom-tailored to the noise characteristics of NIRS. These methods have been implemented in a public domain Matlab toolbox, the NIRS Analysis Package (NAP). Finally, we validate NAP using both simulated and actual data, showing marked improvement in the detection power and reliability of NIRS.

  17. Transcriptional analysis of the nirS gene, encoding cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase, of Paracoccus pantotrophus LMD 92.63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N F; Ferguson, S J; Baker, S C

    2000-02-01

    The gene for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase of Paracoccus pantotrophus, a protein of known crystal structure, is nirS. This gene is shown to be flanked by genes previously recognized in other organisms to encode proteins involved in the control of its transcription (nirI) and the biosynthesis of the d1 cofactor (nirE). Northern blot analysis has established under anaerobic conditions that a monocistronic transcript is produced from nirS, in contrast to observations with other denitrifying bacteria in which arrangement of flanking genes is different and the messages produced are polycistronic. The lack of a transcript under aerobic conditions argues against a role for cytochrome cd1 in the previously proposed aerobic denitrification pathway in Pa. pantotrophus. A putative rho-independent transcription termination sequence immediately following nirS, and preceding nirE, can be identified. The independent transcription of nirS and nirE indicates that it should be possible to produce site-directed mutants of nirS borne on a plasmid in a nirS deletion mutant. The transcript start point for nirS has been determined by two complementary techniques, 5'-RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends) and primer extension. It is 29 bp upstream of the AUG of nirS. An anaerobox, which presumably binds Nnr, is centred a further 41.5 bp upstream of the transcript start. No standard sigma70 DNA sequence motifs can be identified, but a conserved sequence (T-T-GIC-C-G/C-G/C) can be found in approximately the same position (-16) upstream of the transcript starts of nirS and nirI, whose products are both involved in the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide.

  18. Food quality assessment by NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Martin B.; Millar, Samuel J.; Chau, Astor

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is well established in the food industry for rapid compositional analysis of bulk samples. NIR hyperspectral imaging provides new opportunities to measure the spatial distribution of components such as moisture and fat, and to identify and measure specific regions of composite samples. An NIR hyperspectral imaging system has been constructed for food research applications, incorporating a SWIR camera with a cooled 14 bit HgCdTe detector and N25E spectrograph (Specim Ltd, Finland). Samples are scanned in a pushbroom mode using a motorised stage. The system has a spectral resolution of 256 pixels covering a range of 970-2500 nm and a spatial resolution of 320 pixels covering a swathe adjustable from 8 to 300 mm. Images are acquired at a rate of up to 100 lines s-1, enabling samples to be scanned within a few seconds. Data are captured using SpectralCube software (Specim) and analysed using ENVI and IDL (ITT Visual Information Solutions). Several food applications are presented. The strength of individual absorbance bands enables the distribution of particular components to be assessed. Examples are shown for detection of added gluten in wheat flour and to study the effect of processing conditions on fat distribution in chips/French fries. More detailed quantitative calibrations have been developed to study evolution of the moisture distribution in baguettes during storage at different humidities, to assess freshness of fish using measurements of whole cod and fillets, and for prediction of beef quality by identification and separate measurement of lean and fat regions.

  19. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  20. On the terminology of the spectral vegetation index (NIR – SWIR)/(NIR + SWIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lel; Zhang, Li; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    The spectral vegetation index (ρNIR – ρSWIR)/(ρNIR + ρSWIR), where ρNIR and ρSWIR are the near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) reflectances, respectively, has been widely used to indicate vegetation moisture condition. This index has multiple names in the literature, including infrared index (II), normalized difference infrared index (NDII), normalized difference water index (NDWI), normalized difference moisture index (NDMI), land surface water index (LSWI), and normalized burn ratio (NBR), etc. After reviewing each term’s definition, associated sensors, and channel specifications, we found that the index consists of three variants, differing only in the SWIR region (1.2–1.3 µm, 1.55–1.75 µm, or 2.05–2.45 µm). Thus, three terms are sufficient to represent these three SWIR variants; other names are redundant and therefore unnecessary. Considering the spectral representativeness, the term’s popularity, and the “rule of priority” in scientific nomenclature, NDWI, NDII, and NBR, each corresponding to the three SWIR regions, are more preferable terms.

  1. Light Emitting Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    ml - mm m lm m ~ m m ThO report Page 14 preparation method which has been originally described by Wohler [23] leads to a bright yellow substance with...Solid State Commun. 81, 307 (1992). [221 H. Kautsky, and H. Zocher, Z. Phys. 9,267 (1992). L TNO report Page 28 [231 F. Wohler , Lieb. Ann. 127, 275 (1863...Netherlands Fax + 31 70 328 09 61 Phone + 31 70 326 42 21 TNO- report copy no. e FEL-93eo047r Lh Emitting Porous Silicon sitho(s): DTICHMi.P.Th

  2. Diversity of nitrite reductase genes (nirS) in the denitrifying water column of the coastal Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, D.A.; Francis, C.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Ward, B.B.

    and 1 sequence from Sample G840. Cluster VIII contained the majority (23 of 26) of the sequences from Sample V400. Many of the se- quences in Cluster VIII were virtually identical to the nirS sequence of the cultivated denitrifier Pseudo- monas... environmental clone, exhibiting close identity to a cul- tured denitrifier species, was also observed in a recent study of the River Colne estuary sediments, in which virtually identical nirS sequences were obtained from a Flavobacterium isolate and from 2 RT...

  3. Advanced MEMS spectral sensor for the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Jarkko E.; Kantojärvi, Uula; Mäkynen, Jussi; Tammi, Matti; Suhonen, Janne

    2015-02-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectrometers are widely used in many fields to measure material content, such as moisture, fat and protein in grains, foodstuffs and pharmaceutical powders. These fields include applications where only highly miniaturized and robust NIR sensors can be used due to small usable space, weight requirements and/or hostile working environment. Handheld devices for material inspection, online process automation and automotive industry introduce requirements for size, robustness and cost, which is currently difficult to meet. In this paper we present an advanced spectral sensor based on a tunable Microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot Interferometer. The sensor is fibercoupled, weighs 125 grams and fits to an envelope of 25x55x55 mm3. Three types of sensors cover the wavelength ranges from 1.35-1.7 μm, 1.55-2.0 μm and 1.7-2.2 μm, utilizing only a single pixel extended InGaAs detector, avoiding the expensive linear array detectors. We describe the design, principle of operation and calibration methods together with the control schemes. Some environmental tests are described and their results and finally application measurement results are presented along with discussion and conclusions.

  4. Near-infrared atlas of S0-Sa galaxies (NIRS0S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H.; Buta, R.; Knapen, J. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present an atlas of Ks-band images of 206 early-type galaxies, including 160 S0-S0/a galaxies, 12 ellipticals and 33 Sa galaxies (+ one later type). The majority of the atlas galaxies belong to a magnitude-limited (mB ≤ 12.5 mag) sample of 185 Near-InfraRed S0 Survey galaxies. To ensure that misclassified S0s are not omitted, 25 ellipticals from the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies classified as S0s in the Carnegie Atlas were included in the sample. The observations were carried out using 3-4 m class telescopes with subarcsecond pixel resolution (˜0.25 arcsec), and were obtained in good seeing conditions (full width at half-maximum ˜1 arcsec). The images are 2-3 mag deeper than Two-Micron All-Sky Survey images, allowing the detection of faint outer discs in S0s. Both visual and photometric classifications are made, largely following the classification criteria of de Vaucouleurs. Special attention is paid to the classification of lenses, which are coded in a more systematic manner than in any of the previous studies. A new lens type, called a 'barlens', is introduced, possibly forming part of the bar itself. Also, boxy/peanut/x-shaped structures are identified in many barred galaxies, even though the galaxies are not seen edge-on, indicating that vertical thickening is not enough to explain these structures. Photometric classification includes detection of exponential outer discs or other structures not directly visible in the images, but becoming clear in unsharp masking or residual images in decompositions. In our photometric classification, nuclear bars are assigned for 15 galaxies, which are overshadowed by bulges in visual classification. The mean Hubble stage in the near-infrared is found to be similar to that in the optical. We give dimensions of structure components, and radial profiles of the position angles and ellipticities, and show deviations from perfect elliptical isophotes. Shells and ripples, generally assumed to be manifestations

  5. VIS/NIR Spectroscopy to determine the spatial variation of the weathering degree in Paleogene clay soil - London Clay Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mohammed; Gibson, Andy, ,, Dr; Koor, Nick, ,, Dr; Gale, Professor Andy; Huggett, Jenny, ,, Dr; Branch, Steve

    2017-04-01

    The London Clay Formation (LCF) which underlies much of South-East England is hugely important as a construction medium. However, its geotechnical performance (shear strength, compressive strength, shrink-swell behaviour, etc. ) is greatly affected by its degree of weathering. Despite this importance, little attention has been focussed on a robust method to define and measure its degree of weathering. This is perhaps a result of a well-known colour change from bluish-grey to brown that accompanies 'weathering' and considered to be the result of oxidisation (Chandler and Apted 1988). Through wide experience, this definition is normally effective, but it is perhaps subjective and reliant on the experience of the investigator and the ability to observe samples or exposures. More objective investigation, typically using SEM is not normally economically feasible or expedient for construction works. We propose a simple, robust method to characterise the degree of weathering in the LCF using reflective or Visible-Near-InfraRed-Spectroscopy (VNIRS). 24 samples were extracted from 2 boreholes drilled in the Hampstead area of London to depths of 12 m within the uppermost Claygate Member of the LCF. VNIRS spectra (350-2500 nm) were measured from all samples and compared with XRD, XRF, SEM and PSD results on the same samples. Results show increased magnitude of absorption features related to clay mineralogy around 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm to a depth of 5 m beneath ground level. Beneath this depth, the absorption features show little variation. SEM analyses show corresponding changes in the degradation of pyrite crystals and individual clay (illite/smectite). These preliminary results show that there is a good potential for VNIRS spectroscopy to determine the variation of weathering in the LCF.

  6. A New NIR Flareof the QSO PMNJ2301-0157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Miramon, J.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the new NIR flare of the high redshift QSO PMNJ2301-0157 (z=0.778), cross identified with the source BZQJ 2301-1058. On November 13th,2016 (MJD 2457705.722), we found the source with the following flux in the NIR band: H = 14.287 +/- 0.03.

  7. NIR Flare of the AGN Candidate PMNJ0107+0333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Miramon, J.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the new NIR flare of the AGN candidate PMNJ0107+0333, cross identified with the X-ray source 1RXS J010729.5+033341. On November 13th,2016 (MJD 2457705.699), we found the source with the following flux in the NIR band: H = 14.657 +/- 0.05.

  8. Cotton micronaire measurements by small portable near infrared (nir) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber’s maturity and fineness. Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instru...

  9. TMS: a navigator for NIRS of the primary motor cortex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, K.L.; Munneke, M.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging technique, which is increasingly used to measure hemodynamic responses in the motor cortex. The location at which the NIRS optodes are placed on the skull is a major factor in measuring the hemodynamic responses optimally. In this s

  10. Safety assessment of near infrared light emitting diodes for diffuse optical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onaral Banu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near infrared (NIR light has been used widely to monitor important hemodynamic parameters in tissue non-invasively. Pulse oximetry, near infrared spectroscopy, and diffuse optical tomography are examples of such NIR light-based applications. These and other similar applications employ either lasers or light emitting diodes (LED as the source of the NIR light. Although the hazards of laser sources have been addressed in regulations, the risk of LED sources in such applications is still unknown. Methods Temperature increase of the human skin caused by near infrared LED has been measured by means of in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. Effects of the conducted and radiated heat in the temperature increase have been analyzed separately. Results Elevations in skin temperature up to 10°C have been observed. The effect of radiated heat due to NIR absorption is low – less than 0.5°C – since emitted light power is comparable to the NIR part of sunlight. The conducted heat due to semiconductor junction of the LED can cause temperature increases up to 9°C. It has been shown that adjusting operational parameters by amplitude modulating or time multiplexing the LED decreases the temperature increase of the skin significantly. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrate that the major risk source of the LED in direct contact with skin is the conducted heat of the LED semiconductor junction, which may cause serious skin burns. Adjusting operational parameters by amplitude modulating or time multiplexing the LED can keep the LED within safe temperature ranges.

  11. REM - Rapid Eye Mount. A fast slewing robotized infrared telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Covino, S; Chincarini, G L; Rodono, M; Ghisellini, G; Antonelli, A; Conconi, P; Cutispoto, G; Molinari, E; Covino, Stefano; Zerbi, Filippo; Chincarini, Guido; Rodono', Marcello; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Antonelli, Angelo; Conconi, Paolo; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Molinari, Emilio

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the REM project is the observation of prompt afterglow of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) events. Such observations at Near InfraRed (NIR) wavelengths are even very promising, since they allow to monitor high-z Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbed bursts as well as events occurring in dusty star-forming regions. In addition to GRB science, a large amount of time ($\\sim 40%$) will be available for different scientific targets: among these the study of variability of stellar objects open exciting new perspectives.

  12. GRAVITY: the VLTI 4-beam combiner for narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Blind, N; Gillessen, S; Kok, Y; Lippa, M; Perrin, G; Dembet, R; Fedou, P; Lacour, S; Perraut, K; Jocou, L; Burtscher, L; Hans, O; Haug, M; Haussmann, F; Huber, S; Janssen, A; Kellner, S; Ott, T; Pfuhl, O; Sturm, E; Weber, J; Wieprecht, E; Amorim, A; Brandner, W; Straubmeier, C

    2015-01-01

    GRAVITY is the second generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric imaging in the Near Infra-Red (NIR). It shall provide precision astrometry of order 10 microarcseconds, and imaging capability at a few milliarcsecond resolution, and hence will revolutionise dynamical measurements of celestial objects. GRAVITY is currently in the last stages of its integration and tests in Garching at MPE, and will be delivered to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) in 2015. We present here the instrument, with a particular focus on the components making use of fibres: integrated optics beam combiners, polarisation rotators, fibre differential delay lines, and the metrology.

  13. A review of NIR dyes in cancer targeting and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglin; Zhang, Erlong; Su, Yongping; Cheng, Tianmin; Shi, Chunmeng

    2011-10-01

    The development of multifunctional agents for simultaneous tumor targeting and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is expected to have significant impact on future personalized oncology owing to the very low tissue autofluorescence and high tissue penetration depth in the NIR spectrum window. Cancer NIR molecular imaging relies greatly on the development of stable, highly specific and sensitive molecular probes. Organic dyes have shown promising clinical implications as non-targeting agents for optical imaging in which indocyanine green has long been implemented in clinical use. Recently, significant progress has been made on the development of unique NIR dyes with tumor targeting properties. Current ongoing design strategies have overcome some of the limitations of conventional NIR organic dyes, such as poor hydrophilicity and photostability, low quantum yield, insufficient stability in biological system, low detection sensitivity, etc. This potential is further realized with the use of these NIR dyes or NIR dye-encapsulated nanoparticles by conjugation with tumor specific ligands (such as small molecules, peptides, proteins and antibodies) for tumor targeted imaging. Very recently, natively multifunctional NIR dyes that can preferentially accumulate in tumor cells without the need of chemical conjugation to tumor targeting ligands have been developed and these dyes have shown unique optical and pharmaceutical properties for biomedical imaging with superior signal-to-background contrast index. The main focus of this article is to provide a concise overview of newly developed NIR dyes and their potential applications in cancer targeting and imaging. The development of future multifunctional agents by combining targeting, imaging and even therapeutic routes will also be discussed. We believe these newly developed multifunctional NIR dyes will broaden current concept of tumor targeted imaging and hold promise to make an important contribution to the diagnosis

  14. Prediction of pork quality with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): 1. Feasibility and robustness of NIRS measurements at laboratory scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapper, C.; Klont, R.E.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Urlings, H.A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to study prediction of pork quality by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology in the laboratory. A total of 131 commercial pork loin samples were measured with NIRS. Predictive equations were developed for drip loss %, colour L*, a*, b* and pH ultimate (pHu). Equations with

  15. Aromatic Fused [30] Heteroannulenes with NIR Absorption and NIR Emission: Synthesis, Characterization, and Excited-State Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Abhijit; Oh, Juwon; Kim, Dongho; Rath, Harapriya

    2016-06-06

    Two hitherto unknown planar aromatic [30] fused heterocyclic macrocycles (1.1.0.1.1.0), with NIR absorption in free-base form and protonation-induced enhanced NIR emission, have been synthesized from easy to make precursors. The induced correspondence of fusion on the macrocyclic structure, electronic absorption, and emission spectra have been highlighted.

  16. Near Infrared (nir) Imaging for Nde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Pallav, P.; Hutchins, D. A.

    2008-02-01

    A novel application of near infrared (NIR) signals is presented, which can be used to provide images of many different materials and objects. It is effectively a very low cost non-ionising alternative to many applications currently being investigated using electromagnetic waves at other frequencies, such as THz and X-ray imaging. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from examples industrial quality control, food inspection and various security applications, and the results compared to existing techniques. In addition, this technique can be used in through-transmission mode on biological and medical samples, and images are presented that differentiate between not only flesh and bone, but also various types of soft tissue.

  17. Absolute Radiation Thermometry in the NIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünger, L.; Taubert, R. D.; Gutschwager, B.; Anhalt, K.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M.

    2017-04-01

    A near infrared (NIR) radiation thermometer (RT) for temperature measurements in the range from 773 K up to 1235 K was characterized and calibrated in terms of the "Mise en Pratique for the definition of the Kelvin" (MeP-K) by measuring its absolute spectral radiance responsivity. Using Planck's law of thermal radiation allows the direct measurement of the thermodynamic temperature independently of any ITS-90 fixed-point. To determine the absolute spectral radiance responsivity of the radiation thermometer in the NIR spectral region, an existing PTB monochromator-based calibration setup was upgraded with a supercontinuum laser system (0.45 μm to 2.4 μm) resulting in a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. The RT was characterized with respect to its nonlinearity, size-of-source effect, distance effect, and the consistency of its individual temperature measuring ranges. To further improve the calibration setup, a new tool for the aperture alignment and distance measurement was developed. Furthermore, the diffraction correction as well as the impedance correction of the current-to-voltage converter is considered. The calibration scheme and the corresponding uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity are presented. A relative standard uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) for the absolute spectral radiance responsivity was achieved. The absolute radiometric calibration was validated at four temperature values with respect to the ITS-90 via a variable temperature heatpipe blackbody (773 K ...1235 K) and at a gold fixed-point blackbody radiator (1337.33 K).

  18. NIR autofluorescence and OCT imaging of biotissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorvat, Dusan, Jr.; Smolka, Jozef; Mateasik, Anton; Hrin, Lubos

    2003-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is one of the most promising recently developed methods for non-invasive in vivo characterization of biological highly scattering tissues. However, one of the drawbacks of the pure OCT imaging is that it is not sensitive to changes in metabolism. This may impact derived information and consecutive diagnostics, because pathological changes of tissue structure are accompanied with changes in metabolic activity or functional state in these areas even if there is not yet strongly evident structural change. Therefore, it is desirable to combine early detection of tissue malformations by OCT with other techniques, capable to detect and evaluate their functional state. One of suitable candidates for such non-invasive optical functional imaging is detection of laser induced autofluorescence, which could provide information about rate of biological and chemical processes in living cells. As an example, the cells in proliferative state (with increased metabolic activity or during mitosis) show more intensive NIR fluorescence than the cells that are not proliferative, because of increased concentration of free porphyrins. In presented study we used OCT and laser induced NIR autofluorescence imaging for detection and evaluation of changes in areas of naevus and injuries in group of volunteers. The fusion of information on structural and functional state of biotissues provided by the two mentioned complementary methods may enhance the diagnostics power of their prospective clinical use. Firstly the fluorescence of area of naevus and injuries, excited by 630 nm was taken by CCD camera and then was naevus scanned by OCT. The findings of both methods were compared and correlated. In the case of naevus the obtained results were reviewed with histological treatment of the same area.

  19. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.

    2016-03-01

    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  20. Diseno y construccion de un espectrometro NIR; Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  1. Isoquinoline-based lanthanide complexes: bright NIR optical probes and efficient MRI agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillé, Fabien; Bonnet, Célia S; Buron, Frédéric; Villette, Sandrine; Helm, Lothar; Petoud, Stéphane; Suzenet, Franck; Tóth, Eva

    2012-02-20

    In the objective of developing ligands that simultaneously satisfy the requirements for MRI contrast agents and near-infrared emitting optical probes that are suitable for imaging, three isoquinoline-based polyaminocarboxylate ligands, L1, L2 and L3, have been synthesized and the corresponding Gd(3+), Nd(3+) and Yb(3+) complexes investigated. The specific challenge of the present work was to create NIR emitting agents which (i) have excitation wavelengths compatible with biological applications and (ii) are able to emit a sufficient number of photons to ensure sensitive NIR detection for microscopic imaging. Here we report the first observation of a NIR signal arising from a Ln(3+) complex in aqueous solution in a microscopy setup. The lanthanide complexes have high thermodynamic stability (log K(LnL) =17.7-18.7) and good selectivity for lanthanide ions versus the endogenous cations Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) thus preventing transmetalation. A variable temperature and pressure (17)O NMR study combined with nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion measurements yielded the microscopic parameters characterizing water exchange and rotation. Bishydration of the lanthanide cation in the complexes, an important advantage to obtain high relaxivity for the Gd(3+) chelates, has been demonstrated by (17)O chemical shifts for the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence lifetime measurements for the Yb(3+) analogues. The water exchange on the three Gd(3+) complexes is considerably faster (k(ex)(298) = (13.9-15.4) × 10(6) s(-1)) than on commercial Gd(3+)-based contrast agents and proceeds via a dissociative mechanism, as evidenced by the large positive activation volumes for GdL1 and GdL2 (+10.3 ± 0.9 and +10.6 ± 0.9 cm(3) mol(-1), respectively). The relaxivity of GdL1 is doubled at 40 MHz and 298 K in fetal bovine serum (r(1) = 16.1 vs 8.5 mM(-1) s(-1) in HEPES buffer), due to hydrophobic interactions between the chelate and serum proteins. The isoquinoline core allows for the

  2. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  3. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    value, the prediction error has to be compared with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value is above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it is possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply......, but prediction error with this method is relatively high in relation to a chemical determination of the feed value. A further improvement of the NIRS method will probably be possible with the addition of further references (several years, varieties and sites), which is therefore recommended. Likewise...... in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N and starch in grains, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination...

  4. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its

  5. Investigations on NIR-SERS Spectra of Serum for Liver Cancer Based on NIR-SERS Substrate%基于新型NIR-SERS基底的肝癌血清NIR-SERS光谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁明; 刘瑞明; 武延春; 柳振全; 张德清; 自兴发; 司民真

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on near infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) spectra of the serum for patients with liver cancer and healthy persons based on Ag nanofilms prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly are reported. Analysis indicates NIR-SERS spectra of the sera between healthy persons and liver cancer patients are different. Firstly, Raman bands at 630, 720, 812 and 1578 cm-1 become weaker (even disappear) in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for cancer liver patients but stronger in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for healthy persons.Secondly, Raman bands at 1130 cm-1 and 1204 cm-1 in NIR-SERS spectra of the sera for healthy persons have blue shifts to 1135 cm-1 and 1269 cm 1 in NIR-SERS spectra of sera for cancer liver patients, respectively. Meanwhile, a new Raman band at 558 cm-1 appears in NIR-SERS spectra of liver cancer patients. Additionally, striking spectral differences are abvious in NIR-SERS spectra in the intensity ratios at 630/300, 1130/300, and 1578/300 cm-1.These three peak-intensity ratios of liver cancer patients with values of 0. 848±0. 042, 1. 094~ 0. 118, 0. 914 ± 0. 070, respectively, are more notable (mean ~ S. D., n = 15, P < 0.01 ) compared with those of healthy persons (1.985t0. 487, 1.568±0.286, 1. 189±0. 108, respectively). The results show that the intensity relative peak-ratios at 630/300, 1130/300, and 1578/300 cm-1 can be used to discriminate liver cancer patients from healthy persons, which indicate these three intensity ratios can be served as N1R-SERS spectral criteria for the diagnosis of cancer liver.%基于一种新型、高效、生物兼容性近红外表面增强拉曼散射(NIR-SERS)基底,采用便携式近红外拉曼光谱仪分别对健康人和肝癌病患者的血清进行了NIR-SERS光谱研究.实验发现,健康人与肝癌患者的血清NIR-SERS光谱存在显著差异:1)健康人血清NIR-SERS光谱中位于630、720、812和1578 cm-1附近的谱峰在肝癌患者血清NIR-SERS光

  6. SHARK-NIR system design analysis overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotto, Valentina; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Vassallo, Daniele; Carolo, Elena; Baruffolo, Andrea; Bergomi, Maria; Carlotti, Alexis; De Pascale, Marco; D'Orazi, Valentina; Fantinel, Daniela; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca; Mohr, Lars; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Salasnich, Bernardo; Verinaud, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the System Design Analysis carried on for SHARK-NIR, the coronagraphic camera designed to take advantage of the outstanding performance that can be obtained with the FLAO facility at the LBT, in the near infrared regime. Born as a fast-track project, the system now foresees both coronagraphic direct imaging and spectroscopic observing mode, together with a first order wavefront correction tool. The analysis we here report includes several trade-offs for the selection of the baseline design, in terms of optical and mechanical engineering, and the choice of the coronagraphic techniques to be implemented, to satisfy both the main scientific drivers and the technical requirements set at the level of the telescope. Further care has been taken on the possible exploitation of the synergy with other LBT instrumentation, like LBTI. A set of system specifications is then flown down from the upper level requirements to finally ensure the fulfillment of the science drivers. The preliminary performance budgets are presented, both in terms of the main optical planes stability and of the image quality, including the contributions of the main error sources in different observing modes.

  7. fNIRS measurements in migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ata; Emir, Uzay E.; Bilensoy, Didem; Erdogan, Gulin; Candansyar, Selcuk; Bolay, Hayrunnisa

    2005-04-01

    Migraine is a complex chronic neurovascular disorder in which the interictal changes in neuronal excitability and vascular reactivity in the cerebral cortex were detected. The extent and direction of the changes in cerebral blood flow that affect cerebral hemodynamics during attacks, however, are still a matter of debate. This may have been due to the logistic and technical problems posed by the different techniques to determine cerebral blood flow during migraine attacks and the different definitions of patient populations. In this study, we have investigated hypercapnia challenges by breath holding task on subjects with and without migraine by using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Measurements of the relative changes in concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin [Hb] and oxy-hemoglobin [HbO2] are performed on four healthy subjects during three breath holdings of 30 seconds (s.) interleaved with 90 s. of normal breathing. We have observed [Hb]increase during breath holding interval in subject without migraine whereas in subject with migraine [Hb] decreases during breath holding interval. The result of our study suggest that hypercapnia effect on cerebral hemodynamic of subject with migraine and without migraine could be due to different vascular reactivity to PCO2 (carbon dioxide partial pressure) in arteries.

  8. Compensation techniques in NIRS proton beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanuma, A. (Univ. of Tokyo, Japan); Majima, H.; Furukawa, S.

    1982-09-01

    Proton beam has the dose distribution advantage in radiation therapy, although it has little advantage in biological effects. One of the best advantages is its sharp fall off of dose after the peak. With proton beam, therefore, the dose can be given just to cover a target volume and potentially no dose is delivered thereafter in the beam direction. To utilize this advantage, bolus techniques in conjunction with CT scanning are employed in NIRS proton beam radiation therapy planning. A patient receives CT scanning first so that the target volume can be clearly marked and the radiation direction and fixation method can be determined. At the same time bolus dimensions are calculated. The bolus frames are made with dental paraffin sheets according to the dimensions. The paraffin frame is replaced with dental resin. Alginate (a dental impression material with favorable physical density and skin surface contact) is now employed for the bolus material. With fixation device and bolus on, which are constructed individually, the patient receives CT scanning again prior to a proton beam treatment in order to prove the devices are suitable. Alginate has to be poured into the frame right before each treatments. Further investigations are required to find better bolus materials and easier construction methods.

  9. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-03-11

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm(2). The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications.

  10. Identification of transgenic foods using NIR spectroscopy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahi, A.; Farahmand, H.; Prieto, N.; Cozzolino, D.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of chemometric methods in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of feeds, foods, medicine and so on has been accompanied with the great evolution in the progress and in the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Hence, recently the application of NIR spectroscopy has extended on the context of genetics and transgenic products. The aim of this review was to investigate the application of NIR spectroscopy to identificate transgenic products and to compare it with the traditional methods. The results of copious researches showed that the application of NIRS technology was successful to distinguish transgenic foods and it has advantages such as fast, avoiding time-consuming, non-destructive and low cost in relation to the antecedent methods such as PCR and ELISA.

  11. Systematization method for distinguishing plastic groups by using NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihara, Mikio; Satoh, Minami; Satoh, Minoru

    2007-07-01

    A systematic classification method for polymers is not yet available in case of using near infrared spectra (NIR). That is why we have been searching for a systematic method. Because raw NIR spectra usually have few obvious peaks, NIR spectra have been pretreated by 2nd derivation for taking well modulated spectra. After the pretreatment, we applied classification and regression trees (CART) to the discrimination between the spectra and the species of polymers. As a result, we obtained a relatively simple classification tree. Judging from the obtained splitting conditions and the classified polymers, we concluded that obtained knowledge on the chemical function groups estimated by the important wavelength regions is not always applicable to this classification tree. However, we clarified the splitting rules for polymer species from the NIR spectral point of view.

  12. Water-soluble pyrrolopyrrole cyanine (PPCy) NIR fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Rosazza, Christelle; Winterhalder, Martin J; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas

    2014-05-11

    Water-soluble derivatives of pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) have been synthesized by a post-synthetic modification route. In highly polar media, these dyes are excellent NIR fluorophores. Labeling experiments show how these novel dyes are internalized into mammalian cells.

  13. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  14. NIR Electrofluorochromic Properties of Aza-Boron-dipyrromethene Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The photophysical properties of near-infrared (NIR) emissive aza-boron-dipyrromethene (aza-BDP) dyes incorporating nitrofluorene and alkoxy decorations were intensively investigated. Their highly reversible one-electron reduction process showed characteristic electrofluorochromic (EF) properties in the NIR range, depending on the substituents. The nitrofluorene ethynyl-substituted (Type I) dyes showed smaller EF effects than the alkoxy-containing (Type II) dyes because of the difference in th...

  15. Brain Functional Connectivity in MS: An EEG-NIRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    oxygen- based ( near -infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), functional MRI (fMRI)) signals, and to use the results to help optimize BOLD fMRI analyses of brain...2. Keywords BOLD – blood oxygen level dependent EEG – electroencephalography NIRS – near -infrared spectroscopy fMRI – functional MRI MS...INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AND NEAR -INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY NEUROIMAGING MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS P.40LO GlACO~lETTT 1. COURSE O VERVIEW T he

  16. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  17. Toward Adaptation of fNIRS Instrumentation to Airborne Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Mackey, Jeffrey; Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan; Floyd, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews potential applications of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a well-known medical diagnostic technique, to monitoring the cognitive state of pilots with a focus on identifying ways to adopt this technique to airborne environments. We also discuss various fNIRS techniques and the direction of technology maturation of associated hardware in view of their potential for miniaturization, maximization of data collection capabilities, and user friendliness.

  18. Emerging Multifunctional NIR Photothermal Therapy Systems Based on Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR)-light-triggered therapy platforms are now considered as a new and exciting possibility for clinical nanomedicine applications. As a promising photothermal agent, polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles have been extensively studied for the hyperthermia in cancer therapy due to their strong NIR light photothermal effect and excellent biocompatibility. However, the photothermal application of PPy based nanomaterials is still in its preliminary stage. Developing PPy based multifuncti...

  19. Emissive Ion Thruster -EMIT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A propulsion system is proposed that is based on acceleration of ions emitted from a thin, solid-state electrochemical ceramic membrane. This technology would...

  20. Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Itoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting gel operated at low voltage when an alternating current was passed through it, regardless of its structure, which is quite thick. The luminescence property of the gel is strongly affected by nanoparticle materials. TiO2 nanoparticles were a better gelation filler than silica or ZnO was, with respect to luminescence stability, thus indicating a catalytic effect. It is demonstrated that the light-emitting gel device, with quite a simple fabrication process, flashes with the application of voltage.

  1. Novel INHAT repressor (NIR) is required for early lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi A; Pusso, Antonia; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Yongge; Hoffmann, Victoria; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Fowlkes, B J; Jain, Ashish

    2014-09-23

    Novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase repressor (NIR) is a transcriptional corepressor with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase activity and is a potent suppressor of p53. Although NIR deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality, lymphoid-restricted deletion resulted in the absence of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, whereas bone-marrow-derived B cells were arrested at the B220(+)CD19(-) pro-B-cell stage. V(D)J recombination was preserved in NIR-deficient DN3 double-negative thymocytes, suggesting that NIR does not affect p53 function in response to physiologic DNA breaks. Nevertheless, the combined deficiency of NIR and p53 provided rescue of DN3L double-negative thymocytes and their further differentiation to double- and single-positive thymocytes, whereas B cells in the marrow further developed to the B220(+)CD19(+) pro-B-cell stage. Our results show that NIR cooperate with p53 to impose checkpoint for the generation of mature B and T lymphocytes.

  2. A Clinical Tissue Oximeter Using NIR Time-Resolved Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaka, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Takeo; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kamada, Tsuyoshi; Kitazawa, Ken; Nishizawa, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Akira; Suzuki, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    The tNIRS-1, a new clinical tissue oximeter using NIR time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), has been developed. The tNIRS-1 measures oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation in living tissues. Two-channel TRS measurements are obtained using pulsed laser diodes (LD) at three wavelengths, multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) for light detection, and time-to-digital converters (TDC) for time-of-flight photon measurements. Incorporating advanced semiconductor devices helped to make the design of this small-size, low-cost and low-power TRS instrument possible. In order to evaluate the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1, a study using blood phantoms and healthy volunteers was conducted to compare data obtained from a conventional SRS device and data from an earlier TRS system designed for research purposes. The results of the study confirmed the correctness and reproducibility of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1. Clinical evaluations conducted in several hospitals demonstrated a high level of usability in clinical situations and confirmed the efficacy of measurement data obtained with the tNIRS-1.

  3. Highly diverse nirK genes comprise two major clades that harbour ammonium-producing denitrifiers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Copper dependent nitrite reductase, NirK, catalyses the key step in denitrification, i.e. nitrite reduction to nitric oxide. Distinct structural NirK classes and phylogenetic clades of NirK-type denitrifiers have previously been observed based on a limited set of NirK sequences, however, their environmental distribution or ecological strategies are currently unknown. In addition, environmental nirK-type denitrifiers are currently underestimated in PCR-dependent surveys due to prime...

