WorldWideScience

Sample records for near-barrier energies impact

  1. 7Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, J. . E-mail lubian@if.uff.br; Correa, T.; Paes, B.; Figueira, J.M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O.A.; de Barbara, E.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Negri, A.E.; Pacheco, A.J.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at near barrier energies

  2. Deep inelastic collisions at near-barrier energies and search for cold donor-fragment production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Deep inelastic collisions in the near barrier energies of the mass asymmetric systems are of importance since controversial results on energy partition are being reported. Energy dissipation and the partition of dissipated energy among the reaction partners are of interest. Search for cold donor-fragment production at near barrier energies were carried out on a mass asymmetric system like Ni+Pb. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs

  3. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  4. Li breakup polarization potential at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubian, F. J.; Correa, T.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Paes, B; Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Fernandez, J. O.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G.V.; Martinez, D.; Heimann; Negri, A.; Pacheco, A. J.; Padron, I.

    2007-01-01

    Inelastic and one neutron transfer cross sections at energies around the Coulomb barrier were used to derive dynamic polarization potential (DPP) for the 7 Li + 27 Al system. The DPP due to breakup, obtained in a simple way, indicates that its real part is repulsive at nearbarrier energies. (Author)

  5. Reactions with weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanal, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    In reactions with weakly bound nuclei, the effect of breakup on fusion process has attracted much attention in recent years. The experimental study shows that breakup channel leads to suppression of complete fusion at above barrier energies due to loss of flux. The fusion barrier distribution can provide a further insight into understanding the influence of coupling to the breakup channels. Similar information could be obtained from the elastic and quasielastic (QEL) scattering because of the conservation of the reaction flux (i.e. R+T= 1), where R is the reflection probability and T is the transmission probability. Thus, quasi-elastic scattering at backward angles is the counterpart of the fusion process and it is expected that the barrier distributions extracted from two processes, namely, QEL and fusion should be similar. While this is true for tightly bound reaction systems, in reactions involving weakly bound projectiles significant differences have been observed for QEL barrier distributions with and without inclusion of breakup processes. This talk will present the recent results for fusion and quasi-elastic scattering in "6","7Li + "1"9"7Au system. Developmental efforts towards a momentum achromatic separator, MARIE, to extract projectile-like secondary ion beams following the reactions of heavy-ion beams from superconducting LINAC booster at Mumbai will also be presented. (author)

  6. Reaction channels of 6,7Li+28Si at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A; Rusek, K; Nicolis, N G; Alamanos, N; Doukelis, G; Gillibert, A; Kalyva, G; Kokkoris, M; Lagoyannis, A; Musumarra, A; Papachristodoulou, C; Perdikakis, G; Pierroutsakou, D; Pollacco, E C; Spyrou, A; Zarkadas, Ch

    2005-01-01

    The production of α-particles in the reactions 6,7 Li+ 28 Si was studied as a means to disentangle the various reaction channels at near-barrier energies. The competition between compound and direct reactions was determined by using the shape of angular distributions and statistical model calculations. DWBA calculations were also performed to probe the various direct channels. It was found that, approaching barrier, transfer channels are the most dominant for both reactions. For 7 Li+ 28 Si d-transfer is one of the contributing channels without excluding t-transfer, while for 6 Li+ 28 Si, n-transfer and p-transfer have substantial contribution but without excluding d-transfer

  7. Investigation of {sup 17}F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azab Farid, M. [Assiut University, Physics Department, Assiut (Egypt); Ibraheem, Awad A. [Al-Azhar University, Physics Department, Assiut (Egypt); King Khalid University, Physics Department, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S. [Taiz University, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen)

    2015-10-15

    The {sup 17}F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus {sup 17}F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of 17F+p elastic scattering at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azab Farid, M.; Ibraheem, Awad A.; Al-Hajjaji, Arwa S.

    2015-01-01

    The 17 F +p elastic scattering at two near-barrier energies of 3.5 and 4.3 MeV/nucleon, have been analyzed in the framework of the single folding approach. The folded potentials are constructed by folding the density-dependent (DDM3Y) effective nucleon-nucleon interaction over the nuclear density of the one-proton halo nucleus 17 F. Two versions of the density are considered. In addition, two versions of the one-nucleon knock-on exchange potentials are introduced to construct the real microscopic potentials. The derived potentials supplemented by phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary and spin-orbit potentials produced excellent description of the differential elastic scattering cross sections at the higher energy without need to introduce any renormalization. At the lower energy, however, in order to successfully reproduce the data, it is necessary to reduce the strength of the constructed real DDM3Y potential by about 25% of its original value. Furthermore, good agreement with data is obtained using the extracted microscopic DDM3Y potentials for both real and imaginary parts. Moreover, the interesting notch test is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the elastic scattering cross section to the radial distribution of the constructed microscopic potentials. The extracted reaction (absorption) cross sections are, also, investigated. (orig.)

  9. What we have learned so far on reactions and scattering with weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Reactions involving weakly bound nuclei, especially halo nuclei, at near barrier energies, are an important subject not yet fully understood. Due to the low threshold energy for breakup, this process is particularly important and may affect significantly the fusion process and elastic scattering. In this talk I will show the systematic of results so far available in this field, concerning static and dynamical effects of halo and breakup on fusion and total reaction cross sections, the energy dependence of the optical potential on the elastic scattering and coupling effects on quasi-elastic scattering barrier distributions involving weakly bound nuclei, both stable and radioactive. The data to be discussed are new data from our group and from the literature, together with some older data. I will also present some experimental challenges for the development of this field. (author)

  10. Fusion of 6Li with 159Tb at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Chowdhury, P. Roy; Sarkar, M. Saha; Palit, R.; Parkar, V. V.; Santra, S.; Ray, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for 6 Li + 159 Tb have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier by the γ-ray method. The measurements show that the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies are suppressed by ∼34% compared to coupled-channel calculations. A comparison of the complete fusion cross sections at above-barrier energies with the existing data for 11,10 B + 159 Tb and 7 Li + 159 Tb shows that the extent of suppression is correlated with the α separation energies of the projectiles. It has been argued that the Dy isotopes produced in the reaction 6 Li + 159 Tb at below-barrier energies are primarily due to the d transfer to unbound states of 159 Tb, while both transfer and incomplete fusion processes contribute at above-barrier energies.

  11. Disentangling complete and incomplete fusion for 9Be+187Re system at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Rajiv Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The breakup of projectile before fusion leads to some unusual fusion mechanisms like incomplete fusion (ICF) and sequential complete fusion (SCF). Experimentally, it is not possible to separate SCF events from direct complete fusion (DCF). However, the complete fusion and incomplete fusion can be measured separately. Theoretically it is very difficult to calculate the complete and incomplete fusion cross section separately using different models. Very recently A. Diaz-Torres has developed a computer code platypus based on classical dynamical model wherein the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections are calculated separately. But this model is found to work very well at energies above the barrier energy. Here we have attempted to extrapolate the results of the code platypus by using simple Wong's formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in the below barrier energy region

  12. Comment on ''Energy partition in near-barrier strongly damped collisions 58Ni+208Pb''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Breuer, H.; Planeta, R.

    1993-01-01

    Chatterjee et al. [Phys. Rev. C 44, R2249 (1991)] report that the sharing of dissipated energy in the 58 Ni + 208 Pb reaction at E/A=6.5 MeV is not influenced appreciably by the direction and magnitude of net charge (and mass) transfer. We point out that neither this conclusion nor one arguing for a correlation between mass flow and excitation energy division is supported by the data and analysis presented in their communication

  13. 9Be+120Sn scattering at near-barrier energies within a four-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, A.; Casal, J.; Rodríguez-Gallardo, M.; Arias, J. M.; Lichtenthäler Filho, R.; Abriola, D.; Capurro, O. A.; Cardona, M. A.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; de Barbará, E.; Fernández Niello, J.; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Hojman, D.; Martí, G. V.; Martínez Heimman, D.; Pacheco, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of the weakly bound 9Be nucleus on a 120Sn target have been measured at seven bombarding energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The elastic angular distributions are analyzed with a four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) calculation, which considers 9Be as a three-body projectile (α +α +n ). An optical model analysis using the São Paulo potential is also shown for comparison. The CDCC analysis shows that the coupling to the continuum part of the spectrum is important for the agreement with experimental data even at energies around the Coulomb barrier, suggesting that breakup is an important process at low energies. At the highest incident energies, two inelastic peaks are observed at 1.19(5) and 2.41(5) MeV. Coupled-channels (CC) calculations using a rotational model confirm that the first inelastic peak corresponds to the excitation of the 21+ state in 120Sn, while the second one likely corresponds to the excitation of the 31- state.

  14. Some peculiarities of interactions of weakly bound lithium nuclei at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabyshev, A. M.; Kuterbekov, K. A.; Sobolev, Yu G.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Kubenova, M. M.; Azhibekov, A. K.; Mukhambetzhan, A. M.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Maslov, V. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents new experimental data on the total cross sections of 9Li + 28Si reactions at low energies as well as the analysis of previously obtained data for 6,7Li. Based on a large collection of data (authors’ and literature data) we carried out a comparative analysis of the two main experimental interaction cross sections (angular distributions of the differential cross sections and total reaction cross sections) for weakly bound lithium (6-9Li, 11Li) nuclei in the framework of Kox parameterization and the macroscopic optical model. We identified specific features of these interactions and predicted the experimental trend in the total reaction cross sections for Li isotopes at energies close to the Coulomb barrier.

  15. Reactions with Weakly Bound Nuclei, at near Barrier Energies, and the Breakup and Transfer Influences on the Fusion and Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes-Junior, D. R.; Faria, P. N. de; Linares, R.; Sigaud, L.; Rangel, J.; Ferreira, J. L.; Paes, B.; Cardozo, E. N.; Cortes, M. R.; Canto, L. F.; Ermamatov, M. J.; Otomar, D. R.; Ferioli, E.; Lotti, P.; Hussein, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief review of the reaction mechanisms involved in collisions of weakly bound projectiles with tightly bound targets, at near-barrier energies. We discuss systematic behaviors of the data, with emphasis in fusion, breakup, nucleon transfer and elastic scattering. The dependence of the breakup cross section on the charge and mass of the target is discussed, and the influence of the breakup channel on complete fusion is investigated. For this purpose, we compare reduced fusion cross sections with a benchmark universal curve. The behaviors observed in the comparisons are explained in terms of polarization potentials and of nucleon transfer followed by breakup. The influence of the breakup process on elastic scattering is also discussed. Some apparent contradictions between results of different authors are explained and some perspectives of the field are presented. (author)

  16. Measurement of Fission Fragment Angular Distributions for 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U at Near-Barrier Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, B.R.; Jena, S.; Satapathy, M.; Ison, V.V.; Kailas, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Mahata, K.; Satpathy, L.; Basu, P.; Roy, S.; Sharan, M.; Chatterjee, M.L; Datta, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions of heavy-ion induced fission in actinide nuclei at near-barrier energies show anomalous fragment anisotropies. At above barrier energies entrance channel dependence is a probable cause and explanation in terms of pre-equilibrium fission and the critical mass asymmetry parameter (Businaro-Gallone) has been tried. Target deformation and ground state spin also seem to influence the measured anisotropy. To understand the extent of importance of some or all of these features, we performed a set of experiments where (i) entrance channel dependence (ii) mass asymmetry on the two sides of Businaro-Gallone and (iii) different ground state spins are present. The channels chosen are 14 N+ 232 Th and 11 B+ 235 U. Experiments were done using the Pelletron accelerators at NSC, New Delhi and BARC-TIFR, Bombay. Compound nucleus populated in both cases is 246 Bk. 232 Th has ground state spin zero and 235 U has spin 7/2. Fragment anisotropies have been measured from 10-15 % above barrier to 10 % below barrier at similar excitation energy (around 40 MeV to 58 MeV). The mean square angular momentum is matched at least at one energy. Results indicate that when both excitation energy and angular momentum are matched, there are differences in the measured values of fission anisotropies. This implies entrance channel dependence consistent with the expectation of pre-equilibrium fission model. (authors)

  17. Small suppression of the complete fusion of {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si reaction at near barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Mandira [Bose Institute, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Lubian, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    The incomplete fusion cross section of the {sup 6}Li + {sup 28}Si weakly bound system at above barrier energies was deduced from the measured γ-ray cross sections. The complete fusion cross section was estimated from the measured total fusion and incomplete fusion cross section and is found to be 85-100% of the total fusion cross section. The coupled channel calculation has been performed considering ground and first excited states of {sup 28}Si target. The fusion cross section estimated from coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with measured total fusion cross section at higher energies. The suppression of about 15% of the fusion cross section predicted by coupled channel calculation shows good agreement with the complete fusion cross section. The effect of the channel couplings on the elastic scattering angular distribution is also investigated. (orig.)

  18. Angular distributions of the alpha particle production in the 7Li+144Sm system at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnelli, P F F; Arazi, A; Capurro, O A; Niello, J O Fernández; Heimann, D Martinez; Pacheco, A J; Cardona, M A; De Barbará, E; Figueira, J M; Hojman, D L; Martí, G V; Negri, A E

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the production of alpha particles in reactions induced by 7 Li projectiles on a 144 Sm target at bombarding energies of 18, 24 and 30 MeV over the 15°-140° angular range. The purpose of the investigation has been to determine the contribution of different mechanisms in reactions that involve weakly bound projectiles. We have included in our analysis several processes that can either directly or sequentially lead to the emission of alpha particles: complete fusion, direct transfer of 3 H, capture breakup (incomplete fusion, sequential complete fusion) and non-capture breakup. In order to distinguish alpha particles stemming from these processes it is necessary to determine the mass and charge of the reaction products and to obtain precise measurements of their energies and scattering angles over relatively wide ranges of these variables. We have done this using a detection system consisting of an ionization chamber plus three position sensitive detectors. We present results of these measurements and a preliminary interpretation based on kinematical considerations and comparisons with predictions from a statistical model. (paper)

  19. Effect of breakup on near barrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, M.; Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Unstable neutron-rich nuclei having very weakly bound neutrons exhibit characteristic features such as a neutron halo extending to large radii, and a low energy threshold for breakup. These features may dramatically affect fusion and other reaction processes. It is well accepted that the extended nuclear matter distribution will lead to an enhancement in fusion cross-sections over those for tightly bound nuclei. The effect of couplings to channels which act as doorways to breakup is, however, controversial, with model predictions differing in the relative magnitudes of enhancement and suppression. To investigate the effect on fusion of couplings specific to unstable neutron-rich nuclei, it is necessary to understand (and then predict) the cross-sections expected for their stable counterparts. This requires knowledge of the energy of the average fusion barrier, and information on the couplings. Experimentally all this information can be obtained from precisely measured fusion cross-sections. Such precision measurements of complete fusion cross-sections for 9 Be + 208 Pb and 6 Li, 7 Li + 209 Bi systems have been done at the Australian National University. The distribution of fusion barriers extracted from these data were used to reliably predict the expected fusion cross-sections. Comparison of the theoretical expectations with the experimentally measured cross-sections show conclusively that complete fusion, at above barrier energies, for all three systems is suppressed (by about 30%) compared with the fusion of more tightly bound nuclei. These measurements, in conjunction with incomplete fusion cross-sections, which were also measured, should encourage a complete theoretical description of fusion and breakup

  20. Sub-barrier fusion and near-barrier quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolata, J.J.; Tighe, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 32 S on 58,64 Ni and fusion of 32 S+ 58,64 Ni and 34 S+ 64 Ni have been measured at energies near the Coulomb barrier. Our results differ in several important respects from previous measurements on these systems. Coupled-channels calculations which explicitly allow for inelastic excitation and single-nucleon transfer reproduce the main features of the new data. Near-barrier elastic scattering of 48 Ca on 40 Ca has also been measured. These data provide evidence for the effect of strong coupling to positive Q-value channels other than single-nucleon transfer. 18 refs., 3 figs

  1. Near-Barrier Fusion of Heavy Nuclei. Coupling of the Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zagrebaev, V I

    2003-01-01

    The problem of quantum description of near-barrier fusion of heavy nuclei taking place under strong coupling of relative motion with rotation of deformed nuclei and with dynamic deformations of their surfaces is studied in the paper. A new effective method is proposed for numerical solution of a set of coupled Schrodinger equations with boundary conditions corresponding to a full absorption of the flux penetrated through the multi-dimensional Coulomb barrier. The method has no limitation on the number of coupled channels and allows one to calculate fusion cross-sections of very heavy nuclei used for synthesis of super-heavy elements. A combined analysis of the multi-dimensional potential energy surface relief and the multi-channel wave function in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier gives a clear interpretation of near-barrier fusion dynamics. Comparison with experimental data and with semi-empirical model calculations is performed. The computing codes are allocated at the web-server http://nrv.jinr.ru/nrv/ w...

  2. Breakup coupling effects on near-barrier quasi-elastic scattering of 6,7Li on 144Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otomar, D. R.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Monteiro, D. S.; Capurro, O. A.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Marti, G. V.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A. E.; Pacheco, A. J.; Niello, J. O. Fernandez; Guimaraes, V.; Chamon, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering at backward angles have been measured for the 6,7 Li+ 144 Sm systems at near-barrier energies, and fusion barrier distributions have been extracted from the first derivatives of the experimental cross sections with respect to the bombarding energies. The data have been analyzed in the framework of continuum discretized coupled-channel calculations, and the results have been obtained in terms of the influence exerted by the inclusion of different reaction channels, with emphasis on the role played by the projectile breakup.

  3. Near barrier fusion, breakup and scattering for the 9Be + 144Sm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paes, B.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Padron, I.; Canto, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of the break-up process of weakly bound nuclei and its influence on the fusion cross section and elastic scattering has been investigated in the last years by different approaches. One of these approaches is the comparison of data of complete fusion (CF) cross sections with predictions from CC calculations which do not include the break-up channel. Different phenomena leading to opposite effects on the fusion cross section may be identified: static effects arising from the longer tail of the nuclear potential and the large size of the weakly bound nuclei, leading to a smaller Coulomb barrier, and dynamical effects, either like the strong coupling between the elastic and continuum states, that takes flux that otherwise would go to fusion or like the coupling of soft resonance states. Very recently a method has been developed by us to disentangle these effects. Another approach to perform this study is the investigation of the presence or absence of the threshold anomaly or the break-up threshold anomaly in the elastic scattering at near barrier energies. The attractive or repulsive characters of the polarization potentials associated with the different reaction processes, may lead to enhancement or suppression of the fusion cross section. In this contribution we analyze, by different approaches, a large set of data for the 9 Be + 144 Sm system, including CF and incomplete fusion, elastic and inelastic scattering. We use a reliable double folding potential in CC calculations which either do not take into account the break-up channel or consider resonances of the 9 Be projectile; we also perform simultaneous fits of elastic and CF cross sections; we derive the break-up cross sections and investigate the energy dependence of the real and imaginary optical potentials corresponding to the fusion and direct processes, separately; and we derive the break-up polarization potential for this system. Then, we show the agreement between these

  4. Angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36S on a ≅100 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of evaporation residues from near-barrier fusion of 32,36 S ions with 92,94,96,98,100 Mo, 100,101,102,104 Ru, 103 Rh, and 104,105,106,108,110 Pd were measured in the range of 3 to 11 degrees in the laboratory system. The relative yield of the four most abundant exit evaporation channels has been extracted for all target-projectile combination at two bombarding energies, by fitting the angular distributions expected for each channel as obtained from the Monte-Carlo program TRANMI to the measured angular distribution of the evaporation residues. The total detection efficiency for the Munich-RF-Recoil Spectrometer was obtained from the relative yields, taking into account the effect due to multiple scattering, and compared with that obtained previously from the recoil velocity distributions. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  6. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  7. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  8. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  9. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  10. Environmental impacts of energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian society today is concerned about the health and environmental risks of technologies. The major environmental issues of concern for technologies available for electricity generation are air emissions, management of wastes generated and land requirements. The production of electricity in India is primarily composed of a mix of thermal and hydroelectric power plants with nuclear energy currently contributing to an extent of slightly above 2.0%. For maintaining a decent living standard the present electricity generation has to be increased manifold and with the existing commercially available technologies this can lead to a greater impact on the environment in the immediate vicinity of plant unless a judicious mix is chosen. India which hardly contributed 1 of the global pollution in the year 1950 contributes about 20% now and with the growth in electricity generation its contribution will also be slightly increasing and hence environment will have to be one of the guiding factors in future choice of technologies for the growth of electric power generation. Indian coal has a very high ash content (30 - 50 %) and hence the fly ash problem in India can be severe. During the year 1993-94 approximately 33 million tonnes of fly ash was generated in India from the coal fired thermal power stations. The land requirement for disposal of this ash is continuously increasing. The disposal of fly ash near water bodies will also create difficulties as in addition to radionuclides, toxic trace elements may also get washed out. Pollution from the use of coal will have a definite effect on the environment in addition to depletion of the energy source

  11. Iowa's renewable energy and infrastructure impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Objectives : Estimate traffic growth and pavement deterioration due to Iowas growing renewable energy industries in a multi-county area. : Develop a traffic and fiscal impact model to help assess the impact of additional biofuels plants on...

  12. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects offers an analysis of the environmental benefits and drawbacks of wind energy, along with an evaluation guide to aid decision-making about projects...

  13. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  14. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  15. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  16. U.S. energy outlook and future energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Randolph John

    2011-12-01

    Energy markets were not immune to the 2007 financial crisis. Growth in the Indian and Chinese economies is placing strains on global energy supplies that could force a repeat of the 2008 price spike of $145/bbl for crude oil. Emerging market growth coupled with inefficiencies, frictions, and speculation in the energy markets has the potential to create drastic economic shocks throughout the world. The 2007 economic crisis has pushed back investment in energy projects where a low-growth scenario in world GDP could create drastic price increases in world energy prices. Without a long-term energy supply plan, the U.S. is destined to see growth reduced and its trade imbalances continue to deteriorate with increasing energy costs. Analysis of the U.S. natural gas futures markets and the impact of financial speculation on natural gas market pricing determined that financial speculation adds to price movements in the energy markets, which could cause violent swings in energy prices.

  17. Nuclear energy and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero-Santamarsia, N.

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and population increase are boosting a new process of energy demand all around the world which implies also a protection of the environment and, consequently, the reduction of emissions of CO 2 , a challenge that has to be solved. Fossil fuels represent the cheapest costs in capital and have as common features that their exploitation is based on largely known technologies, having developed a big experience in construction, operation and maintenance. However they are big environment polluters. Nuclear energy fulfils three of the main objectives that should be pursued for a steady development: 1. It does not emit Greenhouse gases. 2. It is the cheapest produced energy. 3. It guarantees a security in its supply due to the fact, among others, that it is not conditioned by external factors. However, as any other energy source, nuclear power has its own drawbacks. Some are real and some are fictitious. For this reason it becomes necessary to improve the social image of this source of energy, so as to counteract the negative consequences of the antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies that has permanently undermined public acceptance

  18. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  19. The economic impact of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

  20. Environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a clean image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that mini hydro and microhydro projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps needed to utilize renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type experienced from hydropower projects

  1. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  2. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150 0 C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  3. Environmental and social impacts of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Clausen, Niels-Erik; Ellis, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The most common reasons for non- technical delays to wind energy projects are local resistance and poor strategic spatial planning. This chapter looks at the environmental and social impacts of wind energy and discusses how the public can gain trust in the public planning and private project...

  4. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  5. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  6. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  7. Climatic impact of alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J

    1979-01-01

    Detailed evaluations have suggested that the order of magnitude of energy demand 50 yr from the present will be 25-40 TW compared with about 8 TW at the present day. Environmental impacts are discussed of three energy-supply sources that could be developed on a large-enough scale to satisfy a demand of this magnitude: solar and nuclear energy and fossil fuels. 14 refs.

  8. Recent experimental results in sub- and near-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnoli, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Stefanini, Alberto M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Recent advances obtained in the field of near and sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the results obtained in the last decade, and focus is mainly on the experimental work performed concerning the influence of transfer channels on fusion cross sections and the hindrance phenomenon far below the barrier. Indeed, early data of sub-barrier fusion taught us that cross sections may strongly depend on the low-energy collective modes of the colliding nuclei, and, possibly, on couplings to transfer channels. The coupled-channels (CC) model has been quite successful in the interpretation of the experimental evidences. Fusion barrier distributions often yield the fingerprint of the relevant coupled channels. Recent results obtained by using radioactive beams are reported. At deep sub-barrier energies, the slope of the excitation function in a semi-logarithmic plot keeps increasing in many cases and standard CC calculations overpredict the cross sections. This was named a hindrance phenomenon, and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. Recent theoretical developments suggest that this effect, at least partially, may be a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. The hindrance may have far-reaching consequences in astrophysics where fusion of light systems determines stellar evolution during the carbon and oxygen burning stages, and yields important information for exotic reactions that take place in the inner crust of accreting neutron stars. (orig.)

  9. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  10. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  11. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  12. Health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is needed to sustain the economy, health and welfare of nations. As a consequence of this, energy consumption figures are frequently used as an index of a nation's advancement. As a result of the global energy crisis, almost every nation has had to develop all its available energy resources and plan its future use of energy. The planners of national and international energy policies are however often faced with a problem of 'public acceptance' arising from the potential health and environmental impacts of developing energy resources. The public's desire to preserve the quality of man's health and his environment frequently results in opposition to many industrial innovations, including the generation and use of energy. Reliable, quantitative data and information are needed on the risks to health and the environment of different contemporary energy systems, to improve public understanding, and to serve as the basis from which national planners can choose between different energy supply options. With the exception of nuclear energy, even in technologically advanced countries little systematic research and development has been done on the quantitative assessment of the effects on health and the environment of the conventional energy sources. The need for this information has only been realized over the past decade as the climate and environment in many regions of the world has deteriorated with the unabated release of pollutants from factories and energy generating plants in particular. A number of countries have started national environmental health research programmes to monitor and regulate toxic emissions from industry and energy plants. Energy-related environmental health research has been supported and co-ordinated by various international organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). WHO has supported expert reviews on the potential health risks posed

  13. Savings impact of a corporate energy manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, B.D.; O'Donnell, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the cost savings impact of employing an energy manager with a 16,000-employee corporation. The corporation, Canada's second largest airline, is currently operating nearly 3,000,000 ft 2 of mixed-use facilities spread across the country, with an annual energy budget for ground facilities of over Cdn $4,000,000. This paper outlines the methodology used by the energy manager to deploy an energy management program over a two-year period between April 1995 and May 1997. The paper examines the successes and the lessons learned during the period and summarizes the costs and benefits of the program. The energy manager position was responsible for developing an energy history database with more than 100 active accounts and for monitoring and verifying energy savings. The energy manager implemented many relatively low-cost energy conservation measures, as well as some capital projects, during the first two years of the program. In total, these measures provided energy cost savings of $210,000 per year, or 5% of the total budget. In each case, technologies installed as part of the energy retrofit projects provided not only cost savings but also better control, reduced maintenance, and improved working conditions for employees

  14. Anticipating PHEV Energy Impacts in California

    OpenAIRE

    Axsen, John; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the potential energy impacts of widespread PHEV use, an innovative, three-part survey instrument collected data from 877 new vehicle buyers in California. This analysis combines all the available information from each respondent—driving, recharge potential, and PHEV design priorities—to estimate the energy impacts of the respondents’ existing travel and understandings of PHEVs under a variety of recharging scenarios. Results suggest that the use of PHEV vehicles could halve g...

  15. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  16. Energy Impact Illinois - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Daniel [Senior Energy Efficiency Planner; Plagman, Emily [Senior Energy Planner; Silberhorn, Joey-Lin [Energy Efficiency Program Assistant

    2014-02-18

    Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) is an alliance of government organizations, nonprofits, and regional utility companies led by the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) that is dedicated to helping communities in the Chicago metropolitan area become more energy efficient. Originally organized as the Chicago Region Retrofit Ramp-Up (CR3), EI2 became part of the nationwide Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) in May 2010 after receiving a $25 million award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) authorized through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The program’s primary goal was to fund initiatives that mitigate barriers to energy efficiency retrofitting activities across residential, multifamily, and commercial building sectors in the seven-county CMAP region and to help to build a sustainable energy efficiency marketplace. The EI2 Final Technical Report provides a detailed review of the strategies, implementation methods, challenges, lessons learned, and final results of the EI2 program during the initial grant period from 2010-2013. During the program period, EI2 successfully increased direct retrofit activity in the region and was able to make a broader impact on the energy efficiency market in the Chicago region. As the period of performance for the initial grant comes to an end, EI2’s legacy raises the bar for the region in terms of helping homeowners and building owners to take action on the continually complex issue of energy efficiency.

  17. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  18. A piezoelectric device for impact energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquelin, E; Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a piezoelectric impact energy harvesting device consisting of two piezoelectric beams and a seismic mass. The aim of this work is to find the influence of several mechanical design parameters on the output power of such a harvester so as to optimize its performance; the electrical design parameters were not studied. To account for the dynamics of the beams, a model including the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of the system is proposed. The impacts involved in the energy harvesting process are described through a Hertzian contact law that requires a time domain simulation to solve the nonlinear equations. A transient regime and a steady-state regime have been identified and the performance of the device is characterized by the steady-state mean electrical power and the transient electrical power. The time simulations have been used to study the influence of various mechanical design parameters (seismic mass, beam length, gap, gliding length, impact location) on the performance of the system. It has been shown that the impact location is an important parameter and may be optimized only through simulation. The models and the simulation technique used in this work are general and may be used to assess any other impact energy harvesting device

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  1. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  2. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  3. Social impact assessment in energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivujaervi, S.; Kantola, I.; Maekinen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research report is based on literature and interviews on the social impact assessment (SIA) in energy projects in Finland, both before and after the EIA Act has been in force in Finland. The concept and content of SIA, the requirements set by the legislation, its relation with other environmental impacts, the assessment process and the used methods have been studied on the basis of the literature analysis. A total of 26 persons representing the coordination authorities, persons issuing statements, researchers, civil servants, consultants and project developers were interviewed for the research. The interviews were made by the University of Turku in the form of theme interviews, investigating the present status, practices and expectations of the SIA. The unestablished status was seen to be the problem in the SIA, which was reflected in the interviewers' varying views about the content of the SIA. Among the operators, the general character of the SIA criticism in the statements concerning the assessment programmes or reports was seen as a problem as well; the assessment of social impact has been considered to be insufficient, however, without any identification of the effects or how the effects should have been assessed. For the time preceding the EIA Act, the assessment of the social impact of hydraulic work, power plant and transmission line projects and the project of the fifth nuclear power plant have been studied. As to the power plant and transmission line projects after the validity of the EIA Act, all the 20 projects were gone through which had progressed during the spring 1998 at least to the assessment report stage. Of these projects, the assessment of the social impact of one transmission line and one power plant project was studied in detail. The report also studies the assessment of the social impact of the repository for nuclear waste on the basis of the experience gained in Finland and in other countries. On the basis of the literature study

  4. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Preferential treatment and exemption policy impacts energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the preferential treatment and exemption policy of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for State and State Agencies which creates an anticompetitive and restraint of trade attitude in California against the development of alternative energy resources by the private sector when such development competes directly with state owned power generation under the State Water and Central Valley Water Projects, particularly in the area of water and power supply. The existing state water policy fails to address the effects of global warming and the adverse potential of the greenhouse effect in California, i.e. rising tides can seriously impact sea water intrusion problems of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Area by not only flooding agricultural lands in the Delta and Central Valley, but impacting the supply of water to large population areas in Southern and Northern California, especially when coupled with drought conditions. The California investigative research results herein reported demonstrates the fallacy of a preferential treatment and exemption policy in a free market economy, especially when such policy creates the potential for excessive state budget burdens upon the public in the face of questionable subsidies to special interest, i.e., allowing the resulting windfall profits to be passed onto major utilities and commingled at the expense of public interest so as to undermine the financial means for development of alternative energy resources. The cited Congressional and State Legislative Laws which provide the ways and means to resolve any energy or water resource problems are only as good as the enforcement and the commitment by the executive branch of government and the lawmakers to up-hold existing laws

  6. Impact of alternative energy forms on public utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, F. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of alternative energy sources by the electric utility industry is discussed. Research projects are reviewed in each of the following areas; solar energy, wind energy conversion, photosynthesis of biomass, ocean thermal energy conversion, geothermal energy, fusion, and the environmental impact of alternative energy sources.

  7. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, V.; Baia, L.; Azevedo, H.

