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  1. Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

    2014-08-01

    The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67‧N-11°74‧W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the

  2. Trends & Indicators: NE Universities Still R&D Powerhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    New England universities performed more than $4 billion worth of research and development (R&D) in 2009, but the region's share of total R&D performed by all U.S. universities remained at 7.3%, down from more than 10% in the 1980s. The region's university research labs have been world-famous for ideas that breed companies and whole…

  3. Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region centrale du togo : pratiques familiales et communautaires avant la mise en oeuvre de la strategie « prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant »

  4. Reliability of regional climate model trends

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. van Oldenborgh; Doblas Reyes, F. J.; Drijfhout, S.S.; Hawkins, Ed

    2013-01-01

    A necessary condition for a good probabilistic forecast is that the forecast system is shown to be reliable: forecast probabilities should equal observed probabilities verified over a large number of cases. As climate change trends are now emerging from the natural variability, we can apply this concept to climate predictions and compute the reliability of simulated local and regional temperature and precipitation trends (1950–2011) in a recent multi-model ensemble of climate model simulation...

  5. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beguería

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  6. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004–2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pandolfi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background, located in the northeast (NE of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004–2014 were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann–Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10 showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN and Montseny (MSY during 2004–2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V–Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic and from the industrial (metallurgy

  7. Trends analysis of PM source contributions and chemical tracers in NE Spain during 2004-2014: a multi-exponential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Marco; Alastuey, Andrés; Pérez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Castro, Iria; Shatalov, Victor; Querol, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In this work for the first time data from two twin stations (Barcelona, urban background, and Montseny, regional background), located in the northeast (NE) of Spain, were used to study the trends of the concentrations of different chemical species in PM10 and PM2.5 along with the trends of the PM10 source contributions from the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Eleven years of chemical data (2004-2014) were used for this study. Trends of both species concentrations and source contributions were studied using the Mann-Kendall test for linear trends and a new approach based on multi-exponential fit of the data. Despite the fact that different PM fractions (PM2.5, PM10) showed linear decreasing trends at both stations, the contributions of specific sources of pollutants and of their chemical tracers showed exponential decreasing trends. The different types of trends observed reflected the different effectiveness and/or time of implementation of the measures taken to reduce the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. Moreover, the trends of the contributions of specific sources such as those related with industrial activities and with primary energy consumption mirrored the effect of the financial crisis in Spain from 2008. The sources that showed statistically significant downward trends at both Barcelona (BCN) and Montseny (MSY) during 2004-2014 were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, and V-Ni-bearing source. The contributions from these sources decreased exponentially during the considered period, indicating that the observed reductions were not gradual and consistent over time. Conversely, the trends were less steep at the end of the period compared to the beginning, thus likely indicating the attainment of a lower limit. Moreover, statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for the contributions to PM from the industrial/traffic source at MSY (mixed metallurgy and road traffic) and from the industrial (metallurgy mainly) source at BCN

  8. Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the 21st century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic region, whose academic analysis is impossible without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate political, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanseatic League. Unfortunately, in the 21st century, the Baltic region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize the opportunities provided by the information society and focus on the innovative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example is the partnership between Baltic universities, which is aimed to draw up an international agenda for sustainable regional development. Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing opportunities for interstate relations and contributes to laying down crossborder cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society networks. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hanse — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established between states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties between the peoples of the Baltic region.

  9. Global and Regional Trends in Child Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong

    2015-01-01

    Nguyen and Wodon suggest that better measurement of child marriage can be obtained by adopting the techniques used for the measurement of poverty. The objective of this article is to use that approach to provide estimates of global and regional trends over time in the extent of child marriage – not only its incidence, but also what we refer to as the child marriage gap and the squared child marriage gap, two measures that take into account how young girls are when they marry.

  10. MONITORING FOR POLICY-RELEVANT REGIONAL TRENDS OVER TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term trend describes the continuing directional change in the value of an indicator, generally upward or generally downward. Many policy questions concern trend across a number of sites, such as lakes in a region, rather than trend at a single site. Power to detect regional t...