  4. NIR spectroscopy of the Sun and HD20010 - Compiling a new linelist in the NIR

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasen, D T; Mena, E Delgado; Santos, N C; Tsantaki, M; Rojas-Ayala, B; Neves, V

    2016-01-01

    Context: Effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity are basic spectroscopic stellar parameters necessary to characterize a star or a planetary system. Reliable atmospheric parameters for FGK stars have been obtained mostly from methods that relay on high resolution and high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy. The advent of a new generation of high resolution near-IR spectrographs opens the possibility of using classic spectroscopic methods with high resolution and high signal-to-noise in the NIR spectral window. Aims: We aim to compile a new iron line list in the NIR from a solar spectrum to derive precise stellar atmospheric parameters, comparable to the ones already obtained from high resolution optical spectra. The spectral range covers 10 000 {\\AA} to 25 000 {\\AA}, which is equivalent to the Y, J, H, and K bands. Methods: Our spectroscopic analysis is based on the iron excitation and ionization balance done in LTE. We use a high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the Sun ...

  5. A modified perpendicular drought index in NIR-Red reflectance space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Li; Debao, Tan

    2014-03-01

    Soil moisture and vegetation index provides valuable information for surface water content and drought assessment with remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new drought monitoring method (MPDI1) with soil moisture and vegetation index is constructed in NIR-Red reflectance space. The relationship between MPDI1 and soil moisture is explored using satellite image and field measure data, and a comparison among MPDI1, the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI), and the Modified Perpendicular Drought Index (MPDI) is also evaluated. Results indicate that the MPDI1 is highly accordant with the in-situ ground observation with the coefficient of determination (R2=0.4905) between MPDI1 and 5-20 cm mean soil moisture. Moreover, PDI, MPDI and MPDI1 provide quite similar spatial patterns for bare soil or lower vegetated surface, but MPDI1 demonstrates a better performance in measuring densely vegetated surface. This paper concludes that MPDI1 is a useful tool for surface drought estimation under complex underlying conditions.

  6. Comparative NIR Detector Characterization for NGST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew (Technical Monitor); Figer, Donald

    2004-01-01

    List of publications for final perfomance report are: Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, SPIE Detectors for the JWST Near-Infrared Spectrometer Rauscher, B.J., Strada, P., Regan, M.W., Figer, D.F., Jakobsen, P., Moseley, H.S., & Boeker, T. 2004, AAS, 203, 124.07 Independent Testing of JWST Detector Prototypes Figer, D.F., Rauscher, B. J., Regan, M. W., Morse, E., Balleza, J., Bergeron, L., & Stockman, H. S. 2003 , SPIE, 5 167 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the NGST Detector Program Figer, D.F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,981 Intra-Pixel Sensitivity in NIR Detectors for NGST Sharma, U., Figer, D.F., Sivaramakrishnan, A., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Rauscher, B. J., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,1001 NIRCAM Image Simulations for NGST Wavefiont SensinglPS A. Sivaramakrishnan, D. Figer, H. Bushouse, H. S. Stockman (STScI),C. Ohara , D. Redding (JPL), M. Im (IPAC), & J. Offenberg (Raytheon) 2003, SPIE, 4850,388 Ultra-Low Background Operation of Near-Infrared Detectors for NGS Rauscher, B. J., Figer, D. F., Agronin, M., Balleza, J., Barkhouser, R., Bergeron, L., Greene, G. R., McCandliss, S. R., Reeves, T., Regan, M. W., Sharma, U., Stockman, H. S. 2003, SPIE, 4850,962 The Independent Detector Testing Laboratory and the JWST Detector Program Figer, D.F. et a1.2003, AAS201, #131.05

  7. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  8. Biotin-decorated silica coated PbS nanocrystals emitting in the second biological near infrared window for bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corricelli, M.; Depalo, N.; di Carlo, E.; Fanizza, E.; Laquintana, V.; Denora, N.; Agostiano, A.; Striccoli, M.; Curri, M. L.

    2014-06-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) emitting in the second biological near infrared (NIR) window of the electromagnetic spectrum have been successfully synthesized by growing a silica shell on the hydrophobic surface of OLEA/TOP PbS nanocrystals (NCs), by means of a reverse microemulsion approach, and subsequently decorated with biotin molecules. The fabrication of very uniform and monodisperse NPs, formed of SiO2 shell coated single core PbS NCs, has been demonstrated by means of a set of complementary optical and structural techniques (Vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy) that have highlighted how experimental parameters, such as PbS NC and silica precursor concentration, are crucial to direct the morphology and optical properties of silica coated PbS NPs. Subsequently, the silica surface of the core-shell NPs has been grafted with amino groups, in order to achieve covalent binding of biotin to NIR emitting silica coated NPs. Finally the successful reaction with a green-fluorescent labelled streptavidin has verified the molecular recognition response of the biotin molecules decorating the PbS@SiO2 NP surface. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and ζ-potential techniques have been used to monitor the hydrodynamic diameter and colloidal stability of both PbS@SiO2 and biotin decorated NPs, showing their high colloidal stability in physiological media, as needed for biomedical applications. Remarkably the obtained biotinylated PbS@SiO2 NPs have been found to retain emission properties in the `second optical window' of the NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus representing attractive receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probes for in vivo tumour imaging.Nanoparticles (NPs) emitting in the second biological near infrared (NIR) window of the electromagnetic spectrum have been successfully synthesized by growing a silica shell on the hydrophobic surface of OLEA/TOP PbS nanocrystals (NCs), by means of a reverse microemulsion

  9. Preliminary study on nitrite degradation by nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria%nirS基因重组工程菌降解亚硝酸盐的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴兴; 陈学萍; 刘冬秀; 沈洁; 陆永生

    2014-01-01

    通过基因工程手段增加厌氧氨氧化菌亚硝酸盐还原酶(nitrite reductase, nirS)的表达量,运用质粒载体pGEM-T克隆nirS基因。琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测显示, nirS基因重组工程菌在440 bp处有明显的目的条带; nirS基因重组工程菌扩大培养7~8h后即达到生长曲线稳定期,引入外加氮源后,菌体生长情况更优。通过不同菌液投加量以及处理不同初始浓度的亚硝酸钠溶液,检测nirS基因重组工程菌的性能。结果表明,当nirS基因重组工程菌投加30 mL(细菌数为2.3×107个∕mL),亚硝酸盐初始质量浓度为40 mg∕L时,亚硝酸盐去除率达到90%以上。nirS基因重组工程菌可适用于亚硝酸盐废水的处理。%In order to improve the expression quantity of nitrite reductase (nirS) in ANAMMOX bacteria through bioengineering means, nirS gene was cloned using the plasmid vector pGEM-T. A target band of 440 bp PCR products from the recombinant genetic engineering bacter was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria reached stationary phase after 7-8 hours incubation, the addition of nitrogen source was advantageous to the growth of bacteria significantly. The performance of nirS recombinant genetic engineering bacteria was tested by adding different dosages of bacteria and treating sodium nitrite solu‐tion with different initial concentrations. The results showed that, when 30 mL of nirS recombinant genetic engi‐neering bacteria(2.3 × 107 cells/mL) inoculates was added to the solution with 40 mg/L of initial mass concentra‐tion of nitrite, the removal rate of nitrite reached above 90%. It was indicated that nirS recombinant genetic en‐gineering bacteria could be applied for nitrite-containing wastewater treatment in the future.

  10. NIRS monitoring of muscle contraction to control a prosthetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas; Zambarbieri, Daniela; Beltrami, Giorgio; Verni, Gennaro

    1999-01-01

    The fitting of upper-extremity amputees requires special efforts, and its significance has been increased by the development of the myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arm. This solution is not free of problems due to the nature of the amputation, to the electromagnetic noise affecting the myelectrical signal and to the perspiration due to the contact between socket and the residual limb. Starting from the fact that NIRS and electromyographic signals are similar during a muscle contraction, we have first studied the NIRS signal during forearm muscle contractions in normal and amputee subjects. Then a new system to interface the NIRS unit and the myoelectrical prosthetic hand has been developed. The NIRS unit has been used as optical sensor and all the operations (I/O and signal processing) are performed via software. This system has been tested on normal and amputee subjects performing hand grasping using a visual biofeedback control scheme. All the subjects have been able to perform these operations demonstrating the NIRS technique. This could represent an alternative solution for controlling a prosthetic device.

  11. Estimation of Anthocyanin Content of Berries by NIR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsivanovits, G.; Ludneva, D.; Iliev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthocyanin contents of fruits were estimated by VIS spectrophotometer and compared with spectra measured by NIR spectrophotometer (600-1100 nm step 10 nm). The aim was to find a relationship between NIR method and traditional spectrophotometric method. The testing protocol, using NIR, is easier, faster and non-destructive. NIR spectra were prepared in pairs, reflectance and transmittance. A modular spectrocomputer, realized on the basis of a monochromator and peripherals Bentham Instruments Ltd (GB) and a photometric camera created at Canning Research Institute, were used. An important feature of this camera is the possibility offered for a simultaneous measurement of both transmittance and reflectance with geometry patterns T0/180 and R0/45. The collected spectra were analyzed by CAMO Unscrambler 9.1 software, with PCA, PLS, PCR methods. Based on the analyzed spectra quality and quantity sensitive calibrations were prepared. The results showed that the NIR method allows measuring of the total anthocyanin content in fresh berry fruits or processed products without destroying them.

  12. Activation detection in fNIRS by wavelet coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Niu, Haijing; Song, Yan; Fan, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical technique measuring hemoglobin oxygenation and deoxygenation concentrations of the brain cortex with higher temporal resolution than current alternative techniques. The high temporal resolution enables collecting abundant brain functional information. However, the information collected by fNIRS is correlated and mixed with a variety of physiological signals. Due to the mixture effect, activation detection is one of challenges in fNIRS based studies of the brain functional activities. To achieve a better detection of activated brain regions from the complicated information measures, we present a multi-scale analysis method based on a wavelet coherence measure. In particular, the paradigm of an experiment is used as the reference signal. The coherence of the signal with data measured by fNIRS at each channel is calculated and summed up to evaluate the activation level. Experiments on simulated and real data have demonstrated that the proposed method is efficient and effective to detect activated brain regions covered by the fNIRS probe.

  13. ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aririguzo Marvis Ijeaku

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED is a device composed of an organic layer that emits lights in response to an electrical current. Organic light emitting diodes have advanced tremendously over the past decades. The different manufacturing processes of the OLED itself to several advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology which includes its light weight and flexible plastic substrates, wider viewing angles, improved brightness, better power efficiency and quicker response time. However, its drawbacks include shorter life span, poor color balance, poor outdoor performance, susceptibility to water damage etc.The application of OLEDs in electronics is on the increase on daily basics from cameras to cell phones to OLED televisions, etc. Although OLEDs provides prospects for thinner, smarter, lighter and ultraflexible electronics displays, however, due to high cost of manufacturing, it is not yet widely used.

  14. NIR photoluminescence of bismuth-doped CsCdBr{sub 3} – The first ternary bromide phase with a univalent bismuth impurity center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Alexey N., E-mail: alexey.romanov@list.ru [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Veber, Alexander A. [Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Lehrstuhl für Glas und Keramik, Martensstraße 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Vtyurina, Daria N. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Kouznetsov, Mikhail S.; Zaramenskikh, Ksenia S.; Lisitsky, Igor S. [State Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry “Giredmet” JSC, 5-1 B.Tolmachevsky Lane, 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Fattakhova, Zukhra T.; Haula, Elena V. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation); Loiko, Pavel A.; Yumashev, Konstantin V. [Center for Optical Materials and Technologies, Belarusian National Technical University, 65/17 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220013 Minsk (Belarus); Korchak, Vladimir N. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Kosygina Street, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Single crystals of ternary bromide phase CsCdBr{sub 3} doped with univalent bismuth cations are prepared for the first time by the Bridgman method. Bi{sup +} impurity center emits a broadband long-lived near-infrared photoluminescence with a maximum at ~1053 nm. The characteristics of this photoluminescence and its relations with the energy spectrum of Bi{sup +} impurity center are discussed. A comparison of Bi{sup +} photoluminescence in CsCdBr{sub 3} and ternary chlorides (studied previously) is performed. - Highlights: • Single crystals of Bi{sup +}-doped ternary bromide CsCdBr{sub 3} were prepared. • Broadband NIR photoluminescence was observed from Bi{sup +}-doped CsCdBr{sub 3}. • Single optical center is responsible for NIR emission in Bi{sup +}-doped CsCdBr{sub 3}.

  15. Fast Discrimination of Bamboo Species Using VIS/NIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Dong, W. Y.; Kouba, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to discriminate different bamboo species was investigated. Vis/NIR spectra were collected on three bamboo species, Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis, and Phyllostachys glauca, in the wavelength range of 350-2500 nm. The range of 425-2400 nm was chosen for the spectra modeling. Multiplicative signal correction, standard normal variate with detrending, and 1st and 2nd derivatives were used to preprocess the raw spectral data, and the results were compared. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) methods were applied for building discriminant models. The recognition ratio of 30 samples in the validation set was 100% by both SIMCA and PLSDA models. These results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy may provide a fast and nondestructive technique to discriminate different bamboo species in the field.

  16. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    in cerebral blood flow (CBF), the first study investigated a multi-source detector separation configuration and indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer to calculate a corrected blood flow index (BFI) value. The study showed no correlation between CBF changes measured by 133Xenon single photon emission computer......The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes...... tomography (133Xe-SPECT) and the corrected BFI value. It was concluded, that it was not possible to obtain reliable BFI data with the ICG CW-NIRS method. NIRS measurements of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) may be a reliable method to investigate vascular alterations in neurovascular diseases...

  17. NIR triggered observations of Sgr A* at 43 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, C.; Ros, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Eckart, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Lu, R.-S.; Shahzamanian, B.; Mužić, K.; Peißker, F.

    2017-01-01

    The compact radio and near-infrared (NIR) source Sagittarius A* has been observed in the context of two NIR triggered global VLT and VLBA campaigns at 43 GHz (7 mm) on May 16-18 2012 and October 4 2014. While on October 4 2014 Sgr A* remained in a quiescent state, a NIR flare on May 17 2012 is accompanied by an increase in flux density of 0.22 Jy at 7 mm delayed by 4.5+/-0.5 h. Additionally, Sgr A* seems to develop a weak secondary radio off-core component of 0.02 Jy at a position angle of 140° and an angular distance of 1.5 mas shortly before the peak of the flare. This spatial extension and the time delay are in the range of expected values for events casually connected by adiabatic expansion.

  18. Hardersen IRTF Asteroid NIR Reflectance Spectra V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardersen, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    This dataset includes average near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for 68 main-belt asteroids that were observed at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), Mauna Kea, Hawaii, from April 2001 to January 2015. Raw NIR spectral data were obtained under mostly uniform instrumental conditions and include observations of the asteroids, extinction stars, and solar analog stars that were necessary for data reduction and production of the final average asteroid NIR reflectance spectra. SpecPR and Spextool were used during data reduction to produce the final spectra and both programs utilize similar functions that include sky background subtraction, telluric corrections, channel shifting, and averaging routines. The set of asteroids observed include a wide variety of taxonomic types and include V-, S-, M-, X-types that correspond to a wide variety of surface mineralogies, rock types, and potential meteorite analogs.

  19. Emerging Multifunctional NIR Photothermal Therapy Systems Based on Polypyrrole Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhen Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR-light-triggered therapy platforms are now considered as a new and exciting possibility for clinical nanomedicine applications. As a promising photothermal agent, polypyrrole (PPy nanoparticles have been extensively studied for the hyperthermia in cancer therapy due to their strong NIR light photothermal effect and excellent biocompatibility. However, the photothermal application of PPy based nanomaterials is still in its preliminary stage. Developing PPy based multifunctional nanomaterials for cancer treatment in vivo should be the future trend and object for cancer therapy. In this review, the synthesis of PPy nanoparticles and their NIR photothermal conversion performance were first discussed, followed by a summary of the recent progress in the design and implementation on the mulitifunctionalization of PPy or PPy based therapeutic platforms, as well as the introduction of their exciting biomedical applications based on the synergy between the photothermal conversion effect and other stimulative responsibilities.

  20. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Noman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis (ICA), multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine (SVM), hidden Markov model (HMM), artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  1. Application of NIR spectroscopy for firmness evaluation of peaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-ping FU; Yi-bin YING; Ying ZHOU; Li-juan XIE; Hui-rong XU

    2008-01-01

    The use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was proved to be a useful tool for quality analysis of fruits. A bifurcated fiber type NIR spectrometer, with a detection range of 800~2500 nm by lnGaAs detector, was used to evaluate the firmness of peaches. Anisotropy of NIR spectra and firmness of peaches in relation to detecting positions of different parts (including three latitudes and three longitudes) were investigated. Both spectra absorbency and firmness of peach were influenced by longitudes (i,ii, iii) and latitudes (A, B, C). For modeling, two thirds of the samples were used as the calibration set and the remaining one third were used as the validation or prediction set. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models for different longitude and latitude spectra and for the whole fruit show that collecting several NIR spectra from different longitudes and latitudes of a fruit for NIR calibration modeling can improve the modeling performance. In addition, proper spectra pretreatments like scattering correction or derivative also can enhance the modeling performance. The best results obtained in this study were from the holistic model with multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) pretreatment, with correlation coefficient of cross-validation rcv=0.864, root mean square error of cross-validation RMSECV=6.71 N, correlation coefficient of calibration r=0.948, root mean square error of cali-bration RMSEC=4.21 N and root mean square error of prediction RMSEP=5.42 N. The results of this study are useful for further research and application that when applying NIR spectroscopy for objectives with anisotropic differences, spectra and quality indices are necessarily measured from several parts of each object to improve the modeling performance.

  2. fNIRS-based brain-computer interfaces: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman eNaseer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brain-computer interface (BCI is a communication system that allows the use of brain activity to control computers or other external devices. It can, by bypassing the peripheral nervous system, provide a means of communication for people suffering from severe motor disabilities or in a persistent vegetative state. In this paper, brain-signal generation tasks, noise removal methods, feature extraction/selection schemes, and classification techniques for fNIRS-based BCI are reviewed. The most common brain areas for fNIRS BCI are the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex. In relation to the motor cortex, motor imagery tasks were preferred to motor execution tasks since possible proprioceptive feedback could be avoided. In relation to the prefrontal cortex, fNIRS showed a significant advantage due to no hair in detecting the cognitive tasks like mental arithmetic, music imagery, emotion induction, etc. In removing physiological noise in fNIRS data, band-pass filtering was mostly used. However, more advanced techniques like adaptive filtering, independent component analysis, multi optodes arrangement, etc. are being pursued to overcome the problem that a band-pass filter cannot be used when both brain and physiological signals occur within a close band. In extracting features related to the desired brain signal, the mean, variance, peak value, slope, skewness, and kurtosis of the noised-removed hemodynamic response were used. For classification, the linear discriminant analysis method provided simple but good performance among others: support vector machine, hidden Markov model, artificial neural network, etc. fNIRS will be more widely used to monitor the occurrence of neuro-plasticity after neuro-rehabilitation and neuro-stimulation. Technical breakthroughs in the future are expected via bundled-type probes, hybrid EEG-fNIRS BCI, and through the detection of initial dips.

  3. Surface-emitting laser logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

    1990-10-31

    We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Deep NIR Photometry of HI Galaxies Behind the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Wendy L; Kraan-Korteweg, Renee C

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of the peculiar velocity flow field in the Local Universe are limited by the lack of detection of galaxies behind the Milky Way. The contribution of the largely unknown mass distribution in this "Zone of Avoidance" (ZoA) to the dynamics of the Local group remains contraversial. We have undertaken a near infrared (NIR) survey of HI detected galaxies in the ZoA. The photomety derived here will be used in the NIR Tully-Fisher (TF) relation to derive the peculiar velocities of this sample of galaxies in the ZoA.

  5. NIR brightening of the Quasar PKS0735+17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR brightening of the intermediate redshift quasar PKS0735+17 (z=0.424), also known as CGRaBSJ04738+1742, associated with the gamma-ray source 2FGL0738.0+1742. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that, on Jan 7th,2014 (JD2456664.848838), the object brightness corresponded to J = 13.39 +/- 0.04, H = 12.582 +/- 0.03 and Ks = 11.826 +/- 0.03. These values are about 0.5 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456306, for this field.

  6. NIR brightening of the Blazar BZBJ1059-1134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR brightening of the blazar BZBJ1059-1134, also known as PKSB1056-113 associated with the gamma-ray source 2FGL1059.3-1132. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that, on Jan 6th,2014 (JD2456663.9615), the object brightness corresponded to J = 13.804 +/- 0.04, H = 13.069 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 12.352 +/- 0.04. These values are about 1.1 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456464.6, for this field.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in HeLa Cells of an NIR Light Responsive Doxorubicin Delivery System Based on NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Oton-Fernandez, Olalla; Mendez-Gonzalez, Diego; Díaz, J Fernando; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Barasoain, Isabel; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we present a phototriggered drug delivery system based on light responsive nanoparticles, which is able to release doxorubicin upon NIR light illumination. The proposed system is based on upconversion fluorescence nanoparticles of β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG with a mean diameter of 52±2.5 nm that absorb the NIR light and emit UV light. The UV radiation causes the degradation of photodegradable ortho-nitrobenzyl alcohol derivates, which are attached on one side to the surface of the nanoparticles and on the other to doxorubicin. This degradation triggers the doxorubicin release. This drug delivery system has been tested "in vitro" with HeLa cells. The results of this study demonstrated that this system caused negligible cytotoxicity when they were not illuminated with NIR light. In contrast, under NIR light illumination, the HeLa cell viability was conspicuously reduced. These results demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system to control the release of doxorubicin via an external NIR light stimulus.

  8. Orienterend onderzoek naar de bepaling van het gehalte aan glucosinolaten in raapzaad met behulp van NIRS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankhuizen, R.; Munsteren, van A.J.; Veen, van der N.G.; Herstel, H.

    1987-01-01

    Met behulp van een research Nabij Infrarood Reflectie Spectrometer (NIRS) (Technicon Infra-Alyzer 500) is oriënterend onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de bepaling van het gehalte aan glucosinolaten in raapzaad met behulp van NIRS.

  9. Effect of nitrate and acetylene on nirS, cnorB, and nosZ expression and denitrification activity in Pseudomonas mandelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh-Lakha, Saleema; Shannon, Kelly E; Henderson, Sherri L; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Goyer, Claudia; Trevors, Jack T

    2009-08-01

    Nitrate acts as an electron acceptor in the denitrification process. The effect of nitrate in the range of 0 to 1,000 mg/liter on Pseudomonas mandelii nirS, cnorB, and nosZ gene expression was studied, using quantitative reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Denitrification activity was measured by using the acetylene blockage method and gas chromatography. The effect of acetylene on gene expression was assessed by comparing denitrification gene expression in P. mandelii culture grown in the presence or absence of acetylene. The higher the amount of NO(3)(-) present, the greater the induction and the longer the denitrification genes remained expressed. nirS gene expression reached a maximum at 2, 4, 4, and 6 h in cultures grown in the presence of 0, 10, 100, and 1,000 mg of KNO(3)/liter, respectively, while induction of nirS gene ranged from 12- to 225-fold compared to time zero. cnorB gene expression also followed a similar trend. nosZ gene expression did not respond to NO(3)(-) treatment under the conditions tested. Acetylene decreased nosZ gene expression but did not affect nirS or cnorB gene expression. These results showed that nirS and cnorB responded to nitrate concentrations; however, significant denitrification activity was only observed in culture with 1,000 mg of KNO(3)/liter, indicating that there was no relationship between gene expression and denitrification activity under the conditions tested.

  10. NIR Electrofluorochromic Properties of Aza-Boron-dipyrromethene Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hanwhuy; Seo, Seogjae; Pascal, Simon; Bellier, Quentin; Rigaut, Stéphane; Park, Chihyun; Shin, Haijin; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2016-01-06

    The photophysical properties of near-infrared (NIR) emissive aza-boron-dipyrromethene (aza-BDP) dyes incorporating nitrofluorene and alkoxy decorations were intensively investigated. Their highly reversible one-electron reduction process showed characteristic electrofluorochromic (EF) properties in the NIR range, depending on the substituents. The nitrofluorene ethynyl-substituted (Type I) dyes showed smaller EF effects than the alkoxy-containing (Type II) dyes because of the difference in their intrinsic fluorescence contrast between the neutral and reduced states (radical anion). In addition, the Type II chromophores showed a larger diffusion coefficient for ion transport, which enhanced the EF contrast and the response time for the fluorescence change at a given step potential. With an optimized condition, the NIR EF ON/OFF ratio reached a value of 6.1 and a long cyclability over 1000 EF cycles between -0.4 V and +0.4 V switching potentials, with approximately 20% loss of the initial ON/OFF switching ratio. The NIR EF switching was visually observed through a visible light cut-off filter, featuring high fluorescence contrast.

  11. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  12. Detection of flaws in hazelnuts using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of VIS/NIR spectroscopy for detection of flaws in hazelnut kernels was demonstrated. Feature datasets comprising raw absorbance values, raw absorbance Ratios (Abs['1] : Abs['2]) and Differences (Abs['1] – Abs['2]) for all possible pairs of wavelengths from 306.5 nm to 1710.9 nm were ...

  13. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  14. TROPOMI and TROPI: UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.; Eskes, H.; Weele, M. van; Veefkind, P.; Oss, R. van; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.T.; Landgraf, J.; Vries, J. de; Visser, H.

    2006-01-01

    TROPOMI (Tropospheric Ozone-Monitoring Instrument) is a five-channel UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (114°) with high spatial resolution (10 × 10 km 2). The instrument heritage consists of GOME on ERS-2, SCIAMACHY on Envisat and, especially,

  15. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  16. Extendable nickel complex tapes that reach NIR absorptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Hassib; Chen, Zhongrui; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; D'Aléo, Anthony; Canard, Gabriel; Jacquemin, Denis; Siri, Olivier

    2014-12-14

    Stepwise synthesis of linear nickel complex oligomer tapes with no need for solid-phase support has been achieved. The control of the length in flat arrays allows a fine-tuning of the absorption properties from the UV to the NIR region.

  17. Concurrent EEG And NIRS Tomographic Imaging Based on Wearable Electro-Optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    simultaneous electroencephalogram ( EEG ) and functional NIR spectroscopic (fNIRS) acquisition for biological or cognitive neuroscience studies in operational...environments. The system features novel EEG /NIRS electrodes, known as electro-opodes, and miniaturized supporting hardware/software. In the past few...years, our team, composed of faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students, has designed and developed dry EEG and fNIR sensors that allow non

  18. fNIRS exhibits weak tuning to hand movement direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldert, Stephan; Tüshaus, Laura; Kaller, Christoph P; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become an established tool to investigate brain function and is, due to its portability and resistance to electromagnetic noise, an interesting modality for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs have been successfully realized using the decoding of movement kinematics from intra-cortical recordings in monkey and human. Recently, it has been shown that hemodynamic brain responses as measured by fMRI are modulated by the direction of hand movements. However, quantitative data on the decoding of movement direction from hemodynamic responses is still lacking and it remains unclear whether this can be achieved with fNIRS, which records signals at a lower spatial resolution but with the advantage of being portable. Here, we recorded brain activity with fNIRS above different cortical areas while subjects performed hand movements in two different directions. We found that hemodynamic signals in contralateral sensorimotor areas vary with the direction of movements, though only weakly. Using these signals, movement direction could be inferred on a single-trial basis with an accuracy of ∼65% on average across subjects. The temporal evolution of decoding accuracy resembled that of typical hemodynamic responses observed in motor experiments. Simultaneous recordings with a head tracking system showed that head movements, at least up to some extent, do not influence the decoding of fNIRS signals. Due to the low accuracy, fNIRS is not a viable alternative for BMIs utilizing decoding of movement direction. However, due to its relative resistance to head movements, it is promising for studies investigating brain activity during motor experiments.

  19. [Proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cai-jin; Han, Lu-jia; Liu, Xian; Yang, Zeng-ling

    2009-04-01

    Proximate analysis is one of the routine analysis procedures in utilization of straw for biomass energy use. The present paper studied the applicability of rapid proximate analysis of straw by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology, in which the authors constructed the first NIRS models to predict volatile matter and fixed carbon contents of straw. NIRS models were developed using Foss 6500 spectrometer with spectra in the range of 1,108-2,492 nm to predict the contents of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the directly cut straw samples; to predict ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon in the dried milled straw samples. For the models based on directly cut straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.92% and 0.76% for moisture, 0.94% and 0.84% for ash, 0.88% and 0.82% for volatile matter, and 0.75% and 0.65% for fixed carbon, respectively. For the models based on dried milled straw samples, the determination coefficient of independent validation (R2v) and standard error of prediction (SEP) were 0.98% and 0.54% for ash, 0.95% and 0.57% for volatile matter, and 0.78% and 0.61% for fixed carbon, respectively. It was concluded that NIRS models can predict accurately as an alternative analysis method, therefore rapid and simultaneous analysis of multicomponents can be achieved by NIRS technology, decreasing the cost of proximate analysis for straw.

  20. On the distance of the Magellanic Clouds using Cepheid NIR and optical-NIR Period Wesenheit Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Inno, L; Bono, G; Caputo, F; Buonanno, R; Genovali, K; Laney, C D; Marconi, M; Piersimoni, A M; Primas, F; Romaniello, M

    2012-01-01

    We present the largest near-infrared (NIR) data sets, $JHKs$, ever collected for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We selected fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) pulsators, and found 4150 (2571 FU, 1579 FO) Cepheids for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 3042 (1840 FU, 1202 FO) for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Current sample is 2--3 times larger than any sample used in previous investigations with NIR photometry. We also discuss optical $VI$ photometry from OGLE-III. NIR and optical--NIR Period-Wesenheit (PW) relations are linear over the entire period range ($0.0<\\log P_{\\rm FU} \\le1.65 $) and their slopes are, within the intrinsic dispersions, common between the MCs. These are consistent with recent results from pulsation models and observations suggesting that the PW relations are minimally affected by the metal content. The new FU and FO PW relations were calibrated using a sample of Galactic Cepheids with distances based on trigonometric parallaxes and Cepheid pulsation models. B...

  1. Clinical and angiographic results with the NIR stent: First International NIR Endovascular Stent Study (FINESS-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutsch, Wolfgang; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Colombo, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Guermonprez, Jean-Leon; Grip, Lars; Hamburger, Jaap; Umans, Victor; Gotsman, Mervyn; Almagor, Yaron; Morice, Marie-Claude; Garcia, Eulogio; Chevalier, Bernard; Erbel, Raimund; Cobaugh, Michael; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Serruys, Patrick W

    2000-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Although safety and efficacy of the NIR trade mark stent have been reported, the long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes have yet to be investigated. The FINESS-II study (First International NIR Endovascular Stent Study) was designed to assess the procedural safety of single 9 and 16 mm NIR stent implantation, the six-month restenosis rate and finally the six- and 12-month clinical outcome of patients treated with this novel coronary stent. METHODS: Patients with angina and a single de novo lesion in a native coronary artery of >3 and 50% diameter stenosis criterion at six month follow-up was 19% (26/136). At 12 months, the event-free survival rate was 83% (two deaths, one Q-wave and three non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions, four bypass surgery and 17 target lesion revascularizations), while 87% of the patients were free of angina pectoris. CONCLUSION: the outcome of the FINESS-II trial is comparable to those observed in previous stent trials (Benestent II), indicating that the coronary NIR stent is safe and effective as a primary device for the treatment of native coronary artery lesions in patients with (un)stable angina pectoris.

  2. [In hospital and mid-term outcome of patients with NIR stent implantation: multicenter ESPORT-NIR registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, A; García, E; Seabra, R; Bordes, P; Bethencourt, A; Rigla, J

    2001-05-01

    Despite improvements in the results and techniques of catheter-based revascularization, few studies have evaluated the clinical results of the application of new stent designs. We describe the in-hospital and mid-term outcome of patients undergoing a stent NIR implantation. At least 1 Stent NIR was implanted in 1.004 patients (1.136 lesions) recruited from 50 centers in an international, multicenter, prospective, registry (Spain and Portugal NIR stent registry). Inclusion criteria were objective coronary ischemia related to a severe de novo lesion or first restenosis in native vessels with a reference diameter >= 2.75 mm. The primary end-point was the incidence of major adverse cardiac events within the first 7 months of follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 60 years and 82% were male. Angioplasty was indicated due to unstable angina in 61% of the cases. Stent implantation was successfully achieved in 99.6%. Clinical success (angiographic success without in-hospital major events) was achieved in 98.6% of patients. The rate of angiographic restenosis (> 50% stenosis narrowing) was 16% (CI 95%; 11.7-21.2). The accumulated major cardiac adverse event rate at seven months of follow-up was 8.7%: death (0.9%), acute myocardial infarction (1.2%) and target lesion revascularization (6.6%). In the wide setting of the population included in the ESPORT-NIR registry, stent NIR implantation was a highly effective therapy with a good mid-term clinical and angiographic outcome.

  3. NIR is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex proteasome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ho Myong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel INHAT Repressor (NIR is a histone acetylation inhibitor that can directly bind histone complexes and the tumor suppressors p53 and p63. Because NIR is mainly localized in the nucleolus and disappears from the nucleolus upon RNase treatment, it is thought to bind RNA or ribonucleoproteins. When NIR moves to the cytoplasm, it is immediately degraded; this degradation was blocked by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, the central domain of NIR specifically bound APC-CCdh1. These data show that the stability of NIR is governed by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway.

  4. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis......-AES and NIR transmittance spectroscopy exhibit comparable precision and accuracy. The NIR method provides several advantages: no complicated sample preparation; easy to operate; fast and non-destructive. In conclusion, NIR transmittance spectroscopy can be an alternative analytical method for determining...

  5. Functional brain imaging with a supercontinuum time-domain NIRS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Juliette; Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Martino, Mark; Ogden, Tyler; Boas, David A.

    2013-03-01

    We have developed the second generation of our time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) system for baseline and functional brain imaging. The instrument uses a pulsed broadband supercontinuum laser emitting a large spectrum between 650 and 1700 nm, and a gated detection based on an intensified CCD camera. The source laser beam is split into two arms, below and above 776 nm. In each arm, a fast motorized filter wheel enables selection of a bandpass filter at the required wavelength. Each filtered laser beam is then launched into one array of source fibers. The multiplexing through the array of fibers is implemented through a very compact home-made design consisting of two galvanometer mirrors followed by an achromatic doublet. Source fibers are then recombined one-by-one from both arms into the source optodes to be positioned on the head. The detection fibers are all imaged in parallel through a relay lens on an intensified CCD camera. By using detection fibers of different lengths, we introduce optical delays that enable simultaneous recording in different delay windows of the temporal point spread functions. We present the instrumentation and show its preliminary functional imaging capabilities. We also introduce a new probe where we use different fiber lengths on the source and the detector sides in order to record simultaneously both wavelengths from one location through different sets of fibers.

  6. CARMENES. V: non-cryogenic solutions for YJH-band NIR instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, P. J.; Lenzen, R.; Cardenas, M. C.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Becerril, S.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.