    1997-01-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP's planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs

  8. Balance: Hydroelectricity impacts on energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, V; Baia, L; Azevedo, H [Electricidade de Portugal, Porto (Portugal)

    1997-09-01

    The VALORAGUA (Value of Water in Portuguese) computer model was developed by Electricidade de Portugal (EDP) in order to determine the optimal operation strategy of a mixed hydro-thermal power system with an important share of hydroelectricity generation such as the one of Portugal. The model has become the main tool used by EDP for planning the development and operation of its power system. In recent years, EDP has acquired the ENPEP package and has become acquainted with its use for integrated energy and electricity planning. The main goal of this effort has been to incorporate in EDP`s planning procedure an integrated approach for determining the possible role of electricity in meeting the overall requirements for energy of the country, with due account to the impacts (resource requirements and environmental emissions) of alternative energy and electricity systems. This paper concentrates on a comparison of the results of the BALANCE module of ENPEP for the electricity sector against the simulation results provided by VALORAGUA. Suggested improvements to the methodologies in order to overcome the divergences in results from these two models are also advanced in the paper. (author). 15 figs.

  9. Griffith energy project draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. The existing environmental resource conditions in the Project area and the potential impacts on the resources by the proposed action and alternatives are described. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management

  10. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  11. Energy Resources of Iran and Their Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bubnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of main sources of energy resource production and their sale  in the domestic and export markets. The authors have analyzed type of domestic energy consumers and estimated their environmental impacts. The paper shows that the shift to alternative energy sources will reduce an ecological impact on the environment.

  12. Energy and environmental quality: case histories of impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    A discussion of energy source devlopments and environmental protection dealing with impacts, and legal aspects of pollution controls and resource management, and case history studies of major energy projects is presented

  13. The impact of predicted demand on energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    El kafazi, I.; Bannari, R.; Aboutafail, My. O.

    2018-05-01

    Energy is crucial for human life, a secure and accessible supply of power is essential for the sustainability of societies. Economic development and demographic progression increase energy demand, prompting countries to conduct research and studies on energy demand and production. Although, increasing in energy demand in the future requires a correct determination of the amount of energy supplied. Our article studies the impact of demand on energy production to find the relationship between the two latter and managing properly the production between the different energy sources. Historical data of demand and energy production since 2000 are used. The data are processed by the regression model to study the impact of demand on production. The obtained results indicate that demand has a positive and significant impact on production (high impact). Production is also increasing but at a slower pace. In this work, Morocco is considered as a case study.

  14. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  15. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  16. Energy and impacts of pressure vessel explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurttila, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the explosion energy is considered to be same as the energy of pressure vessel discharge. This is the maximum energy which can be obtained from the process. The energy can be used or it can cause the violence of an explosion accident. (orig.)

  17. Environmental impacts of wind-energy projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy Projects, National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the use of wind energy to generate electricity is increasing rapidly in the United States, government guidance to help communities and developers evaluate and plan proposed wind-energy projects is lacking...

  18. Investigation of the threshold anomaly in the near-barrier elastic scattering of {sup 7}Li on {sup 116}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, N.N. [The M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vadodara (India); Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology, Physics Department, Degree (First Shift), Limda, Waghodia, Vadodara (India); Mukherjee, S.; Appannababu, S.; Patel, D. [The M.S. University of Baroda, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Vadodara (India); Nayak, B.K.; Biswas, D.C.; Santra, S.; Mirgule, E.T.; Saxena, A.; Choudhury, R.K. [BARC Mumbai, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Elastic-scattering angular distributions of {sup 7}Li on {sup 116}Sn have been measured at different bombarding energies between 18 to 35 MeV. The effects of the weakly bound projectile breakup channel on the bombarding energy dependence of the interaction potential have been investigated. In this work we present the experimental results, along with the theoretical analysis using Woods-Saxon potential to investigate the energy dependence of the interacting polarizing potentials. Total reaction cross-sections are also presented and discussed. (orig.)

  19. The environmental and community impacts of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, M.; Clarke, A.

    1991-01-01

    Wind energy has now reached the stage where it is being included in the long-term energy policies of many countries. Both the degree of environmental impact and public acceptability will be limiting factors to its development. This paper reviews, in detail, the physical and community impacts of the technology. It proposes certain guidelines and procedures to minimize the physical impacts, such as noise and visual impact, as well as illustrating mechanisms to reduce the level of opposition to future wind energy developments

  20. Near-barrier Fusion Evaporation and Fission of 28Si+174Yb and 32S+170Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongxi; Lin, Chengjian; Jia, Huiming; Ma, Nanru; Sun, Lijie; Xu, Xinxing; Yang, Lei; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Huanqiao; Bao, Pengfei

    2017-11-01

    Fusion evaporation residues and fission fragments have been measured, respectively, at energies around the Coulomb barrier for the 28Si+174Yb and 32S+170Er systems forming the same compound nucleus 202Po. The excitation function of fusion evaporation, fission as well as capture reactions were deduced. Coupled-channels analyses reveal that couplings to the deformations of targets and the two-phonon states of projectiles contribute much to the enhancement of capture cross sections at sub-barrier energies. The mass and total kinetic energy of fission fragments were deduced by the time-difference method assuming full momentum transfer in a two-body kinematics. The mass-energy and mass-angle distributions were obtained and no obvious quasi-fission components were observed in this bombarding energy range. Further, mass distributions of fission fragments were fitted to extract their widths. Results show that the mass widths decrease monotonically with decreasing energy, but might start to increase when Ec.m./VB < 0.95 for both systems.

  1. Impact of wind farms with energy storage on transient stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Douglas Allen

    Today's energy infrastructure will need to rapidly expand in terms of reliability and flexibility due to aging infrastructure, changing energy market conditions, projected load increases, and system reliability requirements. Over the few decades, several states in the U.S. are now requiring an increase in wind penetration. These requirements will have impacts on grid reliability given the inherent intermittency of wind generation and much research has been completed on the impact of wind on grid reliability. Energy storage has been proposed as a tool to provide greater levels of reliability; however, little research has occurred in the area of wind with storage and its impact on stability given different possible scenarios. This thesis addresses the impact of wind farm penetration on transient stability when energy storage is added. The results show that battery energy storage located at the wind energy site can improve the stability response of the system.

  2. User behaviour impact on energy savings potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and the residents' behaviour and if these defaults do not reflect actual circumstances, it can result in non-realisation of expected energy savings. Furthermore, a risk also exists that residents' behaviour change after the energy upgrading, e.g. to obtain improved comfort than what was possible before......, 3) Domestic hot water consumption and 4) Air change rate. Based on the analysis, a methodology is established that can be used to make more realistic and accurate predictions of expected energy savings associated with energy upgrading taking into account user behaviour....... the upgrading and this could lead to further discrepancies between the calculated and the actual energy savings. This paper presents an analysis on how residents’ behaviour and the use of standard assumptions may influence expected energy savings. The analysis is performed on two typical single-family houses...

  3. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  4. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  5. Regional profile, energy-impacted communities: Region VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-03-01

    This report has data on population, administration, finance, housing, health and safety, human services, education, and water and sewage for 325 energy-impacted communities. A review of current and potential energy developments in the region shows over 900 energy resource impacts listed for the 325 impacted communities. Coal development represents over one-third of the developments listed. Communities reporting coal development are distributed as follows: Colorado (36), Montana (42), North Dakota (61), South Dakota (13), Utah (73), and Wyoming (35). Energy-conversion initiatives represent another high incidence of energy-resource impact, with uranium development following closely with 83 communities reporting uranium development impact in the region. These projections indicate continued development of regional energy resources to serve national energy requirements. The 325 impacted communities as reported: Colorado (46), Montana (73), North Dakota (62), South Dakota (21), Utah (80), and Wyoming (43) follow a distribution pattern similar to that of future projects which illustrates that no area of the region will escape the impacts of energy development. (ERA citation 04:041706)

  6. Impacts of FDI Renewable Energy Technology Spillover on China’s Energy Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.

  7. The impact of fiscal transfer on energy efficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syaifudin, N.; Sutrisno, A.; Setiawan, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Conference and Exhibition Indonesia - New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (The 3rd Indo-EBTKE ConEx 2014) IRSA-Indonesia 5, a bottom-up CGE model, was employed to analyze the impacts of fiscal support to the sub-national region to implement energy efficiency policy. By implementing several

  8. World energy needs and their impact on nuclear reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    This presentation will place primary emphasis upon energy demand. The presentation will cover the following areas: energy reserves and resources; energy demand: past and future (mid-and long-term); industrialized regions of the world; developing countries: Mexico and Iran as examples; and potential impact on nuclear development

  9. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  10. Environmental impact of non-conventional energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema; Nipaney, P.C.; Ramasamy, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    Whereas the global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources, only a few studies have been conducted on the clean environment image of the non-conventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones. The question whether the non-conventional sources are really as benign as they are made out to be is addressed in the present paper in the background of a classical paradigm developed by Lovin which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It then assesses the likely environmental impacts of several major non-conventional energy sources and comes up with the note of caution that in many cases the adverse impacts may not be insubstantial; indeed in some cases they can be as strongly negative as the impacts of the conventional energy sources. (author). 31 refs

  11. Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth's surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth's interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes

  12. Axial focusing of energy from a hypervelocity impact on earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed computational simulations to determine how energy from a large hypervelocity impact on the Earth`s surface would couple to its interior. Because of the first-order axial symmetry of both the impact energy source and the stress-wave velocity structure of the Earth, a disproportionate amount of energy is dissipated along the axis defined by the impact point and its antipode (point opposite the impact). For a symmetric and homogeneous Earth model, all the impact energy that is radiated as seismic waves into the Earth at a given takeoff angle (ray parameter), independent of azimuthal direction, is refocused (minus attenuation) on the axis of symmetry, regardless of the number of reflections and refractions it has experienced. Material on or near the axis of symmetry experiences more strain cycles with much greater amplitude than elsewhere, and therefore experiences more irreversible heating. The focusing is most intense in the upper mantle, within the asthenosphere, where seismic energy is most effectively converted to heat. For a sufficiently energetic impact, this mechanism might generate enough local heating to create an isostatic instability leading to uplift, possibly resulting in rifting, volcanism, or other rearrangement of the interior dynamics of the planet. These simulations demonstrate how hypervelocity impact energy can be transported to the Earth`s interior, supporting the possibility of a causal link between large impacts on Earth and major internally-driven geophysical processes.

  13. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  14. Environmental impact directory system: preliminary implementation for geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, F.D.; Hall, R.T.; Fullenwider, E.D.

    1976-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Directory System (EIDS) was proposed as a method for a computerized search of the widely distributed data files and models pertaining to energy-related environmental effects. To define the scope and content of the system, an example was prepared for the case of geothermal energy. The resulting sub-directory is known as GEIDs (Geothermal Environmental Impact Directory System). In preparing or reviewing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the user may employ GEIDS as an extensive checklist to make sure he has taken into account all predictable impacts at any level of severity.

  15. Quantification of environmental impacts of various energy technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfors, A [ed.

    1994-10-01

    This report discusses problems related to economic assessment of the environmental impacts and abatement measures in connection with energy projects. Attention is called to the necessity of assessing environmental impacts both in the form of reduced economic welfare and in the form of costs of abatement measures to reduce the impact. In recent years, several methods for valuing environmental impacts have been developed, but the project shows that few empirical studies have been carried out. The final report indicates that some important factors are very difficult to evaluate. In addition environmental impacts of energy development in Norway vary considerably from project to project. This makes it difficult to obtain a good basis for comparing environmental impacts caused by different technologies, for instance hydroelectric power versus gas power or wind versus hydroelectric power. It might be feasible however to carry out more detailed economic assessments of environmental impacts of specific projects. 33 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Analysis of energy flow during playground surface impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Peter L; Wilson, Suzanne J; Chalmers, David J; Wilson, Barry D; Eager, David; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The amount of energy dissipated away from or returned to a child falling onto a surface will influence fracture risk but is not considered in current standards for playground impact-attenuating surfaces. A two-mass rheological computer simulation was used to model energy flow within the wrist and surface during hand impact with playground surfaces, and the potential of this approach to provide insights into such impacts and predict injury risk examined. Acceleration data collected on-site from typical playground surfaces and previously obtained data from children performing an exercise involving freefalling with a fully extended arm provided input. The model identified differences in energy flow properties between playground surfaces and two potentially harmful surface characteristics: more energy was absorbed by (work done on) the wrist during both impact and rebound on rubber surfaces than on bark, and rubber surfaces started to rebound (return energy to the wrist) while the upper limb was still moving downward. Energy flow analysis thus provides information on playground surface characteristics and the impact process, and has the potential to identify fracture risks, inform the development of safer impact-attenuating surfaces, and contribute to development of new energy-based arm fracture injury criteria and tests for use in conjunction with current methods.

  17. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Abbasi, Naseema

    2000-01-01

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  18. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consump...

  19. Microparticle impact sensor measures energy directly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Berg, O. E.

    1965-01-01

    Construction of a capacitor sensor consisting of a dielectric layer between two conductive surface layers and connected across a potential source through a sensing resistor permits measurement of energy of impinging particles without degradation of sensitivity. A measurable response is produced without penetration of the dielectric layer.

  20. Environmental impact tool to assess national energy scenarios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) in terms of environmental impacts. The system quantifies the national energy demand for the domestic, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture sectors, the supply of electricity and liquid fuels, and the resulting emissions. The South African...

  1. GLOBAL IMPACT OF SOLAR ENERGY, CASE STUDY - GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Caralicea Marculescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is a socially and politically defined category of energy sources. Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished on a human timescale such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 3% and are growing rapidly. This paper seeks is aimed at presenting the impact solar energy could have on a world level given the finitude, reachability and ever increasing prices of fossil fuels. As a case study we will present the solar energy industry in Germany emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages this form of energy has in this country and worldwide.

  2. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  3. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Minimization of local impact of energy systems through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetti, Gabriele; Colombo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The model proposed aims at minimizing local impact of energy systems. • The model is meant to minimize the impact starting from system thermodynamics. • The formulation combines exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis. • The approach of the model is dual to Thermoeconomics. - Abstract: For the acceptability of energy systems, environmental impacts are becoming more and more important. One primary way for reducing impacts related to processes is by improving efficiency of plants. A key instrument currently used to verify such improvements is exergy analysis, extended to include also the environmental externalities generated by systems. Through exergy-based analyses, it is possible indeed to evaluate the overall amount of resources consumed along all the phases of the life cycle of a system, from construction to dismantling. However, resource consumption is a dimension of the impact of a system at global level, while it may not be considered a measure of its local impact. In the paper a complementary approach named Combined Risk and Exergy Analysis (CRExA) to assess impacts from major accidents in energy systems is proposed, based on the combination of classical exergy analysis and quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Impacts considered are focused on effects on human health. The approach leads to the identification of solutions to minimize damages of major accidents by acting on the energy system design

  5. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  6. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yanfen; Huang Zehao; Ma Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    The entire life cycle of biodiesel produced by microalgal biomasses was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impact loading of the system. The life cycle considers microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, oil extraction, anaerobic digestion, oil transportation, esterification, biodiesel transportation and biodiesel combustion. The investigation results show that the fossil energy requirement for the biodiesel production is 0.74 MJ/MJ biodiesel, indicating that 1 MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 0.74 MJ of fossil energy. Accordingly, biodiesel production is feasible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgal biodiesel is 3.69 PET 2010 (Person Equivalents, Targeted, in 2010) and the GWP is 0.16 kg CO 2-eq /MJ biodiesel. The effects of photochemical ozone formation were greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The fossil energy requirement and GWP in this operation were found to be particularly sensitive to oil content, drying rate and esterification rate. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the cultivation of microalgae has the potential to produce an environmentally sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Do energy analysis and environmental impacts of algal biodiesel in China. ► GWP and energy consumption are sensitive to lipid content and drying rate. ► Fossil energy consumption for algal biodiesel is 0.74 MJ/MJ. ► Microalgae are an environmentally sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  7. Evaluating the environmental impacts of the energy system: The ENPEP [ENergy and Power Evaluation Program] approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Sapinski, P.F.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP), a PC-based energy planning package intended for energy/environmental analysis in developing countries. The IMPACTS module of ENPEP examines environmental implications of overall energy and electricity supply strategies that can be developed with other ENPEP modules, including ELECTRIC, the International Atomic Energy Agency's Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP-III). The paper presents the status and characteristics of a new IMPACTS module that is now under development at ANL. 3 figs

  8. Griffith energy project final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Arizona. The Project would be a merchant plant which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information

  9. Griffith Energy Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-02

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fuel, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Ariz. The Project would be a ''merchant plant'' which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information.

  10. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  11. Environmental impacts of of energy exploitation and utilization in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewoye, R. O.

    1999-01-01

    This is the lead paper of the conference and presented by the Permanent Secretary, Federal Ministry of the Environment. It highlights the significant role of energy in the affairs of mankind, present available energy resources and their contributions to global energy supply. The particular case of Nigeria with its high dependence on fossil fuel, whose development and usage has proved to have significant environmental consequences necessitating the development of adequate strategies for mitigating environmental impacts

  12. Impact of energy on industrial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuemmel, R

    1981-02-01

    The equation of growth relates the growth of output Q to the growth of the production factors capital K, labor L, and energy flow E. It can be solved in zero order approximation with respect to time, if one assumes that the characteristic properties of the industrial system are not changed by human creativity and that the economy is far from its thermodynamic limits to growth. Then Q must be a unique function of K, L and E. The integral of the equation of growth with the calculated, factor-dependent elasticities of production yields the production function q.e*exp/left brace/a/sub o/(2-(l+e)/k)+a/sub o/c/sub t/(l/e-1)/right brace/, with q, k, l and e being the relative values of Q, K, L, and E; a/sub o/ and c/sub t/ are the two free parameters of the theory. For given factor inputs, the GNP and the output of the industrial sector of West Germany and the output of the sector ''Industries'' of the United States are calculated for the years 1960-78. Deviations of theory from reality are generally less than 5%. The influence of energy prices on factor inputs and growth is discussed.

  13. Impact of external conditions on energy consumption in industrial halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żabnieńśka-Góra, Alina

    2017-11-01

    The energy demand for heating the halls buildings is high. The impact on this may have the technology of production, building construction and technology requirements (HVAC systems). The isolation of the external partitions, the location of the object in relation to the surrounding buildings and the degree of the interior insolation (windows and skylights) are important in the context of energy consumption. The article discusses the impact of external conditions, wind and sunlight on energy demand in the industrial hall. The building model was prepared in IDA ICE 4.0 simulation software. Model validation was done based on measurements taken in the analyzed building.

  14. Impacts of Large Scale Wind Penetration on Energy Supply Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kabouris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES impacts Energy Supply Industry (ESI in many aspects leading to a fundamental change in electric power systems. It raises a number of technical challenges to the Transmission System Operators (TSOs, Distribution System Operators (DSOs and Wind Turbine Generators (WTG constructors. This paper aims to present in a thorough and coherent way the redrawn picture for Energy Systems under these conditions. Topics related to emergent technical challenges, technical solutions required and finally the impact on ESI due to large wind power penetration, are analyzed. Finally, general conclusions are extracted about the ESI current and future state and general directions are recommended.

  15. Environmental impact and benefit from hydro-energy: Bulgarian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesselinov, V.; Iotova, A.

    1996-01-01

    The present hydro energy system in Bulgaria has been constructed mainly in the period 1950-1965. The currently utilized hydro-power potential, only 33% of the estimated technical potential, includes 87 HPP operating in 1991. A complex assessment of the environmental impact of the hydro energy objects as well as a comparative analysis of all energy sources in Bulgaria is made in the framework of Bulgarian Case Study of the DECADES Inter-Agency Project. The main types of environmental impact related to HPP operation are presented in 7 specific categories: land requirements, changes in the landscape, hydrological changes, micro-climatic changes, geodynamic changes, risk from man-made activities; generation of new ecosystems. A technique of expertise in ball is proposed as a suitable quantitative approach for more precise assessment of impact on climate factors from different energy sources. 2 tabs., 5 refs

  16. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  17. The impact of future energy demand on renewable energy production – Case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Lind, Arne; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2013-01-01

    Projections of energy demand are an important part of analyses of policies to promote conservation, efficiency, technology implementation and renewable energy production. The development of energy demand is a key driver of the future energy system. This paper presents long-term projections of the Norwegian energy demand as a two-step methodology of first using activities and intensities to calculate a demand of energy services, and secondly use this as input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway to optimize the Norwegian energy system. Long-term energy demand projections are uncertain and the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of different projections on the energy system. The results of the analyses show that decreased energy demand results in a higher renewable fraction compared to an increased demand, and the renewable energy production increases with increased energy demand. The most profitable solution to cover increased demand is to increase the use of bio energy and to implement energy efficiency measures. To increase the wind power production, an increased renewable target or higher electricity export prices have to be fulfilled, in combination with more electricity export. - Highlights: • Projections to 2050 of Norwegian energy demand services, carriers and technologies. • Energy demand services calculated based on intensities and activities. • Energy carriers and technologies analysed by TIMES-Norway. • High renewable target results in more wind power production and electricity export. • Increased energy efficiency is important for a high renewable fraction

  18. Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Pickle, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilising renewable energy technologies (RETs) are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on RET financing. This paper reviews the power plant financing process for renewable energy projects, estimates the impact of financing terms on levelised energy costs, and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and financing. We review five case studies of renewable energy policies, and find that one of the key reasons that RET policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy policies. The case studies specifically show that policies that do no provide long-term stability or that have negative secondary impacts on investment decisions will increase financing costs, sometimes dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the program. Within U.S. electricity restructuring proceedings, new renewable energy policies are being created, and restructuring itself is changing the way RETs are financed. As these new policies are created and implemented, it is essential that policymakers acknowledge the financing difficulties faced by renewables developer and pay special attention to the impacts of renewables policy design on financing. As shown in this paper, a renewables policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums. (Author)

  19. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  20. The impacts of wind technology advancement on future global energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Ma, Chun; Song, Xia; Zhou, Yuyu; Chen, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment model perform a series of scenarios of technology advances. • Explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advance in global energy. • Technology advance impacts on energy consumption and global low carbon market. • Technology advance influences on global energy security and stability. - Abstract: To avoid additional global warming and environmental damage, energy systems need to rely on the use of low carbon technologies like wind energy. However, supply uncertainties, production costs, and energy security are the main factors considered by the global economies when reshaping their energy systems. Here, we explore the potential roles of wind energy technology advancement in future global electricity generations, costs, and energy security. We use an integrated assessment model performing a series of technology advancement scenarios. The results show that double of the capital cost reduction causes 40% of generation increase and 10% of cost ​decrease on average in the long-term global wind electricity market. Today’s technology advancement could bring us the benefit of increasing electricity production in the future 40–50 years, and decreasing electricity cost in the future 90–100 years. The technology advancement of wind energy can help to keep global energy security and stability. An aggressive development and deployment of wind energy could in the long-term avoid 1/3 of gas and 1/28 of coal burned, and keep 1/2 biomass and 1/20 nuclear fuel saved from the global electricity system. The key is that wind resources are free and carbon-free. The results of this study are useful in broad coverage ranges from innovative technologies and systems of renewable energy to the economic industrial and domestic use of energy with no or minor impact on the environment.

  1. Missile impacts as sources of seismic energy on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G.V.; McDonald, W.G.; Moore, H.J.

    1970-01-01

    Seismic signals recorded from impacts of missiles at the White Sands Missile Range are radically different from the signal recorded from the Apollo 12 lunar module impact. This implies that lunar structure to depths of at least 10 to 20 kilometers is quite different from the typical structure of the earth's crust. Results obtained from this study can be used to predict seismic wave amplitudes from future man-made lunar impacts. Seismic energy and crater dimensions from impacts are compared with measurements from chemical explosions.

  2. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  3. The impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of six scenarios considering the impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy. The six scenarios considered are: UK aggregate energy price scenario; pan-Europe aggregate energy price; global aggregate energy price; UK temporary gas price; UK permanent gas price; crude (Brent) oil price. As expected, shocks to aggregate energy prices cause the largest macroeconomic and energy demand effects (in terms of growth rate volatility). Shocks to gas prices produce a greater growth volatility for macroeconomic and energy demand than shocks to oil prices. In general terms, shocks specific to the UK market tend to produce more growth rate volatility than wider ranging price shocks (global or pan-European). All of the price shocks considered have a recursive effect on the main indicators, which tend to stabilise around the baseline level in the long run. The report summarises the results obtained in the different scenarios

  4. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EU LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Energy Union from the perspective of energy efficiency. The research has a multidisciplinary character, which implies an economic analysis of an empirical type, but also a theoretical approach to the benefits of energy efficiency. The author analyzes the impact of the new energy regulations on efficiency in the European Union (EU, namely the in-depth review of the Directive on Buildings Energy Performance, the new heating and cooling strategy for the intelligent transformation of this sector, as well as the strategy for protecting vulnerable consumers. The effects of the new energy efficiency regulations are more significant in a number of Member States, but as soon as these will be applied throughout the EU, the beneficial effects of increased energy efficiency are likely to be felt in the entire EU area.

  5. Energy security impacts of a severe drought on the future Finnish energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Jaakko; Veijalainen, Noora; Syri, Sanna; Marttunen, Mika; Zakeri, Behnam

    2018-07-01

    Finland updated its Energy and Climate Strategy in late 2016 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energy sources, increasing energy self-sufficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Concurrently, the issue of generation adequacy has grown more topical, especially since the record-high demand peak in Finland in January 2016. This paper analyses the Finnish energy system in years 2020 and 2030 by using the EnergyPLAN simulation tool to model whether different energy policy scenarios result in a plausible generation inadequacy. Moreover, as the Nordic energy system is so heavily dependent on hydropower production, we model and analyse the impacts of a severe drought on the Finnish energy system. We simulate hydropower availability according to the weather of the worst drought of the last century (in 1939-1942) with Finnish Environment Institute's Watershed Simulation and Forecasting System and we analyse the indirect impacts via reduced availability of electricity imports based on recent realised dry periods. Moreover, we analyse the environmental impacts of hydropower production during the drought and peak demand period and the impacts of climate change on generation adequacy in Finland. The results show that the scenarios of the new Energy and Climate Strategy result in an improved generation adequacy comparing to the current situation. However, a severe drought similar to that experienced in 1940s could cause a serious energy security threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  7. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Hertwich, Edgar G; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO 2 -eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO 2 -eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120–140 Tg CO 2 -eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power. (letter)

  8. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  9. Asymmetric impacts of international energy shocks on macroeconomic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Fang-Yu; Hu, Jin-Li; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2012-01-01

    While limited by its scarcity of natural resources, the impacts of energy price changes on Taiwan's economic activities have been an important issue for social public and government authorities. This study applies the multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. By separating energy price changes into the so-called decrease and increase regimes, we can realize different impacts of energy price changes and their shocks on economic output. The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for the energy-output nexus. The optimal threshold levels are exactly where the oil price change is at 2.48%, the natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and the coal price change is at 0.25%. The impulse response analysis suggests that oil price and natural gas shocks have a delayed negative impact on macroeconomic activities. - Highlights: ► This study applies multivariate threshold model to investigate the effects of various international energy price shocks on Taiwan's macroeconomic activity. ► The results confirm that there is an asymmetric threshold effect for energy-output nexus. ► The optimal threshold levels are exactly found where oil price change is at 2.48%, natural gas price change is at 0.66%, and coal price change is at 0.25%.

  10. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  11. The impacts of energy prices on energy intensity: Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, Leiming; Tu, Meizeng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a review of the deregulation of energy prices in China between 1985 and 2004 and assess the impacts of changes in energy prices on aggregate energy intensity and coal/oil/electricity intensity. We used time series data to provide estimates of energy price elasticities. Empirical results showed that: (1) The own-price elasticities of coal, oil, and aggregate energy were negative in periods both before and after 1995, implying that higher relative prices of different energy types lead to the decrease in coal, oil, and aggregate energy intensities. However, the positive own-price elasticity of electricity after 1995 probably indicates that the price effect was weaker than other factors such as income effect and population effect. (2) The impacts of energy prices were asymmetric over time. (3) Sectoral adjustment also drove the decrease in aggregate energy intensity. Although raising energy prices to boost efficiency of energy use seems to be an effective policy tool, other policy implications concerned with energy prices, such as energy supply security and fuel poverty, must also be considered

  12. Environmental impact assessment for energy pathways: an integrated methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommereux-Blanc, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the synthesis of my research work contributing to the development of an integrated methodology of environmental impact assessment for energy pathways. In the context of world globalization, environmental impact assessments issues are highly linked with the following questioning: Which environmental impacts? for which demand? at which location? at which temporal scale? My work is built upon the definition of a conceptual framework able to handle these issues and upon its progressive implementation. The integration of the spatial and temporal issues within the methodology are key elements. Fundamental cornerstones of this framework are presented along the DPSIR concept (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses). They cover a comprehensive analysis of the limits and the relevance of life cycle analysis and the development of a geo-spatialized environmental performance approach for an electrical production pathway. Perspectives linked with the development of this integrated methodology are detailed for energy pathways. (author)

  13. Economic impact of the energy price increase in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1997-01-01

    One unknown with regard to the price increases for gasoline and electricity is what will be the expected impact as the Mexican economy struggles to rebound. This is of more than spurious concern since many Mexican industries rely both intensively and extensively on gasoline and electricity to produce their goods and services. For example, the petrochemical and steel manufacturing industries are major consumers in Mexico's industrial sector which accounts for 55% of total energy consumption. Mexico's steel industry is one of the most electricity intensive in the world, with heavy reliance on electric arc furnace technology. Mexico's transportation sector accounts for about 30% of total energy consumption. Higher energy prices are expected to affect significantly the price and quantity of the goods and services produced. The nature and extent of this effect is the subject of this article. Also the modelling approach to be used in assessing the impact of higher energy prices will be discussed. 2 tabs., 20 refs

  14. Evaluating the impacts of energy supply technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peachey, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The newly formed Chemical Institute of Canada (CIC)/Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering (CSChE) Energy Subject Division is working to develop a methodology for assessing and communicating to governments, regulators and the public the relative merits of different technologies for meeting energy demand requirements or reducing energy consumption. The focus is on developing a process that considers a broader range of issues than basic economics, or greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 12 assessment criteria proposed would address five major areas of concerns including: a) how well assumptions have been tested against the scientific method over the life cycle of an energy development, b) impacts on the availability of the basic requirements for life, c) maintaining the quality of human life, d) maintaining the quality of the local environment (air, land and water), in the area where a specific technology is used, and e) considers the potential global impacts of GHG emissions. (author)

  15. Targeted Energy Transfer Phenomena in Vibro-Impact Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young S.; McFarland, D. Michael; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Nucera, Francesco; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2008-01-01

    We study targeted energy transfer (TET) in a coupled oscillator, consisting of a single-degree-of-freedom primary linear oscillator coupled to a vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES). For this purpose, we first compute the VI periodic orbits of the underlying hamiltonian VI system, and construct the corresponding frequency-energy plot (FEP). Then, considering inelastic impacts and viscous dissipation, we examine VI damped transitions on the FEP to identify a TET phenomenon by exciting a VI impulsive orbit, which is the most efficient mechanism for TET. Not only can the VI TET involve passive absorption and local dissipation of significant portions of the energy from the primary systems, but it occurs at sufficiently fast time scales. This renders VI NESs suitable for applications, like seismic mitigation, where shock elimination in the early, highly energetic regime of the motion is a critical requirement

  16. Health and safety impacts of renewable, geothermal, and rusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdren, J.P.; Anderson, K.B.; Deibler, P.M.; Gleick, P.H.; Mintzer, I.M.; Morris, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    The public may view many renewable energy sources as having no direct public impacts because they produce no pollutants during normal operation. However, these energy technologies produce health impacts during their fabricatin and construction, and also through the materials-supply sectors required to support them. This survey of the health risks associated with renewable energy technologies concludes that some of the renewable options have particular promise for reducing health and environmental costs per unit of energy delivered to well below levels associated with the use of oil and coal; Holdren and his co-authors feel that few, if any, pose the indirect threats of fossil fuels and nuclear fission. 46 references, 7 tables

  17. Luminescence model with quantum impact parameter for low energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Galindo, H S; Martínez-Davalos, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; Galindo, S

    2002-01-01

    We have modified an analytical model of induced light production by energetic ions interacting in scintillating materials. The original model is based on the distribution of energy deposited by secondary electrons produced along the ion's track. The range of scattered electrons, and thus the energy distribution, depends on a classical impact parameter between the electron and the ion's track. The only adjustable parameter of the model is the quenching density rho sub q. The modification here presented, consists in proposing a quantum impact parameter that leads to a better fit of the model to the experimental data at low incident ion energies. The light output response of CsI(Tl) detectors to low energy ions (<3 MeV/A) is fitted with the modified model and comparison is made to the original model.