  11. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhône River, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Roux, Gwenaëlle; Persat, Henri; Lefèvre, Irène; Peretti, Annie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Miège, Cécile; Babut, Marc

    2012-09-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhône River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhône sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhône upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhône site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965-80, 1986-93, and 2000-08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhône and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhône near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sembène's Progeny: A New Trend in the Senegalese Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gérard

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the Nouvelles Editions Africaines in Senegal has proved favorable to the promotion of a national literature whose grass-roots inspiration is in obvious reaction against the elitist proclivities of earlier writers trained in French universities. The younger novelists follow in the footsteps of Sembène Ousmane, depicting actual living conditions among the under-privileged and usually silent majority in present-day Dakar. Recent examples are Aminata Sow Fall's La Grève des battù (1979, Moussa Ly Sangaré's Sourd-muet, je demande la parole (1978 and Mariama Bâ's Une si longue lettre (1979. Such works are designed for a local readership, which is numerous enough because Senegal has the highest rate of literacy in French of all African countries. While the clinical realism of their narrative technique is similar to Sembène's in many respects, the characteristic feature of those writers is that they do not seem to have any political axe to grind: their detached lucidity and absence of bitterness makes their image of the African megalopolis all the more impressive and depressing.

  13. Trends in Regional Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in Regional Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Centre. M.A Lamina. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Most caesarean sections were previously performed under general anaesthesia but there has been an increasing trend worldwide in the use of regional anaesthesia as the preferred method ...

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  15. Regional trends amongst Danish specialist farmland breeding birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    2016-01-01

    be related to their respective specializations. Generally, few species showed differences in regional population trends, despite the increasing concentration of mixed (mainly pastoral) agriculture in the West and predominantly arable cultivation in the East. Most grassland and arable specialists were...... the period. Corn Bunting Emberiza calandra showed significant declines in the East of Denmark in contrast to stable trends in the Central and Western regions, but was declining everywhere since 2003. The results underline the need to understand how individual farmland species exploit specific crops and micro...

  16. Annual trend patterns of phytoplankton species abundance belie homogeneous taxonomical group responses to climate in the NE Atlantic upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Antonio; Estévez, M Graciela; Varela, Manuel; Vilar, José A

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton is a sentinel of marine ecosystem change. Composed by many species with different life-history strategies, it rapidly responds to environment changes. An analysis of the abundance of 54 phytoplankton species in Galicia (NW Spain) between 1989 and 2008 to determine the main components of temporal variability in relation to climate and upwelling showed that most of this variability was stochastic, as seasonality and long term trends contributed to relatively small fractions of the series. In general, trends appeared as non linear, and species clustered in 4 groups according to the trend pattern but there was no defined pattern for diatoms, dinoflagellates or other groups. While, in general, total abundance increased, no clear trend was found for 23 species, 14 species decreased, 4 species increased during the early 1990s, and only 13 species showed a general increase through the series. In contrast, series of local environmental conditions (temperature, stratification, nutrients) and climate-related variables (atmospheric pressure indices, upwelling winds) showed a high fraction of their variability in deterministic seasonality and trends. As a result, each species responded independently to environmental and climate variability, measured by generalized additive models. Most species showed a positive relationship with nutrient concentrations but only a few showed a direct relationship with stratification and upwelling. Climate variables had only measurable effects on some species but no common response emerged. Because its adaptation to frequent disturbances, phytoplankton communities in upwelling ecosystems appear less sensitive to changes in regional climate than other communities characterized by short and well defined productive periods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Pressure prediction and hydraulic continuity - Regional trends and local anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of hydraulic continuity of reservoirs and faults and the lack thereof on the occurrence of local pore fluid pressure conditions deviating from previously established regional trends. The hydrodynamic-based approaches will be illustrated with case studies from the