    2012-09-01

    Currently, every single instrument using NIR detectors is cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to minimize the thermal flux emitted by a warm instrument. Cryogenization, meaning reaching very low operating temperatures, is a must when the K band is needed for the science case. This results in more complex and more expensive instruments. However, science cases that do not benefit from observing in the K band, like the detection of exoplanets around M dwarfs through the radial velocity technique, can make use of non-cryogenic instruments. The CARMENES instrument is implementing a cooling system which could allow such a solution. It is being built by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions and will conduct an exoplanet survey around M dwarfs. Its concept includes two spectrographs, one equipped with a CCD for the range 550-950 nm, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 950-1700 nm, covering therefore the YJH bands. In this contribution, different possibilities are studied to reach the final cooling solution to be used in CARMENES, all of them demonstrated to be feasible, within the requirements of the SNR requested by the science case.

  7. Shed a light of wireless technology on portable mobile design of NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlong; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Mobile internet is growing rapidly driven by high-tech companies including the popular Apple and Google. The wireless mini-NIRS is believed to deserve a great spread future, while there is sparse report on wireless NIRS device and even for the reported wireless NIRS, its wireless design is scarcely presented. Here we focused on the wireless design of NIRS devices. The widely-used wireless communication standards and wireless communication typical solutions were employed into our NIRS design and then compared on communication efficiency, distance, error rate, low-cost, power consumption, and stabilities, based on the requirements of NIRS applications. The properly-performed wireless communication methods matched with the characteristics of NIRS are picked out. Finally, we realized one recommended wireless communication in our NIRS, developed a test platform on wireless NIRS and tested the full properties on wireless communication. This study elaborated the wireless communication methods specified for NIRS and suggested one implementation with one example fully illustrated, which support the future mobile design on NIRS devices.

  8. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  9. 添加剂近红外指纹图谱鉴别成功实现——访中国农业科学院饲料研究所饲料检测技术研究室主任张萍研究员%Near Infra red Fingerprint for Distinguishing Food Additive Comes True——Interview Zhang Ping,Director of Feed Detection Technology Lab and Researcher of Feed Research institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永娇

    2008-01-01

    @@ 原理链接:指纹图谱与近红外光谱 指纹图谱是法医学上的一个概念.最早来源于19世纪末,20世纪初的犯罪学和法医学.由于指纹具有人各不同,终生不变,触物留痕可以认定人身的特点,指纹鉴定结论在侦察和审判中起着重要作用,被称为"物证之首","证据之王".

  10. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  11. NIR Analysis of Powder Mixing Quality in a Ribbon Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Chris; Duong, Nhat-Hang; Muzzio, Fernando

    2001-11-01

    We present experimental results on powder mixing performed in a common industrial mixer, the batch ribbon blender. Our experiments explore the effectiveness of this device on mixture quality as a function of fill level, loading pattern, ribbon speed, mixing time, and ribbon angle. We study two powder formulations consisting of common compounds used in food and pharmaceutical processing. Mixture quality is evaluated by core sampling throughout the blender and determining the composition of small samples using NIR spectroscopy. We use the spectra from NIR to calculate the intensity and scale of segregation for the three-dimensional mixing region. The mixing rates in the axial and radial directions are obtained from plots of composition variance vs. mixing time. We examine the effects of ribbon speed and fill level as the main parameters affecting mixing rate. Dead regions that remain isolated from the remainder of the flow are identified.

  12. A NIR Flare of the Quasar PKS0446+112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Chabushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.; Mayya, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the NIR flare of the high redshift quasar PKS0446+112 (z=1.207), also known as CGRaBSJ0449+1121, associated with the gamma-ray source 1FGL0448.6+1118. The source has shown Gamma-ray flares in the past. Our NIR photometry for this source shows that on Jan 4th,2014 (JD2456661.773275), the object brightness corresponded to J = 15.43+/- 0.04, H = 14.210 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 13.455 +/- 0.06. These values are about 1 magnitud brighter than our previous photometry, obtained on JD2456609, for this field.

  13. [EMD Time-Frequency Analysis of Raman Spectrum and NIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-yu; Fang, Yi-ming; Tan, Feng; Tong, Liang; Zhai, Zhe

    2016-02-01

    This paper analyzes the Raman spectrum and Near Infrared Spectrum (NIR) with time-frequency method. The empirical mode decomposition spectrum becomes intrinsic mode functions, which the proportion calculation reveals the Raman spectral energy is uniform distributed in each component, while the NIR's low order intrinsic mode functions only undertakes fewer primary spectroscopic effective information. Both the real spectrum and numerical experiments show that the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) regard Raman spectrum as the amplitude-modulated signal, which possessed with high frequency adsorption property; and EMD regards NIR as the frequency-modulated signal, which could be preferably realized high frequency narrow-band demodulation during first-order intrinsic mode functions. The first-order intrinsic mode functions Hilbert transform reveals that during the period of empirical mode decomposes Raman spectrum, modal aliasing happened. Through further analysis of corn leaf's NIR in time-frequency domain, after EMD, the first and second orders components of low energy are cut off, and reconstruct spectral signal by using the remaining intrinsic mode functions, the root-mean-square error is 1.001 1, and the correlation coefficient is 0.981 3, both of these two indexes indicated higher accuracy in re-construction; the decomposition trend term indicates the absorbency is ascending along with the decreasing to wave length in the near-infrared light wave band; and the Hilbert transform of characteristic modal component displays, 657 cm⁻¹ is the specific frequency by the corn leaf stress spectrum, which could be regarded as characteristic frequency for identification.

  14. Relationship between muscle oxygenation by NIRS and blood lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guodong [School of Physical Education, Jianghan University, Hubei Wuhan 430056 (China); Mao Zongzhen; Ye Yanjie; Lv Kunru, E-mail: xguodong@wipe.edu.cn [School of Health Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, Hubei Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of muscle oxygenation in term of oxy-hemoglobin concentration change ({Delta}HbO{sub 2}) by NIRS and blood lactate (BLA) in local skeletal muscle and evaluate the capability of NIRS in the research of exercise physiology Twenty-three athlete in the national fin-swimming team took the increasing load training on the power bicycle while their {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA were simultaneously recorded. The initial powers used in the training were set as 100 w for males and 40 w for females. During the experiment, the power kept constant for 3 min before each abrupt increment of 30 w until the limit of the athlete's capability. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed. Following the increasing load training, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} step-likely increased in the phase of aerobic metabolism but linearly decreased in the phase of anaerobic metabolism. The variation tendency of BLA was the same as {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and the concurrency of crucial turning points between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA was revealed. This relationship between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA presented in the increasing load training suggested that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} might be capable for taking the place of the invasively measured parameter BLA. Considering that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} can be noninvasively measured by NIRS, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} has the potential in the evaluation of athletes' physiological function and training effect on the athletes and accordingly NIRS can be well used in this field.

  15. [A new algorithm for NIR modeling based on manifold learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming-Jian; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wen, Quan

    2009-07-01

    Manifold learning is a new kind of algorithm originating from the field of machine learning to find the intrinsic dimensionality of numerous and complex data and to extract most important information from the raw data to develop a regression or classification model. The basic assumption of the manifold learning is that the high-dimensional data measured from the same object using some devices must reside on a manifold with much lower dimensions determined by a few properties of the object. While NIR spectra are characterized by their high dimensions and complicated band assignment, the authors may assume that the NIR spectra of the same kind of substances with different chemical concentrations should reside on a manifold with much lower dimensions determined by the concentrations, according to the above assumption. As one of the best known algorithms of manifold learning, locally linear embedding (LLE) further assumes that the underlying manifold is locally linear. So, every data point in the manifold should be a linear combination of its neighbors. Based on the above assumptions, the present paper proposes a new algorithm named least square locally weighted regression (LS-LWR), which is a kind of LWR with weights determined by the least squares instead of a predefined function. Then, the NIR spectra of glucose solutions with various concentrations are measured using a NIR spectrometer and LS-LWR is verified by predicting the concentrations of glucose solutions quantitatively. Compared with the existing algorithms such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR), the LS-LWR has better predictability measured by the standard error of prediction (SEP) and generates an elegant model with good stability and efficiency.

  16. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Paul; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual...... and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale....

  17. GSH-Activated NIR Fluorescent Prodrug for Podophyllotoxin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Zhu, Shaojia; Gu, Kaizhi; Guo, Zhiqian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Mingwei; Amin, Hesham M; Zhu, Weihong; Shi, Ping

    2017-09-06

    Theranostic prodrug therapy enables the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs with minimized adverse effects and real-time in situ monitoring of activation of the prodrugs. In this work, we report the synthesis and biological assessment of the near-infrared (NIR) prodrug DCM-S-PPT and its amphiphilic copolymer (mPEG-DSPE)-encapsulated nanoparticles. DCM-S-PPT is composed of podophyllotoxin (PPT) as the anticancer moiety and a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative as the NIR fluorescent reporter, which are linked by a thiol-specific cleavable disulfide bond. In vitro experiments indicated that DCM-S-PPT has low cytotoxicity and that glutathione (GSH) can activate DCM-S-PPT resulting in PPT release and a concomitant significant enhancement in NIR fluorescence at 665 nm. After being intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, DCM-S-PPT exhibited excellent tumor-activated performance. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that mPEG-DSPE as a nanocarrier loaded with DCM-S-PPT (mPEG-DSPE/DCM-S-PPT) showed even greater tumor-targeting performance than DCM-S-PPT on account of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Its tumor-targeting ability and specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-PPT a promising prodrug that could provide a significant strategy for theranostic drug delivery systems.

  18. White Asparagus Harvest Date Discrimination Using Nirs Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarén, C.; Arazuri, S.; García, M. J.; Arnal, P.; Arana, J. I.

    2006-03-01

    Asparagus is still an important resource for mid-size and small farms. It has been traditionally believed that factors such as the asparagus harvesting date have an influence on its quality. This research sought to identify the harvesting dates of different fruits by using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology as quality indicators and the best zone a long of the asparagus to acquire the spectrum. All the asparagus tested came from the same manufacturer but had been canned on three different dates, giving a total of nine lots. There were one hundred asparagus per lot and the experiment data were taken from three different parts (tip, middle, and base) of each spear. Reflectance spectrum in the near infrared between 800 1700 nm was determined. Differences NIRS among the asparagus harvested on different dates were found. NIRS technology was able to classify the asparagus correctly in terms of harvest dates (71% well classified). The base of the asparagus turned out to be the best part to use in order to establish the harvest date.

  19. Characterization of mind wandering using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantin, Gautier; Dehais, Frederic; Delorme, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Assessing whether someone is attending to a task has become important for educational and professional applications. Such attentional drifts are usually termed mind wandering (MW). The purpose of the current study is to test to what extent a recent neural imaging modality can be used to detect MW episodes. Functional near infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique that has never been used so far to measure MW. We used the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to assess when subjects attention leaves a primary task. Sixteen-channel fNIRS data were collected over frontal cortices. We observed significant activations over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during MW, a brain region associated with the default mode network (DMN). fNIRS data were used to classify MW data above chance level. In line with previous brain-imaging studies, our results confirm the ability of fNIRS to detect Default Network activations in the context of MW.

  20. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  1. UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy of heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonheydt, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    This critical review article discusses the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy with special emphasis on transition metal ion containing catalysts. A review is given of the transitions, that can be observed in the UV-VIS-NIR region and the peculiarities of catalytic solids that have to be taken into account. This is followed by a short discussion of the techniques that have been developed over the years: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, UV-VIS microscopy, in situ or operando spectroscopy, the combination of UV-VIS spectroscopy with other spectroscopic techniques, with chemometrics and with quantum chemistry. In the third part of this paper four successes of UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and microscopy are discussed; (1) coordination of transition metal ions to surface oxygens; (2) quantitative determination of the oxidation states of transition metal ions; (3) characterization of active sites and (4) study of the distribution of transition metal ions and carbocations in catalytic bodies, particles and crystals (104 references).

  2. NIR-to-NIR Two-Photon Scanning Laser Microscopy Imaging of Single Nanoparticles Doped by Yb(III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdolle, Adrien; D'Aléo, Anthony; Philippot, Cécile; Baldeck, Patrice L; Guyot, Yannick; Dubois, Fabien; Ibanez, Alain; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Maury, Olivier

    2016-01-04

    The photophysical and nonlinear optical properties of water-soluble chromophore-functionalised tris-dipicolinate complexes [LnL3](3-) (Ln=Yb and Nd) are thoroughly studied, revealing that only the Yb(III) luminescence can be sensitized by a two-photon excitation process. The stability of the complex in water is strongly enhanced by embedding in dispersible organosilicate nanoparticles (NPs). Finally, the spectroscopic properties of [NBu4]3 [YbL3] are studied in solution and in the solid state. The high brightness of the NPs allows imaging them as single objects using a modified two-photon microscopy setup in a NIR-to-NIR configuration.

  3. Facile Peptides Functionalization of Lanthanide-Based Nanocrystals through Phosphorylation Tethering for Efficient in Vivo NIR-to-NIR Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chi; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Lei; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Lu, Yiqing; Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-02-02

    Peptide modification of nanoparticles is a challenging task for bioapplications. Here, we show that noncovalent surface engineering based on ligand exchange of peptides for lanthanide based upconversion and downconversion near-infrared (NIR) luminescent nanoparticles can be efficiently realized by modifying the hydroxyl functional group of a side grafted serine of peptides into a phosphate group (phosphorylation). By using the phosphorylated peptide with the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) targeting motifs as typical examples, the modification allows improving the selectivity, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio for the cancer targeting and bioimaging and reducing the toxicity derived from nonspecific interactions of nanoparticles with cells. The in vivo NIR bioimaging signal could even be detected at low injection amounts down to 20 μg per animal.

  4. Foss Italia. NIR spectroscopy for foods quality; Foss Italia. Qualita' negli alimenti con spettroscopia NIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianflone, F. [Foss Electric Italia SpA, Este, PD (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    The Italian subsidiary of the Danish Foss Electric distributes in Italy sophisticated equipment for humidity measurement in corn, in proteins, in milk glucides and lipids, and in many other foodstuffs. Analysis are reliable and very fast, workable also in other industrial sectors and in pharmaceutical labs. Measurement technique, non destructive, is NIR spectroscopy. [Italian] La filiale italiana di un'azienda internazionale, la danese Foss Electric, commercializza nel nostro Paese sofisticate apparecchiature per la determinazione dell'umidita' nei cereali, delle proteine, dei glucidi e dei lipidi nel latte, nelle graminacee e in molte altre derrate. Le analisi sono affidabili e molto rapide, eseguibili anche in altri comparti industriali e farmaceutici. La tecnica di misura, non distruttiva, e' quella della spettroscopia nel vicino infrarosso (NIR).

  5. nirS-Encoding denitrifier community composition, distribution, and abundance along the coastal wetlands of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juan; Hou, Lijun; Zheng, Yanling; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen; Sun, Xiuru

    2016-10-01

    For the past few decades, human activities have intensively increased the reactive nitrogen enrichment in China's coastal wetlands. Although denitrification is a critical pathway of nitrogen removal, the understanding of denitrifier community dynamics driving denitrification remains limited in the coastal wetlands. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and community composition of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were analyzed to reveal their variations in China's coastal wetlands. Diverse nirS sequences were obtained and more than 98 % of them shared considerable phylogenetic similarity with sequences obtained from aquatic systems (marine/estuarine/coastal sediments and hypoxia sea water). Clone library analysis revealed that the distribution and composition of nirS-harboring denitrifiers had a significant latitudinal differentiation, but without a seasonal shift. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the community structure of nirS-encoding denitrifiers was significantly related to temperature and ammonium concentration. The nirS gene abundance ranged from 4.3 × 10(5) to 3.7 × 10(7) copies g(-1) dry sediment, with a significant spatial heterogeneity. Among all detected environmental factors, temperature was a key factor affecting not only the nirS gene abundance but also the community structure of nirS-type denitrifiers. Overall, this study significantly enhances our understanding of the structure and dynamics of denitrifying communities in the coastal wetlands of China.

  6. Dual mode NIR long persistent phosphorescence and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence in La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}GeO{sub 14}: Cr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiling; Li, Yang, E-mail: msliyang@scut.edu.cn; Qin, Xixi; Chen, Ruchun; Wu, Dakun; Liu, Shijian; Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Recently, long persistent phosphors (LPPs) have been considered to be the most prominent candidates for biomedical applications. However, the LPPs suffer from a dramatic decrease in luminescence intensity after incorporation into the tissue. Therefore, it is very necessary to develop the more competitive LPPs and acquire the reproducible tissue imaging. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an effective bifunctional La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}GeO{sub 14}: Cr{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+} phosphor with the interesting characteristic of near-infrared long persistent phosphorescence and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence. Cr{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+} ions are simultaneously selected as the emission centers in order to take advantage of the remarkable phosphorescence properties of Cr{sup 3+}, and the appropriate energy level characteristic of NIR-excitation band (808 nm) and NIR-emission (1064 nm), and the ability as the brilliant auxiliary to create more efficient defects of Nd{sup 3+}. The efficient dual-modal emission is, accordingly utilized to realize the convenient, high-resolution global detection and local imaging. - Highlights: • Dual mode phosphor with NIR long afterglow and NIR-to-NIR Stokes luminescence. • Increasing the persistent duration due to the codoping of Nd. • Avoiding the noteworthy overheating effect due to the strong absorption at 980 nm.

  7. Hierarchical Non-Emitting Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ristad, E S; Ristad, Eric Sven; Thomas, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a simple variant of the interpolated Markov model with non-emitting state transitions and prove that it is strictly more powerful than any Markov model. More importantly, the non-emitting model outperforms the classic interpolated model on the natural language texts under a wide range of experimental conditions, with only a modest increase in computational requirements. The non-emitting model is also much less prone to overfitting. Keywords: Markov model, interpolated Markov model, hidden Markov model, mixture modeling, non-emitting state transitions, state-conditional interpolation, statistical language model, discrete time series, Brown corpus, Wall Street Journal.

  8. Light-Emitting Devices with Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yu Deng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a previous study and tremendous progress in basic theoretical modeling, material developments and device engineering for polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs.

  9. New luminescence measurement facilities in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapp, Torben; Jain, Mayank; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2012-01-01

    thermoelectrically cooled NIR sensitive PMT (detection window peak at 855 nm, FWHM 27 nm). Software and electronics have been modified to allow standard TL and OSL measurements in the same sequence as RL measurements. Together with a new bleaching source based on a high-power UV LED (395 nm; 700 mW/cm2......This paper gives a review of recent developments in luminescence measurement facilities on the Risø TL/OSL reader including radio-luminescence (RL), exo-electron and violet stimulation attachments, and a method for characterising and if necessary correcting for beta irradiation source non......-uniformity.We first describe improvements to the existing RL option to allow near infra-red detection (NIR) during irradiation by the built-in 90Sr/90Y beta source. The RL optical signal is collected by a liquid light guide through an F34-901 interference filter and detection is based on a dedicated...

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  11. Glucose Binding Protein as a Novel Optical Glucose Nanobiosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  12. Partial least square modeling for the control of refining processes on mid-distillates by near infrared spectroscopy; Modeles PLS pour le suivi de la qualite par spectrometrie proche infrarouge des distillats moyens issus des procedes de raffinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, S.; Schildknecht-Szydlowski, N.; Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    Partial Least Squares regression (PLS) was used to elaborate the prediction models of the different chemical families i.e. wt% paraffins, naphthenes, and wt% and moll 100 g mono-aromatics, di-aromatics, and total aromatics from Near InfraRed spectra (NIR) of mid-distillates covering a large range of chemical compositions. Cluster analysis was used to reveal the chemical similarities between samples and to organize in clusters the calibration data base. The relation-ships between NIR spectra and modeled properties were well adapted for most of the prediction models in twice the interval of confidence at 95% of the reference methods after clustering of the data base into three clusters. Cluster analysis was necessary to improve the prediction quality of the PLS models. (authors)

  13. Development of visible and NIR imaging equipment for small animals with smart pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Nyeon Sik; Han, Jung Hyun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jong Ha; Park, Hee Joon

    2014-01-01

    The portable visible and near-infrared (NIR) imaging equipment for a pre-clinical test with small animals was designed and developed in this paper. The developed equipment is composed of a CCD camera, a focusing lens, an objective lens, a NIR band pass filter and a NIR filter driving motor. An NIR ray is mainly used for imaging equipment because it has high light penetration depth in biological tissue. Therefore, NIR fluorescent agents are available for chemical conjugation to targeting molecules in vivo. This equipment can provide a visible image, NIR image and merged image simultaneously. A communication system was specifically established to check obtained images through a smart pad in real time. It is less dependent on space and time than the conventional system.

  14. Growth and characterization of broad spectrum infrared emitting GaInAsP/InP heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovics, V.; Nádas, J.; Réti, I.; Dücső, Cs.; Battistig, G.

    2017-06-01

    Broad spectrum InGaAsP/InP light emitting heterostructures were grown by low temperature liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The structure of the LED wafers was investigated by optical transmission measurements, and the layer thicknesses were also measured by electron microscopy. Two quaternary light emitting layers of different composition were built in one device structure in order to broaden the usable wavelength range of the emission spectrum. One of the layers is electrically, whereas the other is optically excited as a result of internal absorption and re-emission of the LED light. As a result of this absorption and re-emission process the modified LED chips have substantially broader emission spectra and higher radiance than the conventional surface emitting multi-wavelength NIR LED structures. The two emission peaks of the spectrum were designed for matching the first and second harmonic wavelength of the fundamental absorption band of C-H bonds. The internal quantum efficiency of the wavelength conversion in this type of LEDs is nearly 100%.

  15. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  16. NIR spectrometry for counterfeit drug detection - A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodionova, O.Y.; Houmøller, Lars P.; Pomerantsev, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Express-methods for detection of counterfeit drugs are of vital necessity. Visual control, dissociating tests or simple color reaction tests reveal only very rough forgeries. The feasibility of information-rich NIR-measurements as an analytical method together with multivariate calibration...... for mathematical data processing for false drugs detection is demonstrated. Also, multivariate hyperspectral image analysis is applied providing additional diagnostic information. Hyperspectral imaging is becoming a useful diagnostic tool for identifying non-homogeneous spatial regions of drug formulation. Two...... types of drugs are used to demonstrate the applicability of these approaches....

  17. New NIR Calibration Models Speed Biomass Composition and Reactivity Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining accurate chemical composition and reactivity (measures of carbohydrate release and yield) information for biomass feedstocks in a timely manner is necessary for the commercialization of biofuels. This highlight describes NREL's work to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and partial least squares multivariate analysis to develop calibration models to predict the feedstock composition and the release and yield of soluble carbohydrates generated by a bench-scale dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis assay. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  18. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  19. NIR light propagation in a digital head model for traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Robert; Khan, Bilal; Alexandrakis, George; Florence, James; MacFarlane, Duncan

    2015-09-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is capable of detecting and monitoring acute changes in cerebral blood volume and oxygenation associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Wavelength selection, source-detector separation, optode density, and detector sensitivity are key design parameters that determine the imaging depth, chromophore separability, and, ultimately, clinical usefulness of a NIRS instrument. We present simulation results of NIR light propagation in a digital head model as it relates to the ability to detect intracranial hematomas and monitor the peri-hematomal tissue viability. These results inform NIRS instrument design specific to TBI diagnosis and monitoring.

  20. Fundamental examination of nanoparticle heating kinetics upon near infrared (NIR) irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Stacy, Bradley M; Payne, Sarah; Dosser, Larry; Hussain, Saber M

    2011-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) light, which spans wavelengths from ~700-1100 nm holds particular promise in bionanotechnology-enabled applications because both NIR light and nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential for remote activation leading to exquisite localization and targeting scenarios. In this study, aqueous solutions of carbon and metal-based NPs (carbon black, single-walled carbon nanotubes, silver nanoparticles and copper nanoparticles) were exposed to continuous NIR laser (λ = 1064 nm) irradiation at powers of 2.2W and 4.5W. The differential heating of bulk aqueous suspension of NPs with varying physicochemical properties revealed maximum temperatures of 67 °C with visible evidence of condensation and bubble formation. The basis of the NP heating is due to the strong intrinsic optical absorbance in the NIR spectral window and the transduction of this NIR photon energy into thermal energy. In this regard, UV-vis measurements can accurately predict NP heating kinetics prior to NIR irradiation. Further, a uniform thermodynamic heating model demonstrates close agreement with the experimental data for the low NIR-absorbing NPs. However, the uniform thermodynamic heating model used in this study does not accurately portray the energy release upon localized NP heating because of bubble formation for the highly absorbing NPs. Therefore, this study reveals the differential heating kinetics of NPs excited with NIR with implications in the development of novel NIR-NP-based systems.

  1. Transcriptional repressor NIR interacts with the p53-inhibiting ubiquitin ligase MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Kristina; Förster, Juliane; Schüle, Roland; Roemer, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    NIR (novel INHAT repressor) can bind to p53 at promoters and inhibit p53-mediated gene transactivation by blocking histone acetylation carried out by p300/CBP. Like NIR, the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 can also bind and inhibit p53 at promoters. Here, we present data indicating that NIR, which shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm, not only binds to p53 but also directly to MDM2, in part via the central acidic and zinc finger domain of MDM2 that is also contacted by several other nucleolus-based MDM2/p53-regulating proteins. Like some of these, NIR was able to inhibit the ubiquitination of MDM2 and stabilize MDM2; however, unlike these nucleolus-based MDM2 regulators, NIR did not inhibit MDM2 to activate p53. Rather, NIR cooperated with MDM2 to repress p53-induced transactivation. This cooperative repression may at least in part involve p300/CBP. We show that NIR can block the acetylation of p53 and MDM2. Non-acetylated p53 has been documented previously to more readily associate with inhibitory MDM2. NIR may thus help to sustain the inhibitory p53:MDM2 complex, and we present evidence suggesting that all three proteins can indeed form a ternary complex. In sum, our findings suggest that NIR can support MDM2 to suppress p53 as a transcriptional activator.

  2. Phosphorescent Nanocluster Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttipillai, Padmanaban S; Zhao, Yimu; Traverse, Christopher J; Staples, Richard J; Levine, Benjamin G; Lunt, Richard R

    2016-01-13

    Devices utilizing an entirely new class of earth abundant, inexpensive phosphorescent emitters based on metal-halide nanoclusters are reported. Light-emitting diodes with tunable performance are demonstrated by varying cation substitution to these nanoclusters. Theoretical calculations provide insight about the nature of the phosphorescent emitting states, which involves a strong pseudo-Jahn-Teller distortion.

  3. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  4. Shielding of emitting dust particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca Delzanno, Gian; Lapenta, Giovanni; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2003-10-01

    In the present work we focus on the role of electron emission (either thermionic or photoelectric) in charging an object immersed in a plasma. In fact, it is well known that the higher mobility of the plasma electrons (that would lead to negatively charged objects) can be overcome by electron emission, thus reversing the object polarity. Moreover, recent work [1] has shown how electron emission can fundamentally affect the shielding potential around the dust. In particular, depending on the physical parameters of the system (that were chosen such to correspond to common experimental conditions), the shielding potential can develop an attractive potential well. The aim of the present work is two-fold. First, we will present a parametric study in order to enlight the conditions for the formation, as well as the stability of the well. Furthermore, simulations will be presented with physical parameters corresponding to the ionosphere, thus extending our study to the case of meteroids. [1] G.L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, "Attractive Potential among Thermionically Emitting Microparticles", submitted.

  5. NIR Tully-Fisher in the Zone of Avoidance - III. Deep NIR catalogue of the HIZOA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Khaled; Kraan-Korteweg, Renée C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Williams, Wendy L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a deep near-infrared (NIR; J, H, and Ks bands) photometric catalogue of sources from the Parkes H I Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey, which forms the basis for an investigation of the matter distribution in the Zone of Avoidance. Observations were conducted between 2006 and 2013 using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF), a 1.4-m telescope situated at the South African Astronomical Observatory site in Sutherland. The images cover all 1108 HIZOA detections and yield 915 galaxies. An additional 105 bright 2MASS galaxies in the southern ZOA were imaged with the IRSF, resulting in 129 galaxies. The average Ks-band seeing and sky background for the survey are 1.38 arcsec and 20.1 mag, respectively. The detection rate as a function of stellar density and dust extinction is found to depend mainly on the H I mass of the H I detected galaxies, which in principal correlates with the NIR brightness of the spiral galaxies. The measured isophotal magnitudes are of sufficient accuracy (errors ˜0.02 mag) to be used in a Tully-Fisher analysis. In the final NIR catalogue, 285 galaxies have both IRSF and 2MASS photometry (180 HIZOA plus 105 bright 2MASX galaxies). The Ks-band isophotal magnitudes presented in this paper agree, within the uncertainties, with those reported in the 2MASX catalogue. Another 30 galaxies, from the HIZOA northern extension, are also covered by UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) images, which are one magnitude deeper than our IRSF images. A modified version of our photometry pipeline was used to derive the photometric parameters of these UKIDSS galaxies. Good agreement was found between the respective Ks-band isophotal magnitudes. These comparisons confirm the robustness of the isophotal parameters and demonstrate that the IRSF images do not suffer from foreground contamination, after star removal, nor underestimate the isophotal fluxes of ZoA galaxies.

  6. A step-wise steerable source of illumination for low-noise “Violin-Mode” shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    A steerable low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow-sensors having a displacement sensitivity of ∼100 pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of at least ±0.5 mm. These sensors were designed to detect lateral “Violin-Mode” resonances in the highly tensioned fused-silica suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave detectors. The shadow sensors—one intended for each of the four fibres in a suspension—comprised a source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation (emitter) and a differential shadow-displacement sensor (detector), these bracketing the fibre under test. The suspension fibres themselves were approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm in diameter, and when illuminated from the side, they cast narrow, vertical, shadows onto their respective detectors—these being located at an effective distance of 50 fibre diameters behind the axes of the fibres themselves. The emitter described here was designed to compensate for a significant degree of mechanical drift or creep over time in the mean position of its suspension fibre. This was achieved by employing five adjacent columns of 8  × miniature NIR LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, λ = 890 nm), with one column being activated at a time. When used in conjunction with a “reverse Galilean” telescope, the LED sources allowed the collimated beam from the emitter to be steered azimuthally in fine angular increments (0.65°), causing the fibre’s shadow to move laterally, in a step-wise manner, across the plane of its facing detector. Each step in shadow position was approximately 0.23 mm in size, and this allowed the fibre’s shadow to be re-centred, so as to bridge once again both elements of its photodiode detector—even if the fibre was off-centred by as much as ±0.5 mm. Re-centring allowed Violin-Mode vibrations of the fibre to be sensed once again as differential AC photocurrents, these flowing in

  7. A step-wise steerable source of illumination for low-noise "Violin-Mode" shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    A steerable low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow-sensors having a displacement sensitivity of ˜100 pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of at least ±0.5 mm. These sensors were designed to detect lateral "Violin-Mode" resonances in the highly tensioned fused-silica suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave detectors. The shadow sensors—one intended for each of the four fibres in a suspension—comprised a source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation (emitter) and a differential shadow-displacement sensor (detector), these bracketing the fibre under test. The suspension fibres themselves were approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm in diameter, and when illuminated from the side, they cast narrow, vertical, shadows onto their respective detectors—these being located at an effective distance of 50 fibre diameters behind the axes of the fibres themselves. The emitter described here was designed to compensate for a significant degree of mechanical drift or creep over time in the mean position of its suspension fibre. This was achieved by employing five adjacent columns of 8 × miniature NIR LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, λ = 890 nm), with one column being activated at a time. When used in conjunction with a "reverse Galilean" telescope, the LED sources allowed the collimated beam from the emitter to be steered azimuthally in fine angular increments (0.65°), causing the fibre's shadow to move laterally, in a step-wise manner, across the plane of its facing detector. Each step in shadow position was approximately 0.23 mm in size, and this allowed the fibre's shadow to be re-centred, so as to bridge once again both elements of its photodiode detector—even if the fibre was off-centred by as much as ±0.5 mm. Re-centring allowed Violin-Mode vibrations of the fibre to be sensed once again as differential AC photocurrents, these flowing in anti-phase in the

  8. A step-wise steerable source of illumination for low-noise "Violin-Mode" shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2016-01-01

    A steerable low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow-sensors having a displacement sensitivity of ∼100 pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of at least ±0.5 mm. These sensors were designed to detect lateral "Violin-Mode" resonances in the highly tensioned fused-silica suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave detectors. The shadow sensors-one intended for each of the four fibres in a suspension-comprised a source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation (emitter) and a differential shadow-displacement sensor (detector), these bracketing the fibre under test. The suspension fibres themselves were approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm in diameter, and when illuminated from the side, they cast narrow, vertical, shadows onto their respective detectors-these being located at an effective distance of 50 fibre diameters behind the axes of the fibres themselves. The emitter described here was designed to compensate for a significant degree of mechanical drift or creep over time in the mean position of its suspension fibre. This was achieved by employing five adjacent columns of 8  × miniature NIR LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, λ = 890 nm), with one column being activated at a time. When used in conjunction with a "reverse Galilean" telescope, the LED sources allowed the collimated beam from the emitter to be steered azimuthally in fine angular increments (0.65°), causing the fibre's shadow to move laterally, in a step-wise manner, across the plane of its facing detector. Each step in shadow position was approximately 0.23 mm in size, and this allowed the fibre's shadow to be re-centred, so as to bridge once again both elements of its photodiode detector-even if the fibre was off-centred by as much as ±0.5 mm. Re-centring allowed Violin-Mode vibrations of the fibre to be sensed once again as differential AC photocurrents, these flowing in anti-phase in the two

  9. Infrared and NIR Raman spectroscopy in medical microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Dieter

    1998-04-01

    FTIR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial cells are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to (i) discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, (ii) detect in situ intracellular components or structures such as inclusion bodies, storage materials or endospores, (iii) detect and quantify metabolically released CO2 in response to various different substrate, and (iv) characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions. The characteristic information is extracted from the spectral contours by applying resolution enhancement techniques, difference spectroscopy, and pattern recognition methods such as factor-, cluster-, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the spectrometer. FTIR spectra of micro-colonies containing less than 103 cells can be obtained from colony replica by a stamping technique that transfers micro-colonies growing on culture plates to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x, y- stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro- organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. FTIR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can also be used in tandem to characterize medically important microorganisms. Currently novel methodologies are tested to take advantage of the complementary information of IR and Raman spectra. Representative examples on medically important microorganisms will be given that highlight the new possibilities of vibrational spectroscopies.