  18. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi-Chung; McCarl, Bruce; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Tso, Chunto

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  19. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R.R.; Easter, S.B.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Maestre, F.T.; Tavassoli, M.; Allen, E.B.; Barrows, C.W.; Belnap, J.; Ochoa-Hueso, R.; Ravi, S.; Allen, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is a promising alternative to fossil fuel-based energy, but its development can require a complex set of environmental tradeoffs. A recent increase in solar energy systems, especially large, centralized installations, underscores the urgency of understanding their environmental interactions. Synthesizing literature across numerous disciplines, we review direct and indirect environmental impacts – both beneficial and adverse – of utility-scale solar energy (USSE) development, including impacts on biodiversity, land-use and land-cover change, soils, water resources, and human health. Additionally, we review feedbacks between USSE infrastructure and land-atmosphere interactions and the potential for USSE systems to mitigate climate change. Several characteristics and development strategies of USSE systems have low environmental impacts relative to other energy systems, including other renewables. We show opportunities to increase USSE environmental co-benefits, the permitting and regulatory constraints and opportunities of USSE, and highlight future research directions to better understand the nexus between USSE and the environment. Increasing the environmental compatibility of USSE systems will maximize the efficacy of this key renewable energy source in mitigating climatic and global environmental change.

  20. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-12-31

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

  1. Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

    1993-01-01

    If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level, the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in two multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass

  2. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  3. World energy outlook in 2020 focusing on China's energy impacts on the world and Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, R.; Ito, K.; Li Zhidong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a consistent international energy projection developed by an integrated econometric model for the purpose of analysing China's energy impacts on the energy markets in the world and Northeast Asia to 2020. Vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation are going to expand the primary energy demand in China, which accounts for a large part of the world primary energy increase, eventually positioning China as an important player in the world energy market and in terms of CO 2 emissions. Focusing on Northeast Asia, considerable oil demand growth in China, which has only a limited oil production, would increase the regional reliance on Middle Eastern oil thereby underlining a serious energy security problem of oil importing countries in this region. It is becoming increasingly important for the energy issue to be addressed as one where all Northeast Asian countries have a common stake and can commit themselves. (author)

  4. Environmental impacts evaluation associated to renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    As time goes by, the need for electricity increases and creates several problems to mankind. Health and environmental problems happens wherever a power plant arises. For many people the best option for these problems is to invest in energy alternative sources, such as solar and wind. But unfortunately this sources also generates some environmental and health damages. The objective of this work is to analyze the impacts of these energy sources, to review their utilization all over the world and to discuss its relevance in the global energy market. To make a comparative evaluation, the nuclear option will also be analyzed. (author)

  5. Evaluating the landscape impact of renewable energy plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Romanos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    Different types of renewable energy have been on an ongoing competition with each other. There has been a lot of research comparing the most common types of renewable energy plants in relation with their efficiency, cost and environmental impact. However, few papers so far have attempted to analyse their impact on landscape and there has never been in depth research on which type of renewable energy causes the least impact on the natural, cultural and aesthetic characteristics of a landscape. This seems to be a significant omission given the vast areas of land already covered with renewable energy plants and the worldwide plans for many more renewable energy projects in the future. Meanwhile, the low aesthetic quality of renewable energy plants has already been an obstacle to their further development, with several relevant examples from countries such as Spain and the Netherlands. There have even been cases where aesthetic degradation is the primary or even the single argument of the opposition to proposed plants. In any case, the aesthetic design and the integration of renewable energy plants into the landscape should really be important design parameters if we plan those projects to truly be sustainable and to be considered complete works of engineering. To initiate dialogue over those aspects of renewable energy, we provide a first comparison on hydro, solar and wind energy. To materialize this comparison, we use data from existing dams, photovoltaic and wind farms. Initially, the average area per MW covered by each type of energy plant is calculated and then evaluated qualitatively from a landscape-impact perspective. Although the area affected is comparable in these three cases, the analysis of the data suggests that dams offer a considerable amount of advantages compared to the other two types of plants. This conclusion arises from the fact that dams, whose basic impact to the landscape is the creation of an artificial lake, contribute much less to the

  6. Water as a source of renewable energy. Environmental impacts of six energy techniques; Water als bron van duurzame energie. Omgevingseffecten van zes energietechnologieen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, M.; De Bie, Y.; Geurts, F.; Van Iersel, S.; Ritzen, A.; Stolk, N.

    2010-03-15

    This report describes the environmental impact of six energy technologies using water: thermal energy storage, tidal current, tidal energy with height of fall, wave energy, aquatic biomass and osmosis energy (blue energy) [Dutch] In dit rapport zijn de omgevingseffecten van zes energietechnologieen met water beschreven: warmte koude opslag, getijdenstroming, getijdenenergie op verval, golfenergie, aquatische biomassa en osmose-energie (blue energy)

  7. Air quality and energy impacts of NYSDOT highway ROW management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mowing the highway right-of-way is important for the safety of roadway users and maintaining the highway infrastructure. However, little quantitative data are available on the energy use and air quality impacts of highway mowing activities. In this r...

  8. Energy Frontier Research Centers: Impact Report, January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-31

    Since its inception in 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy’s Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) program has become an important research modality in the Department’s portfolio, enabling high impact research that addresses key scientific challenges for energy technologies. Funded by the Office of Science’s Basic Energy Sciences program, the EFRCs are located across the United States and are led by universities, national laboratories, and private research institutions. These multi-investigator, multidisciplinary centers bring together world-class teams of researchers, often from multiple institutions, to tackle the toughest scientific challenges preventing advances in energy technologies. The EFRCs’ fundamental scientific advances are having a significant impact that is being translated to industry. In 2009 five-year awards were made to 46 EFRCs, including 16 that were fully funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). An open recompetition of the program in 2014 resulted in fouryear awards to 32 centers, 22 of which are renewals of existing EFRCs and 10 of which are new EFRCs. In 2016, DOE added four new centers to accelerate the scientific breakthroughs needed to support the Department’s environmental management and nuclear cleanup mission, bringing the total number of active EFRCs to 36. The impact reports in this document describe some of the many scientific accomplishments and greater impacts of the class of 2009 – 2018 EFRCs and early outcomes from a few of the class of 2014 – 2018 EFRCs.

  9. Modelling the impact of social network on energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Feng; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue; Galloway, Stuart; Lo, Kwok L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving propagation along a social network is modelled. • This model consists of a time evolving weighted directed network. • Network weights and information decay are applied in savings calculation. - Abstract: It is noted that human behaviour changes can have a significant impact on energy consumption, however, qualitative study on such an impact is still very limited, and it is necessary to develop the corresponding mathematical models to describe how much energy savings can be achieved through human engagement. In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified by the decay of information. Expected energy savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information source or multiple sources. This model is tested on a social network consisting of 40 people. The results show that the strength of relations between individuals is more important to information diffusion than the number of connections individuals have. The expected energy savings of optimally chosen node can be 25.32% more than randomly chosen nodes at the end of the second month for the case of single information source in the network, and 16.96% more than random nodes for the case of multiple information sources. This illustrates that the model presented in this paper can be used to determine which individuals will have the most influence on the social network, which in turn provides a useful guide to identify targeted customers in energy efficiency technology rollout

  10. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  11. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin Brown, Brittany Repac, Jeff Gonder

    2013-07-15

    Self-driving or “autonomous” vehicles (AVs) have leapt from science fiction into the forefront of transportation technology news. The technology is likely still years away from widespread commercial adoption, but the recent progress makes it worth considering the potential national impacts of widespread implementation. This poster makes an initial assessment of the energy impacts of AV adoptionon a per-vehicle basis and on total personal vehicle fuel use. While AVs offer numerous potential advantages in energy use, there are significant factors that could decrease or even eliminate the energy benefits under some circumstances. This analysis attempts to describe, quantify, and combine many of the possible effects. The nature and magnitude of these effects remain highly uncertain. This set of effects is very unlikely to be exhaustive, but this analysis approach can serve as a base for future estimates.

  12. Asia energy outlook to 2030: Impacts of energy outlook in China and India on the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an international energy outlook, focusing on an analysis of energy impacts of Asia, particularly China and India, on the world energy markets to 2030. Based on vigorous economic growth, soaring electricity demand and progressive motorisation in China and India, Asia's primary energy demand is expected to double, eventually positioning Asia as the largest energy-consuming region with largest CO{sub 2} emissions in the world. This paper also discusses energy security challenges for Asia, in particular East Asian region, where steady oil demand growth will lead to increasing dependency on imported oil from Middle East and sea lane security in the Malacca Strait. Furthermore, this paper explores various future scenarios for Asia including 'Technological Advanced Scenario' to highlight the differences in possible energy futures in Asia and its implication to the global energy market. In Technological Advanced Scenario, which assumes the stepped-up implementation of energy and environmental policies in Asian countries, Asia's primary energy demand in 2030 is expected to be 15%, or 943 Mtoe, lower than the Reference Scenario. The paper concludes that successful implementation of such an energy strategy will decrease the energy demand and greatly mitigate the growth of CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy sector. (auth)

  13. Impact Energy Absorbing Capability of Metal/Polymer Hybrid Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Kyungil; Kwon, O Bum; Park, Hyung Wook [Ulsan Nat’l Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently, the reduction of vehicle weight has been increasingly studied, in order to enhance the fuel efficiency of passenger cars. In particular, the seat frame is being studied actively, owing to considerations of driver safety from external impact damage. Therefore, this study focuses on high strength steel sheet (SPFC980)/polymer heterojunction hybrid materials, and their performance in regards to impact energy absorption. The ratio of impact energy absorption was observed to be relatively higher in the SPFC980/polymer hybrid materials under the impact load. This was found by calculating the equivalent flexural rigidity, which is the bending effect, according to the Castigliano theorem. An efficient wire-web structure was investigated through the simulation of different wire-web designs such as triangular, rectangular, octagonal, and hexagonal structures. The hexagonal wire-web structure was shown to have the least impact damage, according to the simulations. This study can be utilized for seat frame design for passengers’ safety, owing to efficient impact absorption.

  14. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  16. Impact of Weather and Occupancy on Energy Flexibility Potential of a Low-energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilio, Emanuele; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the energy market leads to instability of the energy system itself; therefore, new solutions to increase its flexibility will become more common in the coming years. In this context the implementation of energy flexibility in buildings is evaluated...... solar radiation and the outdoor temperature appeared to have the larger impact on the thermal flexibility of the building. Specifically, the energy flexibility potential of the examined apartment can ensure its thermal autonomy up to 200 h in a typical sunny winter day......., using heat storage in the building mass. This study focuses on the influence of weather conditions and internal gains on the energy flexibility potential of a nearly-zero-energy building in Denmark. A specific six hours heating program is used to reach the scope. The main findings showed that the direct...

  17. Energy drink consumption and impact on caffeine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Barbara M; Campbell, Donald M; Cressey, Peter; Egan, Ursula; Horn, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The impact of caffeine from energy drinks occurs against a background exposure from naturally occurring caffeine (coffee, tea, cocoa and foods containing these ingredients) and caffeinated beverages (kola-type soft drinks). Background caffeine exposure, excluding energy drinks, was assessed for six New Zealand population groups aged 15 years and over (n = 4503) by combining concentration data for 53 caffeine-containing foods with consumption information from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (ANS). Caffeine exposure for those who consumed energy drinks (n = 138) was similarly assessed, with inclusion of energy drinks. Forty-seven energy drink products were identified on the New Zealand market in 2010. Product volumes ranged from 30 to 600 ml per unit, resulting in exposures of 10-300 mg caffeine per retail unit consumed. A small percentage, 3.1%, of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, with most energy drink consumers (110/138) drinking one serving per 24 h. The maximum number of energy drinks consumed per 24 h was 14 (total caffeine of 390 mg). A high degree of brand loyalty was evident. Since only a minor proportion of New Zealanders reported consuming energy drinks, a greater number of New Zealanders exceeded a potentially adverse effect level (AEL) of 3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for caffeine from caffeine-containing foods than from energy drinks. Energy drink consumption is not a risk at a population level because of the low prevalence of consumption. At an individual level, however, teenagers, adults (20-64 years) and females (16-44 years) were more likely to exceed the AEL by consuming energy drinks in combination with caffeine-containing foods.

  18. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  19. 77 FR 44267 - Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (Final Programmatic EIS... RMP Amendments, references, and additional information regarding solar energy development are...

  20. 75 FR 78980 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy... Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern... preferred method of commenting. Mail: Addressed to: Solar Energy Draft Programmatic EIS, Argonne National...

  1. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  2. The climate impact of future energy peat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagberg, Linus; Holmgren, Kristina

    2008-09-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission after-treatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation)

  3. The potential impact of hydrogen energy use on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ruijven, B. J.; Lamarque, J. F.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Kram, T.; Eerens, H.

    2009-04-01

    Energy models show very different trajectories for future energy systems (partly as function of future climate policy). One possible option is a transition towards a hydrogen-based energy system. The potential impact of such hydrogen economy on atmospheric emissions is highly uncertain. On the one hand, application of hydrogen in clean fuel cells reduces emissions of local air pollutants, like SOx and NOx. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen from system leakages are expected to change the atmospheric concentrations and behaviour (see also Price et al., 2007; Sanderson et al., 2003; Schultz et al., 2003; Tromp et al., 2003). The uncertainty arises from several sources: the expected use of hydrogen, the intensity of leakages and emissions, and the atmospheric chemical behaviour of hydrogen. Existing studies to the potential impacts of a hydrogen economy on the atmosphere mostly use hydrogen emission scenarios that are based on simple assumptions. This research combines two different modelling efforts to explore the range of impacts of hydrogen on atmospheric chemistry. First, the potential role of hydrogen in the global energy system and the related emissions of hydrogen and other air pollutants are derived from the global energy system simulation model TIMER (van Vuuren, 2007). A set of dedicated scenarios on hydrogen technology development explores the most pessimistic and optimistic cases for hydrogen deployment (van Ruijven et al., 2008; van Ruijven et al., 2007). These scenarios are combined with different assumptions on hydrogen emission factors. Second, the emissions from the TIMER model are linked to the NCAR atmospheric model (Lamarque et al., 2005; Lamarque et al., 2008), in order to determine the impacts on atmospheric chemistry. By combining an energy system model and an atmospheric model, we are able to consistently explore the boundaries of both hydrogen use, emissions and impacts on atmospheric chemistry. References: Lamarque, J.-F., Kiehl, J. T

  4. Critical impact energy for the perforation of metallic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.Y.; Li, Q.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical formulae used in engineering practice to predict the critical perforation energy of metallic plates struck by rigid projectiles in the sub-ordnance regime. Main factors affecting the critical perforation energy are identified and valid conditions for each empirical formula are compared. Dimensional analysis is conducted to show the dependence of the non-dimensional critical impact energy on other influential non-dimensional numbers. Available empirical formulae are re-expressed in non-dimensional forms. A modified Jowett/AEA equation is proposed to predict the critical perforation energy of a flat-ended short projectile. The present work increases the confidence of using these empirical formulae and can be regarded as a quick guide for ballistic protection design of metallic shields and steel armour plates

  5. Environmental impact assessments of wind energy projects: An Alberta example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    A description is presented of the environmental impact assessment for an Alberta windfarm, summarizing the rationale, process and results of the assessment, costs involved, and recommendations made. The Pe-kun-nee windfarm was designed as a 44 turbine, 9.9 kW windfarm. The assessment included consideration of the complete range of environmental impacts of the windfarm, including reviews of impacts associated with similar developments elsewhere. From an environmental perspective, the proposed site and transmission line route were exceedingly suitable for development. No major potential impacts were identified. Most impacts that could occur, including terrain and vegetation disturbance, were associated with the construction phase of the project. A series of mitigation measures were developed to minimize each identified impact. Monitoring during the operations phase of the development was recommended to: ensure that the revegetation of disturbed areas was adequate; verify the sound level model; and document the incidence of bird strikes. Potential aesthetic impacts were addressed through a proposed interpretive project designed to educate visitors, enhance the profile of the wind-energy industry, and provide local employment. The assessment was completed within 8 months of initiation at a cost less than $200,000

  6. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  7. Climate change impacts on chosen activities from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The present work, results of a study carried out about the possible impact of climate change on the energy sector in the province Camaguey are shown. First of all, the main activities in companies, utilities, and farms related to the most significant energy consumption were chosen in order to model corresponding equivalent fuel consumption. Impacts were determined taking into account differences between present and future consumptions for each kind of energy. In developed countries, this kind of work is done using well-known empirical-statistical models, which usually require a lot of data at a nation-wide scale, but to attempt it in an undeveloped country demands the use of specific methodology, which in this case was non-existent and required us to create it. This resulted in a carefully posed question since we had to take into consideration that the spatial scale is only that of a province, and so it was necessary, above all, to study specific characteristics of provincial fuel consumption. We used the Magic-Scengen system and SRES scenarios, and outputs of general circulation models like HadCM2 to obtain values of chosen climatic variables for use in energy consumption regression models, previously developed for each kind of activity in the corresponding companies, firm, and facilities included in the present research. It made possible to estimate energy consumption in each activity at the selected time periods centered at 2020, 2050, and 2080. The study shows that impact could rise the consumption by 2,5% of the present energy level in this territory

  8. Phipps Bend Nuclear Energy Project. Community impact assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snapp, P.C.; Teilhet, A.; Newsom, R.; Bond, M.; Garland, M.

    1977-01-01

    In late 1977, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) proposed to build a 2 unit nuclear plant at Phipps Bend on the Holston River east of Surgoinsville, Tennessee. Total estimated cost is 1.6 billion dollars, with a generating capacity of 2,600,000 kilowatts. The facility will have an impact on Hawkins, Greene and Sullivan counties with 2,500 construction employees, a permanent work force of 300, increased availability of energy to stimulate new capital investment and the local government will need to deal with these. This report analyzed the facilities of each community in the impacted area and recommended certain action for infrastructure acquisition or improvements

  9. Estimating the energy consumption impact of casual carpooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minett, P. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Epsom, Auckland (New Zealand); Pearce, J. [Trip Convergence Ltd, Remuera, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2011-07-01

    Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion) could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called 'slugging') is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption. (authors)

  10. Estimating the Energy Consumption Impact of Casual Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Minett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the transportation energy consumed during peak commuter periods is wasted through slow running in congested traffic. Strategies to increase average vehicle occupancy (and reduce vehicle counts and congestion could be expected to be at the forefront of energy conservation policies. Casual carpooling (also called “slugging” is a system of carpooling without trip-by-trip pre-arrangement. It operates in three US cities, and has been suggested in New Zealand as a strategy for managing transportation challenges when oil prices rise. The objective of the paper is to find out if casual carpooling reduces energy consumption, and if so, how much. Energy consumption by single occupant vehicles; casual carpool vehicles; and a mix of buses and single occupant vehicles; are estimated and compared, and the impact on the rest of the traffic is calculated. The paper estimates that casual carpooling in San Francisco is conserving in the order of 1.7 to 3.5 million liters of gasoline per year, or 200-400 liters for each participant, much of which comes from the impact on the rest of the traffic. The paper concludes by calling for applied research to discover how to catalyze casual carpooling in other cities as a means of reducing transportation energy consumption.

  11. The impact of energy audits on energy efficiency investment of public owners. Evidence from Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetta, Gian Paolo; Canino, Paolo; Cima, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Buildings are a promising area of energy savings, but a difference exists between actual and optimal investment in this field. The so called ‘information gap’ about the costs and benefits of energy-saving activities could explain the difference. Audit programs have been undertaken to overcome the ‘information gap’ but, surprisingly, most papers analyzing the impact of audits on the adoption of energy-saving measures use faulty methods that could provide biased results. In this paper we fill this gap of the energy literature. First, we introduce robust counterfactual methods to analyze the impact of energy-saving policies; second, we apply these methods to investigate the impact of the free-funding of audits on the energy-saving investments of local public administrations, a neglected area of investigation. As opposite to most of the literature, we cannot identify any statistically significant effect of the audits either on the number of energy-saving interventions or on the resources devoted to these activities by local public administrations. We believe that, in the field of public non-residential buildings, information is not sufficient to fostering public investments aimed at increasing energy efficiency. As a policy consequence, public resources should consider different tools, including those aimed at reducing the cost of investments. - Highlights: • Authors examining energy audits find positive effects, but use faulty methods. • We examine audits using un-biased methods of counterfactual analysis. • We use a unique set of data of audits in public non-residential facilities. • We cannot identify any effect of audits on energy-saving activities and investments. • In the field of public buildings, information is not enough to raising investments.

  12. Impact of energy efficiency gains on output and energy use with Cobb-Douglas production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Taoyuan

    2007-01-01

    A special issue of Energy Policy-28 (2000)-was devoted to a collection of papers, edited by Dr. Lee Schipper. The collection included a paper entitled 'A view from the macro side: rebound, backfire, and Khazzoom-Brookes' in which it was argued that the impact of fuel efficiency gains on output (roughly, GDP) is likely to be relatively small by Cobb-Douglas production function. However, an error in the analysis leads to under-estimation of the long-term impact. This paper first provides a partial equilibrium analysis by an alternative method for the same case and then proceeds to an analysis on the issue in a two-sector general equilibrium system. In the latter analysis, energy price is internalized. Both energy use efficiency and energy production efficiency are involved

  13. China's conception of energy security : sources and international impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, C.

    2005-01-01

    The unique challenges and opportunities associated with China's rapid economic growth were discussed with reference to the potential risk of political disruption or destabilizing international markets. The author notes that two common mistakes are typically made when assessing the evolution of China's energy policy. The first is that China's future path is assimilated with that of developed countries, thereby dismissing evidence that might point toward a different relationship with energy. Second, analysts tend to focus on the external expression of China's energy needs, its oil imports, while overlooking other energy-related issues such as insufficient electricity supplies or environmental degradation. The author argues that Chinese leadership is redefining its understanding of what constitutes energy security for the country. This report assesses the international impacts of such a redefinition along with the international aspects of a business-as-usual scenario in which China pursues its traditional model of energy security. It was emphasized that two different views of energy security lead to different sets of challenges and opportunities for western governments and businesses. 101 refs., 2 figs

  14. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President's Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle - in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository - to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  15. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Wigeland

    2008-10-01

    Abstract: The proposed Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Program, which is part of the President’s Advanced Energy Initiative, is intended to support a safe, secure, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy, both domestically and internationally. Domestically, the GNEP Program would promote technologies that support economic, sustained production of nuclear-generated electricity, while reducing the impacts associated with spent nuclear fuel disposal and reducing proliferation risks. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action envisions changing the United States nuclear energy fuel cycle from an open (or once-through) fuel cycle—in which nuclear fuel is used in a power plant one time and the resulting spent nuclear fuel is stored for eventual disposal in a geologic repository—to a closed fuel cycle in which spent nuclear fuel would be recycled to recover energy-bearing components for use in new nuclear fuel. At this time, DOE has no specific proposed actions for the international component of the GNEP Program. Rather, the United States, through the GNEP Program, is considering various initiatives to work cooperatively with other nations. Such initiatives include the development of grid-appropriate reactors and the development of reliable fuel services (to provide an assured supply of fresh nuclear fuel and assist with the management of the used fuel) for nations who agree to employ nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes, such as electricity generation.

  16. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  17. The health cost of energy. The health impacts of the different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of impacts of the different energy sources on public health. After a discussion of general aspects regarding this issue, the author addresses the identification and assessment of risks. While referring to different statistical data, he discusses the impacts of accidents in terms of dead, injured or evacuated people. He also addresses health impacts during a normal operation of power plants, i.e. in the case of nuclear plants (issue of exposure to various levels of radiation at the different steps of fuel cycle), of carbon-based plants (health risks and impacts during coal extraction, due to CO 2 emissions and to other toxic emissions, due to atmospheric pollution, identified risks, modelling attempts, assessment of a loss in life expectancy), and of other energies. While acknowledging that there are still many unknowns to assess these health impacts, the author compares these assessments. A summarized version of this article is proposed, in which the author briefly comments data regarding severe accidents related to energy production, discusses health consequences of electric power production and use, and makes a distinction between the most and less hazardous energies as far as public health is concerned

  18. The prospective environmental impacts of Iran nuclear energy expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshti, Hamed, E-mail: Beheshti@zedat.fu-berlin.de [Renewable Energy Policy Planning, Freie Universitaet Berlin BC CARE, Berlin Center for Caspian Region Energy and Environment Studies, Ihnestrasse 22, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Nuclear energy has direct impacts on the environment. Uranium mining, milling, and enrichment affect the livelihoods around and stress on the water resources. In addition, nuclear power plants consume huge amount of water and elevate the water temperature of the ambient water resources. The Iranian nuclear program has pledged for 20,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2025. The fulfillment of such ambitious target stresses the environment and increases the environmental degradation cost of the country. Iran central semi-arid area and the Persian Gulf are the major regions with high risk of impacts from the current nuclear program. - Highlights: > Fragile ecosystem of the Persian Gulf would not tolerate the ambitious nuclear programs of its coastal countries. > Water resources in Iran inland area are depleting fast due to the unsustainable development on the past. > Iranian nuclear program is going to put an additional serious stress on the water resources of the country.

  19. The prospective environmental impacts of Iran nuclear energy expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheshti, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy has direct impacts on the environment. Uranium mining, milling, and enrichment affect the livelihoods around and stress on the water resources. In addition, nuclear power plants consume huge amount of water and elevate the water temperature of the ambient water resources. The Iranian nuclear program has pledged for 20,000 MW of nuclear energy by 2025. The fulfillment of such ambitious target stresses the environment and increases the environmental degradation cost of the country. Iran central semi-arid area and the Persian Gulf are the major regions with high risk of impacts from the current nuclear program. - Highlights: → Fragile ecosystem of the Persian Gulf would not tolerate the ambitious nuclear programs of its coastal countries. → Water resources in Iran inland area are depleting fast due to the unsustainable development on the past. → Iranian nuclear program is going to put an additional serious stress on the water resources of the country.

  20. Impact of exercise on energy metabolism in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Stephan; Mack, Isabelle; Baur, Louise A; Hebebrand, Johannes; Touyz, Stephen; Herzog, Wolfgang; Abraham, Suzanne; Davies, Peter SW; Russell, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive physical activity is one of the most paradoxical features of anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is individual variation in the degree of physical activity found in AN-patients. As a result, marked differences in energy expenditure may be expected. Furthermore, exercise has a positive impact on a variety of psychological disorders and the psychopathology may be different in AN displaying high exercise levels versus AN displaying low exercise levels. We analyzed the ener...

  1. Energy Drinks and the Neurophysiological Impact of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  2. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can in...

  3. Environmental impacts of energy gases. A factual handbook. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This handbook gives a thorough review of gas fuels, their properties, production, environmental impacts, uses as well as comparisons with other fuels (Biofuels, Petroleum, Coal, Peat). Legislation and rules for Sweden and the European Union are also treated. The book is made up of the following chapters: Introduction, Pollutants, Facts on liquid and solid fuels, Facts on gas fuels, Environmental impacts, Regulations, Air quality, Emission limits, Licensing and permits, Economic incentives, Pollution control technology, Appliances, boilers, engines and power plants, Environmental impacts of the full fuel cycle (LCA), Case studies: heating plants, cogeneration, power plants, power production systems, heavy vehicles, Environmental advantages from introduction of gas fuels, R and D needs, Energy and environmental statistics

  4. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants

  5. The economic, energy, and environmental impacts of the Energy-Related Inventions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Wilson, C.R.; Franchuk, C.A.; Cohn, S.M.; Jones, D.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides information on the economic, energy, and environmental impacts of inventions supported by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) -- a program jointly operated by the US Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It describes the results of the latest in a series of ERIP evaluation projects that have been completed since 1980. The period of interest is 1980 through 1992. The evaluation is based on data collected in 1993 through mail and telephone surveys of 253 program participants, and historical data collected during previous evaluations for an additional 189 participants.

  6. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  7. Market-oriented Energy Revolution in China and Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Xue Qing

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing a new round ofambitious reform in its energy sectors after presidentXi's call for“energy revolution”in June 2014. Thistop-down strategy paves a way to market-oriented transition for Chinese energy govern system on both industrial level and corporation level. This paper analyzes the newtrends of China's energy policy and its impacts on crude oil market as well as on Chinese state-owned petroleum enterprises. Thisrevolutionwill reshapethe managementsystemof Chinese energyindustryto cope with rising energy demand, supply restraints, huge environmental costs and backward technologies.With the deepening reform of oil and gas pricing mechanism and the opening-up of petroleum industry, Chinese domestic energy market will be upgraded towards a more rationalized and competitive system. Mixed ownerships will be introduced to stimulate the vitality, creativity and brandinfluence of state-owned petroleum corporations, pushing Chinese national oil majors to collaboratejointly withvarious foreign oil and gas companies and the emerging domestic private companies with great entrepreneurship.

  8. Impacts of US federal energy efficiency standards for residential appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.; McMahon, J.E.; McNeil, M.; Liu, X.

    2003-01-01

    This study estimated energy, environmental, and consumer impacts of US federal residential energy efficiency standards taking effect in the 1988-2007 period. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated key data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 8-9% in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. The standards will save a cumulative total of 26-32 EJ (25-30 quads) by the year 2015, and 63 EJ (60 quads) by 2030. The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to nearly US$80 billion by 2015, and grows to US$130 billion by 2030. The overall benefit/cost ratio of cumulative consumer impacts in the 1987-2050 period is 2.75:1. The cumulative cost of the DOE's program to establish and implement the standards is in the range of US$200-US$250 million. (author)

  9. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  10. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  11. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  12. Luminescence model with quantum impact parameter for low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, H.S.; Michaelian, K.; Galindo U, S.; Martinez D, A.; Belmont M, E.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical model of induced light production in scintillator materials by energetic ions proposed by Michaelian and Menchaca (M-M) adjusts very well the luminescence substance data in a wide energy interval of the incident ions (10-100 MeV). However at low energies, that is, under to 10 MeV, the experimental deviations of the predictions of M-M model, show that the causes may be certain physical effects, all they important at low energies, which were not considered. We have modified lightly the M-M model using the basic fact that the Quantum mechanics gives to a different limit for the quantum impact parameter instead of the classic approximation. (Author)

  13. A study on the Charpy-V impact energy and impact properties of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Gill Young

    1988-01-01

    It has been thought that by analyzing and considering the shock strength and fracture of impact load. We can accurtely determine strength and thus it will be helpful in optimum design. In this experimental study the following results were obtained by using the instrumented impact test for SUS 316 1) The total charpy impact energy is progressively decreased by increasing the shock pressure. 2) The dynamic yield strength is increased by increasing the shock pressure for all test temperatures. 3) The ratio of dynamic yield to static yield strength was found to decrease with increasing shock pressure. (Author)

  14. Problems of Technology of Energy-Saving Buildings and Their Impact on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.

  15. Differential cross sections for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran at intermediate impact energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, T. P. T. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); School of Education, Can Tho University, Campus II, 3/2 Street, Xuan Khanh, Ninh Kieu, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Duque, H. V. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville (Australia); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jones, D. B., E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia)

    2015-03-28

    We report differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact vibrational-excitation of tetrahydrofuran, at intermediate incident electron energies (15-50 eV) and over the 10°-90° scattered electron angular range. These measurements extend the available DCS data for vibrational excitation for this species, which have previously been obtained at lower incident electron energies (≤20 eV). Where possible, our data are compared to the earlier measurements in the overlapping energy ranges. Here, quite good agreement was generally observed where the measurements overlapped.