  18. Recent warming trend in the coastal region of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Saleem, Ayman; Sadr, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze long-term temperature-related phenomena in the eastern portion of the Middle East, focusing on the coastal region of Qatar. Extreme temperature indices were examined, which were defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, for Doha, Qatar; these indices were then compared with those from neighboring countries. The trends were calculated for a 30-year period (1983-2012), using hourly data obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. The results showed spatially consistent warming trends throughout the region. For Doha, 11 of the 12 indices studied showed significant warming trends. In particular, the warming trends were represented by an increase in the number of warm days and nights and a decrease in the number of cool nights and days. The high-temperature extremes during the night have risen at more than twice the rate of their corresponding daytime extremes. The intensity and frequency of hot days have increased, and the minimum temperature indices exhibited a higher rate of warming. The climatic changes in Doha are consistent with the region-wide heat-up in recent decades across the Middle East. However, the rapid economic expansion, increase of population since the 1990s, and urban effects in the region are thought to have intensified the rapidly warming climate pattern observed in Doha since the turn of the century.

  19. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2011-07-15

    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differences in the regional stratigraphy of NE Poland caused by vertical movements due to glacioisostasy

    OpenAIRE

    Morawski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Geological mapping in combination with geophysical investigations and borehole analyses show differences of the Pleistocene between the Warmia and Mazury palaeogeographic provinces in NE Poland. The (more western) Warmia province has a crystalline basement that is covered by a folded sedimentary succession of 2-4 km thick. The (more eastern) Mazury province (eastern) has a basement that forms part of the rigid East European crystalline craton, which is covered by a sedimentary cover of only 1...

  1. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States); Sumner, Jenny [Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, PA (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  2. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  3. Regional and Gender Differences and Trends in the Anesthesiologist Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew; Daugherty, Lindsay; Kumar, Krishna B; Arifkhanova, Aziza

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have long existed about potential shortages in the anesthesiologist workforce. In addition, many changes have occurred in the economy, demographics, and the healthcare sector in the last few years, which may impact the workforce. The authors documented workforce trends by region of the United States and gender, trends that may have implications for the supply and demand of anesthesiologists. The authors conducted a national survey of American Society of Anesthesiologists members (accounting for >80% of all practicing anesthesiologists in the United States) in 2007 and repeated it in 2013. The authors used logistic regression analysis and Seemingly Unrelated Regression to test across several indicators under an overarching hypothesis. Anesthesiologists in Western states had markedly different patterns of practice relative to anesthesiologists in other regions in 2007 and 2013, including differences in employer type, the composition of anesthesia teams, and the time spent on monitored anesthesia care. The number and proportion of female anesthesiologists in the workforce increased between 2007 and 2013, and females differed from males in employment arrangements, compensation, and work hours. Regional differences remained stable during this time period although the reasons for these differences are speculative. Similarly, how and whether the gender difference in work hours and shift to younger anesthesiologists during this period will impact workforce needs is uncertain.

  4. Spatial and temporal trends in fin whale vocalizations recorded in the NE Pacific Ocean between 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirathmueller, Michelle J; Stafford, Kathleen M; Wilcock, William S D; Hilmo, Rose S; Dziak, Robert P; Tréhu, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the long-term stability of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) singing behavior, the frequency and inter-pulse interval of fin whale 20 Hz vocalizations were observed over 10 years from 2003-2013 from bottom mounted hydrophones and seismometers in the northeast Pacific Ocean. The instrument locations extended from 40°N to 48°N and 130°W to 125°W with water depths ranging from 1500-4000 m. The inter-pulse interval (IPI) of fin whale song sequences was observed to increase at a rate of 0.54 seconds/year over the decade of observation. During the same time period, peak frequency decreased at a rate of 0.17 Hz/year. Two primary call patterns were observed. During the earlier years, the more commonly observed pattern had a single frequency and single IPI. In later years, a doublet pattern emerged, with two dominant frequencies and IPIs. Many call sequences in the intervening years appeared to represent a transitional state between the two patterns. The overall trend was consistent across the entire geographical span, although some regional differences exist. Understanding changes in acoustic behavior over long time periods is needed to help establish whether acoustic characteristics can be used to help determine population identity in a widely distributed, difficult to study species such as the fin whale.