  10. MEMS-based microspectrometer technologies for NIR and MIR wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Leo P; Milne, Jason S; Dell, John M; Faraone, Lorenzo, E-mail: schuler@ee.uwa.edu.a [Microelectronics Research Group, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-07

    Commercially manufactured near-infrared (NIR) instruments became available about 50 years ago. While they have been designed for laboratory use in a controlled environment and boast high performance, they are generally bulky, fragile and maintenance intensive, and therefore expensive to purchase and maintain. Micromachining is a powerful technique to fabricate micromechanical parts such as integrated circuits. It was perfected in the 1980s and led to the invention of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs). The three characteristic features of MEMS fabrication technologies are miniaturization, multiplicity and microelectronics. Combined, these features allow the batch production of compact and rugged devices with integrated intelligence. In order to build more compact, more rugged and less expensive NIR instruments, MEMS technology has been successfully integrated into a range of new devices. In the first part of this paper we discuss the UWA MEMS-based Fabry-Perot spectrometer, its design and issues to be solved. MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filters primarily isolate certain wavelengths by sweeping across an incident spectrum and the resulting monochromatic signal is detected by a broadband detector. In the second part, we discuss other microspectrometers including other Fabry-Perot spectrometer designs, time multiplexing devices and mixed time/space multiplexing devices. (topical review)

  11. New NIR light-curve templates for classical Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Inno, L; Romaniello, M; Bono, G; Monson, A; Ferraro, I; Iannicola, G; Persson, E; Buonanno, R; Freedman, W; Gieren, W; Groenewegen, M A T; Ita, Y; Laney, C D; Lemasle, B; Madore, B F; Nagayama, T; Nakada, Y; Nonino, M; Pietrzynski, G; Primas, F; Scowcroft, V; Soszynski, I; Tanabe, T; Udalski, A

    2014-01-01

    We present new near-infrared (NIR) light-curve templates for fundamental (FU, JHK) and first overtone (FO, J) Cepheids. The new templates together with PL and PW relations provide Cepheid distances from single-epoch observations with a precision only limited by the intrinsic accuracy of the method adopted. The templates rely on a very large set of Galactic and Magellanic Clouds (MCs) Cepheids (FU,~600; FO,~200) with well sampled NIR (IRSF data) and optical (V,I; OGLE data) light curves. To properly trace the change in the shape of the light curve as a function of period, we split the sample of calibrating Cepheids into 10 different period bins. The templates for the first time cover FO Cepheids and the FU short-period Cepheids (P<5 days). Moreover, the zero-point phase is anchored to the phase of the mean magnitude along the rising branch. The new approach has several advantages in sampling the light curve of bump Cepheids when compared with the phase of maximum light. We also provide new estimates of the ...

  12. RGB-NIR color image fusion: metric and psychophysical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alex E.; Finlayson, Graham D.; Montagna, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare four methods of fusing visible RGB and near-infrared (NIR) images to produce a color output image, using a psychophysical experiment and image fusion quality metrics. The results of the psychophysical experiment show that two methods are significantly preferred to the original RGB image, and therefore RGB-NIR image fusion may be useful for photographic enhancement in those cases. The Spectral Edge method is the most preferred method, followed by the dehazing method of Schaul et al. We then investigate image fusion metrics which give results correlated with the psychophysical experiment results. We extend several existing metrics from 2 to 1 to M to N channel image fusion, as well as introducing new metrics based on output image colorfulness and contrast, and test them on our experimental data. While none of the individual metrics gives a ranking of the algorithms which exactly matches that of the psychophysical experiment, through a combination of two metrics we accurately rank the two leading fusion methods.

  13. NIR hyperspectral imaging to evaluate degradation in captopril commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Leandro de Moura; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Simões, Simone da Silva; Grangeiro, Severino; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical quality control is important for improving the effectiveness, purity and safety of drugs, as well as for the prevention or control of drug degradation. In the present work, near infrared hyperspectral images (HSI-NIR) of tablets with different expiration dates were employed to evaluate the degradation of captopril into captopril disulfide in different layers, on the top and on the bottom surfaces of the tablets. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) models were used to extract the concentration distribution maps from the hyperspectral images. Afterward, multivariate image techniques were applied to the concentration distribution maps (CDMs), to extract features and build models relating the main characteristics of the images to their corresponding manufacturing dates. Resolution methods followed by extracting features were able to estimate the tablet manufacture date with a prediction error of 120days. The model developed could be useful to evaluate whether a sample shows a degradation pattern consistent with the date of manufacturing or to detect abnormal behaviors in the natural degradation process of the sample. The information provided by the HIS-NIR is important for the development of the process (QbD), looking inside the formulation, revealing the behavior of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) during the product's shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K ( -85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  15. NIR DLP hyperspectral imaging system for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Eleanor; Thapa, Abhas; Livingston, Edward; Zuzak, Karel

    2011-03-01

    DLP® hyperspectral reflectance imaging in the visible range has been previously shown to quantify hemoglobin oxygenation in subsurface tissues, 1 mm to 2 mm deep. Extending the spectral range into the near infrared reflects biochemical information from deeper subsurface tissues. Unlike any other illumination method, the digital micro-mirror device, DMD, chip is programmable, allowing the user to actively illuminate with precisely predetermined spectra of illumination with a minimum bandpass of approximately 10 nm. It is possible to construct active spectral-based illumination that includes but is not limited to containing sharp cutoffs to act as filters or forming complex spectra, varying the intensity of light at discrete wavelengths. We have characterized and tested a pure NIR, 760 nm to 1600 nm, DLP hyperspectral reflectance imaging system. In its simplest application, the NIR system can be used to quantify the percentage of water in a subject, enabling edema visualization. It can also be used to map vein structure in a patient in real time. During gall bladder surgery, this system could be invaluable in imaging bile through fatty tissue, aiding surgeons in locating the common bile duct in real time without injecting any contrast agents.

  16. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K (-85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  17. Analysis of powder phenomena inside a Fette 3090 feed frame using in-line NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Ortiz, Daniel; Colon, Yleana; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Méndez, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    New analytical methods are needed to understand and optimize the processes by which tablets are produced. Fette 3090 tablet presses are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. A near-infrared (NIR) probe was installed into a Fette 3090 feed frame to understand and monitor the die filling process. The second objective was to analyze in detail the different factors that could affect the prediction of the developed NIR calibration models. Two monitoring positions for NIR spectrometers were evaluated; one at each side of the feed frame. A powder wave behavior caused by the paddle motion was observed inside the feed frame. The study also revealed that NIR spectra can help in the understanding of powder flow inside the feed frame. It was demonstrated that NIR spectra baselines can also be used to determine changes in mass inside the feed frame. The new NIR method showed that the paddle wheel speed has a significant impact in the powder dynamics inside the feed frame. The baselines of the NIR spectra depended on the mass hold-up inside the feed frame and paddle wheel speed. Studies using blends were performed to develop a NIR calibration model based on the feed frame system dynamics to determine acetaminophen drug concentration variability during the die filling process. The study found that variation in the distance from the powder to the probe due to paddle wheel speed has a significant effect on the NIR prediction. This study found that with NIR spectroscopy, blend uniformity can be assessed with high accuracy during the die filling process using the corresponding paddle wheel speed in-line calibration model. NIR was demonstrated to be a good development tool for the in-line monitoring of powder during the die filling process.

  18. Platinum (II) azatetrabenzoporphyrins for near-infrared organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Park, C. D.; Fleetham, T.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    This article describes a series of platinum (II) azatetrabenzoporphyrin emitters for near-infrared (NIR) organic light emitting diode (OLED) applications. Platinum (II) aza-triphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtNTBP) results in a 72 nm shift in the photoluminescent (PL) emission spectrum to 842 nm compared to 770 nm of the platinum (II) tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPTBP). Also, the full width at half maximum of the emission spectrum of PtNTBP was significantly narrowed to 27 nm compared to 40 nm for PtTPTBP. The multilayer devices fabricated by thermal vacuum evaporation process employing PtTPTBP, PtNTBP, and cis-PtN2TBP exhibit electroluminescent (EL) emission peak at 770 nm, 848 nm, and 846 nm with the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.0%, 2.8%, and 1.5%, respectively. Even with the decrease in EQE of devices employing PtNTBP and cis-PtN2TBP compared with those employing PtTPTBP, the combination of the spectral narrowing and the bathochromic shift to lower energy EL emission demonstrates the promise of PtNTBP for NIR applications. In the meanwhile, the solution-processed single-layer device using PtNTBP demonstrates the EQE of 0.33% and the peak EL emission at 844 nm.

  19. Light-emitting diode-based multiwavelength diffuse optical tomography system guided by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangqian; Alqasemi, Umar; Chen, Aaron; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Quing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Laser diodes are widely used in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) systems but are typically expensive and fragile, while light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are cheaper and are also available in the near-infrared (NIR) range with adequate output power for imaging deeply seated targets. In this study, we introduce a new low-cost DOT system using LEDs of four wavelengths in the NIR spectrum as light sources. The LEDs were modulated at 20 kHz to avoid ambient light. The LEDs were distributed on a hand-held probe and a printed circuit board was mounted at the back of the probe to separately provide switching and driving current to each LED. Ten optical fibers were used to couple the reflected light to 10 parallel photomultiplier tube detectors. A commercial ultrasound system provided simultaneous images of target location and size to guide the image reconstruction. A frequency-domain (FD) laser-diode-based system with ultrasound guidance was also used to compare the results obtained from those of the LED-based system. Results of absorbers embedded in intralipid and inhomogeneous tissue phantoms have demonstrated that the LED-based system provides a comparable quantification accuracy of targets to the FD system and has the potential to image deep targets such as breast lesions. PMID:25473884

  20. Cubic Yb3+-activated Y6MoO12 micro-powder - optical material operating in NIR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieza, M.; Guzik, M.; Tomaszewicz, E.; Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G.

    2017-01-01

    We present Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions as a very promising NIR emitting phosphor with some hope to obtain them in the nearest future in the form of transparent ceramics due to their cubic structure. The samples are crystallizing in the cubic system with the space group Fm-3m. To perform a full structural and spectroscopic analysis on the well crystallized samples they were obtained in the uniform micro-crystal forms. The ternary Y6MoO12 and Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 solid solutions containing a large concentration range of activator (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 mol%) have been prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method using the Yb2O3/Y2O3/MoO3 mixtures annealed in the air in the temperature range of 550-1550 °C for 6 h. As-obtained samples were systematically characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. Furthermore, to check the thermal stability of these molybdates the thermogravimetric analysis have been performed. Finally, the luminescent properties of Yb3+ ions activated Y6MoO12 microcrystals were investigated by using the high resolution absorption and emission techniques including the site selective spectroscopy at room and low temperatures. Basing on the absorption and emission spectra the Yb3+ electronic energy levels diagram has been proposed for the main site. The concentration quenching mechanism of Yb3+ ion in this host lattice was also discussed. Obtained results have demonstrated that Yb3+-doped Y6MoO12 microcrystals exhibited good luminescent properties and possess many advantages compared to other compounds based on molybdates and might have potential applications in the laser technology.

  1. Determination of vis and NIR quantum yields of Nd{sup 3+}-activated garnets sensitized by Ce{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möller, S.; Hoffmann, A.; Knaut, D.; Flottmann, J.; Jüstel, T., E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2015-02-15

    One of the most important quantities to describe the efficiency of luminescent materials is the external photoluminescence quantum yield (ePLQY) which is defined as the ratio of emitted to absorbed photons and thus describes the conversion efficiency of a given phosphor. In optical spectroscopy two methods of determination are applied: The absolute measurement conducted in an integrating sphere and a relative measurement based on a reference material with a known quantum yield. So far both methods are only described for phosphors in the UV and visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. By using Nd{sup 3+} sensitized and Ce{sup 3+} activated garnets with the general formula (Y,Lu){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce{sup 3+},Nd{sup 3+} ((Y,Lu)AG:Ce,Nd) we developed a method for the determination of the quantum yield in the near-infrared region. Therefore samples of different compositions have been synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Starting point of the determination of the overall quantum yield is the determination of the quantum yield of the Ce{sup 3+} emission in the visible range by well-established methods. For using the proportionality of emission integral to the quantum yield it is necessary to scale and combine the measured spectra (460–1000 nm on the vis detector, and 900–1500 nm on the NIR detector). Furthermore, the accuracy of the method was evaluated not only by statistic calculations comprising the propagation of uncertainty but also by using branching ratio data of Nd{sup 3+} given in literature to check the generated overall emission spectra. - Highlights: • Method for determining the external quantum efficiency in the NIR range. • Sensitization and dopant ratio optimization of (Y,Lu)AG:Nd{sup 3+} by Ce{sup 3+}. • Application of branching ratios for evaluation of experimental ePLQY.

  2. Using ground observations of a digital camera in the VIS-NIR range for quantifying the phenology of Mediterranean woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Gilad; Lensky, Itamar M.; Levin, Noam

    2017-10-01

    The spectral reflectance of most plant species is quite similar, and thus the feasibility of identifying most plant species based on single date multispectral data is very low. Seasonal phenological patterns of plant species may enable to face the challenge of using remote sensing for mapping plant species at the individual level. We used a consumer-grade digital camera with near infra-red capabilities in order to extract and quantify vegetation phenological information in four East Mediterranean sites. After illumination corrections and other noise reduction steps, the phenological patterns of 1839 individuals representing 12 common species were analyzed, including evergreen trees, winter deciduous trees, semi-deciduous summer shrubs and annual herbaceous patches. Five vegetation indices were used to describe the phenology: relative green and red (green/red chromatic coordinate), excess green (ExG), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and green-red vegetation index (GRVI). We found significant differences between the phenology of the various species, and defined the main phenological groups using agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Differences between species and sites regarding the start of season (SOS), maximum of season (MOS) and end of season (EOS) were displayed in detail, using ExG values, as this index was found to have the lowest percentage of outliers. An additional visible band spectral index (relative red) was found as useful for characterizing seasonal phenology, and had the lowest correlation with the other four vegetation indices, which are more sensitive to greenness. We used a linear mixed model in order to evaluate the influences of various factors on the phenology, and found that unlike the significant effect of species and individuals on SOS, MOS and EOS, the sites' location did not have a direct significant effect on the timing of phenological events. In conclusion, the relative advantage of the proposed methodology is the

  3. NIR Tully-Fisher in the Zone of Avoidance. -- III. Deep NIR catalogue of the HIZOA galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Said, Khaled; Jarrett, T H; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Williams, Wendy L

    2016-01-01

    We present a deep near-infrared (NIR) photometric catalogue of sources from the Parkes HI Zone of Avoidance (HIZOA) survey, which forms the basis for an investigation of the matter distribution in the Zone of Avoidance. Observations were conducted between 2006 and 2013 using the Infrared Survey Facility (IRSF), a 1.4-m telescope situated at the South African Astronomical Observatory site in Sutherland. The images cover all 1108 HIZOA detections and yield 915 galaxies. An additional 105 bright 2MASS galaxies in the southern ZOA were imaged with the IRSF, resulting in 129 galaxies. The average $K_s$-band seeing and sky background for the survey are 1.38 arcsec and 20.1 mag, respectively. The detection rate as a function of stellar density and dust extinction is found to depend mainly on the HI mass of the HI detected galaxies, which in principal correlates with the NIR brightness of the spiral galaxies. The measured isophotal magnitudes are of sufficient accuracy (errors $\\sim$ 0.02 mag) to be used in a Tully-F...

  4. 2D Layered Materials of Rare-Earth Er-Doped MoS2 with NIR-to-NIR Down- and Up-Conversion Photoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gongxun; Yuan, Shuoguo; Zhao, Yuda; Yang, Zhibin; Choi, Sin Yuk; Chai, Yang; Yu, Siu Fung; Lau, Shu Ping; Hao, Jianhua

    2016-09-01

    A 2D system of Er-doped MoS2 layered nanosheets is developed. Structural studies indicate that the Er atoms can be substitutionally introduced into MoS2 to form stable doping. Density functional theory calculation implies that the system remains stable. Both NIR-to-NIR up-conversion and down-conversion light-emissions are observed in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, ascribed to the energy transition from Er(3+) dopants.

  5. NIR-Remote Selected Activation Gene Expression in Living Cells by Upconverting Microrods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Su, Lin; Pan, Huizhuo; Hou, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Fang; Wu, Xiaoli; Gong, Xiaoqun; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-27

    An NIR-controlled gene expression system based on upconverting rods (UCRs) is demonstrated. The UCRs can harvest the "biocompatible" NIR light and convert it into local UV light, resulting in cleavage of the photosensitive molecule (4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-nitrobenzoic acid, ONA) and on-demand release of gene carriers, thus realizing target gene expression at high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  6. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  7. Single seed NIR as a fast method to predict germination ability in Pak Choi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær;

    2012-01-01

    Single seed NIR has further been tested to determine the applicability for prediction of seed viability in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) seeds. The studies show the possibility of using NIR spectroscopy in a seed separating process in the future, provided...

  8. Pharmaceutical applications of separation of absorption and scattering in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Anderson, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    The number of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic applications in the pharmaceutical sciences has grown significantly in the last decade. Despite its widespread application, the fundamental interaction between NIR radiation and pharmaceutical materials is often not mechanistically well understood. Separation of absorption and scattering in near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is intended to extract absorption and scattering spectra (i.e., absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) from reflectance/transmittance NIR measurements. The purpose of the separation is twofold: (1) to enhance the understanding of the individual roles played by absorption and scattering in NIRS and (2) to apply the separated absorption and scattering spectra for practical spectroscopic analyses. This review paper surveys the multiple techniques reported to date on the separation of NIR absorption and scattering within pharmaceutical applications, focusing on the instrumentations, mathematical approaches used to separate absorption and scattering and related pharmaceutical applications. This literature review is expected to enhance the understanding and thereby the utility of NIRS in pharmaceutical science. Further, the measurement and subsequent understanding of the separation of absorption and scattering is expected to increase not only the number of NIRS applications, but also their robustness.

  9. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2015-09-01

    The weak knowledge on the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological effects of NIR such as static magnetic field, infrasound frequency of mechanical vibration, extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields and microwave serves as a main barrier for adequate dosimetry from the point of Public Health. The difficulty lies in the fact that the biological effects of NIR depend not only on their thermodynamic characteristics but also on their frequency and intensity "windows", chemical and physical composition of the surrounding medium, as well as on the initial metabolic state of the organism. Therefore, only biomarker can be used for adequate estimation of biological effect of NIR on organisms. Because of the absence of such biomarker(s), organizations having the mission to monitor hazardous effects of NIR traditionally base their instruction on thermodynamic characteristics of NIR. Based on the high sensitivity to NIR of both aqua medium structure and cell hydration, it is suggested that cell bathing medium is one of the primary targets and cell hydration is a biomarker for NIR effects on cells and organisms. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of literature and our own experimental data on the effects of NIR on plants' seeds germination, microbe growth and development, snail neurons and heart muscle, rat's brain and heart tissues.

  10. Integrating Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) into the USDA-ARS sugarcane breeding program in Houma, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRs) is a relatively new technique that has the potential to benefit Louisiana’s sugarcane industry, and is being successfully used in other parts of the world (e.g., South Africa) and even Florida. Recently, the USDA-ARS in Houma, LA purchased a NIR Cane Presentation Sy...

  11. Comparing the analytical performances of Micro-NIR and FT-NIR spectrometers in the evaluation of acerola fruit quality, using PLS and SVM regression algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malegori, Cristina; Nascimento Marques, Emanuel José; de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pasquini, Celio; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the analytical performances of a state-of-the-art device, one of the smallest dispersion NIR spectrometers on the market (MicroNIR 1700), making a critical comparison with a benchtop FT-NIR spectrometer in the evaluation of the prediction accuracy. In particular, the aim of this study was to estimate in a non-destructive manner, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in acerola fruit during ripening, in a view of direct applicability in field of this new miniaturised handheld device. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a super-fruit characterised by a considerable amount of ascorbic acid, ranging from 1.0% to 4.5%. However, during ripening, acerola colour changes and the fruit may lose as much as half of its ascorbic acid content. Because the variability of chemical parameters followed a non-strictly linear profile, two different regression algorithms were compared: PLS and SVM. Regression models obtained with Micro-NIR spectra give better results using SVM algorithm, for both ascorbic acid and titratable acidity estimation. FT-NIR data give comparable results using both SVM and PLS algorithms, with lower errors for SVM regression. The prediction ability of the two instruments was statistically compared using the Passing-Bablok regression algorithm; the outcomes are critically discussed together with the regression models, showing the suitability of the portable Micro-NIR for in field monitoring of chemical parameters of interest in acerola fruits.

  12. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Enhanced (NIR-FE) Molecular Imaging of Live Cells on Gold Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Guosong; Welsher, Kevin; Chen, Zhuo; Robinson, Joshua T; Wang, Hailiang; Zhang, Bo; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Low quantum yields of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores have limited their capabilities as imaging probes in a transparent, low background imaging window. Here for the first time we reported near-infrared fluorescence enhance (NIR-FE) cell imaging using nanostructured Au substrate, which was employed as a general platform for both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and organic fluorescent labels in the NIR region. Fluorescence intensity, as well as cell targeting specificity, was greatly improved by this novel imaging technique. With NIR-FE imaging, we were able to image SWNT-stained cells at short exposure time of 300ms, and push the detectable limit of SWNT staining of cells down to an ultralow concentration of ~50 pM. Further, different degrees of fluorescence enhancement for endocytosed, intracellular SWNTs vs. nanotubes on the cell membrane at the cell/gold interface were observed, suggesting the possibility of using this technique to track the transmembrane behavior of NIR fluorophores.

  13. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  14. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  15. Relationships between NIR spectra and sensory attributes of Thai commercial fish sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai

    2007-07-01

    Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis with 12 trained panels was used to characterize the sensory attributes. These attributes consisted of 15 descriptors: brown color, 5 aromatics (sweet, caramelized, fermented, fishy, and musty), 4 tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, and umami), 3 aftertastes (sweet, salty and bitter) and 2 flavors (caramelized and fishy). The results showed that Thai fish sauce samples exhibited significant differences in all of sensory attribute values (p analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data from 622 wavelengths to two uncorrelated components (NIR1 and NIR2) which explained 92 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. NIR1 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1100 - 1544, 1774 - 2062, 2092 - 2308, and 2358 - 2440 nm, while NIR2 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1742 - 1764, 2066 - 2088, and 2312 - 2354 nm. Subsequently, the relationships among these two components and all sensory attributes were also investigated by PCA. The results showed that the first three principal components (PCs) named as fishy flavor component (PC1), sweet component (PC2) and bitterness component (PC3), respectively, explained a total of 66.86% of the variation. NIR1 was mainly correlated to the sensory attributes of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste on PC1. In addition, the PCA using only the factor loadings of NIR1 and NIR2 could be used to classify samples into three groups which showed high, medium and low degrees of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste.

  16. Combined pulse-oximeter-NIRS system for biotissue diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Vladimir A.

    2005-08-01

    Multi-wavelength (670, 805, 848 and 905 nm), multi-detector device for non-invasive measurement of biochemical components concentration in human or animal tissues, combining the methods of conventional pulse-oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy, is developed. The portable and clinically applicable system allows to measure heart pulse rate, oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin (pulse-oximetry method) and local absolute concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin and oxidized cytochrome aa3 or other IR absorbed compounds (NIRS method). The system can be applied in monitoring of oxygen availability and utilization by the brain in neonatal and adults, neuro- traumatology, intensive care medicine, transplantation and plastic surgery, in sport, high-altitude and aviation medicine.

  17. Tetravalent chromium doped laser materials and NIR tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Petricevic, Vladimir (Inventor); Bykov, Alexey (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method is described to improve and produce purer Cr.sup.4+-doped laser materials and lasers with reduced co-incorporation of chromium in any other valence states, such as Cr.sup.3+, Cr.sup.2+, Cr.sup.5+, and Cr.sup.6+. The method includes: 1) certain crystals of olivine structure with large cation (Ca) in octahedral sites such as Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2GeO.sub.4, Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2SiO.sub.4, Cr.sup.4+:Ca.sub.2Ge.sub.xSi.sub.1-xO.sub.4 (where 0NIR laser applications.

  18. NIRS-BASED CORTICAL ACTIVATION ANALYSIS BY TEMPORAL CROSS CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fernandez-Rojas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a method of signal processing to determine dominant channels in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. To compare measuring channels and identify delays between them, cross correlation is computed. Furthermore, to find out possible dominant channels, a visual inspection was performed. The outcomes demonstrated that the visual inspection exhibited evoked-related activations in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 after stimulation which is consistent with comparable studies and the cross correlation study discovered dominant channels on both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis also showed a relationship between dominant channels and adjacent channels. For that reason, our results present a new method to identify dominant regions in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy. These findings have also implications in the decrease of channels by eliminating irrelevant channels for the experiment.

  19. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cayuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%.

  20. Segregated Optical-NIR colour distributions of MDS galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreras, I; Martínez-González, E; Benítez, N

    1998-01-01

    We present a K survey of 29 fields covering approximately 90 arcmin^2 from the Medium Deep Survey (MDS) catalogue down to a completeness magnitude of K=18.0 (limiting magnitude K=19.0). The morphology obtained by the MDS team using high resolution images from HST/WFPC2 along with our NIR observations allow a Colour-Magnitude and Colour-Colour analysis that agrees in general with spectral evolution models (Bruzual & Charlot 1998) especially if a reasonable range of metallicities for the Simple Stellar Populations used (0.2 4.5, setting an upper limit to the number density of EROs at dn_{EROs}/dØmega < 0.011 arcmin^{-2} (K < 18.0).

  1. Fluorescence tomographic imaging of sentinel lymph node using near-infrared emitting bioreducible dextran nanogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiejing Li,1* Beiqi Jiang,1* Chao Lin,2 Zhigang Zhuang1 1Department of Breast Surgery, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, 2The Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nanoscience, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sentinel lymph node (SLN mapping is a critical procedure for SLN biopsy and its diagnosis as tumor metastasis in clinical practice. However, SLN mapping agents used in the clinic frequently cause side effects and complications in the patients. Here, we report the development of a near-infrared (NIR emitting polymeric nanogel with hydrodynamic diameter of ~28 nm – which is the optimal size for SLN uptake – for noninvasive fluorescence mapping of SLN in a mouse. This polymeric nanogel was obtained by coupling Cy7, an NIR dye, to the self-assembled nanogel from disulfide-linked dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugate with the dextran of 10 kDa, denoted as Dex–Cy7. Fluorescence imaging analysis showed that Dex–Cy7 nanogels had an enhanced photostability when compared to Cy7 alone. After intradermal injection of Dex–Cy7 nanogel into the front paw of a mouse, the nanogels were able to migrate into the mouse’s axillary lymph node, exhibiting longer retention time and higher fluorescence intensity in the node when compared to Cy7 alone. An immunohistofluorescence assay revealed that the nanogels were localized in the central region of lymph node and that the uptake was largely by the macrophages. In vitro and in vivo toxicity results indicated that the dextran-based nanogels were of low cytotoxicity at a polymer concentration up to 1,000 µg/mL and harmless to normal liver and kidney organs in mice at an intravenous dose of 1.25 mg/kg. The results of this study suggest that NIR-emitting polymeric nanogels based on bioreducible dextran-deoxycholic acid conjugates show high potential as fluorescence

  2. [Discrimination of donkey meat by NIR and chemometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Ying; Shao, Li-Min; Dong, Fang; Zhao, Zhi-Lei; Zhu, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Donkey meat samples (n = 167) from different parts of donkey body (neck, costalia, rump, and tendon), beef (n = 47), pork (n = 51) and mutton (n = 32) samples were used to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) classification models in the spectra range of 4,000~12,500 cm(-1). The accuracies of classification models constructed by Mahalanobis distances analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM), respectively combined with pretreatment of Savitzky-Golay smooth (5, 15 and 25 points) and derivative (first and second), multiplicative scatter correction and standard normal variate, were compared. The optimal models for intact samples were obtained by Mahalanobis distances analysis with the first 11 principal components (PCs) from original spectra as inputs and by LS-SVM with the first 6 PCs as inputs, and correctly classified 100% of calibration set and 98. 96% of prediction set. For minced samples of 7 mm diameter the optimal result was attained by LS-SVM with the first 5 PCs from original spectra as inputs, which gained an accuracy of 100% for calibration and 97.53% for prediction. For minced diameter of 5 mm SIMCA model with the first 8 PCs from original spectra as inputs correctly classified 100% of calibration and prediction. And for minced diameter of 3 mm Mahalanobis distances analysis and SIMCA models both achieved 100% accuracy for calibration and prediction respectively with the first 7 and 9 PCs from original spectra as inputs. And in these models, donkey meat samples were all correctly classified with 100% either in calibration or prediction. The results show that it is feasible that NIR with chemometrics methods is used to discriminate donkey meat from the else meat.

  3. Screening of grated cheese authenticity by nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cevoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parmigiano–Reggiano (PR cheese is one of the oldest traditional cheeses produced in Europe, and it is still one of the most valuable Protected Designation of Origin (PDO cheeses of Italy. The denomination of origin is extended to the grated cheese when manufactured exclusively from whole Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese wheels that respond to the production standard. The grated cheese must be matured for a period of at least 12 months and characterized by a rind content not over 18%. In this investigation the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR, coupled to different statistical methods, were used to estimate the authenticity of grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese PDO. Cheese samples were classified as: compliance PR, competitors, non-compliance PR (defected PR, and PR with rind content greater then 18%. NIR spectra were obtained using a spectrophotometer Vector 22/N (Bruker Optics, Milan, Italy in the diffuse reflectance mode. Instrument was equipped with a rotating integrating sphere. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was conducted for an explorative spectra analysis, while the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN were used to classify spectra, according to different cheese categories. Subsequently the rind percentage and month of ripening were estimated by a Partial Least Squares regression (PLS. Score plots of the PCA show a clear separation between compliance PR samples and the rest of the sample was observed. Competitors samples and the defected PR samples were grouped together. The classification performance for all sample classes, obtained by ANN analysis, was higher of 90%, in test set validation. Rind content and month of ripening were predicted by PLS a with a determination coefficient greater then 0.95 (test set. These results showed that the method can be suitable for a fast screening of grated cheese authenticity.

  4. Unsupervised defect segmentation of patterned materials under NIR illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Maria S; Escofet, Jaume [Departament d' Optica y Optometria, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Terrassa. 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Rallo, Miquel, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departament de Matematica Aplicada III, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Terrassa. 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    An unsupervised detection method for automatic flaw segmentation in patterned materials (textile, non-woven, paper) that has no need of any defect-free references or a training stage is presented in this paper. Printed materials having a pattern of colored squares, bands, etc. superimposed to the background texture can be advantageously analyzed using NIR illumination and a camera with enough sensitivity to this region of the spectrum. The contrast reduction of the pattern in the NIR image facilitates material inspection and defect segmentation. Underdetection and misdetection errors can be reduced in comparison with the inspection performed under visible illumination. For woven fabrics, with periodic structure, the algorithm is based on the structural feature extraction of the weave repeat from the Fourier transform of the sample image. These features are used to define a set of multiresolution bandpass filters adapted to the fabric structure that operate in the Fourier domain. Inverse Fourier transformation, binarization and merging of the information obtained at different scales lead to the output image that contains flaws segmented from the fabric background. For non-woven and random textured materials, the algorithm combines the multiresolution Gabor analysis of the sample image with a statistical analysis of the wavelet coefficients corresponding to each detail. The information of all the channels is merged in a single binary output image where the defect appears segmented from the background. The method is applicable to random, non-periodic, and periodic textures. Since all the information to inspect a sample is obtained from the sample itself, the method is proof against heterogeneities between different samples of the material, in-plane positioning errors, scale variations and lack of homogeneous illumination. Experimental results are presented for a variety of materials and defects.

  5. Comparison of NIR chemical imaging with conventional NIR, Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy for quantification of furosemide crystal polymorphs in ternary powder mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Weiss, A K H; Griesser, U J; Pallua, J D; Huck, C W

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), near-infrared (NIR), Raman and attenuated-total-reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to quantify three polymorphic forms (I, II, III) of furosemide in ternary powder mixtures. For this purpose, partial least-squares (PLS) regression models were developed, and different data preprocessing algorithms such as normalization, standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and 1st to 3rd derivatives were applied to reduce the influence of systematic disturbances. The performance of the methods was evaluated by comparison of the standard error of cross-validation (SECV), R(2), and the ratio performance deviation (RPD). Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of all methods were determined. For NIR-CI, a SECVcorr-spec and a SECVsingle-pixel corrected were calculated to assess the loss of accuracy by taking advantage of the spatial information. NIR-CI showed a SECVcorr-spec (SECVsingle-pixel corrected) of 2.82% (3.71%), 3.49% (4.65%), and 4.10% (5.06%) for form I, II, III. NIR had a SECV of 2.98%, 3.62%, and 2.75%, and Raman reached 3.25%, 3.08%, and 3.18%. The SECV of the ATR-IR models were 7.46%, 7.18%, and 12.08%. This study proves that NIR-CI, NIR, and Raman are well suited to quantify forms I-III of furosemide in ternary mixtures. Because of the pressure-dependent conversion of form II to form I, ATR-IR was found to be less appropriate for an accurate quantification of the mixtures. In this study, the capability of NIR-CI for the quantification of polymorphic ternary mixtures was compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques for the first time. For this purpose, a new way of spectra selection was chosen, and two kinds of SECVs were calculated to achieve a better comparability of NIR-CI to NIR, Raman, and ATR-IR.

  6. The man behind the curtain: X-rays drive the UV through NIR variability in the 2013 active galactic nucleus outburst in NGC 2617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappee, B. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; De Rosa, G.; Mathur, S.; Zu, Y.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Jencson, J.; Holoien, T.W-S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Adams, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, J. L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Im, M. [CEOU/Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Szczygieł, D. M. [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Brimacombe, J. [Coral Towers Observatory, Cairns, Queensland A-4870 (Australia); Campillay, A., E-mail: shappee@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); and others

    2014-06-10

    After the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae discovered a significant brightening of the inner region of NGC 2617, we began a ∼70 day photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign from the X-ray through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We report that NGC 2617 went through a dramatic outburst, during which its X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude followed by an increase of its optical/ultraviolet (UV) continuum flux by almost an order of magnitude. NGC 2617, classified as a Seyfert 1.8 galaxy in 2003, is now a Seyfert 1 due to the appearance of broad optical emission lines and a continuum blue bump. Such 'changing look active galactic nuclei (AGNs)' are rare and provide us with important insights about AGN physics. Based on the Hβ line width and the radius-luminosity relation, we estimate the mass of central black hole (BH) to be (4 ± 1) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. When we cross-correlate the light curves, we find that the disk emission lags the X-rays, with the lag becoming longer as we move from the UV (2-3 days) to the NIR (6-9 days). Also, the NIR is more heavily temporally smoothed than the UV. This can largely be explained by a simple model of a thermally emitting thin disk around a BH of the estimated mass that is illuminated by the observed, variable X-ray fluxes.

  7. The Habitable Zone Planet Finder: A Proposed High Resolution NIR Spectrograph for the Hobby Eberly Telescope to Discover Low Mass Exoplanets around M Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wright, Jason; Endl, Michael; Redman, Stephen; Bender, Chad; Roy, Arpita; Zonak, Stephanie; Troupe, Nathaniel; Engel, Leland; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wolszczan, Alex; Zhao, Bo

    2010-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HZPF) is a proposed instrument for the 10m class Hobby Eberly telescope that will be capable of discovering low mass planets around M dwarfs. HZPF will be fiber-fed, provide a spectral resolution R~ 50,000 and cover the wavelength range 0.9-1.65{\\mu}m, the Y, J and H NIR bands where most of the flux is emitted by mid-late type M stars, and where most of the radial velocity information is concentrated. Enclosed in a chilled vacuum vessel with active temperature control, fiber scrambling and mechanical agitation, HZPF is designed to achieve a radial velocity precision < 3m/s, with a desire to obtain <1m/s for the brightest targets. This instrument will enable a study of the properties of low mass planets around M dwarfs; discover planets in the habitable zones around these stars, as well serve as an essential radial velocity confirmation tool for astrometric and transit detections around late M dwarfs. Radial velocity observation in the near-infrared (NIR) will also enabl...