  16. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  17. The employment impacts of economy-wide investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peltier, Heidi

    This dissertation examines the employment impacts of investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency in the U.S. A broad expansion of the use of renewable energy in place of carbon-based energy, in addition to investments in energy efficiency, comprise a prominent strategy to slow or reverse the effects of anthropogenic climate change. This study first explores the literature on the employment impacts of these investments. This literature to date consists mainly of input-output (I-O) studies or case studies of renewable energy and energy efficiency (REEE). Researchers are constrained, however, by their ability to use the I-O model to study REEE, since currently industrial codes do not recognize this industry as such. I develop and present two methods to use the I-O framework to overcome this constraint: the synthetic and integrated approaches. In the former, I proxy the REEE industry by creating a vector of final demand based on the industrial spending patterns of REEE firms as found in the secondary literature. In the integrated approach, I collect primary data through a nationwide survey of REEE firms and integrate these data into the existing I-O tables to explicitly identify the REEE industry and estimate the employment impacts resulting from both upstream and downstream linkages with other industries. The size of the REEE employment multiplier is sensitive to the choice of method, and is higher using the synthetic approach than using the integrated approach. I find that using both methods, the employment level per $1 million demand is approximately three times greater for the REEE industry than for fossil fuel (FF) industries. This implies that a shift to clean energy will result in positive net employment impacts. The positive effects stem mainly from the higher labor intensity of REEE in relation to FF, as well as from higher domestic content and lower average wages. The findings suggest that as we transition away from a carbon-based energy system to

  18. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  19. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  20. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandyck, Toon; Van Regemorter, Denise

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  1. Water-energy nexus: Impact on electrical energy conversion and mitigation by smart water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjorgiev, Blaže; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The issues to energy conversion stemming from the water-energy nexus are investigated. • The objective is to minimize power curtailments caused by critical river water conditions. • A water-energy nexus model for smart management of water resources is developed. • Systemic risks to energy conversion stem from critical temperature and flow regimes. • Full coordination of the hydrologically-linked units provides the most effective strategy. - Abstract: The water-energy nexus refers to the water used to generate electricity and to the electric energy used to collect, clean, move, store, and dispose of water. Water is used in all stages of electric energy conversion making power systems vulnerable to water scarcity and warming. In particular, a water flow decrease and temperature increase in rivers can significantly limit the generation of electricity. This paper investigates the issues to energy conversion stemming from the water-energy nexus and mitigates them by developing a model for the smart utilization of water resources. The objective is to minimize power curtailments caused by a river water flow decrease and a temperature increase. The developed water-energy nexus model integrates the operational characteristics of hydro power plants, the environmental conditions, the river water temperature prediction and thermal load release in river bodies. The application to a hydraulic cascade of hydro and a thermal power plants under drought conditions shows that smart water management entails a significant reduction of power curtailments. In general, the full coordination of the power outputs of the units affected by the hydrological link provides the most effective mitigations of the potential issues stemming from the water-energy nexus. Finally, critical temperature and flow regimes are identified which severely impact the energy conversion and may cause systemic risks in case the generators in one region must be simultaneously curtailed.

  2. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Garnsey, E.W. [Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chong, Y.-F. [IPA Energy and Water Consulting (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO{sub 2}. In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings. (author)

  3. The impact on energy consumption of daylight saving clock changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.I.; Desobry, F.; Garnsey, E.W.; Chong, Y.-F.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this work is an investigation of the effect of prevailing time regime on energy consumption. In particular we perform analysis demonstrating potential energy savings which could be obtained were Great Britain to maintain daylight savings time (DST) over winter, instead of reverting to Greenwich mean time (GMT). We review the literature on the effect of DST on energy consumption and show that this indicates a justification for considering the issue. Our headline result is in agreement with many related studies in that advancing the clock by an hour in winter would lead to energy savings of at least 0.3% of daily demand in Great Britain. In deriving this result we have adopted methodologies currently used in load prediction, in particular Support Vector Regression, to estimate energy demand on a half-hourly basis. Corresponding cost savings are found to be higher (due to the nonlinear increase of costs) and we find them to be on the order of 0.6% over the months considered. In terms of environmental impact we find the saving to be approximately equivalent to 450,000 ton of CO 2 . In deriving these results we adopt a conservative approach such that we consider them lower bounds on any true savings.

  4. Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

    Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by

  5. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E E [United Nations Environment Programme, Policy Planning, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1978-04-15

    The increasing global demand for energy has hitherto been met to an increasing extent by the use of fossil fuels and hydro power. Nuclear energy has been developed and used commercially for about two decades to meet a fraction of the electrical energy needs. The total installed nuclear generating capacity in the world in 1976 was 79.9 GWe from 187 power reactors operating in 19 countries. At the local and in some cases regional level, the environmental aspects of energy production and use have become of paramount importance and have served as warnings of what could be in store on a wider scale if serious consideration is not given to the environmental implications of man's demands for energy. From recent examinations of the impact of energy on the environment, it has become apparent that individual nations are not isolated in this respect and that the actions of one country may well result in environmental damage in a neighbouring State. Against this background, an awakened public awareness of the issues has demanded that an attempt be made to examine rationally the environmental aspects of the energy-related society. Although nuclear power stations do not emit fly-ash or noxious gases into the atmosphere as fossil-fuel-operated plants do, the radioactivity released from the products of nuclear fission has been the main focus of public concern about the expansion in the use of nuclear power despite the stringent control measures and precautions taken There have been many attempts to set up acceptable levels for radioactivity in the environment or in man, and although the ICRP recommendations are generally accepted in evaluating occupational hazards, their extension to large populations and the environment as a whole has been subjected to extensive criticism.

  6. Green jobs? Economic impacts of renewable energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, Ulrike; Lutz, Christian; Edler, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) are analyzed in this text. Although a growing RE industry can be observed in Germany the overall effect of large increases of RE based electricity and heat generating technologies on the German economy require a careful model based analysis. The applied model PANTA RHEI has been used among others to evaluate the German energy concept in 2010. It takes positive and negative impacts of RE into account. The paper shows the overall effects under different assumptions for fossil fuel prices, domestic installations and international trade. The results are sensitive to assumptions on the development of RE world markets and German exports to these markets. Almost all of these scenarios exhibit positive net employment effects. Under medium assumptions net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. Only with assumptions for German RE exports below today's level, net impacts are slightly negative. Gross employment will increase from 340 thousand in 2009 to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes labor market implications of large investment into renewable energy (RE) in Germany. ► It shows the overall effects under different assumptions. ► The development of world markets and German RE exports are very important. ► Net employment of RE expansion will reach around 150 thousand in 2030. ► Gross employment will increase to between 500 and 600 thousand in 2030.

  7. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impact of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Leeana Aarthi Bagwath

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine, and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  8. Energy drinks and the neurophysiological impacts of caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeana eBagwath Persad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive stimulant with prevalent use across all age groups. It is a naturally occurring substance found in the coffee bean, tea leaf, the kola nut, cocoa bean. Recently there has been an increase in energy drink consumption leading to caffeine abuse, with aggressive marketing and poor awareness on the consequences of high caffeine use. With caffeine consumption being so common, it is vital to know the impact caffeine has on the body, as its effects can influence cardio-respiratory, endocrine and perhaps most importantly neurological systems. Detrimental effects have being described especially since an over consumption of caffeine has being noted. This review focuses on the neurophysiological impact of caffeine and its biochemical pathways in the human body.

  9. Monetary and social macroeconomic impact of equivalent energy production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    This current report updates a previous report (February 1979) and brings to light many new factors; a comparative analysis of global impacts is presented, particular emphasis being given to large scale equilibria, and equivalent, but different energy strategies and policies. The way in which different energy strategies might reduce externally imposed constraints is examined in detail, i.e. enabling higher economic growth to be achieved, and unemployment to be reduced without increasing or even with a decrease in the external balance-of-payments deficit. A reference electricity generating program (realized with coal, oil or uranium) similar to the medium and long term French nuclear program was retained. Attention was given to ensure that the ratio between the amount of electricity generated and the total electricity requirements remained realistic. This was also true for the ratio between the amount of nuclear origin generated electricity and the total amount of electricity generated [fr

  10. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  11. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre eCornier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR or obesity-prone (OP based on self-identification, BMI, and personal/family weight history. 25 OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF and overfed (OF as compared to eucaloric (EU conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3 day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF, and a test day. On the test day fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 minutes after a test meal while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 minutes after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex, parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior prefrontal cortex, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  12. Propensity to obesity impacts the neuronal response to energy imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornier, Marc-Andre; McFadden, Kristina L; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Bechtell, Jamie L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the propensity to gain weight or remain normal weight are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to study the neuronal response to visual food cues during short-term energy imbalance in healthy adults recruited as obesity-resistant (OR) or obesity-prone (OP) based on self-identification, body mass index, and personal/family weight history. Twenty-five OR and 28 OP subjects were studied in underfed (UF) and overfed (OF) as compared to eucaloric (EU) conditions in a randomized crossover design. Each study phase included a 3-day run-in diet, 1 day of controlled feeding (basal energy needs for EU, 40% above/below basal energy needs for OF/UF), and a test day. On the test day, fMRI was performed in the acute fed stated (30 min after a test meal) while subjects viewed images of foods of high hedonic value and neutral non-food objects. Measures of appetite and hormones were also performed before and every 30 min after the test meal. UF was associated with significantly increased activation of insula, somatosensory cortex, inferior and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parahippocampus, precuneus, cingulate, and visual cortex in OR. However, UF had no impact in OP. As a result, UF was associated with significantly greater activation, specifically in the insula, inferior PFC, and somatosensory cortex in OR as compared to OP. While OF was overall associated with reduced activation of inferior visual cortex, no group interaction was observed with OF. In summary, these findings suggest that individuals resistant to weight gain and obesity are more sensitive to short-term energy imbalance, particularly with UF, than those prone to weight gain. The inability to sense or adapt to changes in energy balance may represent an important mechanism contributing to excess energy intake and risk for obesity.

  13. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  14. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  15. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO 2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Impact of energy policy instruments on the estimated level of underlying energy efficiency in the EU residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.; Zorić, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of energy efficiency is seen as one of the top priorities of EU energy policy (EC, 2010). In order to design and implement effective energy policy instruments, it is necessary to have information on energy demand price and income elasticities in addition to sound indicators of energy efficiency. This research combines the approaches taken in energy demand modelling and frontier analysis in order to econometrically estimate the level of energy efficiency for the residential sector in the EU-27 member states for the period 1996 to 2009. The estimates for the energy efficiency confirm that the EU residential sector indeed holds a relatively high potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency. Therefore, despite the common objective to decrease ‘wasteful’ energy consumption, considerable variation in energy efficiency between the EU member states is established. Furthermore, an attempt is made to evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency measures undertaken in the EU residential sector by introducing an additional set of variables into the model and the results suggest that financial incentives and energy performance standards play an important role in promoting energy efficiency improvements, whereas informative measures do not have a significant impact. - Highlights: • The level of energy efficiency of the EU residential sector is estimated. • Considerable potential for energy savings from reduced inefficiency is established. • The impact of introduced energy-efficiency policy measures is also evaluated. • Financial incentives are found to promote energy efficiency improvements. • Energy performance standards also play an important role

  17. Developing effective rockfall protection barriers for low energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentani, Alessio; Giacomini, Anna; Buzzi, Olivier; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Fityus, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Recently, important progresses have been made towards the development of high capacity rockfall barriers (100 kJ - 8000 kJ). The interest of researchers and practitioners is now turning to the development of fences of minor capacity, whose use becomes essential in areas where rockfall events generally have low intensity and the use of high capacity barriers would be accompanied by excessive costs and high environmental impact. Low energy barriers can also provide a cost-effective solution even in areas where high energies events are expected. Results of full-scale tests are vital to any investigation on the behaviour of these structures. An experimental set-up has been developed at The University of Newcastle (AUS), to investigate the response of low energy rockfall barrier prototypes to low energy impacts. The Australian territory, and in particular New South Wales, is in fact characterised by rockfall events of low-to-medium intensity (50 kJ - 500 kJ) and the need of protection structures working within such energy range, is particularly felt [1]. The experiments involved the impact of a test block onto three spans, low energy barrier prototypes, made of steel structural posts, fully fixed at the base, side cables and a steel meshwork constituted by a double twist hexagonal wire net [2]. Test data enabled the development, calibration and assessment of FE models [3], on which non-linear and dynamic analyses have been performed addressing the effect of the block size. Results have shown that the response of the structure is strongly governed by the net. Data from tests conducted on the sole net and on the entire barrier showed in fact a similar trend, different to what typically observed for high capacity barriers, whose behaviour is also led by the presence of uphill cables and brakes. In particular, the numerical analyses have demonstrated a dependence of the net performance on the block size. In particular, a loss of capacity in the order of 50% occurred as the

  18. Potential impacts of the energy industry on invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMont, E. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2006-07-01

    This presentation provided a literature review of seismic activity impacts on invertebrates. A summary of recent research on the effects of seismic noise on female snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) was evaluated by comparison with a caging study conducted off western Cape Breton Island in 2003-2004 which examined mortality and external damages to crabs, as well as the conditions of appendices and organs. Details of a study examining the mobility of lobsters over pipelines were presented, as well as recent research conducted by the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory. It was noted that studies on the effects of marine noise on invertebrate species are limited and incomplete. However, the impacts of marine noise on invertebrates is a critical issue for major fisheries based on invertebrates. The snow crab study showed swelling of hepatopancreatic walls to crabs in areas of seismic activity. Abundance and distribution of the crabs fell from 30 per cent before seismic activity to 23 per cent after seismic exploration began. Evidence of immediate impacts on antennules, gill and statocysts which lasted less than 5 months was observed. The impacts of the abnormalities on the life cycle of the crabs is unknown. Exposure to seismic energy did not kill snow crab embryos. However, rates of development were slower in seismic than control embryos. Results suggested that further research on normal crab health and environmental conditions is needed. Current research at the St. Francis Xavier Biomechanics Laboratory included a fluid mechanics study paddle-assisted walking for lobsters; jet-assisted walking in lobsters; the effects of temperature on the activity of lobsters; and, the impact of mechanical vibrations on lobsters. Details of sponsors for the various studies were also provided. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  20. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  1. Impact of information and communications technologies on residental customer energy services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Kempton, W.; Eide, A.; Iyer, M. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This study analyzes the potential impact of information and communications technologies on utility delivery of residential customer energy services. Many utilities are conducting trials which test energy-related and non-energy services using advanced communications systems.

  2. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms −2 ) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. 

  3. Energy dissipation in fragmented geomaterials associated with impacting oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakov, Maxim; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady

    2016-04-01

    In wave propagation through fragmented geomaterials forced by periodic loadings, the elements (fragments) strike against each other when passing through the neutral position (position with zero mutual rotation), quickly damping the oscillations. Essentially the impacts act as shock absorbers albeit localised at the neutral points. In order to analyse the vibrations of and wave propagation in such structures, a differential equation of a forced harmonic oscillator was investigated, where the each time the system passes through the neutral point the velocity gets reduced by multiplying it with the restitution coefficient which characterise the impact of the fragments. In forced vibrations the impact times depend on both the forced oscillations and the restitution coefficient and form an irregular sequence. Numerical solution of the differential equation was performed using Mathematica software. Along with vibration diagrams, the dependence of the energy dissipation on the ratio of the forcing frequency to the natural frequency was obtained. For small positive values of the restitution coefficient (less than 0.5), the asymmetric oscillations were found, and the phase of the forced vibrations determined the direction of the asymmetry. Also, at some values of the forcing frequencies and the restitution coefficient chaotic behaviour was found.

  4. 3D, wideband vibro-impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qiangmo; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yue, Xihai; Yang, Aichao; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-15

    An impacting-based piezoelectric energy harvester was developed to address the limitations of the existing approaches in single-dimensional operation as well as a narrow working bandwidth. In the harvester, a spiral cylindrical spring rather than the conventional thin cantilever beam was utilized to extract the external vibration with arbitrary directions, which has the capability to impact the surrounding piezoelectric beams to generate electricity. And the introduced vibro-impacting between the spiral cylindrical spring and multi-piezoelectric-beams resulted in not only a three-dimensional response to external vibration, but also a bandwidth-broadening behavior. The experimental results showed that each piezoelectric beam exhibited a maximum bandwidth of 8 Hz and power of 41 μW with acceleration of 1 g (with g=9.8 ms{sup −2}) along the z-axis, and corresponding average values of 5 Hz and 45 μW with acceleration of 0.6 g in the x-y plane. .

  5. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  6. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)

  7. Recycling energy taxes. Impacts on a disaggregated labour market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosello, F.; Carraro, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of energy taxes whose revenue is recycled to reduce gross wages and increase employment. The main novel feature of this paper, is the attempt to assess the effectiveness of this fiscal reform by using a labour market model in which both skilled and unskilled workers are used in the production process. This segmentation enables us to compare a policy which aims at reducing unskilled workers' wages, as in the original Delors' White book, with a policy in which the environmental fiscal revenue is used to reduce the gross wage of all workers. Moreover, two policy scenarios will be considered. A non-co-operative one in which each country determines the optimal domestic energy tax to achieve a given employment target and a co-operative one, in which the energy taxes are harmonised to equalise marginal abatement costs in the EU and in which the employment target is set for the EU. Our results show that: (1) an employment double dividend can be achieved in the short run only, even if a trade-off between environment and employment always exists; (2) the effect on employment is larger when the fiscal revenue is recycled into all workers' gross wages rather than into unskilled workers only; (3) a co-operative policy leads to even larger benefits in terms of employment provided that an adequate redistribution of fiscal revenues is adopted by EU countries

  8. Impacts of energy utilization in a tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleemann, M.; Penner, K.; Seele, U.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and the interim results of the Indonesian-German scientific co-operation on environmental impacts of future energy utilization in Indonesia. The aim of the planning study is to provide decision support for Indonesian authorities in order to develop environmentally compatible energy supply strategies. The environmental problems will focus on the island of Java with a population density of more than 800 inhabitants/km 2 which might reach 1200 within the next 25 years. Due to the further economic growth and the population increase the energy consumption of the industry, the traffic, and the household sector will increase significantly. In particular the polluting coal utilization will grow overproportionally because of declining oil reserves. Additionally, the industrial development is concentrated on the island of Java which covers only 8% of the land area of the country. A serious pollution of the sensitive tropical ecosystems in the future would be the consequence of this unbalanced developments if no efforts are made to reduce the pollutant emissions. Even today the air quality has already reached critical levels in many parts of Java. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  10. Impacts of high energy prices on long-term energy-economic scenarios for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, V.; Markewitz, P. [Research Center Juelich, Inst. of Energy Res., Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation, Juelich (Germany); Horn, M. [DIW Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, C.; Graichen, V.; Harthan, R.O.; Repenning, J. [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Prices of oil and other fossil fuels on global markets have reached a high level in recent years. These levels were not able to be reproduced on the basis of scenarios and prognoses that were published in the past. New scenarios, based on higher energy price trajectories, have appeared only recently. The future role of various energy carriers and technologies in energy-economic scenarios will greatly depend on the level of energy prices. Therefore, an analysis of the impact of high energy prices on long-term scenarios for Germany was undertaken. Based on a reference scenario with moderate prices, a series of consistent high price scenarios for primary and secondary energy carriers were developed. Two scenarios with (i) continuously rising price trajectories and (ii) a price shock with a price peak during the period 2010-15 and a subsequent decline to the reference level are analysed. Two types of models have been applied in the analysis. The IKARUS energy systems optimisation model covers the whole of the German energy system from primary energy supply down to the end-use sectors. Key results in both high price scenarios include a replacement of natural gas by hard coal and renewable energy sources in electricity and heat generation. Backstop technologies like coal liquefaction begin to play a role under such conditions. Up to 10% of final energy consumption is saved in the end-use sectors, with the residential and transport sector being the greatest contributors. Even without additional restrictions, CO{sub 2} emissions significantly drop in comparison to the reference scenario. The ELIAS electricity investment analysis model focuses on the power sector. In the reference scenario with current allocation rules in the emissions trading scheme, the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease relatively steadily. The development is characterised by the phaseout of nuclear energy which is counterweighted by the increase of renewable. In the high price scenario, the CO{sub 2

  11. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the alternative sources for meeting the increasing world requirements for energy production. The world's nuclear electrical power production has been increasing at a rapid rate and is expected to reach about 620 GWe by 1985 and about 3300 GWe by the year 2000. This continuing increase would be impossible without an equivalent expansion of available fuel supplies, enrichment capacity, fuel fabrication capacity, irradiated fuel reprocessing capacity, and finally appropriate facilities for dealing with the nuclear wastes which will arise in due course. The present report reviews the environmental impacts encountered at each step of the nuclear fuel cycle which consists of the processes of mining and milling of uranium ores, conversion to fuel material and fabrication of fuel elements, reactor design and operation, reprocessing of spent fuel, and disposal of radioactive wastes. It also includes a review of the environmental impact of transportation of radioactive material between installations handling different steps of the cycle. Although the environmental impacts arising at certain stages in the nuclear fuel cycle are similar to some of those encountered in the fossil-fuel cycle (for example, the ecological effects of strip mining of ores and/or thermal discharges), there are some unique impacts related to nuclear power generation. Perhaps the most important of these is the radioactivity released from the decay products of nuclear fission. Although most of the radionuclides released into the environment are of local or regional concern, because their half-lives are short compared to the time involved in their dispersion, some radionuclides have long half-lives and can, therefore, become widely distributed. This has been the main focus of public concern and debate with respect to the expansion in nuclear power utilisation, in spite of the strict regulations and safety measures undertaken

  12. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  13. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  14. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  15. Energie-Nederland. Financial and economic impact of a changing energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    A detailed study of the Dutch power market has been carried out, including an assessment of the financial implications for conventional power plants. This study is to provide insight into the potential implications of the 16% RES (renewable energy sources) target without prescribing a particular scenario or outcome, or suggesting possible solutions. The study focuses on the potential financial and economic impact of meeting the RES target under different market scenarios. Also, the potential impact on security of supply and the need for flexible back-up capacity in the period 2013-2020 are assessed. Furthermore, an analysis is performed of potential market prices that are required for the economic feasibility of flexible back-up generation capacity with a very limited load factor. For the assessment of the financial impact of a changing energy market, the Dutch power market is modelled under various scenarios. Use has been made of a detailed model of Northwest Europe, in which all power stations, interconnections, and constraints (i.e. RES potential) are accounted for. In all scenarios, the 16% RES target is a binding constraint in that model. This means the model determines the least-cost option to meet this target, including wind onshore and offshore (up to the limit estimated by ECN), dedicated biomass and co-firing of biomass, and other sources such as solar.

  16. The Impact of Process Scaling on Scratchpad Memory Energy Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennion Redd

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scratchpad memories have been shown to reduce power consumption, but the different characteristics of nanometer scale processes, such as increased leakage power, motivate an examination of how the benefits of these memories change with process scaling. Process and application characteristics affect the amount of energy saved by a scratchpad memory. Increases in leakage as a percentage of total power particularly impact applications that rarely access memory. This study examines how the benefits of scratchpad memories have changed in newer processes, based on the measured performance of the WIMS (Wireless Integrated MicroSystems microcontroller implemented in 180- and 65-nm processes and upon simulations of this microcontroller implemented in a 32-nm process. The results demonstrate that scratchpad memories will continue to improve the power dissipation of many applications, given the leakage anticipated in the foreseeable future.

  17. 78 FR 17653 - Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0408)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Wildlife Service Upper Great Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS... Plains Wind Energy Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Draft [[Page 17654

  18. Climate impacts on the cost of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, Mallory E.; Smith, Matthew K.; Parsekian, Ara W.; Boyuk, Dmitriy S.; McGrath, Jenna K.; Yates, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) estimates are widely utilized by decision makers to predict the long-term cost and benefits of solar PV installations, but fail to consider local climate, which impacts PV panel lifetime and performance. Specific types of solar PV panels are known to respond to climate factors differently. Mono-, poly-, and amorphous-silicon (Si) PV technologies are known to exhibit varying degradation rates and instantaneous power losses as a function of operating temperature, humidity, thermal cycling, and panel soiling. We formulate an extended LCOE calculation, which considers PV module performance and lifespan as a function of local climate. The LCOE is then calculated for crystalline and amorphous Si PV technologies across several climates. Finally, we assess the impact of various policy incentives on reducing the firm's cost of solar deployment when controlling for climate. This assessment is the first to quantify tradeoffs between technologies, geographies, and policies in a unified manner. Results suggest crystalline Si solar panels as the most promising candidate for commercial-scale PV systems due to their low degradation rates compared to amorphous technologies. Across technologies, we note the strong ability of investment subsidies in removing uncertainty and reducing the LCOE, compared to production incentives. - Highlights: •We integrate local climate into the Levelized Cost of photovoltaic technology. •Climate dictates panel degradation rates and the impact of temperature on efficiency. •We compare LCOE under policy scenarios for three technologies in four U. S. states. •Degradation is highly variable, increasing costs by shortening panel life in many regions. •Incentives targeting investment are most effective at reducing solar deployment costs.

  19. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  20. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  1. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, A.; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  2. The impact of Zero Energy Buildings on the Scandinavian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljom, Pernille; Lindberg, Karen Byskov; Tomasgard, Asgeir; Doorman, Gerard; Sartori, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how an extensive implementation of net Zero Energy Buildings (ZEBs) affects cost-optimal investments in the Scandinavian energy system towards 2050. Analyses are done by a stochastic TIMES model with an explicit representation of the short-term uncertainty related to electricity supply and heat demand in buildings. We define a nearly ZEB to be a highly efficient building with on-site PV production. To evaluate the flexibility requirement of the surrounding energy system, we consider no use of energy storage within the ZEBs. The results show that ZEBs reduce the investments in non-flexible hydropower, wind power and Combined Heat and Power, and increase the use of direct electric heating and electric boilers. With building integrated PV production of 53 TWh in 2050, ZEBs increase the Scandinavian electricity generation by 16 TWh and increase the net electricity export by 19 TWh. Although the increased production reduces the electricity prices, the low heat demand in ZEBs gives a drop in the electricity consumption by 4 TWh in 2050. Finally, the results demonstrate that the Scandinavian energy system is capable of integrating a large amount of ZEBs with intermittent PV production due to the flexible hydropower in Norway and Sweden. - Highlights: • We analyse cost-optimal integration of ZEBs in the Scandinavian energy system. • We capture impact of short-term uncertainty on long-term investment decisions. • ZEBs reduce the investments in the electricity and heating sector. • The Scandinavian electricity sector is capable of integrating ZEBs with PV. • The operation of the flexible hydropower is changed with ZEBs.

  3. Deregulation in an energy market and its impact on R and D for low-carbon energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of deregulation in an energy market on R and D activities for new energy technology when climate policy is implemented. A model of growth with vertical innovation is modified by including an oligopolistic energy supply sector for demonstrating to what extent deregulation in the energy supply sector will affect R and D activities for low-carbon energy technology, provided that carbon taxation is implemented. The analysis shows that, when the elasticity of substitution between input factors is less than unity, deregulation will drive energy R and D activities and reduce CO 2 accumulation if the energy market is highly concentrated in the beginning. (author)

  4. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon

    2014-01-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO 2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement. - Highlights: • We assessed long-term impacts of building codes and climate policy using GCAM. • Building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13–22%. • The impacts of codes on building energy use vary by climate region and sub-sector

  5. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  6. 78 FR 54669 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center, Clark County, Nevada... environmental impact statement (DEIS) for the proposed RES Americas Moapa Solar Energy Center on the Moapa River... Progress and on the following Web site: www.MoapaSolarEnergyCenterEIS.com . In order to be fully considered...

  7. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  8. Evaluation of cooking energy cost, efficiency, impact on air pollution and policy in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anozie, A.N.; Bakare, A.R.; Sonibare, J.A.; Oyebisi, T.O.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the cooking energy costs and efficiencies, the air pollution impacts of cooking energy consumption and the impact of the energy policy in the cooking energy sector in Nigeria. Water boiling and cooking experiments using the common cooking energy sources (fuel wood, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity) and common food items (water, yam and beans) were carried out. Energy surveys were carried out to determine the cooking energy use patterns in the urban and rural areas. It was found that fuel wood is the least expensive cooking energy source and LPG is the most expensive. Energy use efficiencies for boiling water were estimated at 25%, 46%, 73%, 79%, 66% and 90% for fuel wood, kerosene, gas, electric immersion coil, electric heating coil and electric hot plate, respectively. Energy intensity was found to be a comparative measure of energy efficiency. The impacts of air pollution from household cooking suggested a possibility of significant air pollutants contribution to the ambient environment using any of the energy carriers considered except electricity. The cooking energy use patterns showed that fuel wood is the predominant energy source for cooking in the rural areas while kerosene is the predominant energy source in the urban areas, revealing that the energy policy in the country had made no impact in the cooking energy sector. Recommendations for improving the energy supply situation were given and for removing the barriers that prevent the implementation of the recommendations

  9. Avian collision risk models for wind energy impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masden, E.A., E-mail: elizabeth.masden@uhi.ac.uk [Environmental Research Institute, North Highland College-UHI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, Caithness KW14 7EE (United Kingdom); Cook, A.S.C.P. [British Trust for Ornithology, The Nunnery, Thetford IP24 2PU (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing global development of wind energy, collision risk models (CRMs) are routinely used to assess the potential impacts of wind turbines on birds. We reviewed and compared the avian collision risk models currently available in the scientific literature, exploring aspects such as the calculation of a collision probability, inclusion of stationary components e.g. the tower, angle of approach and uncertainty. 10 models were cited in the literature and of these, all included a probability of collision of a single bird colliding with a wind turbine during passage through the rotor swept area, and the majority included a measure of the number of birds at risk. 7 out of the 10 models calculated the probability of birds colliding, whilst the remainder used a constant. We identified four approaches to calculate the probability of collision and these were used by others. 6 of the 10 models were deterministic and included the most frequently used models in the UK, with only 4 including variation or uncertainty in some way, the most recent using Bayesian methods. Despite their appeal, CRMs have their limitations and can be ‘data hungry’ as well as assuming much about bird movement and behaviour. As data become available, these assumptions should be tested to ensure that CRMs are functioning to adequately answer the questions posed by the wind energy sector. - Highlights: • We highlighted ten models available to assess avian collision risk. • Only 4 of the models included variability or uncertainty. • Collision risk models have limitations and can be ‘data hungry’. • It is vital that the most appropriate model is used for a given task.

  10. Avian collision risk models for wind energy impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masden, E.A.; Cook, A.S.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing global development of wind energy, collision risk models (CRMs) are routinely used to assess the potential impacts of wind turbines on birds. We reviewed and compared the avian collision risk models currently available in the scientific literature, exploring aspects such as the calculation of a collision probability, inclusion of stationary components e.g. the tower, angle of approach and uncertainty. 10 models were cited in the literature and of these, all included a probability of collision of a single bird colliding with a wind turbine during passage through the rotor swept area, and the majority included a measure of the number of birds at risk. 7 out of the 10 models calculated the probability of birds colliding, whilst the remainder used a constant. We identified four approaches to calculate the probability of collision and these were used by others. 6 of the 10 models were deterministic and included the most frequently used models in the UK, with only 4 including variation or uncertainty in some way, the most recent using Bayesian methods. Despite their appeal, CRMs have their limitations and can be ‘data hungry’ as well as assuming much about bird movement and behaviour. As data become available, these assumptions should be tested to ensure that CRMs are functioning to adequately answer the questions posed by the wind energy sector. - Highlights: • We highlighted ten models available to assess avian collision risk. • Only 4 of the models included variability or uncertainty. • Collision risk models have limitations and can be ‘data hungry’. • It is vital that the most appropriate model is used for a given task.

  11. Effect of Tempering and Baking on the Charpy Impact Energy of Hydrogen-Charged 4340 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, K.; Lee, E. W.; Frazier, W. E.; Niji, K.; Battel, G.; Tran, A.; Iriarte, E.; Perez, O.; Ruiz, H.; Choi, T.; Stoyanov, P.; Ogren, J.; Alrashaid, J.; Es-Said, O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tempered AISI 4340 steel was hydrogen charged and tested for impact energy. It was found that samples tempered above 468 °C (875 °F) and subjected to hydrogen charging exhibited lower impact energy values when compared to uncharged samples. No significant difference between charged and uncharged samples tempered below 468 °C (875 °F) was observed. Neither exposure nor bake time had any significant effect on impact energy within the tested ranges.

  12. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S.

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is

  13. Air travel, life-style, energy use and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger Nielsen, S

    2001-09-01

    The overall aim of this project is to investigate the linkages between energy use, life style and environmental impact. As a case of study, this report investigates the future possibilities for reducing the growth in greenhouse gas emissions from commercial civil air transport, that is passenger air travel and airfreight. The season for this choice of focus is that we found that commercial civil air transport may become a relatively large energy consumer and greenhouse gas emitter in the future. For example, according to different scenarios presented by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), commercial civil air transport's fuel burn may grow by between 0,8 percent a factor of 1,6 and 16 between 1990 and 2050 and 2050. The actual growth in fuel consumption will depend on the future growth in airborne passenger travel and freight and the improvement rate for the specific fuel efficiency. As a central mid-term estimate the IPCC foresees that the fuel consumption may grow by around 3 percent per year until 2015. This report looks into the possibilities for reducing the growth in air traffic, as well as the possibilities for reducing the specific fuel consumption, to achieve an environmentally sustainable development. For commercial civil air transport the main challenge seems to lie in the strong growth rates currently envisioned by the aeronautical industry for the next decades. Like it is the case with most other types of (fossil) energy intensive activities the bulk of air traffic is currently performed in and between industrialised countries. In an environmentally sustainable World countries should aim at distributing resources evenly between the World's citizens. Therefore, on the longer term, there are tremendous challenges to be overcome. Achieving environmentally sustainable commercial civil air transport will first of all require that people living in currently industrialised countries stop travelling ever more by air each year. As it is shown in

  14. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  15. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  16. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  17. The social impacts of the energy shortage, behavioral and attitude shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An analysis of the social impacts of the energy shortage; specifically, an : analysis of shifts in social behavior, or trip-making characteristics, and : shifts in social attitudes towards the energy shortage and conservation policies, : Data were ob...