  5. "Canary Islands (NE Atlantic) as a biodiversity 'hotspot' of Gambierdiscus: Implications for future trends of ciguatera in the area".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Fraga, Santiago; Ramilo, Isabel; Rial, Pilar; Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Riobó, Pilar; Bravo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    In the present study the geographical distribution, abundance and composition of Gambierdiscus was described over a 600km longitudinal scale in the Canary Islands. Samples for cell counts, isolation and identification of Gambierdiscus were obtained from five islands (El Hierro, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote). Average densities of Gambierdiscus spp. between 0 and 2200cellsg(-1) blot dry weight of macrophyte were recorded. Morphological (light microscopy and SEM techniques) and molecular analyses (LSU and SSU rDNA sequencing of cultures and single cells from the field) of Gambierdiscus was performed. Five Gambierdiscus species (G. australes, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. excentricus and G. silvae), together with a new putative species (Gambierdiscus ribotype 3) were identified. These results suggest that some cases of CFP in the region could be associated with the accumulation of ciguatoxins in the marine food web acquired from local populations of Gambierdiscus. This unexpected high diversity of Gambierdiscus species in an area which a priori is not under risk of ciguatera, hints at an ancient settlement of Gambierdiscus populations, likely favored by warmer climate conditions in the Miocene Epoch (when oldest current Canary Islands were created), in contrast with cooler present ones. Currently, warming trends associated with climate change could contribute to extend favorable environmental conditions in the area for Gambierdiscus growth especially during winter months. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  7. [Which organization for the management of thoracic cancer? Results from a French survey in Rhône-Alpes region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couraud, S; Fournel, P; Moro-Sibilot, D; Pérol, M; Souquet, P-J

    2012-02-01

    This survey, conducted in Rhône-Alpes region (France), aims to better understand the actual conditions of practice in thoracic oncology. A questionnaire was distributed to all oncologists, pulmonologists, radiotherapy physicians and thoracic surgeons in the region. Of 401 questionnaires, the response rate was 56%. Among the responders 46% reported exercising the Thoracic Oncology (TO). Most physicians practicing TO are pulmonologists (62%). The majority (45%) are engaged in secondary hospital or university hospital (27%). However, practitioners with the most important activity exerts in university hospitals and cancer centre (71% of physicians practicing in secondary hospitals and 75% of those in private practice reported to manage fewer than 80 new NSCLC cases per year in structure). Furthermore, 91% are regularly involved in a multidisciplinary team. Radiation oncologist, pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons are assiduous to these meeting; however radiologists and, to a lesser extent, pathologists are less attentive. Moreover, 92% of practitioners belong to cancer networks. Similarly, over one third of working together in a cooperative clinical research institution and nearly half are involved in clinical trials (with nearly half in secondary hospital). These results highlight the reality of practice in Rhône-Alpes and will serve as the basis for coordinating authorities to correct dysfunctions or monitor certain activities of interest (clinical trials). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Regional marine climate scenarios in the NE Atlantic sector close to the Spanish shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Gomis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the changes expected during the 21st century in key marine parameters (sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, sea level and waves in the sector of the NE Atlantic Ocean close to the Spanish shores. Under the A1B scenario, open-sea surface temperatures would increase by 1°C to 1.5°C by 2050 as a consequence of global ocean warming. Near the continental margin, however, the global temperature rise would be counteracted by an enhancement of the seasonal upwelling. Sea surface salinity is likely to decrease in the future, mainly due to the advection of high-latitude fresher waters from ice melting. Mean sea level rise has been quantified as 15-20 cm by 2050, but two contributions not accounted for by our models must be added: the mass redistribution derived from changes in the large-scale circulation (which in the NE Atlantic may be as large as 15 cm in 2050 or 35 cm by 2100 and the increase in the ocean mass content due to the melting of continental ice (for which estimates are still uncertain. The meteorological tide shows very small changes, and therefore extreme sea levels would be higher in the 21st century, but mostly due to the increase in mean sea level, not to an increase in the storminess. The wave projections point towards slightly smaller significant wave heights, but the changes projected are of the same order as the natural variability.