  8. Cotton Micronaire Measurements Using Small Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumba, Jimmy; Rodgers, James

    2016-05-01

    A key quality and processing parameter for cotton fiber is micronaire, which is a function of the fiber's maturity and fineness. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has previously shown the ability to measure micronaire, primarily in the laboratory and using large, research-grade laboratory NIR instrumentation. International interest has been expressed by the industry in the measurement of fiber micronaire using small, portable NIR spectroscopy instruments for both laboratory and outside the laboratory (e.g., field or greenhouse) locations. New, very small NIR micro-spectrometers have been commercialized that offer the potential advantages of smaller size and lower weight, lower cost, and increased portability over current portable units. A program was implemented to determine the feasibility of a small NIR micro-spectrometer to measure fiber micronaire both in the laboratory and outside the laboratory, with initial emphasis on laboratory measurements prior to moving to field evaluations. In the laboratory, distinct spectral differences with increasing micronaire were observed. Optimal sampling and instrumental procedures and protocols for two units (different spectral wavelength capabilities) were established. Comparative evaluations established very good method micronaire agreement between the micro-spectrometer and a standard portable spectrometer, with high Regression (R) value, low residuals, and few outliers (less than 20%). The NIR micro-spectrometer measurements were fast (NIR micro-spectrometer was demonstrated.

  9. [Maize Hybrid Seed Purity Identification Based on Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-xin; Jia, Shi-qiang; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Sheng-yi; Ran, Hang; Yan, Yan-lu; An, Dong

    2015-12-01

    This article explore the feasibility of using Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmittance (NIT) Spectroscopy (908.1-1677.2 nm wavelength range) to identify maize hybrid purity, and compare the performance of NIR and NIT spectroscopy. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (OLDA) were used to reduce the dimension of spectra which have been pretreated by first derivative and vector normalization. The hybrid purity identification model of Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 were built by SVM. Models based on NIR spectra obtained correct identification rate as 100% and 90% for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16 respectively. But NIR spectra were greatly influenced by the placement of seeds, and there existed significant difference between NIR spectra of embryo and non-embryo side. Models based on NIT spectroscopy yielded correct identification rate as 98% both for Nonghua101 and Jingyu16. NIT spectra of embryo and non-embryo side were highly similar. The results indicate that it is feasible to identify maize hybrid purity based on NIR and NIT spectroscopy, and NIT spectroscopy is more suitable to analyze single seed kernel than NIR spectroscopy.

  10. A novel element (NIRS) participates in the regulation ofinterleukin 2 receptorαgene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel element at -153/- 143 bp in the interleukin 2 receptor α(IL-2Rα) gene has been coined as NRE-inverse repeat sequence (NIRS) due to its inversely repeated to the known negative regulatory element (NRE) further upstream of the gene. In order to explore the role of NIRS in the expression of IL-2Rαgene,luciferase reporter plasmids driven by 4 individually deleted IL-2Rα genes promoter regions were constructed. Transfection of the reporter plasmids into Jurkat cells and HeLa cells respectively, we found that both NIRS and NRE were critical for repressing the constitutive expression of IL-2Rα gene and were also necessary for promoter activity induced by PHA. EMSA results showed that double-stranded NRE- and NIRS-binding proteins existed in both HeLa cells and Jurkat cells. However, single-stranded NIRS- and NRE-binding protein was only found in HeLa cells. Interestingly, the supershift band showed up in EMSA system with Jurkat cells (no matter whether activated or not) adding to the cell lysate of HeLa cells. UV-crosslinking showed a double stranded NRE- and NIRS-binding protein p83 in both Jurkat cells and HeLa cells. Our results suggest that trans-acting factors play a key role in regulating promoter activity of IL-2Rα gene by interacting with double or single stranded NRE and/or NIRS selectively in different cells.

  11. FC-NIRS: A Functional Connectivity Analysis Tool for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS, a promising noninvasive imaging technique, has recently become an increasingly popular tool in resting-state brain functional connectivity (FC studies. However, the corresponding software packages for FC analysis are still lacking. To facilitate fNIRS-based human functional connectome studies, we developed a MATLAB software package called “functional connectivity analysis tool for near-infrared spectroscopy data” (FC-NIRS. This package includes the main functions of fNIRS data preprocessing, quality control, FC calculation, and network analysis. Because this software has a friendly graphical user interface (GUI, FC-NIRS allows researchers to perform data analysis in an easy, flexible, and quick way. Furthermore, FC-NIRS can accomplish batch processing during data processing and analysis, thereby greatly reducing the time cost of addressing a large number of datasets. Extensive experimental results using real human brain imaging confirm the viability of the toolbox. This novel toolbox is expected to substantially facilitate fNIRS-data-based human functional connectome studies.

  12. One-step synthesis of amino-functionalized ultrasmall near infrared-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zhu, Jianfei; Li, Jinlei; Zhang, Hongwu

    2016-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR)-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (NPLNPs) have attracted much attention in bioimaging because they can provide long-term in vivo imaging with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, conventional NPLNPs with large particle sizes that lack modifiable surface groups suffer from many serious limitations in bioimaging. Herein, we report a one-step synthesis of amino-functionalized ZnGa2O4:Cr,Eu nanoparticles (ZGO) that have an ultrasmall size, where ethylenediamine served as the reactant to fabricate the ZGO as well as the surfactant ligand to control the nanocrystal size and form surface amino groups. The ZGO exhibited a narrow particle size distribution, a bright NIR emission and a long afterglow luminescence. In addition, due to the excellent conjugation ability of the surface amino groups, the ZGO can be easily conjugated with many bio-functional molecules, which has been successfully utilized to realize in vitro and in vivo imaging. More importantly, the ZGO achieved re-excitation imaging using 650 nm and 808 nm NIR light in situ, which is advantageous for long-term and higher SNR bioimaging.Near infrared (NIR)-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (NPLNPs) have attracted much attention in bioimaging because they can provide long-term in vivo imaging with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, conventional NPLNPs with large particle sizes that lack modifiable surface groups suffer from many serious limitations in bioimaging. Herein, we report a one-step synthesis of amino-functionalized ZnGa2O4:Cr,Eu nanoparticles (ZGO) that have an ultrasmall size, where ethylenediamine served as the reactant to fabricate the ZGO as well as the surfactant ligand to control the nanocrystal size and form surface amino groups. The ZGO exhibited a narrow particle size distribution, a bright NIR emission and a long afterglow luminescence. In addition, due to the excellent conjugation ability of the surface amino groups, the ZGO can be

  13. [Comparative research on the NIR and MIR micro-imaging of two similar plastic materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ma, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Liu; Pan, Li-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Ji-Hua

    2011-09-01

    The NIR/MIR micro-imaging can supply not only the information of spectra, but also the information of spacial distribution of the sample, which is superior to the traditional NIR/MIR spectroscopy analysis. In the present paper, polyethylene and parafilm, with similar appearances, were regarded as the research objects, of which the NIR/MIR micro-imaging was collected. Chemical imaging (CI) and compare correlation imaging were carried out for the two materials respectively to discuss the imaging methods of the two materials. The result indicated that the differentiation of the CI values of the two materials in the NIR/MIR CI for material II was 0.004 8 and 0.254 8 respectively, while those in the NIR/MIR CI for material I were 0.002 6 and 0.326 5, respectively. Clear CI was acquired, and the two materials could be differentiated. The result of the compare correlation imagings indicated that the compare correlation imagings, in which the NIR/MIR spectra of the two materials were regarded as reference spectra respectively, can differentiate the two materials remarkably with clear imagings. In the compare correlation imagings of MIR micro-imaging, the difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' MIR spectra and the reference spectrum was more than 0.12, which showed a better imaging result; while a tiny difference of the correlation coefficients between the two materials' NIR spectra and the reference spectrum could be employed to show a clear imaging result for NIR compare correlation imaging so as to differentiate the two materials. This thesis, to some extent, can supply the reference to not only the rapid discrimination of the safety of the packaging material for agri-food, but also the imaging methods for NIR/MIR micro-imaging to differentiate the different materials.

  14. Application of a newly developed portable NIR imaging device to monitor the dissolution process of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Awa, Kimie; Genkawa, Takuma; Komiyama, Makoto; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-11-01

    We have recently developed a novel portable NIR imaging device (D-NIRs), which has a high speed and high wavelength resolution. This NIR imaging approach has been developed by utilizing D-NIRs for studying the dissolution of a model tablet containing 20 % ascorbic acid (AsA) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient and 80 % hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, where the tablet is sealed by a special cell. Diffuse reflectance NIR spectra in the 1,000 to 1,600 nm region were measured during the dissolution of the tablet. A unique band at around 1,361 nm of AsA was identified by the second derivative spectra of tablet and used for AsA distribution NIR imaging. Two-dimensional change of AsA concentration of the tablet due to water penetration is clearly shown by using the band-based image at 1,361 nm in NIR spectra obtained with high speed. Moreover, it is significantly enhanced by using the intensity ratio of two bands at 1,361 and 1,354 nm corresponding to AsA and water absorption, respectively, showing the dissolution process. The imaging results suggest that the amount of AsA in the imaged area decreases with increasing water penetration. The proposed NIR imaging approach using the intensity of a specific band or the ratio of two bands combined with the developed portable NIR imaging instrument, is a potentially useful practical way to evaluate the tablet at every moment during dissolution and to monitor the concentration distribution of each drug component in the tablet.

  15. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  16. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy. PMID:27677240

  17. [A Study of the Relationship Among Genetic Distances, NIR Spectra Distances, and NIR-Based Identification Model Performance of the Seeds of Maize Iinbred Lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Jia, Shi-qiang; Wang, Chun-ying; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Jian-cheng; Zhai, Wei; Li, Shao-ming; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Zhu, De-hai; Huang, Hua-jun; An, Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper explored the relationship among genetic distances, NIR spectra distances and NIR-based identification model performance of the seeds of maize inbred lines. Using 3 groups (total 15 pairs) of maize inbred lines whose genetic distaches are different as experimental materials, we calculates the genetic distance between these seeds with SSR markers and uses Euclidean distance between distributed center points of maize NIR spectrum in the PCA space as the distances of NIR spectrum. BPR method is used to build identification model of inbred lines and the identification accuracy is used as a measure of model identification performance. The results showed that, the correlation of genetic distance and spectra distancesis 0.9868, and it has a correlation of 0.9110 with the identification accuracy, which is highly correlated. This means near-Infrared spectrum of seedscan reflect genetic relationship of maize inbred lines. The smaller the genetic distance, the smaller the distance of spectrum, the poorer ability of model to identify. In practical application, near infrared spectrum analysis technology has the potential to be used to analyze maize inbred genetic relations, contributing much to genetic breeding, identification of species, purity sorting and so on. What's more, when creating a NIR-based identification model, the impact of the maize inbred lines which have closer genetic relationship should be fully considered.

  18. Field detection of CO and CH4 by NIR 2f modulation laser spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khorsandi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   A novel compact fiber-coupled NIR system based on a DFB diode laser source is employed as a portable and sensitive gas sensor for trace detection of combustion pollutant molecules. We demonstrate the performance of such an NIR gas sensor by tracing the absorption lines of CO and CH4 using 2f-WMS technique at moderate temperature of T ~ 600°C in the recuperator channel of an industrial furnace provided by Mobarakeh steel company. This measurement shows the excellent sensitivity of the applied NIR gas sensor to the on-line and in-situ monitoring of such molecular species.

  19. [Recent progress in NIR spectroscopy technology and its application to the field of forestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is the most rapidly developing and the most noticeable spectrographic technique in the 80's (the last century). Its developing history and utilization in foreign countries were introduced. The authors mainly summarized the applications of NIRS to the field of forestry. The applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in fruit quality, timber and seed quality analysis are more active in forestry due to its rapid, timely, less expensive, non-destructive, straightforward analytic characteristics. In the last two decades, non-destructive methods using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate parameters for estimating maturity were applied to different fruits species to check the ripening status of fruits on trees or to grade fruits in the packing house, to assess fruit quality, such as sugar and acid contents, soluble solids, firmness of fruit, offers great advantages to growers in deciding when to harvest. The near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) can also be used the nondestructive quantitative assessment of the solid wood density, the moisture condition and the lignin content in bulky wood. The previous results indicated that the utility of NIRS was a selection tool in breeding programs, for example, three kids of persimmon fruits, astringent, non-astringent and half-astringent, were clearly classified by using Near-infrared (NIR) methods, and based on the combination of near infrared technology and multivariate analysis, the genetic, physiological and technical qualities of both temperate and tropical tree species on single seed basis can be characterized. It has already been shown that NIRS can predict the chemical composition of litters. NIRS is also capable of correlating the initial spectral characteristics of the litters with their short- and medium-term decomposability. The stage of decay of decomposing leaves can be predicted by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The method is rich in

  20. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  1. Double Image Design in Newspaper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barišić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the high circulation production of daily newspapers, a double image, double information is set under the rules of Infraredesign theory (Pap et al, 2010. The management of visible and near infrared is posted with process colors for color setting configured for conventional newspaper print. The place of imprint that has delimited information in vs (Visible Spectrum and nir (Near InfraRed is called “a print with an infrared effect,” or conditionally “a print with infrared colors.” Daily newspapers, as massive carriers of information made by printing technique, are receiving a new form of presentation: printed image with a built-in invisible image.

  2. Cell Mediated Photothermal Therapy of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Madsen, Steen J

    2017-03-01

    Gold based nanoparticles with strong near infra-red (NIR) absorption are ideally suited for photothermal therapy (PTT) of brain tumors. The goal of PTT is to induce rapid heating in tumor tissues while minimizing thermal diffusion to normal brain. PTT efficacy is sensitively dependent on both nanoparticle concentration and distribution in tumor tissues. Nanoparticle delivery via passive approaches such as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is unlikely to achieve sufficient nanoparticle concentrations throughout tumor volumes required for effective PTT. A simple approach for improving tumor biodsitribution of nanoparticles is the use of cellular delivery vehicles. Specifically, this review focuses on the use of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) as gold nanoparticle delivery vectors for PTT of brain tumors. Although the efficacy of this delivery approach has been demonstrated in both in vitro and animal PTT studies, its clinical potential for the treatment of brain tumors remains uncertain.

  3. On-line monitoring of the transesterification reaction between triglycerides and ethanol using near infrared spectroscopy combined with gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Romain; Li, Ying; Dubreuil, Brigitte; Thiebaud-Roux, Sophie; Prat, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    Many analytical procedures have been developed to determine the composition of reaction mixtures during transesterification of vegetable oils with alcohols. However, despite their accuracy, these methods are time consuming and cannot be easily used for on-line monitoring. In this work, a fast analytical method was developed to on-line monitor the transesterification reaction of high oleic sunflower oil with ethanol using Near InfraRed spectroscopy and a multivariate approach. The reactions were monitored through sequential scans of the reaction medium with a probe in a one-liter batch reactor without collecting and preparing samples. To calibrate the NIR analytical method, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was used as a reference method. The method was validated by studying the kinetics of the EtONa-catalyzed transesterification reaction. Activation energy (51.0 kJ/mol) was also determined by considering a pseudo second order kinetics model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Double Image Design in Newspaper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the high circulation production of daily newspapers, a double image, double information is set under the rules of Infraredesign theory (Pap et al, 2010. The management of visible and near infrared is posted with process colors for color setting configured for conventional newspaper print. The place of imprint that has delimited information in vs (Visible Spectrum and nir (Near InfraRed is called “a print with an infrared effect,” or conditionally “a print with infrared colors.” Daily newspapers, as massive carriers of information made by printing technique, are receiving a new form of presentation: printed image with a built-in invisible image.  

  5. Synthesis, characterization and properties of yellow-light-emitting polyethers containing bis(styryl)anthracene units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gioti, M., E-mail: mgiot@physics.auth.gr; Pitsalidis, C., E-mail: mgiot@physics.auth.gr; Tzounis, L.; Logothetidis, S., E-mail: logot@auth.gr [Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Andreopoulou, A. K.; Kallitsis, J. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, University Campus, Rio-Patras GR26504, Greece and Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Platani Str., Patras GR26504 (Greece); Mparmpoutsis, E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, University Campus, Rio-Patras GR26504 (Greece)

    2015-02-17

    Aromatic aliphatic polyethers containing bis(styryl)anthracene units in the main chain separated by flexible spacer of 11 (AND52) or 12 (AND53) methylene units, were synthesized and characterized aiming to be applied as emitting materials in polymer light emitting diode (PLED) devices. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents and have average molecular weight of about 15kDa. Differentiations owing to an odd-even number of methylene units (χ=11 vs χ=12) are observed in their optical properties in solid state. Thin films as well as PLED devices were fabricated via conventional spin-coating process. Initially, various parameters have been investigated concerning the solubility of the polymers, the effect of film thickness on the electrical properties, and their thermal stability. The optical properties of the two polymers were investigated by NIR-Vis-far UV spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The accurate determination of the thickness and the optical constants (refractive index and dielectric function as a function of wavelength) were derived. These provide substantial insights into the final design of the optimum final multi-layer structure of the PLEDs, if we take into account that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of electroluminescence (EL) strongly depends on the optical interference of the beams of emitted light that have been multiply reflected from the layer interfaces. The morphological characterization of the AND52 and AND53 polymeric thin films was carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM), while current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the devices were studied by electrical measurements. The single PLED devices were switched on at relatively low operation voltages, showing the potential as backplanes for active matrix PLED applications. In this perspective, it can be assumed that further studies of the presented materials will enable the development of flexible PLEDs with the possibility to scale up their dimensions for bigger

  6. Real-time, non-invasive monitoring of hydrogel degradation using LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) NIR-to-NIR upconverting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalani, Ghulam; Naccache, Rafik; Rosenzweig, Derek H; Lerouge, Sophie; Haglund, Lisbet; Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-07-14

    To design a biodegradable hydrogel as cell support, one should know its in vivo degradation rate. A technique commonly used to track gel degradation is fluorescence spectroscopy. However, the fluorescence from conventional fluorophores quickly decays, and the fluorophores are often moderately cytotoxic. Most importantly, they require ultraviolet or visible (UV-Vis) light as the excitation source, which cannot penetrate deeply through biological tissues. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are exciting alternatives to conventional fluorophores because they can convert near-infrared (NIR) to UV-Vis-NIR light via a sequential multiphoton absorption process referred to as upconversion. NIR light can penetrate up to few cm inside tissues, thus making these UCNPs much better probes than conventional fluorophores for in vivo monitoring. Also, UCNPs have narrow emission bands, high photoluminescence (PL) signal-to-noise ratio, low cytotoxicity and good physical and chemical stability. Here, we show a nanocomposite system consisting of a biodegradable, in situ thermogelling injectable hydrogel made of chitosan and hyaluronic acid encapsulating silica-coated LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) UCNPs. We use these UCNPs as photoluminescent tags to monitor the gel degradation inside live, cultured intervertebral discs (IVDs) over a period of 3 weeks. PL spectroscopy and NIR imaging show that NIR-to-NIR upconversion of LiYF4:Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)@SiO2 UCNPs allows for tracking of the gel degradation in living tissues. Both in vitro and ex vivo release of UCNPs follow a similar trend during the first 5 days; after this time, ex vivo release becomes faster than in vitro, indicating a faster gel degradation ex vivo. Also, the amount of released UCNPs in vitro increases continuously up to 3 weeks, while it plateaus after 15 days inside the IVDs showing a homogenous distribution of UCNPs throughout the IVD tissue. This non-invasive optical method for real time, live tissue imaging holds

  7. Classification of maize kernels using NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul J; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2016-10-15

    NIR hyperspectral imaging was evaluated to classify maize kernels of three hardness categories: hard, medium and soft. Two approaches, pixel-wise and object-wise, were investigated to group kernels according to hardness. The pixel-wise classification assigned a class to every pixel from individual kernels and did not give acceptable results because of high misclassification. However by using a predefined threshold and classifying entire kernels based on the number of correctly predicted pixels, improved results were achieved (sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.97). Object-wise classification was performed using two methods for feature extraction - score histograms and mean spectra. The model based on score histograms performed better for hard kernel classification (sensitivity and specificity of 0.93 and 0.97), while that of mean spectra gave better results for medium kernels (sensitivity and specificity of 0.95 and 0.93). Both feature extraction methods can be recommended for classification of maize kernels on production scale.

  8. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benavides-Varela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1 and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2. We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.

  9. A study of NIR atmospheric properties at Paranal Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, G; Lidman, C; Jaunsen, A O; Smette, A

    2011-01-01

    In order to maximize the scientific return of the telescopes located at the Paranal Observatory, we analyse the properties of the atmosphere above Paranal in the near-infrared (NIR). We estimate atmospheric extinction in the spectral range 1.10-2.30 um (J, Js, H, and Ks) using standard stars that were observed during photometric and clear nights with ISAAC on the Very Large Telescope UT1 between 2000 and 2004. We have built a database consisting of hundreds of observations, which allows us to examine how extinction varies with airmass and the column density of water vapour. In addition, we use theoretical models of the atmosphere to estimate Rayleigh scattering and molecular absorption in order to quantify their fractional contribution to the total extinction in each filter. Finally, we have observed 8 bright red standard stars to evaluate filter color terms. We find that extinction coefficients are < 0.1 mag/airmass in all the considered bands. The extinction coefficient in the J-band strongly depends on ...

  10. [Current status and prospects of portable NIR spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yang; Lu, Qi-Peng; Gao, Hong-Zhi; Peng, Zhong-Qi

    2013-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a reliable, rapid, and non-destructive analytical method widely applied in as a number of fields such as agriculture, food, chemical and oil industry. In order to suit different applications, near-infrared spectrometers are now varied. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are needed for rapid on-site identification and analysis. Instruments of this kind are rugged, compact and easy to be transported. In this paper, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are reviewed. Portable near-infrared spectrometers are built of different monochromator systems: filter, grating, Fourier-transform methods, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a large number of new methods based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The first part focuses on working principles of different monochromator systems. Advantages and disadvantages of different systems are also briefly mentioned. Descriptions of each method are given in turn. Typical spectrometers of each kind are introduced, and some parameters of these instruments are listed. In the next part we discuss sampling adapters, display, power supply and some other parts, which are designed to make the spectrometer more portable and easier to use. In the end, the current states of portable near-infrared spectrometers are summarized. Future trends of development of portable near-infrared spectrometers in China and abroad are discussed.

  11. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME: Y. NIR

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26 March LECTURE SERIES From 11:00 to 12:00 hrs Main Auditorium bldg. 500 on 22, 24, 25 and 26 March TH Auditorium bldg 4 on 23 March Neutrinos Y. NIR, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new physics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. T...

  12. Loophole in Search Beyond Grossman—Nir Bound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, George W. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Grossman-Nir bound concept is robust, but the common perception of may be circumvented. Because of the blinding Kπ2(3) decay, K+ decay experiments such as E787/E949 and the currently running NA62 kinematically exclude the “blinding zone”. This offers an opportunity for the currently running KOTO experiment. With no kinematic control, if the KOTO experiment is able to veto all true background, it may discover KL → π 0 + X 0, where X 0 is an invisible “dark” boson with mass mX 0 ∼ mπ 0. This could happen with 2015 data at hand, which supposedly should allow KOTO to reach nominal GN bound sensitivity. An explicit model of gauged L μ ‑ Lr , linked with muon g ‑ 2 hence with very light Z‧, is given. Adding vector-like quarks that mix with usual quarks, W-boson loops induce s → dZ‧ and b → sZ‧ transitions. Besides realizing the scenario, the model provides further illustration of potential impact. Given that usual dark bosons linked with the photon are tightly constrained, KOTO has a unique opportunity to probe the muon-related dark sector.

  13. Quality assessment of fruit juices by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is described the detection of substances used for adulteration of fruit juices. They were investigated in juice products distributed within the network of retail markets. This detection was performed using the method of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR. There were analysed samples of orange juices, apple juices, and grapefruit juices. At the beginning, there were assessed quality parameters (soluble dry matter, total acids, formol number, malic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, specific density, and ethanol content and their compatibility with the limit values specified by the Association of the Industries of Juices and Nectars. The research covered 45 kinds of fruit juices and there was found 10 cases when at least one parameter was out of the approved limits. After that there was used the discrimination analysis and it enabled to separate pure juices from those containing at least 1 % of admixtures. This method also helped to distinguish between the group of fresh squeezed juices and the juices made of fruit concentrates. Using the diagnostics “Principal Component Scores 3D Display”, there were arranged various numbers of similar groups of juice samples with similar compound profiles.

  14. Operation and performance of new NIR detectors from SELEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D.; Bezawada, N.; Hipwood, L. G.; Shorrocks, N.; Milne, H.

    2012-07-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has funded SELEX Galileo, Southampton, UK to develop large format near infrared (NIR) detectors for its future space and ground based programmes. The UKATC has worked in collaboration with SELEX Galileo to test and characterise the new detectors produced during phase-1 of the development. In order to demonstrate the detector material performance, the HgCdTe (MCT) detector diodes (grown on GaAs substrate through MOVPE process in small 320×256, 24μm pixel format) are hybridised to the existing SELEX Galileo SWALLOW CMOS readout chip. The substrate removed and MCT thinned detector arrays were then tested and evaluated at the UKATC following screening tests at SELEX. This paper briefly describes the test setup, the operational aspects of the readout multiplexer and presents the performance parameters of the detector arrays including: conversion gain, detector dark current, read noise, linearity, quantum efficiency and persistence for various detector temperatures between 80K and 140K.

  15. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Gervain, Judit

    2017-06-01

    In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Research on calibration transfer of NIR filter spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-wei; Zhou, Chang-le; Zhang, Ye-hui; Xu, Xiao-jie; Lin, Kun-hui; Ye, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Calibration transfer is an important issue to building up universal and comparable performance of spectrometer data in near infrared spectral analysis technology. Methods of slope/bias correction, direct standardization (DS), and target factor analysis (TFA) were used for the calibration transfer among five NIR filter spectrophotometers using maize as the samples. The effects of three calibration transfer methods were compared. The DS method has the best performance. The average calibration transfer difference of DS is 7.01%. This study also relates to the dependence of calibration transfer on the number of standardization samples. It was proven by experiment that the results of calibration transfer will be better as the number of samples is increased and will be generally stable when there are twenty standardization samples. However, the effect of calibration transfer attained by DS is degraded sharply when the number of standardization samples decreases to be below twenty. Moreover, slope/bias and TFA are not sensitive to the number of standardization samples.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS as a new tool for neuroeconomic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Maria Kopton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory.

  18. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed.

  19. [Real-time detection of quality of Chinese materia medica: strategy of NIR model evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Shi, Xin-yuan; Xu, Bing; Dai, Xing-xing; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-07-01

    The definition of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica ( CMM) was put forward based on the top-level design concept. Nowadays, coupled with the development of rapid analytical science, rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM was firstly carried out, which was the secondary discipline branch of CMM. Taking near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an example, which is a rapid analytical technology in pharmaceutical process over the past decade, systematic review is the chemometric parameters in NIR model evaluation. According to the characteristics of complexity of CMM and trace components analysis, a multi-source information fusion strategy of NIR model was developed for assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM. The strategy has provided guideline for NIR reliable analysis in critical quality attributes of CMM.

  20. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. A novel self-assembled sandwich nanomedicine for NIR-responsive release of NO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; He, Nongyue; He, Qianjun; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Fu, Xiao; Liu, Yijing; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-21

    A novel sandwich nanomedicine (GO-BNN6) for near-infrared (NIR) light responsive release of nitric oxide (NO) has been constructed by self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and a NO donor BNN6 through the π-π stacking interaction. The GO-BNN6 nanomedicine has an extraordinarily high drug loading capacity (1.2 mg BNN6 per mg GO), good thermal stability, and high NIR responsiveness. The NO release from GO-BNN6 can be easily triggered and effectively controlled by adjusting the switching, irradiation time and power density of NIR laser. The intracellular NIR-responsive release of NO from the GO-BNN6 nanomedicine causes a remarkable anti-cancer effect.

  2. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples.

  3. Acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization: in situ, real-time monitoring using nir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Colmán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of on-line NIR spectroscopy for the prediction of the evolution of monomer concentration, conversion and average particle diameter in acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerization was evaluated. The spectral ranges were chosen as those representing the decrease in concentration of monomer. An increase in the baseline shift indicated that the NIR spectra were affected by particle size. Multivariate partial least squares calibration models were developed to relate NIR spectra collected by the immersion probe with off-line conversion and polymer particle size data. The results showed good agreement between off-line data and values predicted by the NIR calibration models and these latter were also able to detect different types of operational disturbances. These results indicate that it is possible to monitor variables of interest during acrylamide inverse miniemulsion polymerizations.

  4. In vivo sensing of proteolytic activity with an NSET-based NIR fluorogenic nanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Minhee; Hong, Yoochan; Heo, Dan; Lee, Eugene; Hwang, Seungyeon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Yang, Jaemoon

    2016-03-15

    Biomedical in vivo sensing methods in the near-infrared (NIR) range, which that provide relatively high photon transparency, separation from auto-fluorescence background, and extended sensitivity, are being used increasingly for non-invasive mapping and monitoring of molecular events in cancer cells. In this study, we fabricated an NIR fluorogenic nanosensor based on the nanoparticle surface energy transfer effect, by conjugation of fluorescent proteolytic enzyme-specific cleavable peptides with gold nanorods (GNRs). Membrane-anchored membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinases (MT1-MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes, can induce the metastatic potential of cancer cells by promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, sensitive detection of MT1-MMP activity can provide essential information in the clinical setting. We have applied in vivo NIR sensing to evaluate MT1-MMP activity, as an NIR imaging target, in an MT1-MMP-expressing metastatic tumor mouse model.

  5. A Near-Infrared (NIR) Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, E. M.; Lee, E. M.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Staid, M. I.; Gaddis, L. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Duxbury, T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 1994, the NASA/DoD Clementine Mission acquired global, 11- band, multispectral observations of the lunar surface using the ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared (NIR) camera systems. The global 5-band UVVIS Digital Image Model (DIM) of the Moon at 100 m/pixel was released to the Planetary Data System (PDS) in 2000. The corresponding NIR DIM has been compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for distribution to the lunar science community. The recently released NIR DIM has six spectral bands (1100, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2600, and 2780 nm) and is delivered in 996 quads at 100 m/pixel (303 pixels/degree). The NIR data were radiometrically corrected, geometrically controlled, and photometrically normalized to form seamless, uniformly illuminated mosaics of the lunar surface.

  6. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  7. Energy transfer and NIR emission in rare earth tri-doped barium lanthanum fluoro tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, J. Suresh; Pavani, K.; Graca, M.P.F.; Soares, M.J. [Department of Physics and I3N, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Venkataiah, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-09-15

    Barium lanthanum fluoro tellurite (BLFT) glasses doped with rare earth ions (ErF{sub 3}, PrF{sub 3} and YbF{sub 3}) both singly or in combinations were prepared by melt-quench technique and analysed spectroscopically. The prepared glasses were found to be mechanically strong and transparent. Optical absorption and NIR fluorescence were measured to the highly transparent and stable glass samples. Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative properties were estimated for the single rare earth doped BLFT glasses using the optical absorption spectra. NIR fluorescence is measured using laser excitation. From the NIR emission spectra, energy transfer among the rare earth ions is analysed in the rare earth tri-doped BLFT glasses. These rare earth tri-doped BLFT glasses are found to be highly useful for the multi- wavelength emission in the NIR region for opto-electronic applications. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. NIR absorbing diferrocene-containing meso-cyano-BODIPY with a UV-Vis-NIR spectrum remarkably close to that of magnesium tetracyanotetraferrocenyltetraazaporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didukh, Natalia O; Zatsikha, Yuriy V; Rohde, Gregory T; Blesener, Tanner S; Yakubovskyi, Viktor P; Kovtun, Yuriy P; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-10-04

    Diferrocene-containing meso-cyano-BODIPY (4) was prepared by the direct cyanation/oxidation reaction of symmetric BODIPY 1 followed by Knoevenagel condensation with ferrocenealdehyde. Ferrocene-containing BODIPY 4 was characterized by a variety of spectroscopic, electrochemical, and theoretical methods and its UV-Vis-NIR spectrum has a striking similarity with a UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of the previously reported magnesium 2(3),7(8),12(13),17(18)-tetracyano-3(2),8(7),13(12),18(17)-tetraferrocenyl-5,10,15,20-tetraazaporphyrin.

  9. Determination of soluble solid content and acidity of loquats based on FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia-ping FU; Jian-ping LI; Ying ZHOU; Yi-bin YING; Li-juan XIE; Xiao-ying NIU; Zhan-ke YAN; Hai-yan YU

    2009-01-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique has been applied in many fields because of its advantages of simple preparation,fast response,and non-destructiveness.We investigated the potential of NIR spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode for determining the soluble solid content (SSC) and acidity (pH) of intact loquats.Two cultivars of loquats (Dahongpao and Jiajiaozhong) harvested from two orchards (Tangxi and Chun'an,Zhejiang,China) were used for the measurement of NIR spectra between 800 and 2500 nm.A total of 400 loquats (100 samples of each cultivar from each orchard) were used in this study.Relationships between NIR spectra and SSC and acidity of ioquats were evaluated using partial least square (PLS) method.Spectra preprocessing options included the first and second derivatives,multiple scatter correction (MSC),and the standard normal variate (SNV).Three separate spectral windows identified as full NIR (800-2500 nm),short NIR (800~1100 nm),and long NIR (1100~2500 nm) were studied in factorial combination with the preprocessing options.The models gave relatively good predictions of the SSC of loquats,with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 1.21,1.00,0.965,and 1.16 °Brix for Tangxi-Dahongpao,Tangxi-Jiajiaozhong,Chun'an-Dahongpao,and Chun'an-Jiajiaozhong,respectively.The acidity prediction was not satisfactory,with the RMSEP of 0.382,0.194,0.388,and 0.361 for the above four loquats,respectively.The results indicate that NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used to predict the SSC and acidity of loquat fruit.

  10. Activatable photodynamic destruction of cancer cells by NIR dye/photosensitizer loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ahu; Tang, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Ke; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-02-25

    The phototoxicity of Chlorin e6 (Ce6) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) was found to be effectively suppressed by indocyanine green (ICG), a near infrared (NIR) dye. Upon NIR laser irradiation at 808 nm, ICG in the liposomes containing ICG and Ce6 could be degraded, while the phototoxicity of Ce6 could be recovered. In addition, we demonstrate that this newly developed liposomal component can be successfully used for activatable PDT to destroy cancer cells in vitro.