  18. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  19. Home energy monitors : Impact over the medium-term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, S.S.; Bakker, C.A.; Van Hal, J.D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), e.g. energy monitors, are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS increasingly receive attention for their role in energy conservation in households. A literature review and a

  20. 75 FR 54177 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Statement for the Tonopah Solar Energy Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project, Nye County, Nevada, and by... considered, the BLM must receive written comments on the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project Draft EIS within...

  1. Overcoming barriers to increased bio-energy use. Suggestions for a high impact policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanakya, H.N.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A few options that are likely to result in a high impact policy towards ensuring increased use of bio-energy in the developing world are discussed. Such options are: Moving towards greater energy security /guarantee, bio-energy technology transfer platforms, documentation in bio-energy businesses, removing risk perceptions in financing, increasing private entrepreneur stakes, etc. (K.A.)

  2. Regional energy rebound effect: The impact of economy-wide and sector level energy efficiency improvement in Georgia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Xuewei; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Crittenden, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound effect is defined as the lost part of ceteris paribus energy savings from improvements on energy efficiency. In this paper, we investigate economy-wide energy rebound effects by developing a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Georgia, USA. The model adopts a highly disaggregated sector profile and highlights the substitution possibilities between different energy sources in the production structure. These two features allow us to better characterize the change in energy use in face of an efficiency shock, and to explore in detail how a sector-level shock propagates throughout the economic structure to generate aggregate impacts. We find that with economy-wide energy efficiency improvement on the production side, economy-wide rebound is moderate. Energy price levels fall very slightly, yet sectors respond to these changing prices quite differently in terms of local production and demand. Energy efficiency improvements in particular sectors (epicenters) induce quite different economy-wide impacts. In general, we expect large rebound if the epicenter sector is an energy production sector, a direct upstream/downstream sector of energy production sectors, a transportation sector or a sector with high production elasticity. Our analysis offers valuable insights for policy makers aiming to achieve energy conservation through increasing energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We developed a CGE model to investigate economy-wide energy rebound in Georgia, USA. • The CGE model has detailed treatment for different energy inputs for production. • The model has a highly disaggregated sector profile helpful for policy making. • We compared the economy-wide impact shocks in different epicenter sectors. • We analyzed why epicenters generate dramatically different economy-wide impacts.

  3. Coping with the energy crisis: Impact assessment and potentials of non-traditional renewable energy in rural Kyrgyzstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Melisande F.M.; Pistorius, Till

    2012-01-01

    The Kyrgyz energy sector is characterised by a dramatic energy crisis that has deprived a substantial part of the population from access to energy. Non-traditional renewable energy sources have emerged as a promising alternative in providing basic energy services to the rural poor. Based on qualitative interview data from local households and project planners, this study sets out to assess impacts, limitations and barriers of non-traditional renewable energy projects in rural areas in Kyrgyzstan. This study argues that recent renewable energy efforts from multilateral international agencies, the private sector, and nongovernmental organisations exhibit great potential in creating tangible benefits and improving basic energy services, but have so far been inefficient in establishing and replicating sustainable and long-term energy solutions. Existing practices need to be improved by attaching greater importance to the capacities and real needs of the rural poor. The guidance of integrated programmes and policies along with alternative financing schemes and awareness-raising are urgently needed to leverage local success stories and to facilitate a sustainable energy development in rural Kyrgyzstan. - Highlights: ► We examine 11 rural households and 5 project planners in rural Kyrgyzstan. ► We assess impacts of non-traditional renewable energies compared with conventional fuels. ► Renewable energies exhibit a range of tangible benefits for rural users. ► Limitations concern performance, durability, repair, acceptance, finance and policy. ► Renewable energy is a promising alternative for rural households in Kyrgyzstan.

  4. Energy subsidies: lessons learned in assessing their impact and designing policy reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltke, A. von; McKee, C.; Morgan, T.

    2004-02-01

    This book, which is based on the work carried out by the International Energy Agency and UNEP, explores the potential impacts of energy subsidies and provides guidelines for policy makers on how to implement reform of energy subsides. The background on energy subsidies is traced and an analytical framework is presented covering defining and measuring energy subsidies, the size of the subsidies, and analysis of the impact of subsidies and their reform. Energy subsidies in OECD countries, Czech and Slovak Republics, Russia, India, Indonesia, Korea, Iran and Senegal are examined along with the impact of removing energy subsidies in Chile, the findings of country case studies, and the design and implementation of energy subsidies reforms. Methodological approaches to analysing the economic, environmental and social effects of energy subsidy reform are considered in the Annex

  5. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my; Haameem, J. M.A., E-mail: mhaameem@gmail.com [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Arau (Malaysia); Haslan, M., E-mail: haslan@sirim.my; Helmi, E. A., E-mail: hilmi@sirim.my [Advanced Material Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Kulim (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  6. On the environmental impact of energy market liberalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, D.P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the literature, attention has been paid to the environmental consequences of lower energy prices caused by market liberalisation: the drop in energy prices reduces the attractiveness of investing in energy-saving technologies. In this paper we develop a simple model of investment decision-making emphasising the importance of not only levels but also volatility of energy prices for actual investment behaviour. The general finding is that lower energy prices and higher uncertainty reduce the propensity to invest. To empirically assess the importance of changes in both levels and volatility, we use US natural gas price data over the market liberalisation period and apply the information to the investment decision with respect to a specific energy-saving technology in the paper industry. We find that energy market liberalisation reduces the propensity to invest in energy-saving technologies substantially, not only because of the lower energy price but also because of its increased volatility. 12 refs

  7. Energy sprawl or energy efficiency: climate policy impacts on natural habitat for the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I McDonald

    Full Text Available Concern over climate change has led the U.S. to consider a cap-and-trade system to regulate emissions. Here we illustrate the land-use impact to U.S. habitat types of new energy development resulting from different U.S. energy policies. We estimated the total new land area needed by 2030 to produce energy, under current law and under various cap-and-trade policies, and then partitioned the area impacted among habitat types with geospatial data on the feasibility of production. The land-use intensity of different energy production techniques varies over three orders of magnitude, from 1.9-2.8 km(2/TW hr/yr for nuclear power to 788-1000 km(2/TW hr/yr for biodiesel from soy. In all scenarios, temperate deciduous forests and temperate grasslands will be most impacted by future energy development, although the magnitude of impact by wind, biomass, and coal to different habitat types is policy-specific. Regardless of the existence or structure of a cap-and-trade bill, at least 206,000 km(2 will be impacted without substantial increases in energy efficiency, which saves at least 7.6 km(2 per TW hr of electricity conserved annually and 27.5 km(2 per TW hr of liquid fuels conserved annually. Climate policy that reduces carbon dioxide emissions may increase the areal impact of energy, although the magnitude of this potential side effect may be substantially mitigated by increases in energy efficiency. The possibility of widespread energy sprawl increases the need for energy conservation, appropriate siting, sustainable production practices, and compensatory mitigation offsets.

  8. The impact of economic uncertainty on the energy decision making process: Nuclear energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargur, J.

    1984-01-01

    The study presented here is based on an analysis undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of establishing nuclear power plants in Israel. While the actual figures for the various sensitivity tests are somewhat disguised because of the sensitivity of the topic, the relative impact of moving from one assumption to another is presented and analysed. A matrix of qualitative results has been formulated for this analysis and, once these relationships have been established qualitatively, subjective weights have been applied to the various assumptions of the three most relevant parameters, the deviations from the most probable coal price, discount rate and level of investment. The analysis evaluates the impact of these weights on the decision as to whether the project prospects are most favourable, are of marginal value, or should be rejected. The significance of this analysis is its demonstration of the major role to be played by the economic planner within each country, and his responsibility to provide macro-economic guidelines for evaluating major infrastructural undertakings such as energy projects

  9. Economics and environmental impacts of nuclear energy in comparison with other energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the 1992 OECD/NEA-IEA study on comparative electricity generation costs of nuclear and fossil-fuelled power plants are presented. It is focused on plants that could be commercially available for commissioning in the year 2000 or shortly thereafter. The generation costs for nuclear, relative to coal or natural gas fuelled power plants, are shown. The attractiveness of these three main fuel options for large base load power stations for commissioning around the year 2000 is critically dependent on the discount rate required by the utility or government. Higher discount rates (10%) favour the low investment cost option, gas, whilst lower discount rates (5%) favour the low fuel cost option. The role of nuclear power in avoiding greenhouse gas emissions is illustrated, as well as penetration of nuclear power, displacing fossil fuels for electricity generation and annual change in CO 2 emissions in varies countries from 1975 to 1992 as a function of the nuclear share in electricity generation for 1992. A comparison between quantities of fuel and wastes for nuclear and fossil fuelled power plants is given. Some issues of impacts of particular energy sources on health and the environment are outlined. In the conclusions, nuclear power is considered to be the most likely non-fossil-fuel technology that could be deployed on a large scale for electricity generation, if the objectives of advanced nuclear power development programmes are met and social acceptability of nuclear energy is reached. 9 figs., 2 ann., 16 refs. (I.P.)

  10. Iowa's renewable energy and infrastructure impacts : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The federal government is aggressively promoting biofuels as an answer to global climate change and dependence on imported sources : of energy. Iowa has quickly become a leader in the bioeconomy and wind energy production, but meeting the United Stat...

  11. Impact Assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/E U) for the Energy Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Ministerial Council of the Energy Community has proposed implementation of Directive 2012127|E U, in each Contracting Party, but with certain modifications 1 . Therefore, this study was commissioned to assess the costs and benefits of implementing four specific elements of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) as modified for the Energy Community (En C) Contracting Parties 2 (C Ps) and to provide a basis for justification of proposed changes to particular articles within the Directive as it relates to the C Ps. The study assessed the following four articles: Task 1 - National Targets - Article 3; Task 2 - Exemplary role of public bodies' buildings - Article 5; Task 3 - Energy efficiency obligation schemes - Article 7, and Task 4 - Promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling - Article 14. The study conclusions and recommendations, which are based upon the best available data and assumptions regarding the cost, performance and availability of energy efficient devices in each sector, are summarized below: 1. Implementation of the EED is shown to be feasible for the C Ps, but the level of the target can have a significant impact on the cost. The E E Target 18-25% case is recommended for adoption because it the most cost-effective of the three options, and sharp increases in the required investment costs, especially in 2027 and 2030, for the E E Target 19-27% and E E Target 20-30% cases do not justify the associated incremental energy savings. The E E Target 18-25% levels are shown to be an achievable significant progression of ambition for each of the C Ps. 2. Renovation of central government buildings is beneficial for the C Ps, but government ownership is still too large in comparison to E U member states. Therefore, the 2% goal is recommended as being the most appropriate approach for the C Ps to achieve the goal of a government implemented demonstration program in its own buildings as example for other public and private sector entities to follow suit. 3

  12. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  13. Moisture buffering phenomenon and its impact on building energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mingjie; Qin, Menghao; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    buffering on building energy consumption in different climate conditions is assessed by using numerical simulations. The results show that the potential energy saving rate could be up to 25–30% when using proper hygroscopic materials in the test building in temperate climates and semi-arid climates. Finally......, the relationship between MBV and potential energy saving rate is also discussed....

  14. Vision for a low-impact renewable energy future for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition promotes the development of the renewable energy industry in Canada. The Coalition's vision for low-impact renewable energy focuses on green forms of electricity to provide not only light, heat and power, but to produce hydrogen fuel that could be used in fuel cell technologies. Low-impact renewable energy is a non-depleting resource with minimal environmental impacts. It includes wind energy, hydro energy, geothermal energy, biomass, tidal energy, and solar energy. The Coalition's goal is to have low-impact renewable energy account for at least 7 per cent of Canada's electricity production by 2010, and 15 per cent by 2020. It is currently at 1 per cent. This goal can be achieved by: defining a comprehensive renewable energy vision for Canada; setting long term targets for renewable energy in Canada; committing to a package of long term incentives; developing partnerships between all levels of government to increase financial investments in renewable energy projects; and, recognizing the potential for renewable energy in a carbon-constrained economy. refs., tabs

  15. Impact of dietary fiber energy on the calculation of food total energy value in the Brazilian Food Composition Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel de; Grande, Fernanda; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Prado, Samira Bernardino Ramos do; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Charrondière, U Ruth; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2016-02-15

    Dietary fiber (DF) contributes to the energy value of foods and including it in the calculation of total food energy has been recommended for food composition databases. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of including energy provided by the DF fermentation in the calculation of food energy. Total energy values of 1753 foods from the Brazilian Food Composition Database were calculated with or without the inclusion of DF energy. The energy values were compared, through the use of percentage difference (D%), in individual foods and in daily menus. Appreciable energy D% (⩾10) was observed in 321 foods, mainly in the group of vegetables, legumes and fruits. However, in the Brazilian typical menus containing foods from all groups, only D%foods, when individually considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA

  17. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system.

  18. Impact of energy prices: a housing-market analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, A.S.; Isakson, H.R.

    1983-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of energy costs on the housing-market response. As the effect of energy costs has not been specifically investigated before in the literature, both a linear and nonlinear model were investigated. The choice of the appropriate model was determined using the Box-Cox transformation technique. The chosen model was then validated. The results reveal that in the Spokane, Washington, area, where energy costs are relatively low, energy prices do not have a significant effect on market response. However, applying the same methodology to areas where energy costs are higher might produce different results. 29 references, 3 tables.

  19. The Impact of Energy Price Decline on China's Energy-Economy-Environment System Variables Using a CGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Wang, Daojuan; Chen, Chong

    In recent years, prices of coal and crude oil have fallen significantly. These declines have had a large impact on China’s energy-economy-environment system variables. This paper establishes a computable general equilibrium model to systematically analyse the impact of coal price changes alone...... or the decline of both coal and oil prices on the variables of China's energy-economy-environment system. The results of the analysis show that the decline of the coal price alone or of coal and crude oil prices together will lead to a significant increase in demand for either coal and total energy or coal...

  20. Influence of Geographic Factors on the Life Cycle Climate Change Impacts of Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, M. O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a valuable tool to measure the cradle-to-grave climate change impacts of the sustainable energy systems that are planned to replace conventional fossil energy-based systems. The recent inclusion of geographic specificity in bioenergy LCAs has shown that the relative sustainability of these energy sources is often dependent on geographic factors, such as the climate change impact of changing the land cover and local resource availability. However, this development has not yet been implemented to most LCAs of energy systems that do not have biological feedstocks, such as wind, water, and solar-based energy systems. For example, the tidal velocity where tidal rotors are installed can significantly alter the life cycle climate change impacts of electricity generated using the same technology in different locations. For LCAs of solar updraft towers, the albedo change impacts arising from changing the reflectivity of the land that would be converted can be of the same magnitude as other life cycle process climate change impacts. Improvements to determining the life cycle climate change impacts of renewable energy technologies can be made by utilizing GIS and satellite data and by conducting site-specific analyses. This practice can enhance our understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of technologies that are aimed to reduce the impacts of our current energy systems, and it can improve the siting of new systems to optimize a reduction in climate change impacts.

  1. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  2. The impact of glazing on energy consumption and comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegou-Sagia, A.; Antonopoulos, K.; Angelopoulou, C.; Kotsiovelos, G.

    2007-01-01

    Given the importance of buildings on the energy balance in Greece, an attempt has been made to study their energy behaviour and thermal comfort. Our primary purpose is to provide an estimation of the building's energy consumption and examine how this affects the comfort conditions. This includes the definition of thermal conditions acceptable for various activities at different times of day during each month of the year. We cannot underestimate the value of real measurements and observations of the building's energy systems, but such data are not always available. The best opportunities for improving energy performance occur early in the design process. Our simulation results can give an indication on which end uses are the most energy consuming, the 'weaknesses' of a building and thus urge the owner or engineer to take effective conservation energy measures

  3. Muscle tension increases impact force but decreases energy absorption and pain during visco-elastic impacts to human thighs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Felix; Pain, Matthew T G

    2018-01-23

    Despite uncertainty of its exact role, muscle tension has shown an ability to alter human biomechanical response and may have the ability to reduce impact injury severity. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle tension on human impact response in terms of force and energy absorbed and the subjects' perceptions of pain. Seven male martial artists had a 3.9 kg medicine ball dropped vertically from seven different heights, 1.0-1.6 m in equal increments, onto their right thigh. Subjects were instructed to either relax or tense the quadriceps via knee extension (≥60% MVC) prior to each impact. F-scan pressure insoles sampling at 500 Hz recorded impact force and video was recorded at 1000 Hz to determine energy loss from the medicine ball during impact. Across all impacts force was 11% higher, energy absorption was 15% lower and time to peak force was 11% lower whilst perceived impact intensity was significantly lower when tensed. Whether muscle is tensed or not had a significant and meaningful effect on perceived discomfort. However, it did not relate to impact force between conditions and so tensing may alter localised injury risk during human on human type impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of environmental impacts of different energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaratnam, T.

    1988-01-01

    Any technological development has its impact on the environment and its habitation. Nuclear power can have its effect on radioecological conditions. Effects on aesthetics, flora and fauna, land use, resource depletion, social aspects etc. are some of the points considered in the impact on environment. The paper describes the environmental impacts of the three major electricity generating industries; (a) thermal power; (b) hydroelectric; (c) nuclear power. Nuclear industry has set an example in taking maximum efforts for minimising all the environmental effects. (author)

  5. Impact after three years of the Swedish energy audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backlund, Sandra; Thollander, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish energy audit program is a publicly financed program, mainly targeting small and medium-sized firms to help them finance energy audits. By examining suggested and implemented energy efficiency measures from the energy audits conducted in 241 firms in the program, the aim of this paper is to examine the energy efficiency implementation gap and the cost efficiency of the program. The audits show that the firms' average annual energy efficiency improvement potential is between 860 and 1270 MWh/year which corresponds to a total energy efficiency improvement potential of between 6980 and 11,130 MWh/firm. The implementation rate of the suggested energy efficiency improvement measures in the SEAP is 53%. The program has resulted in investments in energy efficiency improvements between €74,100and €113,000/firm. - Highlights: • Auditors find an energy efficiency improvement potential of 460–660 MWh/year/firm. • The implementation rate of the suggested measures is 53%. • The total cost per MWh lie between €87 and €114/MWh. • Public costs in the SEAP are €0.7–€1.3/MWh

  6. Energy Sustainability and Its Impacts on Croatian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Krstinić Nižić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, and environmental protection projects play a pivotal role in tourism. The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO addresses resource management and energy use as one of the major issues. The main goal of the paper is to present the economic–financial analysis and the assessment of investment projects in the construction of a conventional mid-size hotel using fossil fuels and a mid-size hotel based on sustainable principles and renewable energy sources. Comparative analysis of conventional and energy efficient hotels is used to calculate the key financial indicators in decision making. Case study shows that the introduction of renewable energy sources meets the needs of modern guests and increases the hotel's competitiveness, while the effects of energy sustainability reflect on the environment and reduced CO2 emissions. Based on the results, the paper suggests measures for improving energy sustainability in hotels and other tourism facilities. The paper is intended for those who deal with theoretical and practical issues of energy sustainability in tourism, tourism certificates, renewable energy sources and investment costs―scientists, researchers, PhD candidates and students as a basis for further comparative studies and benchmarking. It can also be useful for a considerably wider circle of users―managers at all levels and other business decision makers, as well as proprietors, investors, and creditors.

  7. The Brazilian energy matrix: Evolution analysis and its impact on farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz; Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio Oscare

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a technical and economic analysis of the Brazilian matrix energy evaluation, aiming at the evaluation of impacts inherent to technological innovation involved on energy matrix and the sectoral development. Particular attention is given to biomass energy, natural gas, and conventional fuels, considering their impacts on agricultural activity, identifying the highest potential for investment in this sector. As a result, a clear view of the importance of agricultural sector participation in the context of the Brazilian energy is obtained, not only as a consumer, but mainly through self-production energy policy of waste reuse as biomass and of biofuels. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of Brazilian energy matrix on farming. • We highlight the socio-political-economic impact on the agricultural sector. • We highlight the biofuels potential

  8. Impact of energy-saving information in Sweden. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byman, D; Furubo, J E

    1980-02-01

    Energy conservation is a central part of Sweden's national energy policy. It represents an important means of attaining the goals that have been set for this policy: (1) safeguarding sources of supply; (2) curbing energy-transformation effects and reinforcing safety measures; and (3) freedom of action and flexibility. Government measures, public-information activities, and the help of many organizations in accomplishing the goals are emphasized here.

  9. Impacts of energy legislation on organizational motivation: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, C.; Bobrova, Y.; Marjanovic-Halburd, L.

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce operational energy use in non-domestic buildings and mitigate climate change, the UK government has introduced Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (ESOS) legislation to motivate large organizations to implement energy-efficiency (EE) measures. However, evidence suggests that an organization’s behaviour with regard to EE measures does not follow rational cost minimization, demonstrating potential ESOS weakness. A case study is presented that assesses whether ESOS can lead...

  10. Chapter 2: Assessing the Potential Energy Impacts of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 2 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers identify and quantify the many benefits of clean energy to support the development and implementation of cost-effective clean energ

  11. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  12. Restructuring the industry sector - the impact on energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the industrial sector is a factor of major importance in analyzing the evolution of energy intensity or in setting-up realistic development scenarios. A positive influence on the energy intensity value is expected for Romania from the process of restructuring the industry sector towards low energy consumption products. In order to reach this target though, suitable end comprehensive strategies have to become operational without delay, promoting energy efficiency and modern technologies at a nation-wide scale. The benefits of such strategies extend from improvement of the security of supply through environmental protection and reduction of unemployment. (Author)

  13. The impact of clerestory lights on energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Dalibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings are among major energy consumers, whose energy efficiency is rather low. Clerestory windows are responsible for a large portion of energy losses from the buildings. The energy efficiency of buildings can greatly be improved by upgrading clerestory and other windows. This paper focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigations on how this can be performed in an old school building in the town of Bor in eastern part of Serbia. For that purpose a modern measuring technique has been applied to identify the existing status, and to compare theoretical and actual conditions.

  14. The impact of cell culture equipment on energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lleucu B; Kiernan, Michael N; Bishop, Joanna C; Thornton, Catherine A; Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Light energy of discrete wavelengths supplied via lasers and broadband intense pulsed light have been used therapeutically for many years. In vitro models complement clinical studies, especially for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms of action. Clarification that light energy reaches the cells is necessary when developing protocols for the treatment of cells using in vitro models. Few studies report on energy loss in cell culture equipment. The ability of energy from light with therapeutic potential to reach cells in culture needs to be determined; this includes determining the proportion of light energy lost within standard cell culture media and cell culture vessels. The energy absorption of cell culture media, with/without the pH indicator dye phenol red, and the loss of energy within different plastics and glassware used typically for in vitro cell culture were investigated using intense pulsed light and a yellow pulsed dye laser. Media containing phenol red have a distinctive absorption peak (560 nm) absent in phenol red-free media and restored by the addition of phenol red. For both light sources, energy loss was lowest in standard polystyrene tissue culture flasks or multi-well plates and highest in polypropylene vessels or glass tubes. The effects of phenol red-free media on the absorption of energy varied with the light source used. Phenol red-free media are the media of choice; polystyrene vessels with flat surfaces such as culture flasks or multi-well plates should be used in preference to polypropylene or glass vessels.

  15. Wildlife inventory and analysis of some energy development impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Impacts resulting from a nuclear fracturing experiment (Project Rio Blanco) are described. Matrices used in the presentation of environmental impact and inventory data are discussed and a procedure that can be used in conducting environmental inventory and impact studies is given. Results of the Rio Blanco Study indicated that measurable environmental impacts resulted from conventional physical activities and ground motion. Impacts of ground motion were most severe within 2.4 km of the emplacement well (EW) and were predominantly associated with steep ravines and stream banks and rocky cliffs. Animals suffering deleterious impacts were those associated with stream banks, cliffs, and burrows. No mortality resulting from ground motion was observed in large mammals. Following detonation, flow and turbidity had increased in a small stream adjacent to the EW. Two interaction matrices are described and used to present environmental inventory data in a simple graphic display. One illustrates trophic relationships for 28 different species of mammals while the other presents biological events relative to seasons and is used to develop timing strategy for the execution of projects. The third matrix describes documented environmental impacts and was used to portray results of the Rio Blanco study. This matrix includes categories of impacts, distances from the source term, frequency and magnitude ratings, as well as a category for basis of rating

  16. Energy properties of deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the energy properties of deuterium atoms in the cluster impact region, the deuterium cluster impact phenomena have been simulated by using the time-evolution Monte Carlo simulation code DYACAT, where the (D) n (n being 100 to 500 ) with energy 500eV/atom are bombarded on TiD targets. For comparison, the energy properties of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on amorphous Au targets have also been simulated. In the case of the deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets, the high energy tail of the energy distribution of deuterium atoms drops so fast. The temperature of the deuterium cluster impact region is less than 100 ev, and it decreases slightly as the cluster size increases due to the enhanced energy removal with reflected deuterium atoms and sputtered deuterium atoms. While in the case of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on Au the high-energy tail of the energy distribution of Al atoms due to the big cluster impact can be well described in terms of the Maxwell-Boltzmann function whose temperature is 270 ev. (author)

  17. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  18. The impact of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Energy prices moved into the forefront of concern in the mid and late seventies when two oil price shocks drove up energy prices dramatically. The analysis of the subsequent increase in industrial energy efficiency, i.e., decline in energy use per unit of industrial output, has filled volumes of government and private studies. Despite the volumes of analysis, there remains no consensus on the magnitude of the effect of energy prices on industrial energy efficiency or the effect of the change in energy prices on productivity. This paper examines some sources of the controversy to initiate a dialog between policy makers, analysts, and the energy consumers and producers

  19. Environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.W.; Kuntsi, E. [Turku School of Economics (Finland). Finland Futures Research Center

    2004-07-01

    The environmental impact of energy use in this study is evaluated from two aspects: the level of the utilization of natural sources as measured by energy intensity; the level of environmental stress as measured by CO{sub 2} emission intensity. This study analyzes the environmental impact of energy use in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Thailand from 1973 to 2000 based on the International Energy Agency's 2002 database. The findings differ from some previous conclusions, because they conclude that the above four countries are in a process of dematerialization with regard to energy use and are thus heading toward decreasing environmental stress. (author)

  20. AGE analysis of the impact of a carbon energy tax on the Irish economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissema, W.W.; Dellink, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    computable general equilibrium model with specific detail in taxation and energy use is developed in this paper to quantify the impact of the implementation of energy taxation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland. Benchmark data combining physical energy and emissions data and economic data

  1. Dissociative chemisorption of N2 on Rhenium: Dynamics at high impact energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Billing, Gert D.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1990-01-01

    forcing model. It is found that the energy transfer from the molecule to the phonons of the crystal is very significant. The smaller than unity dissociative sticking probability found experimentally even at the highest impact energies well above the barrier energy can be accounted for by the Landau...

  2. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between

  3. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of low energy ionization of atomic hydrogen has undergone a rapid ... Three distinct theories for describing low energy ionization can now .... clear evidence that the backward peak for ΘЅѕ = 180° is due to positron-nucleus scat-.

  4. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Small Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing small multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  5. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  6. The impact of energy labels and accessibility on office rents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Nils; Jennen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in the commercial property sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. In this study, we evaluate the financial implications of two elements of “sustainability” – energy efficiency and accessibility – in the market for commercial real estate. An empirical analysis of some 1100 leasing transactions in the Netherlands over the 2005–2010 period shows that buildings designated as inefficient (with an EU energy performance certificate D or worse) command rental levels that are some 6.5 percent lower as compared to energy efficient, but otherwise similar buildings (labeled A, B or C). Furthermore, this study shows that office buildings in multi-functional areas, with access to public transport and facilities, achieve rental premiums over mono-functional office districts. For policymakers, the results documented in this paper provide an indication on the effectiveness of the EU energy performance certificate as a market signal in the commercial property sector. The findings documented here are also relevant for investors in European office markets, as the importance of energy efficiency and locational diversification is bound to increase following stricter environmental regulation and changing tenant preferences. - Highlights: ► Built environment plays important role in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. ► Energy certification of buildings may increase transparency and awareness. ► Tenants pay lower rent for less efficient commercial office buildings. ► Accessibility important determinant of commercial office rents.

  7. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  8. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Review of the environmental impact of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Hinnawi, E E

    1978-04-01

    The radioactivity released from the products of nuclear fission is the main focus of public concern about the expansion in the use of nuclear power despite stringent control measures and precautions taken. Environmental impacts associated with all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle are examined. Discussed are: uranium mining and milling, manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor, transport and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, reactor operation, and management of wastes produced in the cycle. Environmental impacts of a coal-fired power plant are compared with impacts of three nuclear plants with the same generating capacities. Impacts compared are thermal heat waste, effluent radioactivity, air pollution, radioactive and ash waste products, and land used for the plant. The environmental advantages of the nuclear reactors occur in the categories of air pollutant effluents and land used for plants. (45 references, 3 tables)

  10. Assessing and optimizing the economic and environmental impacts of cogeneration/district energy systems using an energy equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.J.; Rosen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy equilibrium models can be valuable aids in energy planning and decision-making. In such models, supply is represented by a cost-minimizing linear submodel and demand by a smooth vector-valued function of prices. In this paper, we use the energy equilibrium model to study conventional systems and cogeneration-based district energy (DE) systems for providing heating, cooling and electrical services, not only to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of cogeneration-based DE systems, but also to develop optimal configurations while accounting for such factors as economics and environmental impact. The energy equilibrium model is formulated and solved with software called WATEMS, which uses sequential non-linear programming to calculate the intertemporal equilibrium of energy supplies and demands. The methods of analysis and evaluation for the economic and environmental impacts are carefully explored. An illustrative energy equilibrium model of conventional and cogeneration-based DE systems is developed within WATEMS to compare quantitatively the economic and environmental impacts of those systems for various scenarios. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected

  12. Energy impacts of the smart home - conflicting visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Sophie; Røpke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    of households in the smart grid? What visions are articulated for the functionalities of the smart home? Secondly, we critically investigate these visions to explore if they support the development of sustainable energy consumption. We claim that the smart home in the smart grid is the latest addition...... to a family of ideas emerging in relation to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home. The smart home is thus a melting pot of such different trends as automation of household chores, entertainment and energy management. These different ingredients of the melting pot co......To support the transition towards an energy system that is based 100 percent on renewable energy sources, the smart grid is presently undergoing rapid development in Denmark – a hype that can also be seen in the rest of the world. Many actors are playing in the field, and the present situation...

  13. Impact of density-dependent symmetry energy and Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-07

    Mar 7, 2014 ... The IMF production increases with the stiffness of symmetry energy. .... to clusterization using minimum spanning tree MST(M) method .... To understand the direct role of Coulomb interactions, we display in figure 4 the mean.

  14. Impact of the technological change on energy technology. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H

    1976-01-01

    The development of electrical engineering, and its contribution and importance to energy supply are briefly reviewed. Starting with the specific characteristics of electric current as an energy carrier, the close interaction between possibilities for using electric power and innovations in the field of equipment production are explained and illustrated with examples. Further, it is shown how progress in other disciplines influence the technological development of electric power generation, tansmission, distribution, and use.

  15. The impact of Renewable Energies on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaro, Jorge; ZilettiI, María; Romero, Fabián; Esquenazi, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The environmental crisis is the result and reflection of the western civilization crisis, caused by human beings' ways of knowing, conceiving and, consequently, transforming the world. The environmental crisis questions thought and the understanding of the world, the ethics with which western civilization has apprehended beings, entities and things; and science and the technological logic with which nature has been dominated and the modern world has been commercialized. From this complexity and its relationship with beings and thought, we propose to rethink reality, assuming that renewable energies not only solve a technical issue linked to the energy problem of scarcity and pollution caused by conventional energies, but also question the existing model in society. The framework of this analysis is the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is fundamentally important for making decisions on implementation of renewable energies. Thus, the typical statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, without losing validity, could be made from the environmental perspective, as follows: No cyclic machine can convert heat into work without increasing the thermodynamic energy of the environment. In this work we analyze and discuss the energy problem in terms of an environmental knowledge that enables to believe in the utopia of a society which, objectively looking at itself now, could propel itself into a healthy, sustainable future. This proposal seeks to build an environmental logic based on three main points: a) the ecological conditions of production process, b) the values of democracy, and c) the principles of cultural diversity. (author)

  16. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  17. Calculating energy and labor impacts of capital readjustments due to changes in personal consumption. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleszkun, A.R.