  9. Precessing Jet and Large Dust Grains in the V380 Ori NE Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kang, Sung-Ju; Sayers, Jack; Evans, Neal J., II; Cho, Jungyeon; Kwon, Jungmi; Park, Geumsook; Ohashi, Satoshi; Yoo, Hyunju; Lee, Youngung

    2017-10-01

    The V380 Ori NE bipolar outflow was imaged in the SiO and CO J=1\\to 0 lines, and dense cores in L1641 were observed in the 2.0-0.89 mm continuum. The highly collimated SiO jet shows point-symmetric oscillation patterns in both position and velocity, which suggests that the jet axis is precessing and the driving source may belong to a non-coplanar binary system. By considering the position and velocity variabilities together, accurate jet parameters were derived. The protostellar system is viewed nearly edge-on, and the jet has a flow speed of ˜35 km s-1 and a precession period of ˜1600 years. The CO outflow length gives a dynamical timescale of ˜6300 years, and the protostar must be extremely young. The inferred binary separation of 6-70 au implies that this protobinary system may have been formed through the disk instability process. The continuum spectra of L1641 dense cores indicate that the emission comes from dust, and the fits with modified blackbody functions give emissivity power indices of β = 0.3-2.2. The emissivity index shows a positive correlation with the molecular line width, but no strong correlation with bolometric luminosity or temperature. V380 Ori NE has a particularly low value of β = 0.3, which tentatively suggests the presence of millimeter-sized dust grains. Because the dust growth takes millions of years, much longer than the protostellar age, this core may have produced large grains in the starless core stage. HH 34 MMS and HH 147 MMS also have low emissivity indices.

  10. TEC derived from some GPS stations in East African equatorial region and comparison with the TEC from NeQuick2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinomugisha, Francis; Ssebiyonga, Nicholausi; D'ujanga, Florence M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of NeQuick2 model in predicting the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) over East Africa equatorial region during solar minimum (2010) and solar maximum (2012) phases. This has been carried out by comparing the NeQuick2 vTEC and GPS vTEC from five GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers at Makerere University, University of Nairobi, Mbarara, Malindi and Addis Ababa. The diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations in the measured vTEC have been analysed and compared with the NeQuick2 modeled vTEC. Comparative analysis has shown high correlation between NeQuick2 vTEC and GPS vTEC for both years. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the predicted and measured vTEC at all the stations were in the range (0.884-0.953) and (0.881-0.910) in 2010 and 2012 years respectively. NeQuick2 predicted the diurnal vTEC better for the times 01:00-03:00, Universal Time (UT) (10:00-12:00, Local Time, LT) for all the stations than for other times. There were high discrepancies between the modeled and measured vTEC values as observed between 06:00-16:00 UT (09:00-19:00 LT) over Addis Ababa during the two years in consideration. With regard to the monthly and seasonal vTEC prediction, the NeQuick2 model overestimates both the monthly and seasonal mean hourly vTEC values in almost all the stations except at Addis Ababa. The effects of geomagnetic storm on NeQuick2 model has also been investigated. NeQuick2 model did not respond to the effects associated with geomagnetic storm. There is need to include storm related parameters in the prediction of vTEC using NeQuick2 model.

  11. Combined Genotypic, Phylogenetic, and Epidemiologic Analyses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genetic Diversity in the Rhône Alpes Region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Catherine; Couvin, David; Carret, Gérard; Frédénucci, Isabelle; Jacomo, Véronique; Carricajo, Anne; Boisset, Sandrine; Dumitrescu, Oana; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Lina, Gérard; Rastogi, Nalin