  11. NIR spectroscopic sensing for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; Noh, Tae Gyoon; Choi, Jun Hoe; Han, Jeongsu; Ha, Joo Young; Lee, Ji Young; Park, Yongjong

    2017-05-01

    Foodborne illness represents a significant health burden worldwide. While monitoring the freshness of food before consumption could significantly improve the current predicament, there is a lack of a simple system that one can use to accurately assess the freshness of their food. Currently, the most common practice for food quality determination is by visual or odor inspection which lacks objectivity, accuracy and precision. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques can help address this problem by providing rapid and non-destructive means to estimate the freshness state of various foods based on the changes to their characteristic spectra in the NIR region. Recent advancements in the development of portable NIR spectrometers are also enabling the realization of this technique at the point-of-need. In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy at the point-of-need to estimate the freshness of various foods including: beef sirloin, beef eyeround, pork sirloin, bass, salmon, corvina, tomato and watermelon. Using a commercial portable NIR spectrometer, we periodically scanned and collected NIR spectra from the food items that were stored at 4°C inside a refrigerator for up to 30 days. For these food items, we show that the NIR spectra can be classified by the foods' aging day as well as by the levels of chemical/microbial indicators (i.e., thiobarbituric acid, volatile basic nitrogen and bacteria levels) with high accuracy, which represents high prospects of NIR spectroscopy for point-of-need freshness assessment of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits.

  12. Suitability of faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) predictions for estimating gross calorific value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Roza-Delgado, B.; Modroño, S.; Vicente, F.; Martínez-Fernández, A.; Soldado, A.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 220 faecal pig and poultry samples, collected from different experimental trials were employed with the aim to demonstrate the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) technology for estimation of gross calorific value on faeces as output products in energy balances studies. NIR spectra from dried and grounded faeces samples were analyzed using a Foss NIRSystem 6500 instrument, scanning over the wavelength range 400-2500 nm. Validation studies for quantitative analytical models were carried out to estimate the relevance of method performance associated to reference values to obtain an appropriate, accuracy and precision. The results for prediction of gross calorific value (GCV) of NIRS calibrations obtained for individual species showed high correlation coefficients comparing chemical analysis and NIRS predictions, ranged from 0.92 to 0.97 for poultry and pig. For external validation, the ratio between the standard error of cross validation (SECV) and the standard error of prediction (SEP) varied between 0.73 and 0.86 for poultry and pig respectively, indicating a sufficiently precision of calibrations. In addition a global model to estimate GCV in both species was developed and externally validated. It showed correlation coefficients of 0.99 for calibration, 0.98 for cross-validation and 0.97 for external validation. Finally, relative uncertainty was calculated for NIRS developed prediction models with the final value when applying individual NIRS species model of 1.3% and 1.5% for NIRS global prediction. This study suggests that NIRS is a suitable and accurate method for the determination of GCV in faeces, decreasing cost, timeless and for convenient handling of unpleasant samples.. (Author)

  13. Application of on-line NIR spectroscopy in fuel pellet production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothage, Morgan; Svensson, Elin; Johnsson, Bo [Casco Adhesives AB, Sundsvall (Sweden); Lestander, Torbjoern A. [Swedish Univ of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry

    2006-07-15

    Different possibilities of installation of on-line NIR spectrometers in various process environments in the fuel Pellets process were investigated using moisture content on dried wood raw material as the model analyte. Scanning NIR instruments of different types and to some extent diode-array instrument were used. Real time predictions of moisture content from partial least squares regression models were presented to the process operators using dedicated software.

  14. Penentuan Pola Peningkatan Kekerasan Kulit Buah Manggis Selama Penyimpanan Dingin dengan Metode NIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Dian Novita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pericarp hardening of mangosteen fruit has correlation with the decrease in moisture content due to transpiration and respiration during storage. The change of pericarp moisture content during storage may be determined nondestructively using near infrared (NIR spectroscopy. The objectives of this study were to build calibration model of NIR reflectance to predict the moisture content of the pericarp, and to determine the pattern of pericarp hardening based on change of moisture content during storage using NIR reflectance. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained from fruits stored at 8ºC, 13ºC, and room temperature. Calibrations were built using partial least squares (PLS and artificial neural network (ANN models. Results of analysis indicated that pericarp moisture content could be predicted well by NIR reflectance using the calibration model of PLS for mangosteen stored at 8ºC, 13ºC, and room temperature. The pattern of pericarp hardening based on change of moisture content also could be determined using NIR reflectance for mangosteen stored at 13ºC and room temperature.

  15. Maize kernel hardness classification by near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul; Geladi, Paul; Fox, Glen; Manley, Marena

    2009-10-27

    The use of near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging and hyperspectral image analysis for distinguishing between hard, intermediate and soft maize kernels from inbred lines was evaluated. NIR hyperspectral images of two sets (12 and 24 kernels) of whole maize kernels were acquired using a Spectral Dimensions MatrixNIR camera with a spectral range of 960-1662 nm and a sisuChema SWIR (short wave infrared) hyperspectral pushbroom imaging system with a spectral range of 1000-2498 nm. Exploratory principal component analysis (PCA) was used on absorbance images to remove background, bad pixels and shading. On the cleaned images, PCA could be used effectively to find histological classes including glassy (hard) and floury (soft) endosperm. PCA illustrated a distinct difference between glassy and floury endosperm along principal component (PC) three on the MatrixNIR and PC two on the sisuChema with two distinguishable clusters. Subsequently partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to build a classification model. The PLS-DA model from the MatrixNIR image (12 kernels) resulted in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value of 0.18. This was repeated on the MatrixNIR image of the 24 kernels which resulted in RMSEP of 0.18. The sisuChema image yielded RMSEP value of 0.29. The reproducible results obtained with the different data sets indicate that the method proposed in this paper has a real potential for future classification uses.

  16. Light-Emitting Diodes: Learning New Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the third paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide the readers with the description of experiments and pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper, published…

  17. Light-Emitting Diodes: Solving Complex Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide readers with the description of experiments and the pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper provided…

  18. Light-Emitting Diodes: A Hidden Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are cheap, easy to purchase, and thus commonly used in physics instruction as indicators of electric current or as sources of light (Fig. 1). In our opinion LEDs represent a unique piece of equipment that can be used to collect experimental evidence, and construct and test new ideas in almost every unit of a general…

  19. Light-Emitting Diodes: A Hidden Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    LEDs, or light-emitting diodes, are cheap, easy to purchase, and thus commonly used in physics instruction as indicators of electric current or as sources of light (Fig. 1). In our opinion LEDs represent a unique piece of equipment that can be used to collect experimental evidence, and construct and test new ideas in almost every unit of a general…

  20. Light-Emitting Diodes: Learning New Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinšic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    This is the third paper in our Light-Emitting Diodes series. The series aims to create a systematic library of LED-based materials and to provide the readers with the description of experiments and pedagogical treatment that would help their students construct, test, and apply physics concepts and mathematical relations. The first paper, published…

  1. Auger Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzone, Nadia; Cornelissen, Bart; Vallis, Katherine A.

    Radionuclides that emit Auger electrons have been of particular interest as therapeutic agents. This is primarily due to the short range in tissue, controlled linear paths and high linear energy transfer of these particles. Taking into consideration that ionizations are clustered within several cubic nanometers around the point of decay the possibility of incorporating an Auger emitter in close proximity to the cancer cell DNA has immense therapeutic potential thus making nuclear targeted Auger-electron emitters ideal for precise targeting of cancer cells. Furthermore, many Auger-electron emitters also emit γ-radiation, this property makes Auger emitting radionuclides a very attractive option as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in the molecular imaging and management of tumors. The first requirement for the delivery of Auger emitting nuclides is the definition of suitable tumor-selective delivery vehicles to avoid normal tissue toxicity. One of the main challenges of targeted radionuclide therapy remains in matching the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide and targeting moiety with the clinical character of the tumor. Molecules and molecular targets that have been used in the past can be classified according to the carrier molecule used to deliver the Auger-electron-emitting radionuclide. These include (1) antibodies, (2) peptides, (3) small molecules, (4) oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), (5) proteins, and (6) nanoparticles. The efficacy of targeted radionuclide therapy depends greatly on the ability to increase intranuclear incorporation of the radiopharmaceutical without compromising toxicity. Several strategies to achieve this goal have been proposed in literature. The possibility of transferring tumor therapy based on the emission of Auger electrons from experimental models to patients has vast therapeutic potential, and remains a field of intense research.

  2. Highly sensitive NIR PtSi/Si-nanostructure detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-gao; Guo, Pei; Yuan, An-bo; Long, Fei; Li, Rui-zhi; Li, Ping; Li, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We report a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) photodiode detector with PtSi/Si-nanostructures. Black silicon nanostructures were fabricated by metal-assist chemical etching (MCE), a 2 nm Pt layer was subsequently deposited on black silicon surface by DC magnetron sputtering system, and PtSi/Si-nanostructures were formed in vacuum annealing at 450 oC for 5 min. As the PtSi/Si-nanostructures presented a spiky shape, the absorption of incident light was remarkably enhanced for the repeat reflection and absorption. The breakdown voltage, dark current, threshold voltage and responsivity of the device were investigated to evaluate the performance of the PtSi/Si-nanostructures detector. The threshold voltage and dark currents of the PtSi/Si-nanostructure photodiode tends to be slightly higher than those of the standard diodes. The breakdown voltage remarkably was reduced because of existing avalanche breakdown in PtSi/Si-nanostructures. However, the photodiodes had high response at room temperature in near infrared region. At -5 V reverse bias voltage, the responsivity was 0.72 A/W in 1064 nm wavelength, and the EQE was 83.9%. By increasing the reverse bias voltage, the responsivity increased. At -60 V reverse bias voltage, the responsivity was 3.5 A/W, and the EQE was 407.5%, which means the quantum efficiency of PtSi/Si-nanostructure photodiodes was about 10 times higher than that of a standard diode. Future research includes how to apply this technology to enhance the NIR sensitivity of image sensors, such as Charge Coupled Devices (CCD).

  3. High-Contrast NIR Polarization Imaging of MWC480

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, M. W.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Kudo, T.; Kandori, R.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Werren, C.; Day, A. N.; Beerman, C.; Iye, M.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Brafford, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases that the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0".2-1"0 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by HST / NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half angle for the disk to lie between 1.3 <= Theta <=2.2 deg. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only approx 30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R approx 0. 03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.

  4. NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Lide; Voss, Kenneth

    2016-09-05

    The near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithms are used in satellite ocean color data processing, with the SWIR-based algorithm particularly useful for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we describe the NIR- and two SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibration approaches for satellite ocean color sensors, and compare results from these three on-orbit vicarious calibrations using satellite measurements from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). Vicarious calibration gains for VIIRS spectral bands are derived using the in situ normalized water-leaving radiance nLw(λ) spectra from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in waters off Hawaii. The SWIR vicarious gains are determined using VIIRS measurements from the South Pacific Gyre region, where waters are the clearest and generally stable. Specifically, vicarious gain sets for VIIRS spectral bands of 410, 443, 486, 551, and 671 nm derived from the NIR method using the NIR 745 and 862 nm bands, the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 1601 nm bands, and the SWIR method using the SWIR 1238 and 2257 nm bands are (0.979954, 0.974892, 0.974685, 0.965832, 0.979042), (0.980344, 0.975344, 0.975357, 0.965531, 0.979518), and (0.980820, 0.975609, 0.975761, 0.965888, 0.978576), respectively. Thus, the NIR-based vicarious calibration gains are consistent with those from the two SWIR-based approaches with discrepancies mostly within ~0.05% from three data processing methods. In addition, the NIR vicarious gains (745 and 862 nm) derived from the two SWIR methods are (0.982065, 1.00001) and (0.981811, 1.00000), respectively, with the difference ~0.03% at the NIR 745 nm band. This is the fundamental basis for the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction algorithm, which has been used to derive improved satellite ocean color products over open oceans and turbid coastal/inland waters. Therefore, a unified

  5. Efficient Dual-Modal NIR-to-NIR Emission of Rare Earth Ions Co-doped Nanocrystals for Biological Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiajia; Shirahata, Naoto; Sun, Hong-Tao; Ghosh, Batu; Ogawara, Makoto; Teng, Yu; Zhou, Shifeng; Sa Chu, Rong Gui; Fujii, Minoru; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-02-07

    A novel approach has been developed for the realization of efficient near-infrared to near-infrared (NIR-to-NIR) upconversion and down-shifting emission in nanophosphors. The efficient dual-modal NIR-to-NIR emission is realized in a β-NaGdF4/Nd(3+)@NaGdF4/Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) core-shell nanocrystal by careful control of the identity and concentration of the doped rare earth (RE) ion species and by manipulation of the spatial distributions of these RE ions. The photoluminescence results reveal that the emission efficiency increases at least 2-fold when comparing the materials synthesized in this study with those synthesized through traditional approaches. Hence, these core-shell structured nanocrystals with novel excitation and emission behaviors enable us to obtain tissue fluorescence imaging by detecting the upconverted and down-shifted photoluminescence from Tm(3+) and Nd(3+) ions, respectively. The reported approach thus provides a new route for the realization of high-yield emission from RE ion doped nanocrystals, which could prove to be useful for the design of optical materials containing other optically active centers.

  6. High-Power, Computer-Controlled, Light-Emitting Diode–Based Light Sources for Fluorescence Imaging and Image-Guided Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Gioux

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical imaging requires appropriate light sources. For image-guided surgery, in particular fluorescence-guided surgery, a high fluence rate, a long working distance, computer control, and precise control of wavelength are required. In this article, we describe the development of light-emitting diode (LED-based light sources that meet these criteria. These light sources are enabled by a compact LED module that includes an integrated linear driver, heat dissipation technology, and real-time temperature monitoring. Measuring only 27 mm wide by 29 mm high and weighing only 14.7 g, each module provides up to 6,500 lx of white (400–650 nm light and up to 157 mW of filtered fluorescence excitation light while maintaining an operating temperature ≤ 50°C. We also describe software that can be used to design multimodule light housings and an embedded processor that permits computer control and temperature monitoring. With these tools, we constructed a 76-module, sterilizable, three-wavelength surgical light source capable of providing up to 40,000 lx of white light, 4.0 mW/cm2 of 670 nm near-infrared (NIR fluorescence excitation light, and 14.0 mW/cm2 of 760 nm NIR fluorescence excitation light over a 15 cm diameter field of view. Using this light source, we demonstrated NIR fluorescence–guided surgery in a large-animal model.

  7. High-power, computer-controlled, light-emitting diode-based light sources for fluorescence imaging and image-guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Kianzad, Vida; Ciocan, Razvan; Gupta, Sunil; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Frangioni, John V

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging requires appropriate light sources. For image-guided surgery, in particular fluorescence-guided surgery, a high fluence rate, a long working distance, computer control, and precise control of wavelength are required. In this article, we describe the development of light-emitting diode (LED)-based light sources that meet these criteria. These light sources are enabled by a compact LED module that includes an integrated linear driver, heat dissipation technology, and real-time temperature monitoring. Measuring only 27 mm wide by 29 mm high and weighing only 14.7 g, each module provides up to 6,500 lx of white (400-650 nm) light and up to 157 mW of filtered fluorescence excitation light while maintaining an operating temperature mW/cm2 of 670 nm near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence excitation light, and 14.0 mW/cm2 of 760 nm NIR fluorescence excitation light over a 15 cm diameter field of view. Using this light source, we demonstrated NIR fluorescence-guided surgery in a large-animal model.

  8. Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Mingying; Zollfrank, Cordt; Wondraczek, Lothar [Lehrstuhl fuer Glas und Keramik, WW3, Friedrich Alexander Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: mingying.peng@ww.uni-erlangen.de, E-mail: lothar.wondraczek@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2009-07-15

    Bi-doped glasses with broadband photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range are presently receiving significant consideration for potential applications in telecommunications, widely tunable fiber lasers and spectral converters. However, the origin of NIR emission remains disputed. Here, we report on NIR absorption and emission properties of bismuthate glass and their dependence on the melting temperature. Results clarify that NIR emission occurs from the same centers as it does in Bi-doped glasses. The dependence of absorption and NIR emission of bismuthate glasses on the melting temperature is interpreted as thermal dissociation of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} into elementary Bi. Darkening of bismuthate glass melted at 1300 deg. C is due to the agglomeration of Bi atoms. The presence of Bi nanoparticles is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and element distribution mapping. By adding antimony oxide as an oxidation agent to the glass, NIR emission centers can be eliminated and Bi{sup 3+} is formed. By comparing with atomic spectral data, absorption bands at {approx}320 , {approx}500 , 700 , 800 and 1000 nm observed in Bi-doped glasses are assigned to Bi{sup 0} transitions {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 2}D{sub 3/2}(2) and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 2}D{sub 3/2}(1), respectively, and broadband NIR emission is assigned to the transition {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}(1){yields}{sup 4}S{sub 3/2}.

  9. Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingying; Zollfrank, Cordt; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2009-07-01

    Bi-doped glasses with broadband photoluminescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range are presently receiving significant consideration for potential applications in telecommunications, widely tunable fiber lasers and spectral converters. However, the origin of NIR emission remains disputed. Here, we report on NIR absorption and emission properties of bismuthate glass and their dependence on the melting temperature. Results clarify that NIR emission occurs from the same centers as it does in Bi-doped glasses. The dependence of absorption and NIR emission of bismuthate glasses on the melting temperature is interpreted as thermal dissociation of Bi2O3 into elementary Bi. Darkening of bismuthate glass melted at 1300 °C is due to the agglomeration of Bi atoms. The presence of Bi nanoparticles is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and element distribution mapping. By adding antimony oxide as an oxidation agent to the glass, NIR emission centers can be eliminated and Bi3+ is formed. By comparing with atomic spectral data, absorption bands at ~320 , ~500 , 700 , 800 and 1000 nm observed in Bi-doped glasses are assigned to Bi0 transitions {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}} \\to {}^{2}\\mathrm {P_{3/2}} , {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}}\\to {}^{2}\\mathrm {P_{1/2}} , {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}}\\to {}^{2}\\mathrm {D_{5/2}} , {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}}\\to {}^{2}\\mathrm {D_{3/2}}(2) and {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}}\\to {}^{2}\\mathrm {D_{3/2 }}(1) , respectively, and broadband NIR emission is assigned to the transition {}^{2}\\mathrm {D_{3/2}(1)}\\to {}^{4}\\mathrm {S_{3/2}} .

  10. Design of an FT-NIR spectrometer for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ren; Wu, Lan; Wang, Shiming; Ye, Linhua; Ding, Zhihua

    2008-03-01

    As a fast, non-destructive analysis method, Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is very suitable and effective for online quality analysis of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process. In this thesis, the theoretics of FT-NIRS was analyzed and an FT-NIR spectrometer with 4 cm -1 resolution in the 12500-5000 cm -1 frequency range was designed. The spectrometer was based on a Michelson interferometer with Bromine tungsten lamp as the NIR light source and InGaAs detector to collect the interference signal. Each element was designed and chosen to provide maximum sensitivity in the NIR spectral region. A fiber-optic flow cell system was used to realize online analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. The performance of the spectrometer was evaluated and the feasibility of using FT-NIR spectrometer to get absorption spectra of traditional Chinese medicine was demonstrated.

  11. Intracellular Disassembly of Self-Quenched Nanoparticles Turns NIR Fluorescence on for Sensing Furin Activity in Cells and in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Qinjingwen; An, Linna; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-06-16

    There has been no report on enzyme-controlled disassembly of self-quenched NIR fluorescent nanoparticles turning fluorescence on for specific detection/imaging of the enzyme's activity in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we reported the rational design of new NIR probe 1 whose fluorescence signal was self-quenched upon reduction-controlled condensation and subsequent assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs). Then disassembly of 1-NPs by furin turned the fluorescence on. Employing this enzymatic strategy, we successfully applied 1-NPs for NIR detection of furin in vitro and NIR imaging furin activity in living cells. Moreover, we also applied 1-NPs for discriminative NIR imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumors in nude mice. This NIR probe 1 might be further developed for tumor-targeted imaging in routine preclinical studies or even in patients in the future.

  12. Effect of 660 nm Light-Emitting Diode on the Wound Healing in Fibroblast-Like Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Sun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light in the red to near-infrared (NIR range (630–1000 nm, which is generated using low energy laser or light-emitting diode (LED arrays, was reported to have a range of beneficial biological effects in many injury models. NIR via a LED is a well-accepted therapeutic tool for the treatment of infected, ischemic, and hypoxic wounds as well as other soft tissue injuries in humans and animals. This study examined the effects of exposure to 660 nm red LED light at intensities of 2.5, 5.5, and 8.5 mW/cm2 for 5, 10, and 20 min on wound healing and proliferation in fibroblast-like cells, such as L929 mouse fibroblasts and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1. A photo illumination-cell culture system was designed to evaluate the cell proliferation and wound healing of fibroblast-like cells exposed to 600 nm LED light. The cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, and a scratched wound assay was performed to assess the rate of migrating cells and the healing effect. Exposure to the 660 nm red LED resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control, indicating its potential use as a phototherapeutic agent.

  13. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  14. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  15. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Carl W.; Temkin, Henryk; Coldren, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    1. Introduction to VCSELs L. A. Coldren, C. W. Wilmsen and H. Temkin; 2. Fundamental issues in VCSEL design L. A. Coldren and Eric R. Hegblom; 3. Enhancement of spontaneous emission in microcavities E. F. Schubert and N. E. J. Hunt; 4. Epitaxy of vertical-cavity lasers R. P. Schneider Jr and Y. H. Young; 5. Fabrication and performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers Kent D. Choquette and Kent Geib; 6. Polarization related properties of vertical cavity lasers Dmitri Kuksenkov and Henryk Temkin; 7. Visible light emitting vertical cavity lasers Robert L. Thornton; 8. Long-wavelength vertical-cavity lasers Dubrakovo I. Babic, Joachim Piprek and John E. Bowers; 9. Overview of VCSEL applications Richard C. Williamson; 10. Optical interconnection applications and required characteristics Kenichi Kasahara; 11. VCSEL-based fiber-optic data communications Kenneth Hahn and Kirk Giboney; 12. VCSEL-based smart pixels for free space optoelectronic processing C. W. Wilmsen.

  16. Safety of light emitting diodes in toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higlett, M P; O'Hagan, J B; Khazova, M

    2012-03-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are increasingly being used in toys. An assessment methodology is described for determining the accessible emission limits for the optical radiation from the toys, which takes account of expected use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of toys. Where data are available, it may be possible to assess the toy from the data sheet alone. If this information is not available, a simple measurement protocol is proposed.

  17. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1997-08-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of “the new physics of antimatter” are pointed out.

  18. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  19. NIR Techniques Create Added Values for the Pellet and Biofuel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestander, Torbjoern A. [Swedish Univ of Agricultural Science, Umeaa (Sweden). Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry; Johnsson, Bo; Grothage, Morgan [Casco Adhesives AB, Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Pelletizing of biomass as biofuels increases energy density, improves storability and reduces transport costs. This process is a major key factor in the transition from fossil fuels to renewable biomass refined as solid biofuels. The fast growing pellet industry is today producing more than 1.2 Gg wood Pellets in Sweden - one of the leading nations to utilize bioenergy in its energy mix. The multitude of raw biomaterials available for fuel pellet production and their widely different characteristics stress the need for rapid characterization methods. A suitable technique for characterization of variation in biomaterials is near infrared (NIR) spectrometry. NIR radiation interacts with polar molecules and especially with structural groups O-H as in water, C-H as in biomass, but also with C-O bonds and C=C double bonds frequently found in biomass. Biomass contains mostly the atoms C, O and H. This means that transmittance or reflectance in the NIR wavelength region covers most of the covalent bonds in biomass, except for the C-C bonds in carbon chains. The NIR technique is also developed for on-line measurement in harsh industrial conditions. Thus, NIR techniques can be applied for on-line and real time characterization of raw biomass as well as in the refinement process of biomass into standardized solid biofuels. Spectral patterns in the NIR region contain chemical and physical information structure that together with reference parameters can be modeled by multivariate calibration methods to obtain predictions. These predictions can be presented to the operators in real time on screens as charts based on multivariate statistical process controls. This improves the possibilities to overview the raw biomass variation and to control the responses of the treatments the biomass undergo in the pelletizing process. The NIR-technique is exemplified by a 23-factorial experiment that was carried out in a pellet plant using sawdust as raw material to produce wood Pellets as

  20. Community composition of nirS-type denitrifier in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiang-Ke; Cheng, Zhan-Bing; Li, Jia; Miao, Li-Hong

    2013-11-01

    Denitrification is a major biological process to reduce nitrate to molecular nitrogen (N2). In shallow eutrophic lakes, this process can remove the largest portion of fixed nitrogen and plays an important role in self-purification of this ecosystem. To understand the structure of denitrifying communities in a shallow eutrophic lake, denitrifier communities in four sub-lakes of East Lake in Wuhan, China, were explored by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis and sequencing of nirS gene clone libraries. nirS is a functional marker gene for denitrification encoding cytochrome cd 1-containing nitrite reductase, which catalyzes the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide. Both RFLP fingerprints clustering analysis and phylogeny analysis based on the amino acid sequences of NirS revealed that NirS-type communities in East Lake sediment could be roughly divided into three clusters. Cluster I accounted for 74-82 % of clones from the moderately eutrophic sub-lakes Tuan, Tang Ling, and Guo Zheng. Cluster II accounted for 76 % of the communities in hypertrophic sub-lake Miao Lake and cluster III as a minor group (7 % of the total), mainly presented in Miao Lake. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cluster I was related to the reference clones from a broad range of ecological environments, and clusters II and III were more phylogenetically related to the reference clones from entrophic environments. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that total nitrogen, total phosphate, total organic carbon, and NH4-N and NO2-N were important environmental factors affecting the dispersion of NirS-type denitrifier in the sediments. Cluster I showed a weak relationship with the nutrient content, while cluster II and III were positively related with the nutrient content. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that NirS-type communities from Tuan Lake, Tang Ling Lake, and Guo Zheng Lake sediments were divergent from those found in river, estuary sediment, and forest

  1. [Determination of wine original regions using information fusion of NIR and MIR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling-Li; Li, Meng-Hua; Li, Jing-Mingz; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da; Zhao, Long-Lian

    2014-10-01

    Geographical origins of wine grapes are significant factors affecting wine quality and wine prices. Tasters' evaluation is a good method but has some limitations. It is important to discriminate different wine original regions quickly and accurately. The present paper proposed a method to determine wine original regions based on Bayesian information fusion that fused near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectra information and mid-infrared (MIR) ATR spectra information of wines. This method improved the determination results by expanding the sources of analysis information. NIR spectra and MIR spectra of 153 wine samples from four different regions of grape growing were collected by near-infrared and mid-infrared Fourier transform spe trometer separately. These four different regions are Huailai, Yantai, Gansu and Changli, which areall typical geographical originals for Chinese wines. NIR and MIR discriminant models for wine regions were established using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on NIR spectra and MIR spectra separately. In PLS-DA, the regions of wine samples are presented in group of binary code. There are four wine regions in this paper, thereby using four nodes standing for categorical variables. The output nodes values for each sample in NIR and MIR models were normalized first. These values stand for the probabilities of each sample belonging to each category. They seemed as the input to the Bayesian discriminant formula as a priori probability value. The probabilities were substituteed into the Bayesian formula to get posterior probabilities, by which we can judge the new class characteristics of these samples. Considering the stability of PLS-DA models, all the wine samples were divided into calibration sets and validation sets randomly for ten times. The results of NIR and MIR discriminant models of four wine regions were as follows: the average accuracy rates of calibration sets were 78.21% (NIR) and 82.57% (MIR), and the

  2. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R.; Poggio, M.; Brown, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogenous agricultural fields must be partitioned into zones with similar soil properties for effective site-specific management. However, standard soil surveys do not generally provide the necessary spatial resolution for this application, and it is expensive and time consuming to generate high-resolution soil maps using standard soil sampling and analysis techniques. Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) spectroscopy is an established method for rapidly and inexpensively estimating soil properties when applied to dried and sieved samples in a laboratory setting. However, this technique still requires that samples be extracted, transported and processed using standard methods. To reduce soil analysis costs further (and allow more dense spatial sampling), it would be ideal to interrogate soils in situ with a field-portable VisNIR spectrometer and foreoptic. The goal of this study was to design and test a VisNIR penetrometer capable of simultaneously collecting soil spectra and insertion force, in situ. Our design allows the use of field-deployable spectrometers that employ signal delivery via fiber optics (e.g. ASD Agrispec) and hydraulic push-type soil coring rig (ex. Giddings). We first compared the quality of VisNIR spectra collected using the penetrometer fore-optic with the spectrometer manufacturer's contact probe foreoptic in a laboratory setting for dried and sieved (2 mm) Palouse soils (eastern WA and northern ID, USA.) Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used calibrate and validate VisNIR models predicting soil clay and organic carbon content. The VisNIR penetrometer was then deployed for in situ soil characterization at ten fields in the states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho selected to capture broad ranges of soil characteristics (ex. parent material, soil organic C, soil inorganic C, clay content, clay mineralogy). To calibrate VisNIR PLSR models, intact soil cores were collected adjacent to location probed with the VisNIR penetrometer and

  3. Folate/NIR 797-conjugated albumin magnetic nanospheres: synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro and in vivo targeting evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusha Tang

    Full Text Available A practical and effective strategy for synthesis of Folate-NIR 797-conjugated Magnetic Albumin Nanospheres (FA-NIR 797-MAN was developed. For this strategy, Magnetic Albumin Nanospheres (MAN, composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and bovine serum albumin (BSA, were covalently conjugated with folic acid (FA ligands to enhance the targeting capability of the particles to folate receptor (FR over-expressing tumours. Subsequently, a near-infrared (NIR fluorescent dye NIR 797 was conjugated with FA-conjugated MAN for in vivo fluorescence imaging. The FA-NIR 797-MAN exhibited low toxicity to a human nasopharyngeal epidermal carcinoma cell line (KB cells. Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and targeting ability of FA-NIR 797-MAN to KB tumours validated the highly selective affinity of FA-NIR 797-MAN for FR-positive tumours. In summary, the FA-NIR 797-MAN prepared here exhibited great potential for tumour imaging, since the near-infrared fluorescence contrast agents target cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. The high fluorescence intensity together with the targeting effect makes FA-NIR 797-MAN a promising candidate for imaging, monitoring, and early diagnosis of cancer at the molecular and cellular levels.

  4. Folate/NIR 797-conjugated albumin magnetic nanospheres: synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro and in vivo targeting evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiusha; An, Yanli; Liu, Dongfang; Liu, Peidang; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-01-01

    A practical and effective strategy for synthesis of Folate-NIR 797-conjugated Magnetic Albumin Nanospheres (FA-NIR 797-MAN) was developed. For this strategy, Magnetic Albumin Nanospheres (MAN), composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), were covalently conjugated with folic acid (FA) ligands to enhance the targeting capability of the particles to folate receptor (FR) over-expressing tumours. Subsequently, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye NIR 797 was conjugated with FA-conjugated MAN for in vivo fluorescence imaging. The FA-NIR 797-MAN exhibited low toxicity to a human nasopharyngeal epidermal carcinoma cell line (KB cells). Additionally, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the dynamic behaviour and targeting ability of FA-NIR 797-MAN to KB tumours validated the highly selective affinity of FA-NIR 797-MAN for FR-positive tumours. In summary, the FA-NIR 797-MAN prepared here exhibited great potential for tumour imaging, since the near-infrared fluorescence contrast agents target cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. The high fluorescence intensity together with the targeting effect makes FA-NIR 797-MAN a promising candidate for imaging, monitoring, and early diagnosis of cancer at the molecular and cellular levels.

  5. Comparison Between MIR and NIR Spectroscopic Techniques for the Determination of Fat and Protein Contents in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To compare mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopies for the determination of the fat and protein contents in milk, the same sample sets with varying concentrations of fat and protein were measured in the MIR range of 3 200-700 cm-1 and NIR range of 9 000-4 000 cm- 1. The spectral features in the two regions were analyzed. The MIR spectra of milk were characteristic due to the MIR inherent molecular specificity, whereas the NIR spectra were relatively characterless due to the NIR low selectivity. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models for fat and protein were developed by using both MIR and NIR spectra. MIR data with no pretreatment gave better results than NIR data. The square correlation coefficient ( R2) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.98 and 0.10 g/dL for fat and 0.97 and 0.11 g/dL for protein. With NIR techniques, satisfactory results were not obtained with raw data. However, NIR data after pretreatment gave similarly good results to the ones using MIR method. This paper indicates that either of the MIR and NIR spectral methods is reliable for the determination of the fat and protein contents.

  6. Hybrid EEG-fNIRS Asynchronous Brain-Computer Interface for Multiple Motor Tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Paolo Buccino

    Full Text Available Non-invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI have demonstrated great promise for neuroprosthetics and assistive devices. Here we aim to investigate methods to combine Electroencephalography (EEG and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS in an asynchronous Sensory Motor rhythm (SMR-based BCI. We attempted to classify 4 different executed movements, namely, Right-Arm-Left-Arm-Right-Hand-Left-Hand tasks. Previous studies demonstrated the benefit of EEG-fNIRS combination. However, since normally fNIRS hemodynamic response shows a long delay, we investigated new features, involving slope indicators, in order to immediately detect changes in the signals. Moreover, Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs have been applied to both EEG and fNIRS signals. 15 healthy subjects took part in the experiments and since 25 trials per class were available, CSPs have been regularized with information from the entire population of participants and optimized using genetic algorithms. The different features have been compared in terms of performance and the dynamic accuracy over trials shows that the introduced methods diminish the fNIRS delay in the detection of changes.

  7. A Fibrous Localized Drug Delivery Platform with NIR-Triggered and Optically Monitored Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Fu, Yike; Li, Yangyang; Ren, Zhaohui; Li, Xiang; Han, Gaorong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2016-09-06

    Implantable localized drug delivery systems (LDDSs) with intelligent functionalities have emerged as a powerful chemotherapeutic platform in curing cancer. Developing LDDSs with rationally controlled drug release and real-time monitoring functionalities holds promise for personalized therapeutic protocols but suffers daunting challenges. To overcome such challenges, a series of porous Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped CaTiO3 (CTO:Yb,Er) nanofibers, with specifically designed surface functionalization, were synthesized for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. The content of DOX released could be optically monitored by increase in the intensity ratio of green to red emission (I550/I660) of upconversion photoluminescent nanofibers under 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation owing to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect between DOX molecules and the nanofibers. More importantly, the 808 nm NIR irradiation enabled markedly accelerated DOX release, confirming representative NIR-triggered drug release properties. In consequence, such CTO:Yb,Er nanofibers presented significantly enhanced in vitro anticancer efficacy under NIR irradiation. This study has thus inspired another promising fibrous LDDS platform with NIR-triggered and optics-monitored DOX releasing for personalized tumor chemotherapy.

  8. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method.

  9. [Application of uncertainty assessment in NIR quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhong; Xu, Bing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jian-Yu; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The near infrared (NIR) spectra of Liuyi San samples were collected during the mixing process and the quantitative models by PLS (partial least squares) method were generated for the quantification of the concentration of glycyrrhizin. The PLS quantitative model had good calibration and prediction performances (r(cal) 0.998 5, RMSEC = 0.044 mg · g(-1); r(val) = 0.947 4, RMSEP = 0.124 mg · g(-1)), indicating that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid determination method of the concentration of glycyrrhizin in Liuyi San powder. After the validation tests were designed, the Liao-Lin-Iyer approach based on Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate β-content-γ-confidence tolerance intervals. Then the uncertainty was calculated, and the uncer- tainty profile was drawn. The NIR analytical method was considered valid when the concentration of glycyrrhizin is above 1.56 mg · g(-1) since the uncertainty fell within the acceptable limits (λ = ± 20%). The results showed that uncertainty assessment can be used in NIR quantitative models of glycyrrhizin for different concentrations and provided references for other traditional Chinese medicine to finish the uncertainty assessment using NIR quantitative analysis.