    1979-05-01

    Previous work on the energy and labor impacts of energy-consumption policies has included the effect of respending of money saved, but not the capital implications of this respending. Here the capital effects are fully accounted for, and turn out to be negligible for a specified conservation scenario and a specified capital expansion model (..delta..C = kC). The robustness of this conclusion is discussed. The implication is that inclusion of only the respending effect is adequate for calculating energy and labor impacts and provides an accuracy to within +- 1% of the total impacts. Operationally, this result obviates the requirement for detailed and expensive calculations.

  18. Perspective on the energy future of the Northeast: health and environmental impacts of alternative energy futures for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Morris, S.C.; Calef, C.E.; Kaplan, E.; Shreeve, D.F.; Reisman, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Attention was focused on five air pollutants: sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Emission coefficients were based on data in the BNL Energy Model Data Base. Tables are presented to show emission factors for electricity generation, for industrial energy use, and for Transportation sector. Health effects of air pollution, health impacts of nuclear power plants, and environmental considerations are also discussed. (HLW)

  19. Energy Impacts of Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality Retrofits of Apartments in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Norris, Federico [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Monthly gas and electricity use data from a set of 13 study apartments and 20 control apartments from three apartment buildings (B1 B3) in California were analyzed. The study apartments were retrofit with simultaneous energy savings and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) improvements as the goal. The control apartments were not retrofit. Pre-retrofit modeling indicated annual energy savings of 21percent, 17percent, and 27percent for the study apartments in B1-B3, respectively. Based on a comparison of changes in energy use of study apartments to energy use changes of control apartments, total measured savings of gas energy plus site electrical energy were 28percent in B1, 5percent in B2, and 3percent in B3. Given the small number of study apartments and the substantial changes in energy use within control apartments, the project yielded no conclusive evidence of energy savings. Apartment energy use increased with number of occupants and with floor area; however, the association with occupancy was most evident. Climate differences did not appear to be the major driver for the variability in energy use among apartments. Changes in occupant behaviors affecting energy use may have overwhelmed and obscured the energy savings in this small number of buildings. Much larger prior studies employing similar retrofits indicate that the retrofits usually do save energy.

  20. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  1. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  2. Hydrogen from nuclear energy and the impact on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Poehnell, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    The two major candidates for hydrogen production include nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. However, hydrogen produced by steam reforming of natural gas offers little advantage in total cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over hybrid internal combustion engine (ICE) technology. Only nuclear power offers the possibility of cutting GHG emissions significantly and to economically provide electricity for traditional applications and by producing hydrogen for its widespread use in the transportation sector. Using nuclear energy to produce hydrogen for transportation fuel, doubles or triples nuclear's capacity to reduce GHG emissions. An analysis at the Atomic Energy of Canada shows that a combination of hydrogen fuel and nuclear energy can stabilize GHG emissions and climate change for a wide range of the latest scenarios presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The technology for replacing hydrocarbon fuels with non-polluting hydrogen exists with nuclear power, electrolysis and fuel cells, using electric power grids for distribution. It was emphasized that a move toward total emissions-free transportation will be a move towards solving the negative effects of climate change. This paper illustrated the trends between global economic and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Low carbon dioxide emission energy alternatives were discussed along with the sources of hydrogen and the full cycle assessment results in reduced emissions. It was shown that deploying 20 CANDU NPPs (of 690 MW (e) net each) would fuel 13 million vehicles with the effect of levelling of carbon dioxide emissions from transportation between 2020 to 2030. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, E.

    1976-01-01

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries [pt

  4. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingcai Li

    Full Text Available Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382. The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  5. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  6. Modeling the optimal energy mix in 2030 : Impact of the integration of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Camu

    2016-01-01

    The European Council has recently set objectives in the matter of energy and climate policies and thus the interest in renewable energies is more than ever at stake. However, the introduction of renewable energies in an energy mix is also accelerated and altered by political targets. The two most widespread renewable technologies, photovoltaic and wind farms, have specific characteristics - decentralized, intermittency, uncertain production forecast up until a few hours ahead - that oblige to...

  7. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different...

  8. Energy intensities and the impact of high energy prices on producing and consuming sectors in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The increase in oil prices has put pressure on the global economy. Even economies that have a high degree of self-sufficiency concerning oil products are experiencing rising production costs and price increases for households energy use. Therefore, changes in energy policies are under consideration for countries highly dependent on imported energy as well as countries with a high degree of self-sufficiency. Examination of dependence on cheap energy sources for economic growth in different eco...

  9. Evaluation of climate change impacts on energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taseska, Verica; Markovska, Natasa; Callaway, John M.

    2012-01-01

    change and the energy demand in Macedonia. The analyses are conducted using the MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation)-Macedonia model, with a focus on energy demand in commercial and residential sectors (mainly for heating and cooling). Three different cases are developed: 1) Base Case, which gives the optimal...... electricity production mix, taking into account country’s development plans (without climate change); 2) Climate Change Damage Case, which introduces the climate changes by adjusting the heating and cooling degree days inputs, consistent with the existing national climate scenarios; and 3) Climate Change...... Adaptation Case, in which the optimal electricity generation mix is determined by allowing for endogenous capacity adjustments in the model. This modeling exercise will identify the changes in the energy demand and in electricity generation mix in the Adaptation Case, as well as climate change damages...

  10. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy in the Iberian Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño, Edgar; Pereira, Adelino J. C.; Machado Ferreira, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Market and system operators face new challenges as more renewable energy sources are added. The driving factors in this trend are mainly associated with environmental benefits of the renewable generation and climate change mitigation, as well as the reduction of the dependency of conventional...... and external energy source. If integrated in large scale, the nondispatchable nature of intermittent resources imposes some technical and economic challenges on the operation of power systems. Particularly, market dynamics and prices could be influenced by such integrations. Over the last years, the generation...... mix of Spain and Portugal has undergone a dramatic change, driven by new environmental policies and financial incentives. In this regard, wind has become one of the most popular alternative sources of energy, bringing new challenges from the operational and structural point of view. This trend has...

  11. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  12. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  13. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  14. Renewable energy physics, engineering, environmental impacts, economics & planning

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    This volume is a true shelf reference, providing a thorough overview of the entire renewable energy sphere, while still functioning as a go-to information source for professionals and students when they need answers about a specific technical issue. Crafted over the last 15 years into a problem-solving tool for engineers, researchers, consultants and planners currently working in the field, as well as a detailed map of the renewables universe for those looking to expand into new technological specialties, Renewable Energy by Sorensen offers the most comprehensive coverage of the subject available.

  15. Impact of water hardness on energy consumption of geyser heating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the Eskom Research, Testing, and Development Business Unit embarked on a study to examine total water hardness as a chemical parameter that may impact the power consumption of electrical geyser heating elements. An accelerated scaling method was developed to lime-scale the geyser heating elements ...

  16. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  17. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  18. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n=18) was ...

  19. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancic, A.B.; Peters, J.S.; Arch, M.

    1991-01-01

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  20. The impact of domestic energy efficiency retrofit schemes on householder attitudes and behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, T.B.; Young, W.; Webber, P.; Gouldson, A.; Harwatt, H.

    2015-01-01

    Retrofitting existing housing stock to improve energy efficiency is often required to meet climate mitigation, public health and fuel poverty targets. Increasing uptake and effectiveness of retrofit schemes requires understanding of their impacts on householder attitudes and behaviours. This paper

  1. Impacts of non-nuclear energy sources on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavkaya, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal) , which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. If humankind is going to have a future on this planet, at least a high-technology future, with a significant population of several billions of humans continuing to inhabit the Earth, it is absolutely inevitable that we will have to find another energy source. Table 1: The environmental effects for some energy systems; SOURCES: Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas and coal) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Ozone layer depletion - Changes of atmospheric conditions - Decrease of air quality (Coal , petroleum) - Acid rains and destroy of forests (coal, petroleum ) - Pollution from toxic wastes (coal ash, slag and smoke hole gases) - Pollution of surface water - Seaside and sea pollutions (petroleum) - Terrain devolution - Large amount of fuel and transportation requirements - Sources depletion SOURCES: Hydroelectric ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - Large area requirements - Population situation changes - Erosion and usage changes - Ecosystem changes and health effects - Disappearing of biological variety - Downfall of dams - Leave out of production SOURCES: Renewable (sun, wind, geothermal, biomass) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Decrease of air quality (geothermal, biomass) - Large area usage - Ecologic system changes - Fabrication effects (CO 2 effect due to production of photovoltaic cells that work with sun) - Noise (wind) SOURCES: Nuclear (All energy chain) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS : - Radioactive oscillation because of serious reactor accident - Radiation of waste storage. In this study, the environmental effects for some energy systems are investigated with all details

  2. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  3. Climate change impacts on wind energy resources in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Kjellstroem, E.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental human need. Heat, light and transport for individuals combined with the needs of industry have created a demand for energy which for the last 100-200 years has been met largely through consumption of fossil fuels leading to altered atmospheric composition and modification of the global climate. These effects will be realised on local scales affecting not just temperature and precipitation but also wind, radiation and other parameters. Annual mean wind speeds and wind energy density over northern Europe were significantly higher at the end of twentieth century than during the middle portion of that century, with the majority of the change being focused on the winter season. To address questions regarding possible future wind climates we employ dynamical and empirical downscaling techniques that seek to take coarse resolution output from General Circulation Models (GCM), run to provide scenarios of future climate, and develop higher resolution regional wind climates. Analyses of the wind climate during the historical record indicate that both the dynamical approach and the empirical approach are capable of generating accurate, robust and quantitative assessments of the wind climate and energy density in northern Europe, and hence that they may be of great utility to those seeking financing for, or risk management of, wind farms in the face of climate uncertainty. The synthesis of application of these downscaling tools to climate projections for northern Europe is that there is no evidence of major changes in the wind energy resource. However, more research is required to quantify the uncertainties in developing these projections and to reduce those uncertainties. Further work should also be conducted to assess the validity of these downscaling approaches in other geographical locations. (BA)

  4. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  5. Financial impacts of UK's energy and climate change policies on commercial and industrial businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Chye Peng; Toper, Bruce; Gambhir, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a detailed case study assessment of two business sites in the UK, to understand the policy drivers of increases to their energy costs and energy bills, considering all current UK energy and climate change policies. We compare our findings to more generalised, theoretical calculations of the policy cost impact on energy costs and bills – we have found no other studies as comprehensive as ours in terms of policy coverage. We find that for one site the government has over-estimated the likely energy savings due to energy efficiency options. Such differences in estimates should be taken into account when considering the efficacy of climate change policies on future energy savings. The overall impact of energy and climate change policies on costs will be of the order 0.4% of total business costs by 2020. This provides an important metric for the near-term cost of mitigation to meet longer-term climate change goals. - Highlights: •Cumulative impacts of policies on energy prices and bills were studied. •Projected bills for one site are higher than those projected by the UK government. •Results of existing theoretical studies may not be fully representative. •Impact of policies is not considered significant with respect to competitiveness.

  6. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  7. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  8. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  9. Environmental impact evaluation from large energy projects; Avaliacao de impacto ambiental de grandes projetos energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, Alberto [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    This paper builds up theoretical framework and methodological approaches to assess environmental impacts from large energy projects. It aims towards the definition of concrete tools, and technical proceedings to allow identification and quantification (or weighing) of effects on the natural and social environment. The environmental impacts assessment, (EIA), studies are described as important instruments in planning and in the choice of alternative energy policies. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  10. Systems-design and energy-balance considerations for impact fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Areas of concern and potential problems for impact fusion are qualitatively considered within an overall systems context. A parametric and qualitative description of the general energy balance and systems considerations for an Impact Fusion Reactor (IFR) design is discussed. Reactor systems design considerations for an IFR are presented. An attempt to assess the IFR viability is made based on highly simplified but limiting projectile-target energy balances and thermonuclear burn models

  11. Impact of Energy Transition in Germany on the Nordic Power Market – A Blessing or Curse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Connolly, David

    2015-01-01

    integrate and harmonize regional markets towards a pan-European power market with a single pricing algorithm. The impacts of such power market couplings on the interconnected countries are complex, which concerns market participants in different levels, from consumers and producers to grid operators...... in such interconnected countries calls for a market-based multiregion energy system model. In this respect, this contribution analyses the impact of further VRE in Germany on the Nordic countries by proposing a new integrated energy system, power market model of the region. The results reveal the market-economic impact......The European energy policy emphasizes the establishment of EU-wide internal energy markets as a reliable solution in increasing the security of supply, optimal use of internal energy resources, and improved economic competitiveness. With respect to the power sector, the EU’s strategy is to further...

  12. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) scoping session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) scoping meeting was: to present the ground water program so as to build some familiarity and understanding about the issue involved; and to get the Durango community's input. This report contains the presentations made by the project manager for the uranium mill tailings program, site manager for the Durango UMTRA site, manager of ground water hydrology, and includes comments made by local residents

  14. An energy and mortality impact assessment of the urban heat island in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased summer energy use and increased summer heat related mortality are the two most cited detrimental impacts of the urban heat island (UHI). An assessment of these impacts was made that considered the annual impact of the UHI, not just the summer impact. It was found that in north of the US there was a net decrease in energy use from the UHI, as heating energy reductions were larger than the increase in cooling energy. In the south there was a net energy increase from the UHI. The impact of the UHI on heat related deaths was an estimated increase of 1.1 deaths per million people. The impact of the UHI on cold related deaths was an estimated decrease of 4.0 deaths per million people. These estimates are caveated by the acknowledgement that compounding factors influence mortality. Hypothermia related death rates were three times higher in rural areas than urban areas. This is surprising as the homeless population is usually considered the most at risk, yet they mostly live in urban areas. - Highlights: • The urban heat island (UHI) may actually be beneficial in colder cities in the US in terms of energy use • The UHI may cause an increase in heat related mortality of ~ 1 deaths per million • In winter the UHI may decrease cold related mortality by ~ 4 deaths per million • Cold related death rates were 3 times higher in rural areas although the homeless population live mainly in urban areas

  15. An energy and mortality impact assessment of the urban heat island in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Scott A., E-mail: Scott.lowe@manhattan.edu

    2016-01-15

    Increased summer energy use and increased summer heat related mortality are the two most cited detrimental impacts of the urban heat island (UHI). An assessment of these impacts was made that considered the annual impact of the UHI, not just the summer impact. It was found that in north of the US there was a net decrease in energy use from the UHI, as heating energy reductions were larger than the increase in cooling energy. In the south there was a net energy increase from the UHI. The impact of the UHI on heat related deaths was an estimated increase of 1.1 deaths per million people. The impact of the UHI on cold related deaths was an estimated decrease of 4.0 deaths per million people. These estimates are caveated by the acknowledgement that compounding factors influence mortality. Hypothermia related death rates were three times higher in rural areas than urban areas. This is surprising as the homeless population is usually considered the most at risk, yet they mostly live in urban areas. - Highlights: • The urban heat island (UHI) may actually be beneficial in colder cities in the US in terms of energy use • The UHI may cause an increase in heat related mortality of ~ 1 deaths per million • In winter the UHI may decrease cold related mortality by ~ 4 deaths per million • Cold related death rates were 3 times higher in rural areas although the homeless population live mainly in urban areas.

  16. The Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption of the Impact Screwdriver During Assembly of Fixed Threaded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, I.; Nikishin, Vl.; Mozga, N.; Laitans, M.

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with the possibilities of reducing the consumption of electrical energy of the impact screwdriver during the assembly of fixed threaded joints. The recommendations related to a decrease in electrical energy consumption would allow reducing product costs but so far there have been no such recommendations from the producers of the tool as to the effective operating regimes of the impact screwdrivers in relation to electrical energy consumption and necessary tightening moment of the nut. The aim of the study is to find out the economical operating mode of the electrical impact screwdriver when assembling fixed threaded joints. By varying the set speed of the rotor head and working time of the impact mechanism, there is an opportunity to determine electrical energy consumption of the tool for the given tightening moment. The results of the experiment show that at the same tightening moment obtained the electrical energy consumption of the impact screwdriver is less at a higher starting set speed of the rotor head but shorter operating time of the impact mechanism than at a lower speed of the rotor head and longer operating time of the impact mechanism.

  17. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent W. Dixon; Steven J. Piet

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository (63,000 MTiHM commercial, 7,000 MT non-commercial). There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected. The first step in understanding the need for different spent fuel management approaches is to understand the size of potential spent fuel inventories. A full range of potential futures for domestic commercial nuclear energy is considered. These energy futures are as follows: 1. Existing License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus extrapolation of future plant-by-plant discharges until the end of each operating license, including known license extensions. 2. Extended License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus a plant-by-plant extrapolation of future discharges assuming on all operating plants having one 20-year extension. 3. Continuing Level Energy Generation - Based on extension of the current ∼100 GWe installed commercial base and average spent fuel discharge of 2100 MT/yr through the year 2100. 4. Continuing Market Share Generation - Based on a 1.8% compounded growth of the electricity market through the year 2100, matched by growing nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge. 5. Growing Market Share Generation - Extension of current nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge through 2100 with 3.2% growth representing 1.5% market growth (all energy, not just electricity) and 1.7% share growth. Share growth results in

  18. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, SK; Novotny, JA; Bornhorst, GM; Baer, DJ

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n = 18) was conducted to measure the ME of different forms of almonds (42 g per day), as part of a controlled diet: whole, natural almonds; whole, roasted almonds; chop...

  19. Impact of the daily meal pattern on energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellisle, France

    2008-01-01

    The daily distribution of food intake can influence the regulation of energy balance and, in consequence, the control of body weight. Two aspects of this question must be considered: the daily number of eating occasions and their temporal distribution. Since the 1960s, epidemiological studies have reported an inverse relationship between frequency of eating and body weight, suggesting that a ‘‘nibbling’’ pattern could help to prevent obesity. This notion has later been...

  20. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  2. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  3. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M.

    1979-02-01

    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person

  4. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Energy Modeling of IoT Mobile Terminals on WiFi Environmental Impacts †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxia; Chen, Junxian; Tang, Yong; Chen, Yanjia

    2018-05-28

    With the popularity of various IoT mobile terminals such as mobile phones and sensors, the energy problems of IoT mobile terminals have attracted increasingly more attention. In this paper, we explore the impacts of some important factors of WiFi environments on the energy consumption of mobile phones, which are typical IoT end devices. The factors involve the WiFi signal strength under good signal conditions, the type and the amount of protocol packets that are initiated by WiFi APs (Access Points) to maintain basic network communication with the phones. Controlled experiments are conducted to quantitatively study the phone energy impacts by the above WiFi environmental factors. To describe such impacts, we construct a time-based signal strength-aware energy model and packet type/amount-aware energy models. The models constructed in the paper corroborate the following user experience on phone energy consumption: (1) a phone's energy is drawn faster under higher WiFi signal strengths than under lower ones even in normal signal conditions; (2) phones consume energy faster in a public WiFi network than in a private one even in the basic phone state. The energy modeling methods proposed in the paper enable ordinary developers to analyze phone energy draw conveniently by utilizing inexpensive power meters as measurement tools. The modeling methods are general and are able to be used for phones of any type and any platform.

  6. Impact parameter representation without high-energy, small-angle limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.

    Using Watson-Sommerfeld transform the impact parameter representation of the scattering amplitude is shown to be valid for all physical energies and scattering angles. It is also shown how the direct channel Regge poles enter in the impact parameter amplitude [fr

  7. 77 FR 6548 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... development of existing wind energy resources on the eastern central and northern portions of Fort Bliss in New Mexico; and (7) the development of up to 20 MW of natural gas powered turbines as a complementary... migratory birds, soils and vegetation, noise impacts, increased traffic impacts, cultural resources, air...

  8. Analysis of the impact of heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000. Energy case study series: No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J.

    1977-09-15

    An analysis of the impact of existing and new heat pump technology on the Irish energy system to the year 2000 was undertaken. The methodology used involved the measurement of the potential impact against a base Reference Energy System for various heat pump strategies. A short analysis of the implementation rates and their effect on technology impact was also carried out.

  9. Parameter variation and scenario analysis in impact assessments of emerging energy technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Breunig, Hanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a global need for energy technologies that reduce the adverse impacts of societal progress and that address today's challenges without creating tomorrow's problems. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) can support technology developers in achieving these prerequisites of sustainability by providing a systems perspective. However, modeling the early-stage scale up and impacts of technology systems may lead to unreliable or incomplete results due to a lack of representative technical, s...

  10. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  11. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural

  12. The Impact of Traditional and Alternative Energy Production on Water Resources: Assessment and Adaptation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water, fuel and energy issues are intricately related and cannot be addressed in isolation. With increasing population, increasing energy demand, continued migration towards and population growth within water stressed regions of the U.S., and with the continuing impacts of climat...

  13. Job creation and economic impact of renewable energy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulavskaya, T.; Reynès, F.G.D.

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impact of a shift towards renewable electricity mix in the Netherlands using the neo-Keynesian CGEM ThreeME (Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy policy). This scenario has been inspired by the Urgenda's report ‘Energy 100%

  14. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  15. Modeling an impact of road geometric design on vehicle energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luin, Blaž; Petelin, Stojan; Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2017-11-01

    Some roads connect traffic origins and destinations directly, some use winding, indirect routes. Indirect connections result in longer distances driven and increased fuel consumption. A similar effect is observed on congested roads and mountain roads with many changes in altitude. Therefore a framework to assess road networks based on energy consumption is proposed. It has been shown that road geometry has significant impact on overall traffic energy consumption and emissions. The methodology presented in the paper analyzes impact of traffic volume, shares of vehicle classes, road network configuration on the energy used by the vehicles. It can be used to optimize energy consumption with efficient traffic management and to choose optimum new road in the design phase. This is especially important as the energy consumed by the vehicles shortly after construction supersedes the energy spent for the road construction.

  16. Impact of gas on utilities - competitive energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolican, M.

    1997-01-01

    The initiatives taken by Nova Scotia Power to have natural gas as a generating fuel was discussed. Nova Scotia Power customers have indicated to the Utility that along with reduced energy costs, they want choices, better services and innovative products. It was noted that coal is currently Nova Scotia Power's principal fuel, but the utility is working with the Cape Breton Development Corporation, their supplier, to bring the cost of coal down. The utility is also exploring the potential of coal bed methane in Pictou and Cumberland counties of Nova Scotia. However, the most promising competitive energy option for their customers is Sable Offshore natural gas. To bring natural gas as the generating fuel for electricity, the Utility is taking steps to convert its Tufts Cove Thermal Generating Station to natural gas and to pipe natural gas to the Trenton Generating Station by November 1999. Bringing natural gas to these two stations would establish a critical base level of demand for natural gas in the Halifax and New Glasgow-Trenton area. One of the important ingredients of this plan is the cost of piping the gas to market. It was suggested that the 'postage stamp' tolling system (i.e. one price for the gas delivered anywhere along the pipeline) favored by some, would not give Nova Scotians the economic advantages that they deserve. For this reason, Nova Scotia Power favours the 'point to point' tolling system, a system that is considered fair and efficient, and the one that has a better chance of producing competitive energy prices

  17. Stocks and energy shocks : the impact of energy accidents on stock market value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Boersen, A.

    We investigate how financial market participants value energy accidents. We employ an event study to look into the response of stock markets to 209 accidents. These accidents were derived from Sovacool's (2008) database on major energy accidents from 1907 to 2007. It appears that the stock market in

  18. Impact of energy and protein restriction on energy expenditure of gestation in twin-bearing ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiani, Alishir; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    weeks of gestation. Whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and retained energy (RE) were calculated from respiratory gaseous exchange combined with nitrogen balance at 7, 5 and 2 weeks prepartum. Twin lamb birth weight was lower in the R group compared to those in the A group (7.9 ± 0.31 vs 9.3 ± 0.19 kg, P...

  19. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Helbra Tenrini, Rita; Suryo Nugroho, Sidiq

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  20. On the market impact of wind energy forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how day-ahead electricity spot prices are affected by day-ahead wind power forecasts. Demonstration of this relationship is given as a test case for the Western Danish price area of the Nord Pool's Elspot market. Impact on the average price behaviour is investigated as well as that on the distributional properties of the price. By using a non-parametric regression model to assess the effects of wind power forecasts on the average behaviour, the non-linearities and time variations in the relationship are captured well and the effects are shown to be quite substantial. Furthermore, by evaluating the distributional properties of the spot prices under different scenarios, the impact of the wind power forecasts on the price distribution is proved to be considerable. The conditional price distribution is moreover shown to be non-Gaussian. This implies that forecasting models for electricity spot prices for which parameters are estimated by a least squares techniques will not have Gaussian residuals. Hence the widespread assumption of Gaussian residuals from electricity spot price models is shown to be inadequate for these model types. The revealed effects are likely to be observable and qualitatively similar in other day-ahead electricity markets significantly penetrated by wind power. (author)

  1. The impact of intermittent sources of energy on the market price of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adigbli, Patrick; Mahuet, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Parallel to liberalization of the electricity market, these past twenty years have been marked by a strong expansion of renewable energy in Europe. The increasing share of renewables in the energy mix - with a goal set by the European Commission at 20% by 2020 - has an impact on market prices. In the short run, subsidized intermittent energy may lead to lower prices or even to negative prices during certain periods of the year

  2. The role of nuclear energy in reducing the environmental impact of China's energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zongxin; Sun, Yuliang

    1998-01-01

    It is presented in this paper the current status of China's energy market and the projections of its future development. China's energy market, currently and in the next decades, is mainly characterized by rapidly increasing demand and dominant role of coal which is directly related to serious environmental pollution. The role of nuclear energy utilization in improving the primary energy infrastructure is addressed. Status and development of nuclear power generation are described. Potential of introducing nuclear energy into heat market is discussed. An overview of the research and development work of water cooled low temperature heating reactors and gas-cooled high temperature gas cooled reactors in China is given and the technical and safety features of these two reactor types are briefly described. (author)

  3. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  4. A Review on the Perforated Impact Energy Absorption of Kenaf Fibres Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Khalid, S. N. A.; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    This paper reviews the potential of mechanical energy absorption of natural fiber reinforced composites subjected to perforated impact. According to literature survey, several research works discussing on the impact performances on natural fiber reinforced composites are available. However, most of these composite fibers are randomly arranged. Due to high demand for sustainable materials, many researches give high attention to enhance the mechanical capability of natural fiber composites especially focused on the fiber architecture. Therefore, it is important to review the progress of impact energy absorption on woven fiber composite in order to identify the research opportunities in the future.

  5. Impacts of integration of production of black and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huizhong; Tamas, Meszaros Matyas

    2010-01-01

    As the mandate for minimum renewable sources renders Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) an essential input for power generation, it may induce mergers between power companies of conventional and renewable sources. Such mergers enable the integrated firms to extend market power from the TGC market to the physical energy market. We find that the price of TGCs is indeed higher in the integrated market than the disintegrated market, indicating the presence of market power leveraging. However, despite higher TGC price, the total supply of electricity is greater under integration than disintegration, reflecting efficiency gains from vertical integration, which eliminates double marginalization. The thrust of this paper is that market changes induced by environmental policies will in turn affect environmental and economic regulations. For example, increased supply resulting from integration induced by the renewable source mandate may reduce the effectiveness of programs that promote energy saving behavior, but at the same time creates room for raising the minimum of renewable sources without unduly depressing production and consumption. (author)

  6. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  7. Assessing the impacts of wind energy development on bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, E.B. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Research conducted by the Bats and Wind Energy Cooperative in West Virginia was presented. Bats are key pollinators, seed dispersers, and insect predators. Bats also help to protect crops and play an important role in helping to reduce pesticide use. However, bats reproduce slowly and are susceptible to mortality factors. In 2003, between 1398 and 4031 bats were killed at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Facility in West Virginia. Possible explanations why bats are killed by wind turbines include the fact that wind farms form a linear corridor. Acoustics, echolocation failure, and electromagnetic-disorientation may also play a role in bat mortalities. Unifying patterns of bat fatalities at wind facilities include the fact that fatalities are heavily skewed toward migratory bats. Peak turbine collision fatalities occur in mid-summer. Bat fatalities are highest during periods of low wind speed and seem to be related to climate variables associated with the passage of weather fronts. Studies have also shown that the changing cut-in speeds of turbines may also reduce bat fatalities. It was concluded that pre-construction assessments should be conducted to determine high risk areas. tabs., figs.

  8. Impact of keV-energy argon clusters on diamond and graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Impact of keV-energy size-selected Arn (n = 16, 27, 41) cluster ions on diamond and graphite is studied both experimentally and by molecular dynamics simulations. For the case of diamond, relatively high cluster kinetic energies (above certain threshold) are required to produce severe radiation...... the graphene planes, significant radiation damage is already introduced by impact of clusters with low kinetic energies (a few tens of eV/atom). However, collisions of the argon clusters cause very elastic response of the graphene planes that leads to efficient closure of the craters which could be formed...

  9. Estimating the environmental impact of home energy visits and extent of behaviour change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revell, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental impact of a home energy visit programme, known as RE:NEW, that was delivered in London, in the United Kingdom. These home energy visits intended to encourage reductions in household carbon emissions and water consumption through the installation of small energy saving measures (such as radiator panels, in-home energy displays and low-flow shower heads), further significant energy saving measures (loft and cavity wall insulation) and behaviour change advice. The environmental impact of the programme was estimated in terms of carbon emissions abated and on average, for each household in the study, a visit led to an average carbon abatement of 146 kgCO 2 . The majority of this was achieved through the installation of small energy saving measures. The impact of the visits on the installation of significant measures was negligible, as was the impact on behaviour change. Therefore, these visits did not overcome the barriers required to generate behaviour change or the barriers to the installation of more significant energy saving measures. Given this, a number of recommendations are proposed in this paper, which could increase the efficacy of these home energy visits. - Highlights: • The environmental impact of the RE:NEW home energy visit programme is estimated. • Visits do not generate significant pro-environmental behaviour change. • Visits do not overcome the barriers to the installation loft and wall insulation. • Small energy saving measures yield carbon savings of 145 kgCO 2 /year. • The average carbon abatement per household was estimated to be 146 kgCO 2 /year

  10. Modeling the impact of large-scale energy conversion systems on global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    There are three energy options which could satisfy a projected energy requirement of about 30 TW and these are the solar, nuclear and (to a lesser extent) coal options. Climate models can be used to assess the impact of large scale deployment of these options. The impact of waste heat has been assessed using energy balance models and general circulation models (GCMs). Results suggest that the impacts are significant when the heat imput is very high and studies of more realistic scenarios are required. Energy balance models, radiative-convective models and a GCM have been used to study the impact of doubling the atmospheric CO 2 concentration. State-of-the-art models estimate a surface temperature increase of 1.5-3.0 0 C with large amplification near the poles, but much uncertainty remains. Very few model studies have been made of the impact of particles on global climate, more information on the characteristics of particle input are required. The impact of large-scale deployment of solar energy conversion systems has received little attention but model studies suggest that large scale changes in surface characteristics associated with such systems (surface heat balance, roughness and hydrological characteristics and ocean surface temperature) could have significant global climatic effects. (Auth.)

  11. Development and the environmental impact analysis of tidal current energy turbines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Ma, Changlei; Jiang, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Chinese government pays more attentions to renewable energies (RE) in the context of increasing energy demand and climate change problems. As a promising RE, the utilization of marine renewable energy (MRE) is engaging in the world, including the wave energy and tidal current energy mainly. At the same time, the tidal current energy resources in China are abundant. Thus, the utilization of tidal current energy becomes an inevitable choice for China to meet the challenge of global climate change. The Renewable Energy Law (amendment) and “Twelfth Five-Year” Plan of Renewable Energy Development (2011-2015) were released in recent years in China, the tidal current energy are successfully implemented in China, including the R&D and pilot projects. After the summary of the status of tidal current energy converters in recent years in China, especially the devices being in the open sea test. The environmental impact study in China is also introduced in order to offer reference for the environmental impact assessment of tidal current power generation.