    2016-01-01

    The present work relates to identification and a deep molecular characterization of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains in the Rhône-Alpes region, France from 2000 to 2010. It aimed to provide with a first snapshot of MTBC genetic diversity in conjunction with bacterial drug resistance, type of disease and available demographic and epidemiologic characteristics over an eleven-year period, in the south-east of France. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains isolated in the Rhône-Alpes region, France (n = 2257, 1 isolate per patient) between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed by spoligotyping. MIRU-VNTR typing was applied on n = 1698 strains (with full results available for 974 strains). The data obtained were compared with the SITVIT2 database, followed by detailed genotyping, phylogenetic, and epidemiologic analyses in correlation with anonymized data on available demographic, and epidemiologic characteristics, and location of disease (pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB). The most predominant spoligotyping clusters were SIT53/T1 (n = 346, 15.3%) > SIT50/H3 (n = 166, 7.35%) > SIT42/LAM9 (n = 125, 5.5%) > SIT1/Beijing (n = 72, 3.2%) > SIT47/H1 (n = 71, 3.1%). Evolutionary-recent strains belonging to the Principal Genetic Group (PGG) 2/3, or Euro-American lineages (T, LAM, Haarlem, X, S) were predominant and represented 1768 or 78.33% of all isolates. For strains having drug resistance information (n = 1119), any drug resistance accounted for 14.83% cases vs. 1.52% for multidrug resistance (MDR); and was significantly more associated with age group 21-40 years (p-valueFrance over a large time-period. It helps better understand intricate relationships between certain lineages and geographic origin of the patients, and pinpoints genotypic and phylogenetic specificities of prevailing MTBC strains. Lastly, it also demonstrated a slow decline in isolation of M. africanum lineage in this region between 2000 and 2010.

  12. Differences in the regional stratigraphy of NE Poland caused by vertical movements due to glacioisostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Wojciech

    2009-12-01

    Geological mapping in combination with geophysical investigations and borehole analyses show differences of the Pleistocene between the Warmia and Mazury palaeogeographic provinces in NE Poland. The (more western) Warmia province has a crystalline basement that is covered by a folded sedimentary succession of 2-4 km thick. The (more eastern) Mazury province (eastern) has a basement that forms part of the rigid East European crystalline craton, which is covered by a sedimentary cover of only 1-1.5 km thick. Cyclic loading by the Pleistocene ice sheets in this area induced glacioisostatic processes of different intensities, resulting in changing palaeogeographic conditions. The changes were increased by intense neotectonic activity that was induced by the ice sheets in the intermediate zone between the two provinces, stretching along the western slope of the crystalline craton. Significant part of intermediate zone forms a belt of crevasse-infill landforms deposited between the Warmia and Mazury lobes of the last glaciation. Studied deposits reveal a cyclic reactivation of the interlobe zone during the successive Pleistocene glaciations. Considerable variations of the relief of the top-Neogene, vertical discontinuities cutting the Pleistocene and Neogene, stratigraphic gaps within the Pleistocene succession, and thick glaciolacustrine successions result from the vertical neotectonic movements in the intermediate area between the two provinces.

  13. A data portal for regional climatic trend analysis in a Peruvian High Andes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, M.; Acuña, D.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Salzmann, N.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.

    2011-08-01

    In the frame of a Swiss-Peruvian climate change adaptation initiative (PACC), operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) are now accessible in a dedicated data portal. The data portal allows for example the comparison of data series or the interpolation of spatial fields as well as download of data in various data formats. It is thus a valuable tool supporting the process of data homogenisation and generation of a regional baseline climatology for a sound development of adequate climate change adaptation measures. The procedure to homogenize air-temperature and precipitation data series near Cusco city is outlined and followed by an exemplary trend analysis. Local air temperature trends are found to be in line with global mean trends.

  14. Trends and determinants of cycling in the Washington, DC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes cycling trends, policies, and commuting in the Washington, DC area. The analysis is divided into two parts. : Part 1 focuses on cycling trends and policies in Washington (DC), Alexandria (VA), Arlington County (VA), Fairfax Count...