  10. Mental stress assessment using simultaneous measurement of EEG and fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shargie, Fares; Kiguchi, Masashi; Badruddin, Nasreen; Dass, Sarat C; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil Mohammad; Tang, Tong Boon

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies reported mental stress as one of the major contributing factors leading to various diseases such as heart attack, depression and stroke. An accurate stress assessment method may thus be of importance to clinical intervention and disease prevention. We propose a joint independent component analysis (jICA) based approach to fuse simultaneous measurement of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a means of stress assessment. For the purpose of this study, stress was induced by using an established mental arithmetic task under time pressure with negative feedback. The induction of mental stress was confirmed by salivary alpha amylase test. Experiment results showed that the proposed fusion of EEG and fNIRS measurements improves the classification accuracy of mental stress by +3.4% compared to EEG alone and +11% compared to fNIRS alone. Similar improvements were also observed in sensitivity and specificity of proposed approach over unimodal EEG/fNIRS. Our study suggests that combination of EEG (frontal alpha rhythm) and fNIRS (concentration change of oxygenated hemoglobin) could be a potential means to assess mental stress objectively.

  11. Estimation of soil parameters using VIS-NIR spectroscopy - Challenges and Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Thomas; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen; Dietrich, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Recently VIS-NIR spectroscopy has become a popular method for the prediction and mapping of soil parameters. It is a rapid, cost and time effective method to measure quantities like soil organic carbon (SOC), clay content or pH which are important information for e.g. precision agriculture or digital soil mapping. However, there is a need to calibrate measured field spectra against laboratory determined soil properties. In this regard, it is common to use data mining algorithms for calibration, statistical tools that discover empirically the relation between spectra and soil properties. However, each time a site-specific calibration model is required, which clearly limits the operational application of VIS-NIR calibration methods. Therefore, the incorporation of physical understanding regarding the relationship is desirable. So far three field campaigns have been conducted in Germany in order to collect soil data and connected spectral information. VIS-NIR data were measured using a mobile VIS-NIR spectrometer (Veris Technologies). Furthermore at each field campaign the geophysical methods Electromagnetic Induction and Gamma Ray Spectroscopy have been used to gather additional soil related information. The soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for SOC, texture and pH. Using common calibration methods like partial least square regression and site specific calibration models the specific soil parameters have been spatially mapped. This work will present results of the field campaigns and resulting recommendations. Additionally a conceptual framework will be presented how physical knowledge can be incorporated into the VIS-NIR calibration process.

  12. Determination of soil content in chlordecone (organochlorine pesticide) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, Didier, E-mail: didier.brunet@ird.f [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France); Woignier, Thierry [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Montpellier 2, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphael [CIRAD (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement), PRAM, BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Rangon, Luc [IRD, UMR Eco and Sols, PRAM (Pole de Recherche Agronomique de la Martinique), BP 213, Petit Morne, 97232 Le Lamentin, Martinique (French West Indies) (France); Barthes, Bernard G. [IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols (Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Biogeochimie des Sols), Montpellier SupAgro, Batiment 12, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2009-11-15

    Chlordecone is a toxic organochlorine insecticide that was used in banana plantations until 1993 in the French West Indies. This study aimed at assessing the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining chlordecone content in Andosols, Nitisols and Ferralsols from Martinique. Using partial least square regression, chlordecone content conventionally determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry could be correctly predicted by NIRS (Q{sup 2} = 0.75, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the total set), especially for samples with chlordecone content <12 mg kg{sup -1} or when the sample set was rather homogeneous (Q{sup 2} = 0.91, R{sup 2} = 0.82 for the Andosols). Conventional measures and NIRS predictions were poorly correlated for chlordecone content >12 mg kg{sup -1}, nevertheless ca. 80% samples were correctly predicted when the set was divided into three or four classes of chlordecone content. Thus NIRS could be considered a time- and cost-effective method for characterising soil contamination by chlordecone. - Soil content in chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, can be determined time- and cost-effectively using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

  13. In line NIR quantification of film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets during a fluid bed coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jeong; Seo, Da-Young; Lee, Hea-Eun; Wang, In-Chun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Jeong, Myung-Yung; Choi, Guang J

    2011-01-17

    Along with the risk-based approach, process analytical technology (PAT) has emerged as one of the key elements to fully implement QbD (quality-by-design). Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been extensively applied as an in-line/on-line analytical tool in biomedical and chemical industries. In this study, the film thickness on pharmaceutical pellets was examined for quantification using in-line NIR spectroscopy during a fluid-bed coating process. A precise monitoring of coating thickness and its prediction with a suitable control strategy is crucial to the quality assurance of solid dosage forms including dissolution characteristics. Pellets of a test formulation were manufactured and coated in a fluid-bed by spraying a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating solution. NIR spectra were acquired via a fiber-optic probe during the coating process, followed by multivariate analysis utilizing partial least squares (PLS) calibration models. The actual coating thickness of pellets was measured by two separate methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser diffraction particle size analysis (LD-PSA). Both characterization methods gave superb correlation results, and all determination coefficient (R(2)) values exceeded 0.995. In addition, a prediction coating experiment for 70min demonstrated that the end-point can be accurately designated via NIR in-line monitoring with appropriate calibration models. In conclusion, our approach combining in-line NIR monitoring with CLSM and LD-PSA can be applied as an effective PAT tool for fluid-bed pellet coating processes.

  14. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer.

  15. Hybrid EEG–fNIRS-Based Eight-Command Decoding for BCI: Application to Quadcopter Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid electroencephalography–functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG–fNIRS) scheme to decode eight active brain commands from the frontal brain region for brain–computer interface is presented. A total of eight commands are decoded by fNIRS, as positioned on the prefrontal cortex, and by EEG, around the frontal, parietal, and visual cortices. Mental arithmetic, mental counting, mental rotation, and word formation tasks are decoded with fNIRS, in which the selected features for classification and command generation are the peak, minimum, and mean ΔHbO values within a 2-s moving window. In the case of EEG, two eyeblinks, three eyeblinks, and eye movement in the up/down and left/right directions are used for four-command generation. The features in this case are the number of peaks and the mean of the EEG signal during 1 s window. We tested the generated commands on a quadcopter in an open space. An average accuracy of 75.6% was achieved with fNIRS for four-command decoding and 86% with EEG for another four-command decoding. The testing results show the possibility of controlling a quadcopter online and in real-time using eight commands from the prefrontal and frontal cortices via the proposed hybrid EEG–fNIRS interface. PMID:28261084

  16. The AlGaAs light emitting particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pozela, J; Silenas, A; Juciene, V; Dapkus, L; Jasutis, V; Tamulaitis, G; Zukauskas, A; Bendorius, R A

    1999-01-01

    An AlGaAs light emitting particle detector was fabricated and investigated experimentally. Light emitting semiconductor Al sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with graded-gap energy band structure were grown, and luminescence spectra were investigated. A light emitting X-ray detector was also fabricated. (author)

  17. Design and synthesis of highly luminescent near-infrared-emitting water-soluble CdTe/CdSe/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjin; Chen, Guanjiao; Wang, Jian; Ye, Bang-Ce; Zhong, Xinhua

    2009-10-19

    Applications of water-dispersible near-infrared (NIR)-emitting quantum dots (QDs) have been hampered by their instability and low photoluminescence (PL) efficiencies. In this paper, water-soluble highly luminescent NIR-emitting QDs were developed through constructing CdTe/CdSe/ZnS core/shell/shell nanostructure. The CdTe/CdSe type-II structure yields the QDs with NIR emission. By varying the size of CdTe cores and the thickness of the CdSe shell, the emission wavelength of the obtained nanostructure can span from 540 to 825 nm. In addition, the passivation of the ZnS shell with a substantially wide bandgap confines the excitons within the CdTe/CdSe interface and isolates them from the solution environment and consequently improves the stability of the nanostructure, especially in aqueous media. An effective shell-coating route was developed for the preparation of CdTe/CdSe core/shell nanostructures by selecting capping reagents with a strong coordinating capacity and adopting a low temperature for shell deposition. An additional ZnS shell was deposited around the outer layer of CdTe/CdSe QDs to form the core/shell/shell nanostructure through the decomposition of single molecular precursor zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in the crude CdTe/CdSe reaction solution. The water solubilization of the initially oil-soluble CdTe/CdSe/ZnS QDs was achieved through ligand replacement by 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdSe/ZnS QDs possess PL quantum yields as high as 84% in aqueous media, which is one of the best results for the luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals.

  18. Light Emitting Transistors of Organic Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2009-03-01

    Organic light emitting transistors (OLETs) are attracting considerable interest as a novel function of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Besides a smallest integration of light source and current switching devices, OLETs offer a new opportunity in the fundamental research on organic light emitting devices. The OLET device structure allows us to use organic single crystals, in contrast to the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), the research of which have been conducted predominantly on polycrystalline or amorphous thin films. In the case of OFETs, use of single crystals have produced a significant amount of benefits in the studies of pursuit for the highest performance limit of FETs, intrinsic transport mechanism in organic semiconductors, and application of the single crystal transistors. The study on OLETs have been made predominantly on polycrystalline films or multicomponent heterojunctions, and single crystal study is still limited to tetracene [1] and rubrene [2], which are materials with relatively high mobility, but with low photoluminescence efficiency. In this paper, we report fabrication of single crystal OLETs of several kinds of highly luminescent molecules, emitting colorful light, ranging from blue to red. Our strategy is single crystallization of monomeric or oligomeric molecules, which are known to have a very high photoluminescence efficiency. Here we report the result on single crystal LETs of rubrene (red), 4,4'-bis(diphenylvinylenyl)-anthracene (green), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophene-2-yl)benzene (AC5) (green), and 1,3,6,8-tetraphenylpyrene (TPPy) (blue), all of which displayed ambipolar transport as well as peculiar movement of voltage controlled movement of recombination zone, not only from the surface of the crystal but also from the edges of the crystals, indicting light confinement inside the crystal. Realization of ambipolar OLET with variety of single crystals indicates that the fabrication method is quite versatile to various light

  19. NIR-camera-based online diagnostics of laser beam welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Friedhelm; Braun, Holger; Keßler, Steffen; Pfitzner, Dieter; Rominger, Volker

    2012-03-01

    We have developed an on-axis camera-based online sensor system for laser beam welding diagnostics that detects the thermal radiation in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral range between 1200 and 1700 nm. In addition to a sensor in the visible (VIS) range, our camera detects the thermal radiation of the weld pool more clearly, and it is also sensible to the radiation of the solidified weld seam. The NIR images are analyzed by real-time image processing. Features are extracted from the images and evaluated to characterize the welding process. Keyhole and weld pool analysis complement VIS diagnostics, whereas the observation of the weld seam and heat affected zone with an NIR camera allows online heat flux thermography. By this means we are able to detect bad joints in overlap weldings ("false friends") online during the welding process.

  20. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  1. [Determination of acidity and vitamin C in apples using portable NIR analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Ya-Ting; Gu, Xuan; Ma, Jiang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong

    2011-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology based on a portable NIR analyzer, combined with kernel Isomap algorithm and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) has been applied to establishing quantitative models for prediction of acidity and vitamin C in six kinds of apple samples. The obtained results demonstrated that the fitting and the predictive accuracy of the models with kernel Isomap algorithm were satisfactory. The correlation between actual and predicted values of calibration samples (R(c)) obtained by the acidity model was 0.999 4, and for prediction samples (R(p)) was 0.979 9. The root mean square error of prediction set (RMSEP) was 0.055 8. For the vitamin C model, R(c) was 0.989 1, R(p) was 0.927 2, and RMSEP was 4.043 1. Results proved that the portable NIR analyzer can be a feasible tool for the determination of acidity and vitamin C in apples.

  2. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.

  3. New insights in forensic chemistry: NIR/Chemometrics analysis of toners for questioned documents examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materazzi, Stefano; Risoluti, Roberta; Pinci, Sara; Saverio Romolo, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRs) coupled to chemometrics was investigated for the first time as a new tool for the analysis of black toners to evaluate its application in forensic cases. Ten black toners from four manufacturers were included in this study and the acquired spectra were compared in order to differentiate toners. Multivariate statistical analysis based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered to develop a model of comparison of toners in questioned documents. Results demonstrated the capabilities of the approach NIR/Chemometrics to correctly identify toners when printed on different papers and to be not affected by the printing process. This study has shown that NIRs can be considered as a useful, fast, non-destructive tool providing the characterisation of toners in forensic caseworks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Corticospinal excitability changes to anodal tDCS elucidated with NIRS-EEG joint-imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindal, Utkarsh; Sood, Mehak; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy;

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate corticospinal excitability. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) - electroencephalography (EEG) joint-imaging during and after anodal tDCS to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along...... with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz - 11.25 Hz. In two separate studies, we investigated local post-tDCS alterations from baseline at the site of anodal tDCS using NIRS-EEG/tDCS joint-imaging as well as local post-tDCS alterations in motor evoked potentials (MEP...... that the innovative technologies for portable NIRS-EEG neuroimaging may be leveraged to objectively quantify the progress (e.g., corticospinal excitability alterations) and dose tDCS intervention as an adjuvant treatment during neurorehabilitation....

  5. Prediction of Fiber Composition and Silicification for Rice Straw with Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Heng-sheng; CHEN Jun-chen; ZHAO Wu-shan; NI De-bin; TANG Bao-sha; Valdes E V

    2002-01-01

    The silicification of rice straw is a factor that affects the grain production and straw nutritive quality. The procedure of chemical analysis for silicon in straw is, however, time and labor consuming, and slightly poor in accuracy. The study has attempted to apply near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)technique as an advanced alternative to predict the fiber composition and silicification in rice straw. Ninetytwo samples from different seasons and varieties were collected over the Fujian Province. Their chemical analyses were carried on the aspects of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, extractable and non-extractable silicon,and the results were used as a database for NIRS analyses. The prediction model was developed through modified partial least square regression (MPLS) for a calibration program. The factors that may affect the calibration, cross-validation and the prediction for the application of NIRS on rice straw were also discussed.

  6. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories. PMID:25874818

  7. Monte Carlo simulation on the effect of contact pressure on in vivo NIRS measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Lu, Junsheng; Zhang, Hao; Rong, Xuzheng; Ma, Zhenhe; Xu, Kexin

    2014-02-01

    NIRS analysis is considered to be a promising noninvasive detection technique. Existing research results show that optical properties of the human skin tissue will change with different contact pressures when contact survey mode is used for in vivo NIRS measurement. The impact of the contact pressure might be greater than the impact of glucose concentration on the spectral data of NIRS. The uncertainty caused by pressure in vivo, makes it extremely difficult to get the high SNR-spectrum. In this talk, the Monte Carlo simulation has been carried on under the condition of different contact pressure. Simulation results show that the diffused reflectance and transmittance increase with rising contact pressure. Moreover, the simulation results show that the effects of contact pressure are larger than the effects of glucose concentration. Therefore it is promising to make comprehensive utilization of diffused reflectance and transmittance to eliminate the interference which caused by contact pressure.

  8. Bibliographic compilation of NIR spectroscopy for stars in the Galactic O-Star Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Robledo, Simón Torres; Arias, Julia; Morrell, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out a bibliographic compilation of near-infrared (NIR)(0.7-5.0 um) spectroscopic studies available for stars in the Galactic O Star Catalog (GOSC, Ma\\'iz Apell\\'aniz et al. 2004). This compilation allows us to quantify the precise degree of knowledge about NIR spectral information for GOSC sources, such as band coverage, spectral resolution, equivalent-width measurements, etc. This bibliographic compilation has a clear next step toward the development of a new catalog of O-type stars observed only in the NIR, which will be annexed to the GOSC. In this poster paper we present preliminary results derived from a set of different attributes extracted from the retrieved papers.

  9. Investigation of NIR hyperspectral imaging for discriminating melamine in milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaping; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Lee, Hoyoung; Ying, Yibin

    2013-05-01

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) contamination of food has become an urgent and broadly recognized issue for which rapid and accurate identification methods are needed by the food industry. In this study, the feasibility and effectiveness of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was investigated for detecting melamine in milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR images (144 bands spanning from 990 to 1700 nm) were acquired for Petri dishes containing samples of milk powder mixed with melamine at various concentrations (0.02% to 1%). Spectral bands that showed the most significant differences between pure milk and pure melamine were selected, and two-band difference analysis was applied to the spectrum of each pixel in the sample images to identify melamine particles in milk powders. The resultant images effectively allowed visualization of melamine particle distributions in the samples. The study demonstrated that NIR hyperspectral imaging techniques can qualitatively and quantitatively identify melamine adulteration in milk powders.

  10. Decoding of four movement directions using hybrid NIRS-EEG brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jawad Khan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI’s multimodal technology enables precision brain-signal classification that can be used in the formulation of control commands. In the present study, an experimental hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy-electroencephalography (NIRS-EEG technique was used to extract and decode four different types of brain signals. The NIRS setup was positioned over the prefrontal brain region, and the EEG over the left and right motor cortex regions. Twelve subjects participating in the experiment were shown four direction symbols, namely, forward, backward, left and right. The control commands for forward and backward movement were estimated by performing arithmetic mental tasks related to oxy-hemoglobin (HbO changes. The left and right directions commands were associated with right and left hand tapping, respectively. The high classification accuracies achieved showed that the four different control signals can be accurately estimated using the hybrid NIRS-EEG technology.

  11. [Achievement of the noninvasive measurement for human blood glucose with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yan; Ding, Dong; Song, Li-qiang; Gu, Lin-na; Yang, Peng; Tang, Yu-guo

    2005-06-01

    The noninvasive measurement of human blood glucose was achieved with NIR diffusion reflectance spectrum method. The thumb fingertip NIR diffusion reflectance spectra of six different age healthy volunteers were collected using Nexus-870 and its NIR fiber port smart accessory. The test was implemented with changing the blood glucose concentration for the limosis and satiation of every volunteer. The calibration model was set up using PLS method with the smoothing, baseline correction and first derivatives pretreatment spectrum in the 7500-8500 cm(-1) region for single volunteer, the same age combination and that of different age. When the spectrum was obtained, the actual blood glucose value of every spectrun sample was demarcated using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The correlation between the calibration value and true value for single volunteer is better than that for the combination of volunteers, the correlative coefficients are all over 0.90471, RMSECs are all less than 0.171.

  12. Bipolar Host Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-02-01

    It is important to balance holes and electrons in the emitting layer of organic light-emitting diodes to maximize recombination efficiency and the accompanying external quantum efficiency. Therefore, the host materials of the emitting layer should transport both holes and electrons for the charge balance. From this perspective, bipolar hosts have been popular as the host materials of thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices and phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. In this review, we have summarized recent developments of bipolar hosts and suggested perspectives of host materials for organic light-emitting diodes.

  13. Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2008-02-01

    Laminated active matrix organic light-emitting device (AMOLED) realizing top emission by using bottom-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) structure was proposed. The multilayer structure of OLED deposited in the conventional sequence is not on the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane but on the OLED plane. The contact between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of TFT backplane and metal cathode of OLED plane is implemented by using transfer electrode. The stringent pixel design for aperture ratio of the bottom-emitting AMOLED, as well as special technology for the top ITO electrode of top-emitting AMOLED, is unnecessary in the laminated AMOLED.

  14. The transparency of the universe for very high energy gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Horns, D

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of very high energy gamma-rays ($E>100$~GeV) over cosmological distances is suppressed by pair-production processes with the ubiquitous extra-galactic soft photon background, mainly in the optical to near infra-red. The detailed spectroscopy of gamma-ray emitting blazars has revealed the signature of this absorption process leading to a meaningful measurement of the background photon field which is linked to the star-forming history of the universe. Deviations from the expected absorption have been claimed in the past. Here the status of the observations is summarized, an update on the search for the persisting anomalous transparency is given and discussed.

  15. Pancreas-targeted NIR fluorophores for dual-channel image-guided abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Gravier, Julien; Park, GwangLi; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V; Henary, Maged; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas-related complications are some of the most serious ones in abdominal surgery. The goal of this study was to develop and validate novel near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores that would enable real-time pancreas imaging to avoid the intraoperative pancreatic injury. After initial screening of a large NIR fluorophore library, the performance of 3 selected pancreas-targeted 700 nm NIR fluorophores, T700-H, T700-F, and MB, were quantified in mice, rats, and pigs. Dose ranging using 25 and 100 nmol, and 2.5 µmol of T700-F, and its imaging kinetics over a 4 h period were tested in each species. Three different 800 nm NIR fluorophores were employed for dual-channel FLARE™ imaging in pigs: 2 μmol of ZW800-1 for vessels and kidney, 1 μmol of ZW800-3C for lymph nodes, and 2 μmol of ESNF31 for adrenal glands. T700-F demonstrated the highest signal to background ratio (SBR), with peak SBR at 4 h postinjection in mice. In pigs, T700-F produced an SBR≥2 against muscle, spleen, and lymph nodes for up to 8 h after a single intravenous injection. The combination of T700-F with each 800 nm NIR fluorophore provided simultaneous dual-channel intraoperative imaging of pancreas with surrounding organs in real time. Pancreas-targeted NIR fluorophores combined with the FLARE dual-channel imaging system enable the real-time intraoperative pancreas imaging which helps surgeons perform safer and more curative abdominal surgeries.

  16. In-vivo evaluation of clindamycin release from glyceryl monooleate-alginate microspheres by NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amir Ibrahim; Ahmed, Osama A A; Amin, Suzan; Elkadi, Omar Anwar; Kassem, Mohamed A

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared (NIR) transmission spectroscopic technique to determine clindamycin plasma concentration after oral administration of clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres using rabbits as animal models. Lyophilized clindamycin-plasma standard samples at a concentration range of 0.001-10 μg/ml were prepared and analyzed by NIR and HPLC as a reference method. NIR calibration model was developed with partial least square (PLS) regression analysis. Then, a single dose in-vivo evaluation was carried out and clindamycin-plasma concentration was estimated by NIR. Over 24 h time period, the pharmacokinetic parameters of clindamycin were calculated for the clindamycin loaded GMO-alginate microspheres (F3) and alginate microspheres (F2), and compared with the plain drug (F1). PLS calibration model with 7-principal components (PC), and 8000-9200 cm(-1) spectral range shows a good correlation between HPLC and NIR values with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), and calibration coefficient (R(2)) values of 0.245, 1.164, and 0.9753, respectively, which suggests that NIR transmission technique can be used for drug-plasma analysis without any extraction procedure. F3 microspheres exhibited controlled and prolonged absorption Tmax of 4.0 vs. 1.0 and 0.5 h; Cmax of 2.37±0.3 vs. 3.81±0.8 and 5.43±0.7 μg/ml for F2 and F1, respectively. These results suggest that the combination of GMO and alginate (1:4 w/w) could be successfully employed for once daily clindamycin microspheres formulation which confirmed by low Cmax and high Tmax values.

  17. In vivo and in situ tracking cancer chemotherapy by highly photostable NIR fluorescent theranostic prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xumeng; Sun, Xuanrong; Guo, Zhiqian; Tang, Jianbin; Shen, Youqing; James, Tony D; Tian, He; Zhu, Weihong

    2014-03-05

    In vivo monitoring of the biodistribution and activation of prodrugs is urgently required. Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence-active fluorophores with excellent photostability are preferable for tracking drug release in vivo. Herein, we describe a NIR prodrug DCM-S-CPT and its polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) loaded nanoparticles as a potent cancer therapy. We have conjugated a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran derivative as the NIR fluorophore with camptothecin (CPT) as the anticancer drug using a disulfide linker. In vitro experiments verify that the high intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentrations in tumor cells cause cleavage of the disulfide linker, resulting in concomitantly the active drug CPT release and significant NIR fluorescence turn-on with large Stokes shift (200 nm). The NIR fluorescence of DCM-S-CPT at 665 nm with fast response to GSH can act as a direct off-on signal reporter for the GSH-activatable prodrug. Particularly, DCM-S-CPT possesses much better photostability than ICG, which is highly desirable for in situ fluorescence-tracking of cancer chemotherapy. DCM-S-CPT has been successfully utilized for in vivo and in situ tracking of drug release and cancer therapeutic efficacy in living animals by NIR fluorescence. DCM-S-CPT exhibits excellent tumor-activatable performance when intravenously injected into tumor-bearing nude mice, as well as specific cancer therapy with few side effects. DCM-S-CPT loaded in PEG-PLA nanoparticles shows even higher antitumor activity than free CPT, and is also retained longer in the plasma. The tumor-targeting ability and the specific drug release in tumors make DCM-S-CPT as a promising prodrug, providing significant advances toward deeper understanding and exploration of theranostic drug-delivery systems.

  18. [Rapid identification of potato cultivars using NIR-excited fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fen; Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Benjamin, Arnold Julian Vinoj; Hong, Tian-Sheng; Zhiwei, Huang

    2014-03-01

    Potato is one of the most important food in the world. Rapid and noninvasive identification of potato cultivars plays a important role in the better use of varieties. In this study, The identification ability of optical spectroscopy techniques, including near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy, for invasive detection of potato cultivars was evaluated. A rapid NIR Raman spectroscopy system was applied to measure the composite Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy of 3 different species of potatoes (98 samples in total) under 785 nm laser light excitation. Then pure Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy were abstracted from the composite spectroscopy, respectively. At last, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to analyze and classify Raman spectra of 3 different types of potatoes. All the samples were divided into two sets at random: the calibration set (74samples) and prediction set (24 samples), the model was validated using a leave-one-out, cross-validation method. The results showed that both the NIR-excited fluorescence spectra and pure Raman spectra could be used to identify three cultivars of potatoes. The fluorescence spectrum could distinguish the Favorita variety well (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 0.86 and accuracy: 0.92), but the result for Diamant (sensitivity: 0.75, specificity: 0.75 and accuracy: 0. 75) and Granola (sensitivity: 0.16, specificity: 0.89 and accuracy: 0.71) cultivars identification were a bit poorer. We demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy uncovered the main biochemical compositions contained in potato species, and provided a better classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 1 and accuracy: 1 for all 3 potato cultivars identification) among the three types of potatoes as compared to fluorescence spectroscopy.

  19. Neuroplastic effects of transcranial near-infrared stimulation (tNIRS on the motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eChaieb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared light stimulation of the brain has been claimed to improve deficits caused by traumatic brain injury and stroke. Here, we exploit the effect of transcranial near-infrared stimulation (tNIRS as a tool to modulate cortical excitability in the healthy human brain. tNIRS was applied at a wavelength of 810 nm for 10 minutes over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1. Both single-pulse and paired-pulse measures of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS were used to assess levels of cortical excitability in the corticospinal pathway and intracortical circuits. The serial reaction time task (SRTT was used to investigate the possible effect of tNIRS on implicit learning.By evaluating the mean amplitude of single-pulse TMS elicited motor-evoked-potentials (MEPs a significant decrease of the amplitude was observed up to 30 minutes post-stimulation, compared to baseline. Furthermore, the short interval cortical inhibition (SICI was increased and facilitation (ICF decreased significantly after tNIRS. The results from the SRTT experiment show that there was no net effect of stimulation on the performance of the participants. Results of a study questionnaire demonstrated that tNIRS did not induce serious side effects apart from light headache and fatigue. Nevertheless, 66% were able to detect the difference between active and sham stimulation conditions.In this study we provide further evidence that tNIRS is suitable as a tool for influencing cortical excitability and activity in the healthy human brain.

  20. α-NaYF4:Yb3+-Tm3+@CaF2 nanocrystals for NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruozhen; Zhou, Jiajia; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Shengjun; Xiao, Zhen; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Shiqing

    2017-01-01

    The approach of lanthanides doping upconversion temperature sensing exhibits high superiority in bioscience. However, most of the upconversion nanothermometers show their fluorescences temperature sensing beyond biological transparent window (650-950 nm) while suffering from the interference of surrounding environment. Here we report a nanoprobe with ultrasmall size, i.e. α-NaYF4:Yb-Tm@CaF2 nanocrystal, which has a sensitive capability to realize NIR-to-NIR temperature sensing. Temperature sensing sensitivities through 3H4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3H6 transitions of Tm3+ ions are evaluated in temperature region of 313-373 K. The results indicate that α-NaYF4:Yb-Tm@CaF2 nanocrystal is a promising candidate for biological temperature sensing.

  1. Evaluation of Pleasure-Displeasure Induced by Use of Lipsticks with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): Usefulness of 2-Channel NIRS in Neuromarketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, M; Okabe, M; Tagai, K; Sakatani, K

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) would be a useful neuromarketing tool, we employed NIRS to evaluate the difference of pleasure-displeasure in women, induced by the use of different types of lipsticks. The subjects used lipsticks A and B; A is softer than B. Concentration changes of oxy-Hb were measured in the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) during use of lipsticks A and B. We evaluated the right and left dominancy of PFC activity by calculating the Laterality Index (LI) (LI = leftΔoxy-Hb - rightΔoxy-Hb); positive LI indicates left-dominant activity while negative LI indicate right-dominant activity. We found a significant interaction between the use of lipsticks A and B, using a two-way factorial analysis of variance [F(1,13) = 9.63, p neuromarketing tool, since it allows objective assessment of pleasure-unpleasure.

  2. Design, construction, and testing of an automated NIR in-line analysis system for potatoes. Part I: Off-line NIR feasibility study for the characterization of potato composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Drost, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    An off-line near-infrared reflectance (NIR) feasibility study was conducted to explore the critical steps in the NIR determination of the major potato constituents (dry matter, starch, and protein) in relatively large (10 kg) potato samples. The results were important for the design of an automated

  3. Design, construction, and testing of an automated NIR in-line analysis system for potatoes. Part I: Off-line NIR feasibility study for the characterization of potato composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Drost, W.C.

    2010-01-01

    An off-line near-infrared reflectance (NIR) feasibility study was conducted to explore the critical steps in the NIR determination of the major potato constituents (dry matter, starch, and protein) in relatively large (10 kg) potato samples. The results were important for the design of an automated

  4. Do we need a new family of optical-NIR extinction laws?

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz

    2012-01-01

    I consider whether we can significantly improve the Cardelli et al. (1989) family of extinction laws using new data and techniques. There are six different aspects that need to be treated: The use of monochromatic quantities, the three different wavelength regimes (NIR, optical and UV), the sample, and the photometric calibration. Excluding the behavior in the NIR and UV, I discuss the other four aspects and propose a new family of extinction laws derived from VLT/FLAMES and HST/WFC3 data.

  5. Estimating Leaf Water Status from Vis-Nir Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Established approaches involve measurements in the thermal infrared and the 900-2000nm reflective infrared. Less popular UV-visible-NIR techniques presumably deserve research attention, because photochemical changes linked to plant water status manifest spectral light scattering and absorption changes. Here we monitored the visible and NIR light reflected from the leaf interior as well as the leaf transmittance as the relative water content of corn (Zeamays L.) leaves decreased. Our results highlight the importance of both scattering effects and effects due to absorption by leaf pigments.

  6. Pixel-by-pixel VIS/NIR and LIR sensor fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Evan; Zhang, James S.; Song, Vivian W.; Chin, Ken P.; Hu, Gelbert

    2003-01-01

    Visible (VIS) camera (such as CCD) or Near Infrared (NIR) camera (such as low light level CCD or image intensifier) has high resolution and is easy to distinguish enemy and foe, but it cannot see through thin fog/cloud, heavy smoke/dust, foliage, camouflage, and darkness. The Long Infrared (LIR) imager can overcome above problems, but the resolution is too low and it cannot see the NIR aiming light from enemy. The best solution is to fuse the VIS/NIR and LIR sensors to overcome their shortcomings and take advantages of both sensors. In order to see the same target without parallax, the fusio system must have a common optical aperature. In this paper, three common optical apertures are designed: common reflective objective lens, common beam splitter, and common transmissive objective lens. The first one has very small field of view and the second one needs two heads, so the best choice is the third one, but we must find suitable optical materials and correct the color aberrations from 0.6 to 12 μ. It is a tough job. By choosing ZnSe as the first common piece of the objective lens and using glass for NIR and Ge (or IR glass) for LIR as rest pieces, we only need to and are able to correct the aberrations from 0.6 to 1.0 μ for NIR and from 8 to 12 μ for LIR. Finally, a common reflective objective lens and the common beam splitter are also successfully designed. Five application examples are given. In the digital signal processing, we use only one Altera chip. After inserting data, scaling the image size, and adjusting the signal level, the LIR will have the same format and same pixel number of the VIS/NIR, so real-time pixel-by-pixel sensor fusion is realized. The digital output can be used for further image processing and automatic target recognition, such as if we overlap the LIR image on the VIS/NIR image for missile guidance or rifle sight we don't need to worry about the time and the environment again. A gum-size wireless transmitter is also designed that is

  7. Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-05-01

    A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.

  8. Monitoring of whey quality with NIR spectroscopy--a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Lomborg, Carina Juel

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring of liquid whey quality parameters during protein production process has been tested. The parameters included total solids, lactose, protein and fat content. The samples for the experiment were taken from real industrial processes and had a large variability for most of the parameters. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to make the prediction models based on NIR spectra taken at 30 and 40°C. Using proper wavelength range allowed to get models for prediction of fat, protein and amount of total solids with very high precision and accuracy. The lactose was found to be the most challenging parameter.

  9. Monitoring lipase-catalyzed interesterification for bulky fats modification with FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Lai, Xuxin; Zhang, Hong

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates the application of FT-IR and FT-NIR spectroscopy to monitor the enzymatic interesterification process for bulky fat modification. The reaction was conducted between palm stearin and coconut oil (70/30, w/w) with the catalysis of Lipozyme TL IM at 70°C in a batch reactor...... (PLS) regression. High correlations (r > 0.96) were obtained from cross validations of the data estimated by FT-IR, FT-NIRand above-mentioned conventional analytical methods, except for correlations (r = 0.90-0,95) between FT-IR and SFC profiles. Overall, FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with transmission...

  10. Development of NIR 2000 Near Infrared Spectrometer%NIR-2000型近红外光谱技术的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆婉珍

    2000-01-01

    NIR-2000近红外光谱仪结合分析的需要,经过反复论证、研制、开发及修正,目前已小批量生产.经过全过程的实践,使我们对于分析仪器的开发有了一些新的体会.

  11. Multimodal neuroimaging of prefrontal cortex (dys)function: EEG, fNIRS, fNIRS-fMRI and Imaging Genetics approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Heinzel, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The present cumulative dissertation comprises three neuroimaging studies using different techniques, functional tasks and experimental variables of diverse nature to investigate human prefrontal cortex (PFC) (dys)function as well as methodological aspects of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). (1) Both dopamine (DA) availability (“inverted U-model”) and excitatory versus inhibitory DA receptor stimulation (“dual-state theory”) have been linked to PFC processing and cognitive contro...