  12. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Andrea M. [Millennium Institute, 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 700, Arlington, VA 22201 (United States); University of Bergen, Postboks 7800, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Yudken, Joel S. [High Road Strategies, LLC, 104 N. Columbus Street, Arlington, VA 22203 (United States); Ruth, Matthias [University of Maryland, 3139 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition. (author)

  13. Climate policy impacts on the competitiveness of energy-intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.; Ruth, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impacts of energy price changes resulting from different carbon-pricing policies on the competitiveness of selected US energy-intensive industries. It further examines possible industry responses, and identifies and provides a preliminary evaluation of potential opportunities to mitigate these impacts. The industry sectors investigated - steel, aluminum, chemicals and paper - are among the largest industrial users of fossil fuels in the US economy. The results of this examination show that climate policies that put a price on carbon could have substantial impacts on the competitiveness of US energy-intensive manufacturing sectors over the next two decades, if climate regulations are applied only in the United States, and no action is taken to invest in advanced low- and no-carbon technologies. The extent of these impacts will vary across industries, depending on their energy intensities, the mix of energy sources they rely on and how energy is used in production activities (heat and power, feedstock). Of relevance is also the speed and rigor with which industries adopt new technologies and retire (or replace) old ones. Other factors affecting these impacts include an industry's vulnerability to foreign imports and its ability to pass through cost increases to its customers in the face of international market competition.

  14. Vibration and Energy Dissipation of Nanocomposite Laminates for Below Ballistic Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaganesan

    Full Text Available Abstract Composite laminates are made of glass woven roving mats of 610gsm, epoxy resin and nano clay which are subjected to projectile impact. Nano clay dispersion is varied from 1% to 5%. Impact tests are conducted in a gas gun setup with a spherical nose cylindrical projectile of diameter 9.5 mm of mass 7.6 g. The energy absorbed by the laminates when subjected to impact loading is studied, the velocity range is below ballistic limit. The effect of nano clay on energy absorption in vibration, delamination and matrix crack is studied for different weight % of nano clay and for different thickness values of the laminates. The natural frequencies and damping factors are obtained for the laminates during impact and the effect of nano clay is studied. The results show considerable improvement in energy absorption due to the presence of nano clay

  15. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  16. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  17. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, James D. S.; Walker, Nicholas J.; Ahjum, Fadiel; Juan Rodriguez, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing additional water

  18. Renewable energy systems - the environmental impact approach. Paper no. IGEC-1-008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, C.

    2005-01-01

    High energy consumption and the world population increase will lead to a shrinking use of fossil fuels. The combustion of Fossil fuel leads to the increase of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere which leads to the probable increase of global warming. Therefore, concerns about carbon dioxide emissions may discourage widespread dependence on fossil fuels and encourage the development and use of renewable energy systems employing a variety of technologies Renewable energy systems have themselves an environmental impact. Land use and material employed are two areas that may have an adverse impact to the positive environmental picture of the renewable energy systems. The objective of this paper is to analyze these impacts with the use of a very powerful tool, the Life Cycle Assessment. (author)

  19. Energy efficiency in U.S. residential rental housing: Adoption rates and impact on rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jongho; Seo, Youngme; Cetin, Kristen S.; Singh, Jasmeet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Rental units listings collected and analyzed for 10 U.S. cities. •Energy efficient features included in 5.3–21.6% of rental units in each city. •The most common efficient features are lighting and appliance upgrades. •Propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods used. •Generally, energy efficient features increases the units’ rent, overall from 6% to 14%. -- Abstract: For 118 million residential housing units in the U.S., there is currently a gap between the potential energy savings that can be achieved through the use of existing energy efficiency technologies, and the actual level of energy savings realized, particularly for the 37% of housing units that are considered residential rental properties. Additional quantifiable benefits are needed beyond energy savings to help further motivate residential property owners to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. This research focuses on assessing the adoption of energy efficient upgrades in U.S. residential housing and the impact on rental prices. Ten U.S. cities are chosen for analysis; these cities vary in size across multiple climate zones, and represent a diverse set of housing market conditions. Data was collected for over 159,000 rental property listings, their characteristics, and their energy efficiency measures listed in rental housing postings across each city. Following an extensive data quality control process, over thirty different types energy efficient features were identified. The level of adoption was determined for each city, ranging from 5.3% to 21.6%. Efficient lighting and appliances were among the most common, with many features doubling as energy efficient and other desirable aesthetic or comfort improvements. Then using propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods, the relative impact on rent charged in each city was calculated, which ranged from a 6% to 14.1% increase in rent for properties with energy efficient features

  20. Impact of dual energy characterization of urinary calculus on management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, David; Xia, Ryan; Ridley, William; Chan, Lewis; Ridley, Lloyd

    2016-10-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to differentiate between calcium and uric acid urinary tract calculi. The aim of this study is to determine if urinary calculi composition analysis determined by DECT scanning results in a change of patient management. All patients presenting with symptoms of renal colic, who had not previously undergone DECT scanning underwent DECT KUB. DECT data of all patients between September 2013 and July 2015 were reviewed. Urinary calculi composition based on dual energy characterization was cross-matched with patient management and outcome. A total of 585 DECT KUB were performed. 393/585 (67%) DECT scans revealed urinary tract calculi. After excluding those with isolated bladder or small asymptomatic renal stones, 303 patients were found to have symptomatic stone(s) as an explanation for their presentation. Of these 303 patients, there were 273 (90.1%) calcium calculi, 19 (6.3%) uric acid calculi and 11 (3.4%) mixed calculi. Of those with uric acid calculi, 15 were commenced on dissolution therapy. Twelve of those commenced on dissolution therapy had a successful outcome, avoiding need for surgical intervention (lithotripsy or stone retrieval). Three patients failed dissolution therapy and required operative intervention for definitive management of the stone. Predicting urinary tract calculi composition by DECT plays an important role in identifying patients who may be managed with dissolution therapy. Identification of uric acid stone composition altered management in 15 of 303 (5.0%) patients, and was successful in 12, thereby avoiding surgery and its attendant risks. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  1. The economic impact of energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulić, Davor; Bakarić, Ivana Rašić; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimunate the impact of energy saving investment in residential and public buildings in Croatia for the period 2015–2020. The aim is to assess the overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures defined in Croatian strategic documents in terms of the direct, indirect and induced growth of gross value added, employment and government revenues. An estimate of the avoided costs of air pollution is also included. The overall economic impact assessment is based on an input-output methodology. From the point of view of individual investors, the benefits in terms of reduced future expenses related to energy products are usually below energy efficient renovation investment costs, making an investment financially viable only if government support is provided. If the benefits for society as a whole are included, energy efficient renovation could be assessed as viable even in the short-run. Energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings positively contribute to economic growth, employment and protection of the environment. Because of economic growth, the tax revenues induced by these investments could compensate for government expenditures, and the overall impact on the public deficit is expected to be neutral even in the short-run. - Highlights: •Estimate of the overall socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures on national economy. •Energy efficient renovation if not subsidised is not financially viable from the owner perspective. •Total social benefits are higher than social costs due to positive externalities. •Impact of subsidies on public deficit is neutral even in the short run.

  2. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krarti, Moncef, E-mail: moncef.krarti@colorado.ed [CEAE Department, CB 428, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hajiah, Ali [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: {yields} A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. {yields} The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. {yields} It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. {yields} Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  3. Analysis of impact of daylight time savings on energy use of buildings in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarti, Moncef; Hajiah, Ali

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. The simulation results indicate that the adoption of DST has mixed impacts for Kuwait. While the commercial and the governmental sectors may benefit from the DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. The overall impact of the DST implementation is rather minimal with a slight increase energy use of about 0.07% and a slight reduction in peak demand of 0.14% or about 12 MW based on 2005 electrical peak demand for Kuwait. - Research highlights: → A detailed simulation-based analysis is conducted to assess the impact of adopting Daylight Saving Time (DST) on the electrical energy use and peak demand in Kuwait. → The analysis focused on the impact of DST in the building sector since it represents 90% of electrical energy usage of Kuwait. → It is found that while the commercial and the governmental building sectors may benefit from DST, the private residences and apartment buildings can see both their annual energy use and peak demand increase slightly by adopting DST. → Since the residential sector represents the majority of the electrical load in Kuwait, DST adoption was found to cause slight increase in annual electrical energy use by about 0.07% and a slight reduction in electrical peak electrical demand by about 0.14%.

  4. Societal and environmental impact of high energy return on investment (EROI) energy access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-01-01

    The Icelandic society is conveniently located where the Eurasian and North-American tectonic plates meet. This allows for relatively easy and cheap access to geothermal energy. Icelanders have benefited from this since settlement, first through direct use of the warm water but later on by co......-producing electricity. The nation also benefits from large glacial rivers, offering potential for energy harvesting. This chapter demonstrates the environmental benefits from utilising renewable energy, using Iceland as a case study. This is demonstrated by exploring the energy return on investment (EROI......) for the Nesjavellir geothermal and Fljotsdalsstod hydro power plant and the CO2 mitigation provided by the resources as the Icelandic society no longer needs to rely on fossil fuels for electricity and heating. This chapter demonstrates systematically how societies may benefit ecologically but also energetically from...

  5. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined

  6. The comparative study on the environmental impact for various energy generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. T.; Ha, J. J.; Jung, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    The concern about environmental problem due to electricity generation is increasing. And the current debate about the environmental and socioeconomic effects of energy use is now turning towards the internalization of externalities imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted by the producers and consumers of energy. The result of internalization of externalities are to be used in the decision making of selecting available options. Therefore, the environmental impact analysis for various energy generating systems were made by using Life Cycle Assessment(LCA). According to the results, the environmental burden due to nuclear power generating systems is low comparing with other energy generating systems due to low usage of resources. The results will be used in the comparative study on the environmental impacts for various energy generating systems

  7. Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)

  8. Biomass energy and the environmental impacts associated with its production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass is the first-ever fuel used by humankind and is also the fuel which was the mainstay of the global fuel economy till the middle of the 18th century. Then fossil fuels took over because fossil fuels were not only more abundant and denser in their energy content, but also generated less pollution when burnt, in comparison to biomass. In recent years there is a resurgence of interest in biomass energy because biomass is perceived as a carbon-neutral source of energy unlike net carbon-emitting fossil fuels of which copious use has led to global warming and ocean acidification. The paper takes stock of the various sources of biomass and the possible ways in which it can be utilized for generating energy. It then examines the environmental impacts, including impact vis a vis greenhouse gas emissions, of different biomass energy generation-utilization options. (author)

  9. Environmental impacts of the French wind energy sector. Data for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a study which aimed at determining environmental impacts of wind energy production while taking the specificities of the French existing onshore fleet and planned offshore fleet into account. It also aimed at quantifying and qualifying by means of indicators the status of primary resources used for the production of electricity from wind energy, and the pressure on these resources. Thus, the study includes the whole life cycle: fabrication of system components, installation, use, maintenance, dismantling and end-of-life processing. Impacts comprise acidification, CO 2 emissions, and land use. Indicators relate to water consumption, non renewable energy demand, and wastes. Results are thus presented based on this life cycle analysis for onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy. As far as resources are concerned, several methods are considered: recyclability, composite, and CML. Considered resources are mineral ones (aluminium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, iron, neodymium, sands and granulates). Obtained results are briefly commented and interpreted

  10. A Super Energy Mitigation Nanostructure at High Impact Speed Based on Buckyball System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Yibing; Xiang, Yong; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The energy mitigation properties of buckyballs are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A one dimensional buckyball long chain is employed as a unit cell of granular fullerene particles. Two types of buckyballs i.e. C60 and C720 with recoverable and non-recoverable behaviors are chosen respectively. For C60 whose deformation is relatively small, a dissipative contact model is proposed. Over 90% of the total impact energy is proven to be mitigated through interfacial reflection of wave propagation, the van der Waals interaction, covalent potential energy and atomistic kinetic energy evidenced by the decent force attenuation and elongation of transmitted impact. Further, the C720 system is found to outperform its C60 counterpart and is able to mitigate over 99% of the total kinetic energy by using a much shorter chain thanks to its non-recoverable deformation which enhances the four energy dissipation terms. Systematic studies are carried out to elucidate the effects of impactor speed and mass, as well as buckyball size and number on the system energy mitigation performance. This one dimensional buckyball system is especially helpful to deal with the impactor of high impact speed but small mass. The results may shed some lights on the research of high-efficiency energy mitigation material selections and structure designs. PMID:23724082

  11. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Adam

    2014-12-01

    The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  12. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  13. To cool a sweltering earth: Does energy efficiency improvement offset the climate impacts of lifestyle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adua, Lazarus, E-mail: adua.1@buckeyemail.osu.ed [Rural Sociology Graduate Program, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University, Columbus (United States)

    2010-10-15

    As technical efficiency improvement in energy use remains a touchstone measure to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is substantial concern about whether this approach can offset the large and expanding impacts of human actions. Critics contend that without adjustments to the prevailing consumptive lifestyle, energy efficiency improvement will generate only token reductions in GHG emissions. I address this concern by examining the extent to which technical efficiency improvement in energy use offsets the impacts of housing-related lifestyle on GHG emissions. I build from two perspectives, the physical-technical-economic models that consider energy efficiency improvement as a potent strategy to curb residential energy consumption, and the lifestyle and social-behavioral approach, which questions this view. The analyses reveal consistent positive relationship between lifestyle and energy consumption. The results also indicate that energy efficiency improvement has mixed effects on energy consumption. In fact, model-based figures show that technical efficiency improvement in energy use leads to slightly higher energy consumption if it is not accompanied by adjustments to lifestyle.

  14. To cool a sweltering earth. Does energy efficiency improvement offset the climate impacts of lifestyle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adua, Lazarus [Rural Sociology Graduate Program, School of Environment and Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, Columbus (United States)

    2010-10-15

    As technical efficiency improvement in energy use remains a touchstone measure to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is substantial concern about whether this approach can offset the large and expanding impacts of human actions. Critics contend that without adjustments to the prevailing consumptive lifestyle, energy efficiency improvement will generate only token reductions in GHG emissions. I address this concern by examining the extent to which technical efficiency improvement in energy use offsets the impacts of housing-related lifestyle on GHG emissions. I build from two perspectives, the physical-technical-economic models that consider energy efficiency improvement as a potent strategy to curb residential energy consumption, and the lifestyle and social-behavioral approach, which questions this view. The analyses reveal consistent positive relationship between lifestyle and energy consumption. The results also indicate that energy efficiency improvement has mixed effects on energy consumption. In fact, model-based figures show that technical efficiency improvement in energy use leads to slightly higher energy consumption if it is not accompanied by adjustments to lifestyle. (author)

  15. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  16. The Impact of Greening Tax Systems on Sustainable Energy Development in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the greening of tax systems in the European Union (EU, and reviews the achievements of the Baltic States in relation to greening their tax systems and implementing the sustainable energy development goals set by the EU’s energy policies. Environmental taxes promote sustainable energy development, as they allow internalizing the external costs of atmospheric pollution in the energy sector. Energy production and consumption are a major source classical pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Almost of the all EU member states (MS apply pollution taxes as the most important economic tool for mitigating the environmental impacts of various economic activities. Considering the importance of the energy sector in terms of its contributions to total atmospheric emissions in the EU, it is supposed that environmental taxes are important drivers of sustainable energy development. Environmental taxes, as the main tool for the integration of negative externalities that are related to atmospheric pollution, are imposed to create incentives for reducing fossil fuel consumption and switching to renewable energy sources or fuels that have a lower carbon content and thus cause less pollution. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the impact of environmental taxes on sustainable energy development indicators in three selected countries from the Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia during the period 2005–2015, and reveals the role that the greening of tax systems has had on implementing sustainable energy development targets in the Baltic States.

  17. Effect of impact energy on damage resistance and mechanical property of C/SiC composites under low velocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Hui, E-mail: phdhuimei@yahoo.com; Yu, Changkui; Xu, Yawei; Han, Daoyang; Cheng, Laifei

    2017-02-27

    The present study investigated the damage resistance of two dimensional carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiCs) composites subjected to low velocity impact (LVI). Damage microstructures of specimens under different impact energies (E{sub i}) were characterized by infrared thermography, X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The real damage radii of specimens were found to change slightly with E{sub i}, whereas apparent damage radii where much larger. Overall, the fabricated 2D C/SiC composites exhibited good damage resistance to LVI with nominal post-impact tensile strengths remaining at 89.4%, 83.35%, 76.97%, and 74.84% of their pre-impacted counterpart of 158 MPa, for impact energies of 3, 4, 5, and 6 J, respectively. Compared with the as-received one, after LVI real tensile strengths of the C/SiC composite specimens increased by 5.84% for the E{sub i} of 3 J, 9.27% for 4 J, −1.83% for 5 J, −3.16% for 6 J.

  18. Road transportation impact on Ghana's future energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faah, George

    2008-11-07

    This research work explored the environmental and socio-economic benefits derived, if some proportion of daily passenger trips made using private cars in Ghana could be shifted to the use of public transport. The research applied the computer software COPERT III in estimating road transport Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption in Ghana for the base year 2005 and forecast years 2010 and 2020. The research reveals that if no major change occur in policies or economic determinants in meeting road transport and energy in Ghana, then the 2005 total emissions value is expected to rise by 36% in 2010 and over double in 2020 i.e. from 4.6 to 6.25 in 2010 and to 9.77 Mt CO{sub 2}e in 2020. However, if just 10% of daily passenger trips using private cars can be shifted towards the use of public transport, then the end results in reduction in emissions could earn Ghana about USD 6.6million/year under the Kyoto Protocol CDM initiative. The research also demonstrated that with a further 10% daily passenger trip shift, the outcome could be more promising, increasing to USD 13million/year. (orig.)

  19. Energy Market Impacts of Nuclear Power Phase-Out Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  20. Multifunction devices and their impacts on energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorosano, D.

    1995-12-01

    Integrated multifunctional office equipment will have ramifications for energy efficiency and use. Specifically discussed here is Canon`s Digital Imaging System, also known as the GP55 Series, currently under development. Integrated office equipment combines the capabilities of single-function, stand-alone devices, increasing efficiency by eliminating steps in the production and distribution of documents. Canon and other vendors are now introducing these products into the office equipment industry in response to four trends: (1) Implementation of local area networks (LANs). It`s estimated that by 1997, 73% of all personal computers (PCs) in offices will be networked in some way. Vendors are looking to tie their office equipment into that network connection and shared-resource capability. (2) Adoption of the {open_quotes}More with less{close_quotes} attitude by most companies is forcing new approaches to the way in which they increase efficiency. (3) Continuing workgroup requirements for both electronic and hard copy input/output capabilities. (4) Persistence of the {open_quotes}Sneaker{close_quotes} network. Research commissioned by Canon has shown that in spite of LAN penetration, this {open_quotes}Sneakernet{close_quotes} is still significant, meaning that users must still leave their desks an average of 11 times a day to make copies, send faxes, etc. The idea behind integrated technology is to eliminate those steps in the document processing procedure.

  1. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  2. Use of nuclear energy and its environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Z, E.

    1984-01-01

    The development and use of nuclear energy involve the risk of potential release of radiactivity into man's environment. The food chain forms the main route of entry of many radionuclides of significance into man. They include fission products, particularly Sr-90, Sr-89, Cs-137 and I-131. The natural radionuclides, as Ra-226, are also considered. During the past decades great interest, in the radioactive contamination of the environment and foodstuffs, has been originated by the world-wide dissemination of radioactivity from the atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. This interest has led to wide spread surveys by many countries, to evaluate the levels of various radionuclides with sanitary importance for man's health. The Radiological Surveillance Program in Chile began in 1966, because of the Atmospheric Nuclear Test Program in Muroroa, initiated by France in the same year. At the present time, many countries has also developed efficient means of ensuring the safe operation of nuclear facilities, to protect and prevent both, the workers and the public, against undue exposure to radiation. Since, the number of nuclear installation for peaceful, medical and industrial purposes is increasing, it is essential to know the significance that those intallations mean to environment and to man's health. (Author)

  3. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mory, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

  4. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Sarah K; Novotny, Janet A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Baer, David J

    2016-10-12

    The measured metabolizable energy (ME) of whole almonds has been shown to be less than predicted by Atwater factors. However, data are lacking on the effects of processing (roasting, chopping or grinding) on the ME of almonds. A 5-period randomized, crossover study in healthy individuals (n = 18) was conducted to measure the ME of different forms of almonds (42 g per day), as part of a controlled diet: whole, natural almonds; whole, roasted almonds; chopped almonds; almond butter; and control (0 g per day). After 9 days of adaptation to each diet, participants collected all urine and fecal samples for 9 days. Diets, urine, and feces were analyzed to determine ME. Fracture force and fracture properties of whole and chopped almonds were measured. Measured ME (kcal g -1 ) of whole natural almonds (4.42), whole roasted almonds (4.86), and chopped almonds (5.04) was significantly lower than predicted with Atwater factors (P almond butter (6.53 kcal g -1 ) was similar to predicted (P = 0.08). The ME of whole roasted and chopped almonds was lower than almond butter (P almonds was lower than whole roasted almonds (P almonds (345 ± 1.6 N) (P almonds fracturing into fewer, larger particles, thus inhibiting the release of lipids. Atwater factors overestimate the ME of whole (natural and roasted) and chopped almonds. The amount of calories absorbed from almonds is dependent on the form in which they are consumed.

  5. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  6. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  7. Engineering estimates versus impact evaluation of energy efficiency projects: Regression discontinuity evidence from a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Corey; Siler, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades have been gaining widespread attention across global channels as a cost-effective approach to addressing energy challenges. The cost-effectiveness of these projects is generally predicted using engineering estimates pre-implementation, often with little ex post analysis of project success. In this paper, for a suite of energy efficiency projects, we directly compare ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings to ex post econometric estimates that use 15-min interval, building-level energy consumption data. In contrast to most prior literature, our econometric results confirm the engineering estimates, even suggesting the engineering estimates were too modest. Further, we find heterogeneous efficiency impacts by time of day, suggesting select efficiency projects can be useful in reducing peak load. - Highlights: • Regression discontinuity used to estimate energy savings from efficiency projects. • Ex post econometric estimates validate ex ante engineering estimates of energy savings. • Select efficiency projects shown to reduce peak load

  8. Power sector reforms in Brazil and its impacts on energy efficiency and research and development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, G.M. de

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties Brazil has implemented significant changes in the country's power sector, including privatization, introduction of competition and the creation of regulatory agency. As reform started in Brazil traditional support to energy efficiency and energy research and development suffered a discontinuation, budget cuts and re-definition of roles of the public agents in charge. At the same time, new regulatory measures and the creation of a national public interest fund have helped to maintain and potentially enhance the country's effort to promote energy efficiency and investments in energy R and D. This paper analyses the impacts of these changes in the areas of energy efficiency and energy research and development and argues for an increased role of developing countries to provide solutions for a meeting energy demand requirements more suitable to their internal markets

  9. An Overview on Impact Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Collapsible Metallic and Non-Metallic Energy Absorbers used in Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, R. B.; Mali, K. D.

    2018-04-01

    Collapsible impact energy absorbers play an important role of protecting automotive components from damage during collision. Collision of the two objects results into the damage to one or both of them. Damage may be in the form of crack, fracture and scratch. Designers must know about how the material and object behave under impact event. Owing to above reasons different types of collapsible impact energy absorbers are developed. In the past different studies were undertaken to improve such collapsible impact energy absorbers. This article highlights such studies on common shapes of collapsible impact energy absorber and their impact behaviour under the axial compression. The literature based on studies and analyses of effects of different geometrical parameters on the crushing behaviour of impact energy absorbers is presented in detail. The energy absorber can be of different shape such as circular tube, square tube, and frustums of cone and pyramids. The crushing behaviour of energy absorbers includes studies on crushing mechanics, modes of deformation, energy absorbing capacity, effect on peak and mean crushing load. In this work efforts are made to cover major outcomes from past studies on such behavioural parameters. Even though the major literature reviewed is related to metallic energy absorbers, emphasis is also laid on covering literature on use of composite tube, fiber metal lamination (FML) member, honeycomb plate and functionally graded thickness (FGT) tube as a collapsible impact energy absorber.

  10. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: the impact of energy branding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, P.; Ibanez, V.A. [University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales

    2007-04-15

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed. [Author].

  11. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: the impact of energy branding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, P.; Ibanez, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed. [Author

  12. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: The impact of energy branding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza Ibanez, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed

  13. Impact Vibration Attenuation for a Flexible Robotic Manipulator through Transfer and Dissipation of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of system flexibility, impact can excite severe large amplitude vibration responses of the flexible robotic manipulator. This impact vibration exhibits characteristics of remarkable nonlinearity and strong energy. The main goal of this study is to put forward an energy-based control method to absorb and attenuate large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible robotic manipulator. The method takes advantage of internal resonance and is implemented through a vibration absorber based on the transfer and dissipation of energy. The addition of the vibration absorber to the flexible arm generates a coupling effect between vibration modes of the system. By means of analysis on 2:1 internal resonance, the exchange of energy is proven to be existent. The impact vibrational energy can be transferred from the arm to the absorber and dissipated through the damping of the absorber. The results of numerical simulations are promising and preliminarily verify that the method is feasible and can be used to combat large amplitude impact vibration of the flexible manipulator undergoing rigid motion.

  14. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, W. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Mendelsohn, R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies

    1998-09-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.

  15. The impact on climate and environment change – renewable energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GURGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people have an idea of what renewable energy sources are and what they can offer us. The majority of people are also very aware of the impact that non-renewable energy is having on the environment. The adage reduce, reuse, recycle is commonly recited today by adults and children alike. We have started to see an increase in the reduction of waste and consumption of energy and the recycling and reuse of products we use. It is time to see an increase, however, in the use of renewable energy.

  16. Energy generation x environmental impact; Geracao de energia x impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-07-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state.

  17. The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion

  18. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  19. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldu, Yemane W.; Assefa, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  20. System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidberg, T.; Olofsson, T.; Trygg, L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures. - Highlights: • Choice of building refurbishment measures leads to differences in system impact. • Building refurbishment in district heating systems reduces co-produced electricity. • Valuing biomass as a limited resource is crucial when assessing global GHG impact. • Building envelope measures decrease GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions more than ventilation measures.

  1. Impact of renewable energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to conventional energies - Simplified examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses definition problem of the full energy chain greenhouse gas (FENCH-GHG) emission analysis. The importance of good definition of the problem is essential: for what purpose this analysis is done, what shall be included and what can be excluded from the analysis. This is done by giving simplified examples of FENCH-GHG emission analysis. The example is use of small solar heating systems in an oil heated single family house in Finland and another renewable energy source: liquid biofuel combustion. The paper gives rough data for those options. Paper concludes with this example, to recommendations how definition of FENCH-GHG analysis should be done for intermittent renewable energies. (author)

  2. The impacts of household retrofit and domestic energy efficiency schemes: A large scale, ex post evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, Phil; Gouldson, Andy; Kerr, Niall

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the ability of retrofit schemes to shape domestic energy use in order to tackle fuel poverty and reduce carbon emissions. Although much has been written on the topic, there have been few large-scale ex post evaluations of the actual impacts of such schemes. We address this by assessing domestic energy use before and after the Kirklees Warm Zone (KWZ) scheme, which by fitting insulation in 51,000 homes in the 2007–2010 period is one of the largest retrofit schemes completed in the UK to date. To do this, we develop and apply a new methodology that isolates the impacts of retrofit activity from broader background trends in energy use. The results suggest that the actual impacts of the KWZ scheme have been higher than predicted, and that the scale of any performance gaps or rebound effects have been lower than has often been assumed. They also suggest that impacts on energy use in lower income areas are consistent with predictions, but that impacts in middle and higher income areas are higher than predicted. These findings support the case for the wider and/or accelerated adoption of domestic retrofit schemes in other contexts. -- Highlights: •A large scale, ex post evaluation of the impacts of a household retrofit scheme. •A new methodology to separate retrofit impacts from background trends. •Shows impacts of retrofit have been 1.2–1.7 times higher than predicted. •Impacts as predicted in lower income areas, higher in middle and upper income areas. •Findings support the case for the wider and faster adoption of domestic retrofit

  3. Embodied energy and environmental impacts of a biomass boiler: a life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Longo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 policy framework for climate and energy, proposed by the European Commission, aims towards the reduction of European greenhouse gas emissions by 40% in comparison to the 1990 level and to increase the share of renewable energy of at least the 27% of the European's energy consumption of 2030. The use of biomass as sustainable and renewable energy source may be a viable tool for achieving the above goals. However, renewable energy technologies are not totally clean because they cause energy and environmental impacts during their life cycle, and in particular they are responsible of air pollutant emissions. In this context, the paper assesses the energy and environmental impacts of a 46 kW biomass boiler by applying the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, as regulated by the international standards of series ISO 14040, ISO 21930 and EN 15804. The following life-cycle steps are included in the analysis: raw materials and energy supply, manufacturing, installation, operation, transport, and end-of-life. The results of the analysis, showing a life-cycle primary energy consumption of about 2,622 GJ and emissions of about 21,664 kg CO2eq, can be used as a basis for assessing the real advantages due to the use of biomass boilers for heating and hot water production.

  4. Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, Willliam JN [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Changing the rate of airflow through a home affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to airflow rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the energy consumption of the residential energy sector. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models hampers the ability to estimate the impact of policy changes on a state or nationwide level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study was designed to combine the output of simple airflow models and a limited set of home characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modelers to use existing databases of home characteristics to determine the impact of policy on ventilation at a population scale. In this report, we describe the IVE model and demonstrate that its estimates of energy change are comparable to the estimates of a wellvalidated, complex residential energy model when applied to homes with limited parameterization. Homes with extensive parameterization would be more accurately characterized by complex residential energy models. The demonstration included a range of home types, climates, and ventilation systems that cover a large fraction of the residential housing sector.

  5. The Ability of American Football Helmets to Manage Linear Acceleration With Repeated High-Energy Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine

    2016-03-01

    Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.

  6. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2012. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2012, the standards saved an estimated 3.6 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $51.4 billion. The average household saved $347 in operating costs as a result of residential and plumbing product standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2012 was 198 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2070 amount to 179 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a past and projected cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,104 billion and $1,390 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.8 trillion gallons in 2012, and will achieve cumulative water savings by 2040 of 54 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2012 from reduced water use amounted to $13 billon.

  7. Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 Through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents estimates of the key impacts of Federal energy and water conservation standards adopted from 1987 through 2015. The standards for consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment include those set by legislation as well as standards adopted by DOE through rulemaking. In 2015, the standards saved an estimated 4.49 quads of primary energy, which is equivalent to 5% of total U.S. energy consumption. The savings in operating costs for households and businesses totaled $63.4 billion. The average household saved $320 in operating costs as a result of residential appliance standards. The estimated reduction in CO2 emissions associated with the standards in 2015 was 238 million metric tons, which is equivalent to 4.3% of total U.S. CO2 emissions. The estimated cumulative energy savings over the period 1990-2090 amount to 216.9 quads. Accounting for the increased upfront costs of more-efficient products and the operating cost (energy and water) savings over the products’ lifetime, the standards have a cumulative net present value (NPV) of consumer benefit of between $1,627 billion and $1,887 billion, using 7 percent and 3 percent discount rates, respectively. The water conservation standards, together with energy conservation standards that also save water, reduced water use by 1.9 trillion gallons in 2015 and estimated cumulative water savings by 2090 amount to 55 trillion gallons. The estimated consumer savings in 2015 from reduced water use amounted to $12 billon.

  8. Assessment of the impacts of the renewable energy and ICT driven energy transition on distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    The shift to more renewable electricity generation, electrification of heating and transportation and the rise of ICT and energy storage lead to changes in the distribution of electricity. To facilitate the transition towards a clean sustainable power system distribution network operators are

  9. NREL Research and Thoughts on Connected and Automated Vehicle Energy Impacts; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric; Lammert, Michael

    2014-12-09

    Jeff was invited to brief the EPA Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee on considerations regarding potential energy and environmental considerations for connected and automated vehicles. For more information about the MSTRS see http://www2.epa.gov/caaac/mobile-sources-technical-review-subcommittee-mstrs-caaac.