  15. Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Goudge, T. A.; Bramble, M. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Amador, E. S.; Mustard, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the area to the northwest of the Isidis impact basin (hereby referred to as "NW Isidis") using thermal infrared emission datasets to characterize and quantify bulk surface mineralogy throughout this region. This area is home to Jezero crater and the watershed associated with its two deltaic deposits in addition to NE Syrtis and the strong and diverse visible/near-infrared spectral signatures observed in well-exposed stratigraphic sections. The spectral signatures throughout this region show a diversity of primary and secondary surface mineralogies, including olivine, pyroxene, smectite clays, sulfates, and carbonates. While previous thermal infrared investigations have sought to characterize individual mineral groups within this region, none have systematically assessed bulk surface mineralogy and related these observations to visible/near-infrared studies. We utilize an iterative spectral unmixing method to statistically evaluate our linear thermal infrared spectral unmixing models to derive surface mineralogy. All relevant primary and secondary phases identified in visible/near-infrared studies are included in the unmixing models and their modeled spectral contributions are discussed in detail. While the stratigraphy and compositional diversity observed in visible/near-infrared spectra are much better exposed and more diverse than most other regions of Mars, our thermal infrared analyses suggest the dominance of basaltic compositions with less observed variability in the amount and diversity of alteration phases. These results help to constrain the mineralogical context of these previously reported visible/near-infrared spectral identifications. The results are also discussed in the context of future in situ investigations, as the NW Isidis region has long been promoted as a region of paleoenvironmental interest on Mars.

  16. Characterization Of Industrial And Background Aerosols In The RhÔne-alpes Region Using Laser Remote Sensing Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffroy, S.; Rairoux, P.; Mondelain, D.; Boutou, V.; Wolf, J.-P.; Frejafon, E.

    Lack of reliable database on aerosol emission and dispersion is one of the main rea- sons for the incertitude of the impact of aerosol on the climate change. International statements and policies requested improvement on the global and on the regional scale. This new project is related to the characterisation of the spatial and time distribution of the aerosols in the Rhône-Alpes region. Actually, aerosols monitoring is mainly performed at ground level in this region and only few studies have been performed on the 3D distribution of urban aerosols (soot) using remote sensing laser device. The Rhône-Alpes region is representative for the regional impact of industry and traffic emission and also for the long-range transport of pollution over the East part of the Alps. The environmental situation of the region in term of sources and localization is especially dominated by: heavy traffic with several motorways (A6 from Paris, A7 to Marseille - both downtown - and A43 to the Alps and Italy) and industrial pollu- tion in particular for Lyon (refinery and several chemistry plants) and Saint Etienne agglomerations, which have a direct impact on the local air quality and also on the regional and national scale. Characterization of the aerosol load and dispersion in this region will be achieved applying two schemes. The first one will be related to the 3D quantitative characterization of diffuse aerosol emission in the industrial areas. Mon- itoring will be performed using a UV-infrared lidar remote sensing device. Emission cadastre elaboration and microphysical characterisation of the emission will be estab- lished. Direct access to several aerosol distribution modes will be used to describe the aerosol population dynamic: sedimentation, transport and aggregation. Studies on the direct impact of the emission on the region will be achieved coupling the 3D and ground level monitoring with dispersion model. The second scheme will be related to the long term remote sensing of

  17. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  18. River terrace development in the NE Mediterranean region (Syria and Turkey): Patterns in relation to crustal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgland, David R.; Demir, Tuncer; Seyrek, Ali; Daoud, Mohamad; Abou Romieh, Mohammad; Westaway, Rob

    2017-06-01

    It is widely recognized that the optimal development of river terraces globally has been in the temperate latitudes, with NW and Central Europe being areas of particular importance for the preservation of such archives of Quaternary environmental change. There is also a growing consensus that the principal drivers of terrace formation have been climatic fluctuation against a background of progressive (but variable) uplift. Nonetheless river terraces are widely preserved in the Mediterranean region, where they have often been attributed to the effects of neotectonic activity, with a continuing debate about the relative significance of fluctuating temperature (glacials-interglacials) and precipitation (pluvials-interpluvials). Research in Syria and southern-central Turkey (specifically in the valleys of the Tigris and Ceyhan in Turkey, the Kebir in Syria and the trans-border rivers Orontes and Euphrates) has underlined the importance of uplift rates in dictating the preservation pattern of fluvial archives and has revealed different patterns that can be related to crustal type. The NE Mediterranean coastal region has experienced unusually rapid uplift in the Late Quaternary. The relation between the Kebir terraces and the staircase of interglacial raised beaches preserved along the Mediterranean coastline of NW Syria reinforces previous conclusions that the emplacement of the fluvial terrace deposits in the Mediterranean has occurred during colder climatic episodes.