  12. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  13. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad; Beeckman, Jeroen; Hens, Zeger; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1). Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  14. Atomically thin quantum light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Berraquero, Carmen; Barbone, Matteo; Kara, Dhiren M.; Chen, Xiaolong; Goykhman, Ilya; Yoon, Duhee; Ott, Anna K.; Beitner, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ferrari, Andrea C.; Atatüre, Mete

    2016-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides are optically active, layered materials promising for fast optoelectronics and on-chip photonics. We demonstrate electrically driven single-photon emission from localized sites in tungsten diselenide and tungsten disulphide. To achieve this, we fabricate a light-emitting diode structure comprising single-layer graphene, thin hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenide mono- and bi-layers. Photon correlation measurements are used to confirm the single-photon nature of the spectrally sharp emission. These results present the transition metal dichalcogenide family as a platform for hybrid, broadband, atomically precise quantum photonics devices.

  15. Efficient organic light emitting-diodes (OLEDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Following two decades of intense research globally, the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has steadily emerged as the ultimate display technology of choice for the coming decades. Portable active matrix OLED displays have already become prevalent, and even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being mass-produced. More exotic applications such as wearable displays have been commercialized recently. With the burgeoning success in displays, researchers are actively bringing the technology forward into the exciting solid-state lighting market. This book presents the knowledge needed for

  16. Hybrid fluorescent layer emitting polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanorods have anisotropic absorption and emission properties. In this work a hybrid luminescent layer is produced based on a mixture of CdSe/CdS nanorods dispersed in a liquid crystal that is aligned by an electric field and polymerized by UV illumination. The film emits light with polarization ratio 0.6 (polarization contrast 4:1. Clusters of nanorods in liquid crystal can be avoided by applying an AC electric field with sufficient amplitude. This method can be made compatible with large-scale processing on flexible transparent substrates. Thin polarized light emitters can be used in LCD backlights or solar concentrators to increase the efficiency.

  17. Silicon Light Emitting Devices in CMOS Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-Da; LIU Hai-Jun; LIU Jin-Bin; GU Ming; HUANG Bei-Ju

    2007-01-01

    @@ Two silicon light emitting devices with different structures are realized in standard 0.35 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. They operate in reverse breakdown mode and can be turned on at 8.3 V. Output optical powers of 13.6nW and 12.1 nW are measured at 10 V and 100 mA, respectively, and both the calculated light emission intensities are more than 1 mW/cm2. The optical spectra of the two devices are between 600-790 nm with a clear peak near 760 nm.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of epilithic material in streams has a potential for monitoring impact from mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Jan; Nilsson, Mats; Bigler, Christian; Brooks, Stephen J; Renberg, Ingemar

    2007-04-15

    There is an increasing demand for cost-effective methods for environmental monitoring, and here we assess the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on epilithic material from streams (material covering submerged stones) as a new method for monitoring the impact of pollution from mining and mining-related industries. NIRS, a routine technique in industry, registers the chemical properties of organic material on a molecular level and can detect minute alterations in the composition of epilithic material. Epilithic samples from 65 stream sites (42 uncontaminated and 23 contaminated) in northern Sweden were analyzed. The NIRS approach was evaluated by comparing it with the results of chemical analyses and diatom analyses of the same samples. Based on Principal Component Analysis, the NIRS data distinguished contaminated from uncontaminated sites and performed slightly betterthan chemical analyses and clearly betterthan diatom analyses. Of the streams designated a priori as contaminated, 74% were identified as contaminated by NIRS, 65% were identified by chemical analysis, and 26% were identified by diatom analysis. Unlike chemical analyses of water samples, NIRS data reflect biological impacts in the streams, and the epilithic material integrates impact over time. Given that, and the simplicity of NIRS-analyses, further studies to assess the use of NIRS of epilithic material as an inexpensive environmental monitoring method are justified.

  19. Recent advances in the use of NIR spectroscopy for qualitative control and protection of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies on the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the qualitative characterization of extra virgin olive oil, are reported and discussed in this paper. Research results confirms that NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometric data analysis, allows to simultaneously evaluate all qual...

  20. Analysis of aqueous solutions by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). I. Titrations of strong acids with strong bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molt, K.; Cho, Y. J.

    1995-04-01

    The titration of 1 M HCl with 2 M NaOH was observed by NIR-spectrometry. The measured spectra can be evaluated quantitatively for calibration of the H +- and OH --concentration. The NIRS errors with respect to the prediction of the pH and the equivalence point are discussed.

  1. Improved micro-distribution of antibody-photon absorber conjugates after initial near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Tadanobu; Nakamura, Yuko; Sato, Kazuhide; Harada, Toshiko; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-06-28

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a targeted cancer therapy which uses an antibody-photo absorber conjugate (APC) and near infrared light exposure, dramatically improves nano-drug delivery into treated tumor beds due to enhanced vascular permeability. We investigated the micro-distribution of APCs in a variety of NIR-PIT treated tumors. Either cetuximab (cet) or trastuzumab (tra) conjugated with IR700 (cet-tra-IR700) was administered, as appropriate, to each mouse model of tumor. Tumor-bearing mice implanted with A431-GFP, MDAMB468-GFP, 3T3Her2-GFP or N87-GFP were separated into 5 groups: group 1=no treatment; group 2=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., no light exposure; group 3=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure; group 4=cet-tra-IR700 i.v. and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. at 24h but no light exposure; group 5=cet-tra-IR700 i.v., NIR light exposure and additional cet-tra-IR700 i.v. immediately after NIR but no additional NIR light exposure. In vivo, ex vivo and microscopic fluorescence imaging was performed. Fluorescence from the surface of the tumor (s-tumor) was compared to fluorescence from deeper areas of the tumor (d-tumor). In general, there was no significant difference in the fluorescence intensity of GFP in the tumors among all groups, however the highest IR700 fluorescence intensity was consistently shown in group 5 tumors due to added APC after NIR-PIT. Fluorescence microscopy in all tumor types demonstrated that GFP relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) in s-tumor was significantly lower in group 3 and 5 (NIR-PIT groups) than in group 1, 2, and 4 (no NIR-PIT) yet there was no significant difference in d-tumor RFI among all groups. IR700 fluorescent RFI in the d-tumor was highest in group 5 (NIR-PIT+additional APC) compared to the other groups. Cell killing after NIR-PIT was primarily on the surface, however, APCs administered immediately after NIR-PIT penetrated deeper into tissue resulting in improved cell killing after a 2nd NIR-PIT session. This

  2. HF radiation emitted by chaotic leader processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, J. S.; Edirisinghe, M.; Fernando, M.; Montaño, R.; Cooray, V.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents direct measurements of narrowband 10 MHz HF radiation from so-called “chaotic leaders” associated with subsequent return strokes. Although the term is controversial and poorly defined, we find that more than 30% of subsequent strokes in close lightning flashes contain electric field characteristics that are best described as “chaotic”. In earlier studies, return strokes have consistently been observed to be the strongest sources of HF radiation, but the results for leader processes are less consistent. We also observe return strokes to be the main HF emitter, and the leaders before the first return stroke in a flash sequence also emit HF though somewhat less intensely. The leaders preceding subsequent strokes typically emit little or no HF radiation, whether they are dart or dart-stepped leaders. However, it was observed that the presence of a chaotic component increases the leader HF intensity dramatically Defining the HF intensity unequivocally can be problematic for processes like chaotic leaders which have a combination of continuous and impulsive phenomena. Two time-domain methods were used to measure the HF intensity, the peak energy and the RMS energy. In the frequency domain these correspond to the energy spectral density (ESD) and power spectral density (PSD), respectively. It was found that the methods are not necessarily compatible. Thus, it is suggested that to clarify future work, leader processes should be characterized by the PSD rather than the ESD.

  3. Organic bistable light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Liu, Jie; Pyo, Seungmoon; Yang, Yang

    2002-01-01

    An organic bistable device, with a unique trilayer structure consisting of organic/metal/organic sandwiched between two outmost metal electrodes, has been invented. [Y. Yang, L. P. Ma, and J. Liu, U.S. Patent Pending, U.S. 01/17206 (2001)]. When the device is biased with voltages beyond a critical value (for example 3 V), the device suddenly switches from a high-impedance state to a low-impedance state, with a difference in injection current of more than 6 orders of magnitude. When the device is switched to the low-impedance state, it remains in that state even when the power is off. (This is called "nonvolatile" phenomenon in memory devices.) The high-impedance state can be recovered by applying a reverse bias; therefore, this bistable device is ideal for memory applications. In order to increase the data read-out rate of this type of memory device, a regular polymer light-emitting diode has been integrated with the organic bistable device, such that it can be read out optically. These features make the organic bistable light-emitting device a promising candidate for several applications, such as digital memories, opto-electronic books, and recordable papers.

  4. Spectrochemical studies with {beta}-emitting radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesta, Miguel A.; Plivelic, Tomas S.; Mainardi, Raul T. [Cordoba Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Atronomia y Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Electrons emitted by {sup 90} Sr radioactive source and positrons from a {sup 22} Na source were used to produce ionizations in the constituents of a sample. The sources have similar energy spectra and this allowed us to compare the characteristic radiation emission efficiencies. The new proposed experimental set up for radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is of a transparent source type and provides at least a ten times increase in the intensity of characteristic x-rays emitted by the sample as compared with a standard set up in XRFA. It is shown that this fact, together with the relatively high energy of the beta particles, make it possible to carry out a mirror elemental analysis in a few minutes using low intensity radioactive sources (no special handling license). Preliminary experimental results are shown using both electrons and positrons impinging on pure and composed samples and simple analytical expressions are provided for the characteristic radiation intensity as detected by an HPGe detector. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Electrically and Optically Readable Light Emitting Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Tan, Wei-Chun; Lu, Meng-Lin; Pan, Tai-Chun; Yang, Ying-Jay; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2014-06-01

    Electrochemical metallization memories based on redox-induced resistance switching have been considered as the next-generation electronic storage devices. However, the electronic signals suffer from the interconnect delay and the limited reading speed, which are the major obstacles for memory performance. To solve this problem, here we demonstrate the first attempt of light-emitting memory (LEM) that uses SiO2 as the resistive switching material in tandem with graphene-insulator-semiconductor (GIS) light-emitting diode (LED). By utilizing the excellent properties of graphene, such as high conductivity, high robustness and high transparency, our proposed LEM enables data communication via electronic and optical signals simultaneously. Both the bistable light-emission state and the resistance switching properties can be attributed to the conducting filament mechanism. Moreover, on the analysis of current-voltage characteristics, we further confirm that the electroluminescence signal originates from the carrier tunneling, which is quite different from the standard p-n junction model. We stress here that the newly developed LEM device possesses a simple structure with mature fabrication processes, which integrates advantages of all composed materials and can be extended to many other material systems. It should be able to attract academic interest as well as stimulate industrial application.

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  7. Recent progress of near-infrared (NIR) imaging--development of novel instruments and their applicability for practical situations--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Genkawa, Takuma; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to outline the recent progress in near-infrared (NIR) imaging technology with particular emphasis on new instrumentation. Superior features of NIR imaging such as suitability for nondestructive and in-situ analysis, transmission ability, availability of optical fibers, high-speed monitoring and stability are very attractive not only for laboratory-based studies but also for diverse practical applications. In this review, introduction to chemical imaging is described, and then, a comparison among NIR, infrared (IR) and Raman imaging are made. Furthermore, the features of new NIR imaging instruments developed by our research group in collaboration with Yokogawa Electric Corporation and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. are discussed. Finally, some examples of applications of NIR imaging are introduced. Particularly, the performance and usefulness of the newly-developed imaging devices are demonstrated through their applications to pharmaceutical tablets and polymers.

  8. Realization of Red-Organic-Light Emitting Diode by Introducing the Double Emitting Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜文龙; 侯晶莹; 赵毅; 刘式墉

    2003-01-01

    A saturated red-organic-light emitting diode (OLED) has been realized by doping an emitting material both in the hole-transporting layer (HTL) and the electron-transporting layer (ETL) to form double emitting zone. The red dopant, 4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyraan (DCJTB), was doped into the N,N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) layer and the tris (8-quinolinolate)aluminium (Alq3) layer, both of which act as the emitting layers. The optimal device, with a structure of ITO/CuPc/NPB/NPB:DCJTB/Alqa:DCJTB/Alqa/LiF/Al, showed good chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.63,y = 0.36) at 8 V. Uniquely, the current efficiency of the device was relatively independent of the drive voltage in a wide range from 8 V to 20 V. That may be helpful to ameliorate the lifetime of the organic electroluminescent devices and to adjust the grey-scale for the future full-colour display panel.

  9. Rigorous simulations of emitting and non-emitting nano-optical structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.T.A.

    2010-01-01

    In the next decade, several applications of nanotechnology will change our lives. LED lighting is about to replace the common light bulb. The main advantages are its energy efficiency and long lifetime. LEDs can be much more efficient, when part of the emitted light that is currently trapped in the

  10. White organic light-emitting diodes with an ultra-thin premixed emitting layer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, T; Tondelier, Denis; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Ishow, Elena

    2014-01-01

    We described an approach to achieve fine color control of fluorescent White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED), based on an Ultra-thin Premixed emitting Layer (UPL). The UPL consists of a mixture of two dyes (red-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)amino-4'-dicyanovinylbenzene or fvin and green-emitting 4-di(4'-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)aminobenzaldehyde or fcho) premixed in a single evaporation cell: since these two molecules have comparable structures and similar melting temperatures, a blend can be evaporated, giving rise to thin films of identical and reproducible composition compared to those of the pre-mixture. The principle of fine color tuning is demonstrated by evaporating a 1-nm-thick layer of this blend within the hole-transport layer (4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphtyl)-N-phenylamino]biphenyl (\\alpha-NPB)) of a standard fluorescent OLED structure. Upon playing on the position of the UPL inside the hole-transport layer, as well as on the premix composition, two independent parameters are available to finel...

  11. Selection of the NIR region for a regression model of the ethanol concentration in fermentation process by an online NIR and mid-IR dual-region spectrometer and 2D heterospectral correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Takashi; Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    A new selection procedure of an informative near-infrared (NIR) region for regression model building is proposed that uses an online NIR/mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer in conjunction with two-dimensional (2D) NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. In this procedure, both NIR and mid-IR spectra of a liquid sample are acquired sequentially during a reaction process using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer; the 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum is subsequently calculated from the obtained spectral data set. From the calculated 2D spectrum, a NIR region is selected that includes bands of high positive correlation intensity with mid-IR bands assigned to the analyte, and used for the construction of a regression model. To evaluate the performance of this procedure, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model of the ethanol concentration in a fermentation process was constructed. During fermentation, NIR/mid-IR spectra in the 10000 - 1200 cm(-1) region were acquired every 3 min, and a 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum was calculated to investigate the correlation intensity between the NIR and mid-IR bands. NIR regions that include bands at 4343, 4416, 5778, 5904, and 5955 cm(-1), which result from the combinations and overtones of the C-H group of ethanol, were selected for use in the PLS regression models, by taking the correlation intensity of a mid-IR band at 2985 cm(-1) arising from the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration mode of ethanol as a reference. The predicted results indicate that the ethanol concentrations calculated from the PLS regression models fit well to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, it can be concluded that the selection procedure using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer combined with 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method for the construction of a reliable regression model.

  12. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  13. A Flexible UV-Vis-NIR Photodetector based on a Perovskite/Conjugated-Polymer Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Miao; Li, Yingru; Xie, Dan; Shi, Gaoquan

    2016-07-01

    A lateral photodetector based on the bilayer composite film of a perovskite and a conjugated polymer is reported. It exhibits significantly enhanced responsivity in the UV-vis region and sensitive photoresponse in the near-IR (NIR) region at a low applied voltage. This broadband photodetector also shows excellent mechanical flexibility and improved environmental stability.

  14. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raheel eBhutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into true and lie classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  15. Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of Moldavian matured wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodasevich, Mikhail A.; Trofimova, Darya V.; Nezalzova, Elena I.

    2011-02-01

    Principal component analysis of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra of matured wine distillates (1-40 years aged) produced by three Moldavian manufacturers allows to characterize with sufficient certainty the eleven chemical parameters of considered alcoholic beverages: contents of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, furfural, vanillin, syringic aldehyde and acid, etc.

  16. Development of NIR detectors and science driven requirements forSNAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.G.; Bebek, C.; Bernstein, G.; Bonissent, A.; Carithers,B.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Gerdes, D.; Gladney, L.; Lorenzon, W.; Kim, A.; Kushner, G.; Kuznetsova, N.; Linder, E.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Mostek,N.; Mufson, S.; Schubnell, M.; Seshadri, S.; Shukla, H.; Smith, R.; Stebbins, A.; Stoughton, C.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Precision near infrared (NIR) measurements are essential for the next generation of ground and space based instruments. The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure thousands of type Ia supernovae upto a redshift of 1.7. The highest redshift supernovae provide the most leverage for determining cosmological parameters, in particular the dark energy equation of state and its possible time evolution. Accurate NIR observations are needed to utilize the full potential of the highest redshift supernovae. Technological improvements in NIR detector fabrication have lead to high quantum efficiency, low noise detectors using a HgCdTe diode with a band-gap that is tuned to cutoff at 1:7 1m. The effects of detector quantum efficiency, read noise, and dark current on lightcurve signal to noise, lightcurve parameter errors, and distance modulus ?ts are simulated in the SNAP sim framework. Results show that improving quantum efficiency leads to the largest gains in photometric accuracy for type Ia supernovae. High quantum efficiency in the NIR reduces statistical errors and helps control systematic uncertainties at the levels necessary to achieve the primary SNAP science goals.

  17. Comparison of NIRS, laser Doppler flowmetry, photoplethysmography, and pulse oximetry during vascular occlusion challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abay, T Y; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring changes in blood volume, blood flow, and oxygenation in tissues is of vital importance in fields such as reconstructive surgery and trauma medicine. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), laser Doppler (LDF) flowmetry, photoplethysmography (PPG), and pulse oximetry (PO) contribute to such fields due to their safe and noninvasive nature. However, the techniques have been rarely investigated simultaneously or altogether. The aim of this study was to investigate all the techniques simultaneously on healthy subjects during vascular occlusion challenges. Sensors were attached on the forearm (NIRS and LDF) and fingers (PPG and PO) of 19 healthy volunteers. Different degrees of vascular occlusion were induced by inflating a pressure cuff on the upper arm. The responses of tissue oxygenation index (NIRS), tissue haemoglobin index (NIRS), flux (LDF), perfusion index (PPG), and arterial oxygen saturation (PO) have been recorded and analyzed. Moreover, the optical densities were calculated from slow varying dc PPG, in order to distinguish changes in venous blood volumes. The indexes showed significant changes (p  <  0.05) in almost all occlusions, either venous or over-systolic occlusions. However, differentiation between venous and arterial occlusion by LDF may be challenging and the perfusion index (PI) may not be adequate to indicate venous occlusions. Optical densities may be an additional tool to detect venous occlusions by PPG.

  18. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  19. A method to calculate arterial and venous saturation from near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menssen, J.J.M.; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Hopman, J.C.W.; Liem, D.; Korte, C.L. de

    2009-01-01

    For adequate development and functioning of the neonatal brain, sufficient oxygen (O2) should be available. With a fast sampling (f(s) > 50 Hz) continuous wave NIRS device, arterial (SaO2) and venous (SvO2) saturation can be measured using the physiological fluctuations in the oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) a

  20. Nondestructive analysis of in-shell peanuts for moisture content using a custom built NIR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Custom made NIR spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of two different market types namely Virginia and Valencia. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis). Samples from the different moisture levels were separated i...

  1. Absolutely nondestructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile species with miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yang, Hai-Long; Tang, Qing; Zhang, Hui; Nie, Lei; Li, Lian; Wang, Jin-Feng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Zang, Heng-Chang

    2014-10-01

    As one very precious traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Huoshan Dendrobium has not only high price, but also significant pharmaceutical efficacy. However, different species of Huoshan Dendrobium exhibit considerable difference in pharmaceutical efficacy, so rapid and absolutely non-destructive discrimination of Huoshan Dendrobium nobile according to different species is crucial to quality control and pharmaceutical effect. In this study, as one type of miniature near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer, MicroNIR 1700 was used for absolutely nondestructive determination of NIR spectra of 90 batches of Dendrobium from five species of differ- ent commodity grades. The samples were intact and not smashed. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify and recognize different species of Dendrobium samples. The results indicated that the SIMCA qualitative models established with pretreatment method of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) in the spectra range selected by Qs method had 100% recognition rates and 100% rejection rates. This study demonstrated that a rapid and absolutely non-destructive analytical technique based on MicroNIR 1700 spectrometer was developed for successful discrimination of five different species of Huoshan Dendrobium with acceptable accuracy.

  2. Perspective of NIRS measurements early post mortem for prediction of pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, A.H.; Vedder, H.W.; Merks, J.W.M.; Klein, W.J.H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Frankhuizen, R.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Lambooij, E.

    2005-01-01

    The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements early post mortem was investigated to predict ultimate drip loss, colour, tenderness and intra-muscular fat of pork. Three locations (M. longissimus thoracis, M. longissimus lumborum and M. semimembranosus) in 102 pig carcasses were tes

  3. Prediction of mixed hardwood lignin and carbohydrate content using ATR-FTIR and FT-NIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengfeng; Jiang, Wei; Via, Brian K; Fasina, Oladiran; Han, Guangting

    2015-05-05

    This study used Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy with principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) to build hardwood prediction models. Wet chemistry analysis coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to obtain the chemical composition of these samples. Spectra loadings were studied to identify key wavenumber in the prediction of chemical composition. NIR-PLS and FTIR-PLS performed the best for extractives, lignin and xylose, whose residual predictive deviation (RPD) values were all over 3 and indicates the potential for either instrument to provide superior prediction models with NIR performing slightly better. During testing, it was found that more accurate determination of holocellulose content was possible when HPLC was used. Independent chemometric models, for FT-NIR and ATR-FTIR, identified similar functional groups responsible for the prediction of chemical composition and suggested that coupling the two techniques could strengthen interpretation and prediction.

  4. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  5. PAT for tableting: inline monitoring of API and excipients via NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick R; Fruhmann, Georg; Sacher, Stephan; Straka, Gerhard; Sowinski, Sebastian; Khinast, Johannes G

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the application and implementation of inline NIR spectroscopy in an industrial tablet press. The content uniformity of a powder was analyzed via a NIR probe mounted on the feed frame. A PLS model with four latent variables (R(2)=0.97, Q(2)=0.95) was developed for the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and two main excipients (EX1, EX2), according to the mixture DoE. The RMSEP corresponded to the relative errors of 2.7% for API, 1.7% for EX1 and 2.6% for EX2, compared to the nominal formulation. Transfer of the model, from the lab to an inline setup for manufacturing was achieved using local centering. There was a good agreement between the results of inline NIR and drawn tablets analyzed via UV-Vis. Notably, NIR indicated stochastic segregation behavior of the powder toward the end of the process, which was confirmed by the UV-Vis analysis. The outcome of our work was related to the recently published Ph. Eur. chapter 2.9.47 "Demonstration of uniformity of dosage units using large sample sizes".

  6. Quantification of fructan concentration in grasses using NIR spectroscopy and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to quantify fructan concentration in samples from seven grass species. Savitzky-Golay first derivative with filter width 7 and polynomial order 2 with mean centering was applied as a spectral pre-treatment method...

  7. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Shen

    Full Text Available Blepharospasm (BSP has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01 exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP.

  8. On temporal connectivity of PFC via Gauss-Markov modeling of fNIRS signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydöre, Sergül; Mihçak, M Kivanç; Ciftçi, Koray; Akin, Ata

    2010-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an optical imaging method, which monitors the brain activation by measuring the successive changes in the concentration of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin in real time. In this study, we present a method to investigate the functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) Sby applying a Gauss-Markov model to fNIRS signals. The hemodynamic changes on PFC during the performance of cognitive paradigm are measured by fNIRS for 17 healthy adults. The color-word matching Stroop task is performed to activate 16 different regions of PFC. There are three different types of stimuli in this task, which can be listed as incongruent stimulus (IS), congruent stimulus (CS), and neutral stimulus (NS), respectively. We introduce a new measure, called "information transfer metric" (ITM) for each time sample. The behavior of ITMs during IS are significantly different from the ITMs during CS and NS, which is consistent with the outcome of the previous research, which concentrated on fNIRS signal analysis via color-word matching Stroop task. Our analysis shows that the functional connectivity of PFC is highly relevant with the cognitive load, i.e., functional connectivity increases with the increasing cognitive load.

  9. Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR Filter and a Solar Cooling System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Campen, J.B.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is a new greenhouse design that incorporates both a filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar cooling system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue for the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, this

  10. [NIR spectroscopy based on least square support vector machines for quality prediction of tomato juice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Wang, Hui-jun; Xu, Hui-rong; Wang, Jian-ping; Ying, Yi-bin

    2009-04-01

    The application of least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method based on statistics study theory to the analysis with near infrared (NIR) spectra of tomato juice was introduced in the present paper. In this method, LS-SVM was used for establishing model of spectral analysis, and was applied to predict the sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) in tomato juice samples. NIR transmission spectra of tomato juice were measured in the spectral range of 800-2,500 nm using InGaAs detector. The radial basis function (RBF) was adopted as a kernel function of LS-SVM. Sixty seven tomato juice samples were used as calibration set, and thirty three samples were used as validation set. The results of the method for sugar contents (SC) and available acid (VA) prediction were: a high correlation coefficient of 0.9903 and 0.9675, and a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0056 degree Brix and 0.0245, respectively. And compared to PLS and PCR methods, the performance of the LSSVM method was better. The results indicated that it was possible to built statistic models to quantify some common components in tomato juice using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and least square support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression method as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure, and LS-SVM could be a rapid and accurate method for juice components determination based on NIR spectra.

  11. CARMENES. III: an innovative and challenging cooling system for an ultra-stable NIR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, S.; Lizon, J. L.; Sánchez-Carrasco, Miguel Andrés.; Mirabet, E.; Amado, P.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Abril, M.; Antona, R.; Cárdenas, C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Rámon, A.; Rodríguez, E.; Herranz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The CARMENES project, which is currently at FDR stage, is a last-generation exoplanet hunter instrument to be installed in the Calar Alto Observatory by 2014. It is split into two different spectrographs: one works within the visual range while the other does it in the NIR range. Both channels need to be extremely stable in terms of mechanical and thermal behavior. Nevertheless, due to the operation temperature of the NIR spectrograph, the thermal stability requirement (+/-0.07 K in 24 hours; +/-0.01 K (goal)) becomes actually a major challenge. The solution here proposed consists of a system that actively cools a shield enveloping the optical bench. Thus, the instability produced on the shield temperature is further damped on the optical bench due to the high mass of the latter, as well as the high thermal decoupling between both components, the main heat exchange being produced by radiation. This system -which is being developed with the active collaboration and advice of ESO (Jean-Louis Lizon)- is composed by a previous unit which produces a stable flow of nitrogen gas. The flow so produced goes into the in-vacuum circuitry of the NIR spectrograph and removes the radiative heat load incoming to the radiation shield by means of a group of properly dimensioned heat exchangers. The present paper describes and summarizes the cooling system designed for CARMENES NIR as well as the analyses implemented.

  12. Greenhouse with an Integrated NIR Filter and a Solar Cooling System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Campen, J.B.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The scope of this paper is a new greenhouse design that incorporates both a filter for rejecting near infrared radiation (NIR) and a solar cooling system. Cooled greenhouses are an important issue for the combination of high global radiation and high outdoor temperatures. As a first measure, this st

  13. Vintage year determination of bottled Chinese rice wine by VIS-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H Y; Ying, B; Sun, T; Niu, X Y; Pan, X X

    2007-04-01

    The feasibility of noninvasive visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for determining vintage year of Chinese rice wine was investigated. VIS-NIR spectra of 100 samples were collected in transmission mode in 600-mL square brown glass bottles by a fiber spectrometer system. Discriminant models were developed based on discriminant analysis (DA) together with raw, 1st, and 2nd derivative spectra. The concentration of alcohol content, total acid, and degrees Brix was determined to validate the VIS-NIR results. The calibration result for raw spectra was better than that for 1st and 2nd derivative spectra. The percentage of samples correctly classified for raw spectra was 97.1%. For the sample groups in the vintage years of 2002, 2003, and 2004, the samples were all correctly classified. And for the 2000 and 2001 sample groups, the percentage of samples correctly classified was 92.9%. In validation analysis, the samples were all correctly classified. The results demonstrated that the VIS-NIR spectroscopic technique could be used as a noninvasive and rapid method for predicting vintage year of bottled Chinese rice wine.

  14. Non-destructive detection of flawed hazelnut kernels and lipid oxidation assessment using NIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannico, A.; Schouten, R.E.; Basile, B.; Woltering, E.J.; Cirillo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination, seed browning, bad taste and lipid oxidation are primary causes of quality deterioration in stored hazelnuts, affecting their marketability. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to detect flawed kernels and estimate lipid oxidation in in-shell and shelled hazelnuts was invest

  15. Single-trial classification of NIRS signals during emotional induction tasks: towards a corporeal machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Kelly; Chau, Tom

    2009-11-09

    Corporeal machine interfaces (CMIs) are one of a few available options for restoring communication and environmental control to those with severe motor impairments. Cognitive processes detectable solely with functional imaging technologies such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can potentially provide interfaces requiring less user training than conventional electroencephalography-based CMIs. We hypothesized that visually-cued emotional induction tasks can elicit forehead hemodynamic activity that can be harnessed for a CMI. Data were collected from ten able-bodied participants as they performed trials of positively and negatively-emotional induction tasks. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal signal features, classifier, task valence (positive or negative emotional value of the stimulus), recording site, and signal analysis interval length for each participant. We compared the performance of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine classifiers. The latency of the NIRS hemodynamic response was estimated as the time required for classification accuracy to stabilize. Baseline and activation sequences were classified offline with accuracies upwards of 75.0%. Feature selection identified common time-domain discriminatory features across participants. Classification performance varied with the length of the input signal, and optimal signal length was found to be feature-dependent. Statistically significant increases in classification accuracy from baseline rates were observed as early as 2.5 s from initial stimulus presentation. NIRS signals during affective states were shown to be distinguishable from baseline states with classification accuracies significantly above chance levels. Further research with NIRS for corporeal machine interfaces is warranted.

  16. Study of Vis/NIR spectroscopy measurement on acidity of yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Feng, Shuijuan; Wu, Di; Li, Xiaoli

    2006-09-01

    A fast measurement of pH of yogurt using Vis/NIR-spectroscopy techniques was established in order to measuring the acidity of yogurt rapidly. 27 samples selected separately from five different brands of yogurt were measured by Vis/NIR-spectroscopy. The pH of yogurt on positions scanned by spectrum was measured by a pH meter. The mathematical model between pH and Vis/NIR spectral measurements was established and developed based on partial least squares (PLS) by using Unscramble V9.2. Then 25 unknown samples from 5 different brands were predicted based on the mathematical model. The result shows that The correlation coefficient of pH based on PLS model is more than 0.890, and standard error of calibration (SEC) is 0.037, standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.043. Through predicting the pH of 25 samples of yogurt from 5 different brands, the correlation coefficient between predictive value and measured value of those samples is more than 0918. The results show the good to excellent prediction performances. The Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique had a significant greater accuracy for determining the value of pH. It was concluded that the VisINIRS measurement technique can be used to measure pH of yogurt fast and accurately, and a new method for the measurement of pH of yogurt was established.

  17. Determination of persimmon leaf chloride contents using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José Miguel; Visconti, Fernando; Chiaravalle, Mara; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of specific chloride toxicity in persimmon trees requires the reliable and fast determination of the leaf chloride content, which is usually performed by means of a cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming wet analysis. A methodology has been developed in this study as an alternative to determine chloride in persimmon leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with multivariate calibration techniques. Based on a training dataset of 134 samples, a predictive model was developed from their NIR spectral data. For modelling, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method was used. The best model was obtained with the first derivative of the apparent absorbance and using just 10 latent components. In the subsequent external validation carried out with 35 external data this model reached r(2) = 0.93, RMSE = 0.16% and RPD = 3.6, with standard error of 0.026% and bias of -0.05%. From these results, the model based on NIR spectral readings can be used for speeding up the laboratory determination of chloride in persimmon leaves with only a modest loss of precision. The intermolecular interaction between chloride ions and the peptide bonds in leaf proteins through hydrogen bonding, i.e. N-H···Cl, explains the ability for chloride determinations on the basis of NIR spectra.

  18. [Evaluation of cerebral oxygenation in newborns with prematurity apnea: new frequency domain NIR oximeter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, S; Donzelli, G

    2000-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non invasive, portable, safe technique for monitoring cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics. A new frequency-domain tissue oximeter based on a multi-distance measurement protocol is presented. The effects of apneic episodes on cerebral and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SatO2) in preterm newborns, as monitored by NIRS and by pulse oximetry, are reported. The study population consist of 5 preterms (26 to 30 weeks of gestational age), in the second week of postnatal age, affected by apnea of prematurity. NIRS and pulse oximetric measurements were made contemporarily for a 40-minutes period for each infant. All monitorized apneic events were associated with bradicardia, and resolved spontaneously or after tactile stimulation. As results: a) there was always cerebral deoxygenation in association with apneic events, b) the mean SatO2 as measured by NIRS was slightly lower than the pulse oximeter readings, c) cerebral SatO2 decreased faster and the absolute value of the cerebral SaO2 decrease was greater than that measured peripherally (mean value of 27 versus 13%), d) increases of cerebral deoxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin and a decrease of oxyhemoglobin were also observed. These preliminary results show that peripheral oxygen saturation measurements as measured by pulse oximetry could not always reflect brain oxygenation.

  19. Effect of ultrasonic homogenization on the Vis/NIR bulk optical properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, Ben; Van Beers, Robbe; Watté, Rodrigo; Huybrechts, Tjebbe; Jordens, Jeroen; Vermeulen, Daniel; Van Gerven, Tom; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Saeys, Wouter

    2015-02-01

    The size of colloidal particles in food products has a considerable impact on the product's physicochemical, functional and sensory characteristics. Measurement techniques to monitor the size of suspended particles could, therefore, help to further reduce the variability in production processes and promote the development of new food products with improved properties. Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy is already widely used to measure the composition of agricultural and food products. However, this technology can also be consulted to acquire microstructure-related scattering properties of food products. In this study, the effect of the fat globule size on the Vis/NIR bulk scattering properties of milk was investigated. Variability in fat globule size distribution was created using ultrasonic homogenization of raw milk. Reduction of the fat globule size resulted in a higher wavelength-dependency of both the Vis/NIR bulk scattering coefficient and the scattering anisotropy factor. Moreover, the anisotropy factor and the bulk scattering coefficients for wavelengths above 600 nm were reduced and were dominated by Rayleigh scattering. Additionally, the bulk scattering properties could be well (R(2) ≥ 0.990) estimated from measured particle size distributions by consulting an algorithm based on the Mie solution. Future research could aim at the inversion of this model to estimate the particle size distributions from Vis/NIR spectroscopic measurements.

  20. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be performed in accordance with “Comparison of Kjeldahl Method for Determination of Crude Protein in... method; and for determination of protein content shall be ±0.20 percent mean deviation from the national... Method 992.23. (3) NIRS corn oil, protein, and starch analyzers. The maintenance tolerances for the...