  10. Low-energy impact of adaptive cylindrical piezoelectric-composite shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanos, D.A. [University of Patras (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics; Christoforou, A.P. [Kuwait Univ. (Kuwait). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-04-01

    A theoretical framework for analyzing low-energy impacts of laminated shells with active and sensory piezoelectric layers is presented, including impactor dynamics and contact law. The formulation encompasses a coupled piezoelectric shell theory mixing first order shear displacement assumptions and layerwise variation of electric potential. An exact in-plane Ritz solution for the impact of open cylindrical piezoelectric-composite shells is developed and solved numerically using an explicit time integration scheme. The active impact control problem of adaptive cylindrical shells with distributed curved piezoelectric actuators is addressed. The cases of optimized state feedback controllers and output feedback controllers using piezoelectric sensors are analyzed. Numerical results quantify the impact response of cylindrical shells of various curvatures including the signal of curved piezoelectric sensors. Additional numerical studies quantify the impact response of adaptive cylindrical panels and investigate the feasibility of actively reducing the impact force. (author)

  11. The impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth in the MENA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chor Foon; Abosedra, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Using panel data of 24 countries in the Middle East and North African (MENA) region from 2001 to 2009, the purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of tourism, energy consumption and political instability on economic growth within the neoclassical growth framework. To address the objective of this study, we utilise both the static panel data approach as well as the dynamic generalised method of moments (GMM) estimator to examine the impact of candidate variables. Our results show that energy consumption and tourism significantly contribute to the economic growth of countries in the MENA region. Hence, our study lends some support to the existence of the tourism-led growth and energy-led growth hypotheses in the region. In line with our expectation, our estimation results also reveal that political instability impedes the process of economic growth and development in the MENA region. Therefore, macroeconomic policies to promote expansion in tourism and energy consumption will directly stimulate economic growth. Additionally, efforts to help the region overcome its history of political instability would attract more international tourist arrivals and further invigorate economic growth. - Highlights: • Tourism and energy consumption have positive impacts on GDP growth. • GDP reacts negatively to political instability. • Energy-led growth and tourism-led growth hypotheses are validated in MENA countries. • Supporting tourism, energy use and political stability will enhance economic growth

  12. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Erni, David; Pietsch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. Furthermore, the fundamental drivers of prices differ among hours with different load profiles. Our results imply that renewable energies decrease market spot prices and have implications on the traditional fuel mix for electricity production. However, the prices for the final consumers increased overall because they must pay in addition the feed-in tariffs for the promotion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of renewable energies on the day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. • We discuss the impact of renewables on day-ahead prices. • We show a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. • Renewable energies decrease market spot prices and shift the merit order curve. • The prices for the final consumers however increased because of feed-in tariffs

  13. Wind energy technology: an option for a renewable clean environment energy. Low impact renewable energy: options for a clean environment and healthy Canadian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.

    1999-01-01

    As Canada debates ways to address climate change, the country's low-impact renewable energy industries want to ensure that Canadians are provided with all of the options available to them. Accordingly, they have come together to create Options for a Clean Environment and Healthy Canadian Economy. Recognizing there is no 'silver bullet' solution to climate change, this document identifies an important suite of measures that, along with others, will allow Canada to achieve its long-term economic and environmental goals. The measures described in this document represent an investment in Canada's future. If implemented, they will reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by more than 12 million tonnes (Mt) by the year 2010 (roughly 8% of Canada's reduction target), create thousands of new jobs, and reduce health-care costs by millions of dollars each year. The most significant dividends from these measures, however, will occur after 2010 as a result of having set in motion fundamental changes in the attitudes of Canadians and the nature of the Canadian energy market. By 2020, the spin-off actions prompted by these measures will likely have resulted in GHG reductions twice as great as those achieved in 2010. This document highlights the opportunities associated specifically with Canada's low-impact renewable energy resources. These are non-fossil-fuel resources that are replenished through the earth's natural cycles and have a minimal impact on the environment and human health. They include wind, solar, earth energy, run-of-river hydro and sustainable biomass fuels. These resources can replace fossil fuels in a variety of areas, including electricity and space and water heating. Fuel cells, although not a renewable resource in themselves, are a promising technology that in combination with renewables have the potential to deliver versatile low-impact electricity. The document also identifies opportunities associated with the increased use of passive renewable energy

  14. Energy demand and energy-related CO2 emissions in Greek manufacturing. Assessing the impact of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floros, Nikolaos; Vlachou, Andriana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the demand for energy in two-digit manufacturing sectors of Greece and to evaluate the impact of a carbon tax on energy-related CO 2 emissions. The theoretical model utilized in the analysis is the two-stage translog cost function. The model is estimated using time series data over the period 1982-1998. The results indicate substitutability between electricity and liquid fuels (diesel and mazout), and substitutability between capital, energy and labor. A carbon tax of $50 per tonne of carbon results in a considerable reduction in direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from their 1998 level. This implies that a carbon tax on Greek manufacturing is an environmentally effective policy for mitigating global warming, although a costly one

  15. Autonomous Vehicles Have a Wide Range of Possible Energy Impacts (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Repac, B.; Gonder, J.

    2013-07-01

    This poster presents initial estimates of the net energy impacts of automated vehicles (AVs). Automated vehicle technologies are increasingly recognized as having potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and petroleum consumption through mechanisms such as improved efficiency, better routing, lower traffic congestion, and by enabling advanced technologies. However, some effects of AVs could conceivably increase fuel consumption through possible effects such as longer distances traveled, increased use of transportation by underserved groups, and increased travel speeds. The net effect on petroleum use and climate change is still uncertain. To make an aggregate system estimate, we first collect best estimates for the energy impacts of approximately ten effects of AVs. We then use a modified Kaya Identity approach to estimate the range of aggregate effects and avoid double counting. We find that depending on numerous factors, there is a wide range of potential energy impacts. Adoption of automated personal or shared vehicles can lead to significant fuel savings but has potential for backfire.

  16. Relationship between the Bond dissociation energies and impact sensitivities of some nitro-explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiao-Shu [School of Physics and Chemistry, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Cheng, Xin-Lu; Yang, Xiang-Dong [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); He, Bi [Institute of Chemical Materials, CAEP, Mianyang (China)

    2006-08-15

    The bond dissociation energy (BDE) for removal of the NO{sub 2} group for eleven CHNO nitro-containing explosive molecules is studied to find its correlation with impact sensitivity. The BDE for removal of the NO{sub 2} group in nitroaromatic molecules with nitro alkyl, and esters with nitro alkyl, is calculated using the B3LYP method of Density Functional Theory with the 6-31G* basis set. The relationship between the impact sensitivities and the weakest C-NO{sub 2} bond dissociation energy values is examined. The results indicate a nearly linear correlation between the impact sensitivity and the ratio of the BDE value to the total molecular energy. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Environmental impacts - the essential element of a rational energy policy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Conzelmann, G.; Molina, P.; Popescu, A.; Popovici, D.; Vladescu, A.; Valcereanu, G.; Breazu, F.; Popescu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental impacts of the electricity and heat generation systems of Romania have been evaluated, based on a scenario of socio-economic and technological development for the country that meant to represent average trends between minimum and maximum possibilities. The study was performed in co-operation between the Institute of Power Studies and Design and the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with Argonne National Laboratory, US. The analyses were carried out using the IMPACTS module of the ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) computer package, developed by ANL. The IMPACTS methodology is discussed. Also, the major hypothesis used, together with the preliminary results of the study are presented in the paper. Some reflections about the influence of environmental considerations for decision making on energy policies for Romania are highlighted in the paper. (Author)

  18. Quantitative Analysis on the Energy and Environmental Impact of the Korean National Energy R&D Roadmap a Using Bottom-Up Energy System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Paris Agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties, 196 member states are obliged to submit their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC for every 5 years. As a member, South Korea has already proposed the reduction target and need to submit the achievement as a result of the policies and endeavors in the near future. In this paper, a Korean bottom-up energy system model to support the low-carbon national energy R&D roadmap will be introduced and through the modeling of various scenarios, the mid-to long-term impact on energy consumptions and CO2 emissions will be analyzed as well. The results of the analysis showed that, assuming R&D investments for the 11 types of technologies, savings of 13.7% with regards to final energy consumptions compared to the baseline scenario would be feasible by 2050. Furthermore, in the field of power generation, the generation proportion of new and renewable energy is expected to increase from 3.0% as of 2011 to 19.4% by 2050. This research also suggested that the analysis on the Energy Technology R&D Roadmap based on the model can be used not only for overall impact analysis and R&D portfolio establishment, but also for the development of detailed R&D strategies.

  19. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Jennifer C.; Simmons, Eunice A.; Convery, Ian; Weatherall, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    There is much current interest in the potential of community-based renewable energy projects to contribute to transition towards low carbon energy systems. As well as displacing fossil fuel consumption by increasing renewable energy generation, projects are expected to have a range of social impacts which may result in additional positive sustainability outcomes. These include potential to increase: acceptance of renewable energy developments; awareness of renewable and sustainable energy technologies and issues; uptake of low carbon technologies; and sustainable/pro-environmental behaviours. To date however, there has been little investigation of whether and how these impacts occur. This paper presents results from qualitative research investigating the social impacts of a community woodfuel project as experienced by project participants and other local stakeholders. Findings show projects can raise awareness of renewable energy technologies and increase uptake of renewables. Overall the case study project successfully changed the local social context for development of woodfuel heating, reducing risk for all involved in the future development of this sector, particularly in the immediate locality. There was some evidence of increased engagement with wider sustainability issues but this was limited to direct participants, suggesting local projects need to be supported by wider systemic change to maximise impacts. - Highlights: ► We assessed the social impacts of a community woodfuel project. ► The project increased awareness and uptake of woodfuel heating. ► Impacts were achieved as a result of the locally-specific approach. ► Local projects can seed cultural change promoting transition to a low carbon society.

  20. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions

  1. Socioeconomic impacts: study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, R.; Taylor, J.; Burnett, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the impacts on socioeconomic conditions in the surrounding communities and possible ways of financing and mitigating these impacts were examined. The general conclusion reached is that the socioeconomic impacts of a nuclear energy center in the Green River area of Southeastern Utah would not impose an absolute bar to NEC development. The economy of the NEC impact area would be substantially transformed by the NEC. In particular, Green River city itself would change from its current status as a relatively stable rural economy with an agricultural, mining, and recreation base to a major city with over 20,000 permanent relatively high income residents. The NEC, by itself, would provide a tax base more than adequate to finance required expansion of public facilities and public human service provisions.

  2. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  3. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity......Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This article takes its point of departure in an all...

  4. Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, James P.; Pindzola, M.S.; Robicheaux, F.

    2008-01-01

    Energy and angle differential cross sections for the electron-impact double ionization of helium are calculated using a non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling method. Collision probabilities are found by projection of a time evolved nine dimensional coordinate space wave function onto fully antisymmetric products of spatial and spin functions representing three outgoing Coulomb waves. At an incident energy of 106 eV, we present double energy differential cross sections and pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections. The pentuple energy and angle differential cross sections are found to be in relative agreement with the shapes observed in recent (e,3e) reaction microscope experiments. Integration of the differential cross sections over all energies and angles yields a total ionization cross section that is also in reasonable agreement with absolute crossed-beams experiments.

  5. The ITER program and its impact on China's nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yuan; Zhuang Ge; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhijiang; Ding Yonghua; Yu Kexun

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasingly intensive impact of population growth and economy development,energy shortage is becoming more and more severe, so countries around the world are searching for substitutes for the fossil energy resources of coal,oil and gas. Nuclear fusion energy, characterized by its cleanness, high efficiency and inexhaustibility, is considered to be one of the most possible ways to solve the energy problem. This paper outlines the importance of the development of fusion energy and reviews the history of magnetic confinement fusion research, with a brief introduction to the progress of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor program and related research in China as well. The prospect of this strategy for China's nuclear energy development is given at the end. (authors)

  6. 77 FR 46768 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Moapa Solar Energy Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Impact Statement for the Moapa Solar Energy Center on the Moapa River Indian Reservation, Clark County NV... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that evaluates a solar energy generation center on the Moapa River Indian... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Proposed Action consists of constructing and operating a solar generation energy...

  7. Bill project on energy transition for a green growth - Nr 2188. Impact study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene

    2014-01-01

    This document first proposes a statement by the Minister on Ecology on the motivations of the French bill project on energy transition which notably addresses the development of new energies, expresses a strong political commitment on energy, addresses the big issue of energy saving (with objectives of job creation and price reduction in the building sector), promotes a development of renewable energies based on local resources, aims at the emergence of citizen participation in energy choices and issues. The content of the bill project is then commented. The main addressed issues are: to define common objectives for a successful energy transition, an energy independence and for the struggle against climate change, a better renovation of buildings to save energy, to reduce prices and to create jobs, to develop clean transports to improve air quality and to protect health, to struggle against energy wastes and to promote circular economy, to promote renewable energies, to strengthen nuclear safety and citizen information, to simplify and clarify procedures, to enable citizens, local communities and the State to act together. The document then proposes the text of the bill project. A second part is a report of an impact study of these different issues and objectives addressed in the bill project

  8. Impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoqing; Liu, Bowei; Niu, Honghong; Liu, Jianfeng; Yao, Shu

    2018-01-15

    This paper argues computable general equilibrium model and assess impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality in Tianjin. In order to investigate different energy taxation based on medical cost and labor loss, the computable general equilibrium model integrating with input-output table and social accounting matrix (SAM) was constructed. The medical expense caused by air pollution of Tianjin in 2007 is 396 million yuan and death for 18104 people, which accounted for the total GDP and population 0.754‰ and 1.6‰, respectively. The results show that the enery taxes levy can improve the GDP, but it is only slightly. The energy taxes have adverse impact on energy sector because that the energy cost is increased. The scale of production is reduced, and the capital and labor resources are transferred to low energy consumption low emissions sector. The energy tax levy can reduce air pollutants concentration and improve air environmental quality. The PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 concentration in the energy taxes 5%-30% was reduced by 0.24%-0.24%, 0.09-0.52% and 0.29%-0.52% respectively. The medical expense has little impact on GDP, but labor loss has a certain effect on GDP. For higher energy taxes rate, the health effects on GDP can reach 0.06%-0.16%. This simultaneous economic and environmental improvement and health effect would thus have positive implications regarding energy taxes of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurements of vibrational excitation of N2, CO, and NO by low energy proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutein, J.; Linder, F.

    1979-01-01

    Differential scattering experiments are reported for proton impact on N 2 , CO, and NO in the energy range E/sub lab/=30--80 eV. The measurements include the range of very small scattering angles around 0 0 as well as the rainbow region. The vibrationally resolved energy-loss spectra show a relatively low vibrational inelasticity for all three systems. Differential cross sections, transition probabilities, and the mean vibrational energy transfer are presented. Rotational excitation is indicated by the broadening of the energy-loss peaks which is most significant for H + --NO. The small-angle scattering data for vibrational excitation in CO show good agreement with the impact parameter theory using the known long-range interactions for this system

  10. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy

  11. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy.

  12. Projected photovoltaic energy impacts on US CO2 emissions: an integrated energy environmental-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Morris, S.C.; Goldstein, G.A.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of photovoltaic technologies in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in the USA was evaluated using an energy-environment-economic systems model. With a range of assumptions about future scenarios up to 2030, the model results provide an objective quantitative assessment of the prospects for photovoltaics in a competitive market. With the projected improvements in cost and efficiency, photovoltaics will compete favourably as a general source of electricity supply to the grid by about 2010 in southwestern USA. This analysis indicates that photovoltaics has the potential to reach a total installed capacity of 140 GW by the year 2030, and to displace a cumulative 450 million metric tons of carbon emissions from 1995 to 2030. At the projected 2030 capacity, photovoltaics could displace over 64 million metric tons of carbon emissions a year. Under constraints on carbon emissions, photovoltaics becomes more cost effective and would further reduce carbon emissions from the US energy system. (author)

  13. Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on ground level fog and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1977-03-01

    This document presents the details of a study of the atmospheric impacts of an Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC) that might result from the use of evaporative cooling alternatives. Specific cooling systems considered include once-through river cooling, cooling ponds, cooling towers, helper cooling ponds and towers and hybrid wet/dry cooling towers. The specific impacts evaluated are increases in fog and relative humidity

  14. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ (∗) →qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  15. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Physics Department, Novosibirsk State University,2 Pirogova street, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Theory division, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics,11 Lavrenteva avenue, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ),Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bât. 210, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC Université Paris 06, Faculté de Physique,4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-09-02

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-barg transition within Balitsky’s high energy operator expansion. We also rederive the impact factor for the γ{sup (∗)}→qq-bar transition within the same framework. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering, as well as, for two and three jets diffractive production, which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  16. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  17. The Emissions Impacts of Varied Energy Storage Operational Objectives Across Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Studarus, Karen E.; Pal, Seemita

    2017-11-15

    The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies can be significant but are not always intuitive. This is particularly true in the implementation of energy storage (ES) systems that are being increasingly adopted to integrate more intermittent renewable generation, to reduce peak demand, and to participate in energy markets. Both the location of the ES system within the grid and the way it is operated will dictate its resulting impacts. The Grid Project Impact Quantification tool can provide insight into some of the emissions implications of hypothetical ES systems for a variety of operational objectives in diverse locations within the United States.

  18. ENERGY RELEASE FROM IMPACTING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FOLLOWING THE 2011 JUNE 7 ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10{sup 26}-5.8 × 10{sup 27} erg) to the radiative energy (≈1.9 × 10{sup 25}-2.5 × 10{sup 26} erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  19. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  20. Impact of domain knowledge on blinded predictions of binding energies by alchemical free energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mey, Antonia S. J. S.; Jiménez, Jordi Juárez; Michel, Julien

    2018-01-01

    The Drug Design Data Resource (D3R) consortium organises blinded challenges to address the latest advances in computational methods for ligand pose prediction, affinity ranking, and free energy calculations. Within the context of the second D3R Grand Challenge several blinded binding free energies predictions were made for two congeneric series of Farsenoid X Receptor (FXR) inhibitors with a semi-automated alchemical free energy calculation workflow featuring FESetup and SOMD software tools. Reasonable performance was observed in retrospective analyses of literature datasets. Nevertheless, blinded predictions on the full D3R datasets were poor due to difficulties encountered with the ranking of compounds that vary in their net-charge. Performance increased for predictions that were restricted to subsets of compounds carrying the same net-charge. Disclosure of X-ray crystallography derived binding modes maintained or improved the correlation with experiment in a subsequent rounds of predictions. The best performing protocols on D3R set1 and set2 were comparable or superior to predictions made on the basis of analysis of literature structure activity relationships (SAR)s only, and comparable or slightly inferior, to the best submissions from other groups.

  1. Estimating energy impacts of residential and commercial building development. A manual for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-22

    This energy-impact manual presents information on energy implications of new building design and operation, providing a reasonably accurate means of assessing the total energy impact of new construction in the commercial and residential sectors. While developed specifically for the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, much of the data used are national averages; the procedures described are applicable to other regions of the nation, with appropriate adjustments for climatic differences. The manual is organized into three parts, each covering one aspect of the energy impacts of building development. Part I addresses the energy impact of erecting the building(s). This includes the energy cost of grading and excavating and other site preparation. It also takes into account the energy embodied in the fabrication of materials used in building construction, as well as the energy cost of transporting materials to the site and assembling them. Part II focuses on the end use of energy during normal building operation, i.e., the energy consumed for space heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, etc. A simplified calculation sequence is provided which allows the user to estimate the consumption of most combinations of building orientation, characteristics, and operating conditions. Part III examines the relationship of land use to energy consumption, principally the transportation energy impact of various land-development patterns, the embodied energy impacts of infrastructure requirements, and the impacts of various orientation and siting schemes. (MCW)

  2. Conference on landscape impacts of wind energy and local acceptance: France-Germany crossed views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouscatel, Jerome; Olagne, Regis; Derkenne, Chantal; Galiano, Mila; Mayer, Joerg; Ratzbor, Guenter; Laborgne, Pia; Nadai, Alain; Ratouis, Marie-Odile; Schoebel-Rutschmann, Soeren; Petit, Jean-Francois; Guennewig, Dieter; Portales, David

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the landscape impacts of wind energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 100 participants exchanged views on the environmental impact of wind farms and the opinion of residents. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - French people and wind energy (Mila Galiano); 2 - Wind energy acceptance in Germany: an essential factor for the wind industry development (Joerg Mayer); 3 - Taking into account landscapes and residents in the development of wind farms: a France-Germany comparison (Pia Laborgne, Alain Nadai); 3 - Wind energy development supervision thanks to territorial planning in Germany (Guenter Ratzbor); 4 - Landscape challenges in wind energy development: point of view and role of a state decentralised department (Marie-Odile Ratouis); 5 - Park or landscape - Wind turbines as elements of the cultural landscape (Soeren Schoebel-Rutschmann); 6 - How should a developer approach the 'landscape' aspect when foreseeing a wind energy project installation (Jean-Francois Petit); 7 - More consensual wind energy projects along highways, railways and overhead power lines? (Dieter Guennewig); 8 - The 'wings top': un example of participatory and citizen's project (David Portales)

  3. Impact on consumer refrigerator purchases of energy consumption information at point of sale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C D; Claxton, J D

    1979-03-01

    This document reports on the results of an experimental study designed to test the effect of energy consumption labelling, and of the degree of sales-force emphasis on energy consuption aspects, on consumer purchases of refrigerators in Canada. This research pursued the objectives of trying to understand the decision process used by consumers in buying appliances, and to assess the initial impact of the ENERGUIDE labelling program with a view to provide guidance for its future development or extension. Results show a clear potential for worthwhile energy savings via shifts in consumer refrigerator choices. To date (1979), relatively few buyers considered energy consumption an important criterion in such a purchase. Retail salespeople, on whom consumers depend for refrigerator information, do not normally discuss energy information with customers; however, they did show interest in using a sales aid that would help compare operating costs of various models. Most customers either did not see or did not understand the ENERGUIDE labels, indicating a potential benefit from achieving greater consumer awareness of the importance of energy consumption in appliances and of redesigned energy labelling. Education of retail salespeople towards energy awareness seems to be the policy intiative with the greatest potential impact. 29 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  5. The Impact of Energy Consumption and Productivity Growth on Carbon Emissions in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmael Ackah

    2014-01-01

    The environment plays two vital roles for mankind. It provides food and raw materials for production and consumption and also accepts the wastes generated through man’s activities and renders them harmless. This calls for sustainable environmental management. This study examines the impact of productivity growth, forest depletion, renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon emissions in Ghana. The findings suggest that productivity growth is the most important ...

  6. Long term impacts of nuclear energy: On which purpose do we try to evaluate them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, Didier

    1998-01-01

    The indicators and the time limits for evaluation of the long term impacts of nuclear energy depend on the purpose: assessing the total cost of electricity generation; comparing different nuclear strategies; responding to public acceptance concerns; elaborating and selecting the most sustainable energy systems. Indicators that can be used are: consumption of non renewable resources; concentrations in the environment; individual exposures; collective dose; potential radiotoxicity. For all of them predicted or conditional values can be applied

  7. A discrete-continuous choice model of climate change impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, W.N.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper estimates a discrete-continuous fuel choice model in order to explore climate impacts on the energy sector. The model is estimated on a national data set of firms and households. The results reveal that actors switch from oil in cold climates to electricity and natural gas in warm climates and that fuel-specific expenditures follow a U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. The model implies that warming will increase American energy expenditures, reflecting a sizable welfare damage

  8. Energy depletion by diet or aerobic exercise alone: impact of energy deficit modality on appetite parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jameason D; Goldfield, Gary S; Riou, Marie-Ève; Finlayson, Graham S; Blundell, John E; Doucet, Éric

    2016-04-01

    Millions of Americans attempt to lose weight each year, and it is unclear whether the modality of acute, tightly controlled energy depletions can differently affect appetite parameters and olfaction. The objectives were to examine how the modality of an acute 3-d isocaloric 25% energy depletion by dieting alone or by aerobic exercise alone differently affects appetite and appetite-related hormones, ad libitum feeding, food reward (snack points), and olfaction. Ten male participants with a mean ± SD age of 23.7 ± 5.1 y and an initial mean ± SD body weight of 83.2 ± 11.5 kg participated in this randomized crossover design. Baseline measurement [day 1 of the control condition (CON1)] was performed and repeated 3 d later [day 4 of the control condition (CON4)], after which randomization was applied to the order of the 2 experimental conditions: 25% daily needs energy deficits induced by diet only (DIET) and by exercise only (EX) and tested before [day 1 of DIET (DIET1) and day 1 of EX (EX1)] and after 3 d [day 4 of DIET (DIET4) and day 4 of EX (EX4)] of the intervention. Body weight, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, relative-reinforcing value of food, and olfaction were measured at days 1 and 4. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), ad libitum energy intake (EI; buffet), and palatability (visual analog scale) were measured only at day 4. Relative to CON4, EI (P= 0.001), palatability (P= 0.01), and odor threshold (P= 0.05) were higher at DIET4; relative to CON4, palatability (P= 0.03) was higher at EX4. Compared with EX4, EI was higher for DIET4 (P= 0.006). Relative to CON4, snack points earned were higher at DIET4 (P= 0.03) and EX4 (P= 0.001); more snack points were earned at EX4 relative to DIET4 (P= 0.001). Compared with the control condition, DIET represented a greater acute challenge to appetite regulation than EX, as demonstrated by greater appetite and ad libitum EI. This study confirms that compared with depletions by exercise alone, acute

  9. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of residential, commercial, and transport energy demand uncertainties in Asia on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koljonen, Tiina; Lehtilä, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in residential, commercial and transport sectors have been growing rapidly in the non-OECD Asian countries over the last decades, and the trend is expected to continue over the coming decades as well. However, the per capita projections for energy demand in these particular sectors often seem to be very low compared to the OECD average until 2050, and it is clear that the scenario assessments of final energy demands in these sectors include large uncertainties. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis have been carried out to study the impact of higher rates of energy demand growths in the non-OECD Asia on global mitigation costs. The long term energy and emission scenarios for China, India and South-East Asia have been contributed as a part of Asian Modeling Exercise (AME). The scenarios presented have been modeled by using a global TIMES-VTT energy system model, which is based on the IEA-ETSAP TIMES energy system modeling framework and the global ETSAP-TIAM model. Our scenario results indicate that the impacts of accelerated energy demand in the non-OECD Asia has a relatively small impact on the global marginal costs of greenhouse gas abatement. However, with the accelerated demand projections, the average per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the OECD were decreased while China, India, and South-East Asia increased their per capita greenhouse gas emissions. This indicates that the costs of the greenhouse gas abatement would especially increase in the OECD region, if developing Asian countries increase their final energy consumption more rapidly than expected. - Highlights: ► Scenarios of final energy demands in developing Asia include large uncertainties. ► Impact of accelerated Asian energy demand on global mitigation costs is quite low. ► Accelerated Asian energy consumption increases GHG abatement costs in the OECD. ► 3.7 W/m 3 target is feasible in costs even with accelerated Asian energy demands. ► 2.6 W/m 2 target is beyond

  11. Life cycle water use of energy production and its environmental impacts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2013-12-17

    The energy sector is a major user of fresh water resources in China. We investigate the life cycle water withdrawals, consumptive water use, and wastewater discharge of China's energy sectors and their water-consumption-related environmental impacts, using a mixed-unit multiregional input-output (MRIO) model and life cycle impact assessment method (LCIA) based on the Eco-indicator 99 framework. Energy production is responsible for 61.4 billion m(3) water withdrawals, 10.8 billion m(3) water consumption, and 5.0 billion m(3) wastewater discharges in China, which are equivalent to 12.3%, 4.1% and 8.3% of the national totals, respectively. The most important feature of the energy-water nexus in China is the significantly uneven spatial distribution of consumptive water use and its corresponding environmental impacts caused by the geological discrepancy among fossil fuel resources, fresh water resources, and energy demand. More than half of energy-related water withdrawals occur in the east and south coastal regions. However, the arid north and northwest regions have much larger water consumption than the water abundant south region, and bear almost all environmental damages caused by consumptive water use.

  12. Correlations between energy economy and housing market prices in the EU-impacts on future sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maassen Maria Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global economic system is facing multiple challenges in terms of social development, technology and innovation, as well as sustainability needs. As a result, the value of existing assets is changing globally depending on the scarcity, necessity and effects on the business field leading to increased prices of traditional sources of energy and increased competition in the economic field. Thus, the EU energy market has progressed in reducing its dependence on external energy sourcing, by increasing production of renewable energy, such as wind or solar, as well as by further integration of the electric grid. Based on the Pearson coefficient this article intends to research the correlations between the economic, energy and house prices in recent years and the future possible impacts depending on their evolution. For example, gas prices in the past decade increasing household costs in most countries due to the dependence on third parties for energy, lead to the need of increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption, which have consequently decreased electricity prices since 2008. However, this development has still not solved the additional costs issue of households due to the new technologies implemented although wind and solar energy receive in general low margins. Such energy issues, as well as the increased housing prices after the financial crisis in 2008 have caused on their own an additional burden on the economy and households spending income in the next years following.

  13. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  14. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2011-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  15. A Look at the U.S. Energy System – A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; John W. Collins

    2011-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economical in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This paper discusses the systematic approach used to develop the 2050 Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), which allows the user to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand. It also provides an overall systems understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This paper also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rational for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing 2050 SIM.

  16. The impact of weather variation on energy consumption in residential houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikru, Mahelet G.; Gautier, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There is evidence for significant intraday variation of energy use. • The sensitivity of energy use to weather variation falls via efficiency features. • The sensitivity of energy use to weather depends on the specific time of day/night. • High frequency data helps to accurately model the energy use-weather relationship. - Abstract: This paper studies the impact of weather variation on energy use by using 5-minutes interval weather–energy data obtained from two residential houses: house 1 is a conventional house with advanced efficiency features and house 2 is a net-zero solar house with relatively more advanced efficiency features. Our result suggests that energy consumption in house 2 is not as sensitive to changes in weather variables as the conventional house. On average, we find that a one unit increase in heating and cooling degree minutes increases energy use by about 9% and 5% respectively for house 1 and 5% and 4% respectively for house 2. In addition, our findings suggest that non-temperature variables such as solar radiation and humidity affect energy use where the sensitivity rates for house 2 are consistently lower than that of house 1. Furthermore our result suggests that the sensitivity of energy use to weather depends on the season and specific time of the day/night

  17. The impact of energy performance certificates: A survey of German home owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amecke, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The building sector accounts for about 40% of the final energy consumption in Germany. At the same time, the sector is regarded as one of the most cost-effective options for saving CO 2 emissions. To target this potential, the European Union introduced energy performance certificates (EPC). EPCs should provide clear information about the energy performance of buildings to building purchasers, owners and tenants. This study analyses, in how far EPCs have helped purchasers of owner-occupied dwellings in Germany to incorporate energy efficiency in their purchasing decisions. The results suggest that the effectiveness of EPCs is limited. Main reasons are first, that the certificates are not helpful for understanding the financial implications of energy efficiency. Second, EPCs are not viewed for most buildings due to their legal status. Third, energy efficiency is only a minor purchasing criterion for dwelling purchases. The results of the study however also point to the potential of EPCs, as these barriers can be removed. From 2013 onwards the use of the EPC will be increased due to the new EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). Changes to the design of the EPC could further increase the importance of energy performance certificates and of energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► Study examines impact of EU energy performance certificate on German housing market. ► Low impact of EPC on purchasing decisions found. ► Reasons are limitations in design, legal status, importance of energy efficiency. ► Study is relevant because of low previous coverage and because of update of directive.

  18. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  19. Distributional impacts of state-level energy efficiency policies in regional electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa; Blumsack, Seth; Kleit, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A number of U.S. states have passed legislation targeting energy efficiency and peak demand reduction. We study one such state, Pennsylvania, within the context of PJM, a regional electricity market covering numerous different states. Our focus is on the distributive impacts of this policy—specifically how the policy is likely to impact electricity prices in different areas of Pennsylvania and in the PJM market more generally. Such spatial differences in policy impacts are difficult to model and the transmission system is often ignored in policy studies. Our model estimates supply curves on a “zonal” basis within regional electricity markets and yields information on price and fuel utilization within each zone. We use the zonal supply curves estimated by our model to study regional impacts of energy-efficiency legislation on utilities both inside and outside of Pennsylvania. For most utilities in Pennsylvania, it would reduce the influence of natural gas on electricity price formation and increase the influence of coal. It would also save 2.1 to 2.8 percent of total energy cost in Pennsylvania in a year similar to 2009. The savings are lower than 0.5 percent in other PJM states and the prices may slightly increase in Washington, DC area. - Highlights: ► We model distributional impacts of energy efficiency and conservation policies. ► We use our model to study the impacts of Pennsylvania act 129. ► We estimate $235 million in annual savings for PA and $275 million for PJM. ► The prices decrease in most of the zones but the impacts are not uniform. ► The influence of coal on electricity prices increases relative to natural gas.

  20. Regional-employment impact of rapidly escalating energy costs. [Riverside-San Bernardino SMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, D X

    1983-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for incorporating price-induced technological substitution into a regional input-output forecasting model. The model was used to determine the employment impacts of rapidly escalating energy costs on the Riverside-San Bernardino (California) SMSA. The results indicate that the substitution effect between energy and other goods was dominated by the income effect. A reallocation of consumer expenditures from labor-intensive to energy-intensive goods occurred, resulting in a two- to threefold increase in the unemployment rate among low-skilled individuals. 18 references, 5 tables.