  19. Trends and Prospects of the Textile Industry Development in the Depressed Region (Ivanovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Yakovenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Russian economy at the present stage is uneven and depends on many factors that determine the potential for the development of regions, and in particular, the depressed regions such as the Ivanovo region. Nowadays exploitation of extractive industries capacities should be transformed into a strategy of economic growth in manufacturing industries. The article deals with the current trends in industrial development of depressed region, due to the structural changes in city-forming industry - textile industry. They are linked to the colossal raw dependence, physical and technological obsolescence of equipment, lack of competitiveness of domestic enterprises, the strong growth of dependence on imports of raw materials and finished products, the actual lack of export activity, insufficient development of civilized trade formats, abundance of forms of unfair competition. The purpose of the research is a retrospective analysis of the textile industry development in the Ivanovo region and the search for ways to overcome the adverse inertial processes at the present stage. The object of the research is the textile industry in the Ivanovo region. The subject of the research is scientific and methodological issues related to the diversification and the need to improve the sustainability of the enterprises of this economic sector. Strengthening the positions of the textile industry in accordance with the dynamics of economic development of Russia is expressed now in the directions of diversification of the textile industry. The formation of textile industrial cluster in the Ivanovo region is a mechanism for increase in use efficiency of industrial, scientific, educational potentials and one of the priorities of increasing the competitiveness of the regional economy.

  20. Reforestation and landscape reconstruction in gypsum mine area from the semiarid region of NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, S. M. B.; Straaten, P. V.; de Araujo Vieura Santos, M. de Fatima; Agra Bezerra da Silva, Y. J.; da Silva, M.; Saraiva de Melo Pinheiro, T.; Gusmao Didier de Moraes, F.; de Aguiar Accioly, A. M.; Alves de Santana, S. R.; dos Santos, H. A.; de Carvalho, D. M.; de Lima Ferreira, G.; de Carvalho Santos, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Araripe region, Northeast Brazil, exist the world's second largest reserve of gypsum, estimated at over than one billion tons, which accounts for 95% of the Brazilian production and constitutes an important segment of the regional economy. The gypsum deposit occurs in the Lower Cretaceous Santana Formation of the Araripe basin, which is constituted by siltstones, marls, limestones, shales and gypsum layers. The ore extraction is from an open pit, on simple benches with a height of about 15 meters. Activities in mining operations involve stripping, drilling, loading explosives, blast, fragmentation and block loading / transport. Currently, gypsum mining and processing results in major changes in the landscape (pits and wastes heaps sedimentary rocks and soil mixture), deforestation of the "caatinga" ecosystem for use as firewood in small calcinations, dust pollution and changes in hydrology. To promote environmental remediation of this area, a multidisciplinary research has being done with the aim to support reforestation at the wastes heaps. The study involved the following activities: collection and physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of mine waste materials; a floristic survey around the mines (botanical identification and measuring physical parameters in 16 plots, in order to identify which species are best suited to the conditions of the substrate at the mine site); an experiment (randomized block design) developed in a greenhouse, where seedlings of various native tree species were grown in a "constructed soil" made up of gypsum waste combined with chicken, goat and cattle manure, aimed to select tree species and soil treatment to be used in a waste heap; and an assessment of water quality for irrigation of the reforestation areas. The waste materials consist of large clayey aggregates, which may present physical/chemical properties unfavorable for plant development. The mineralogy of the sand fraction (> 85% quartz, gypsum and

  1. Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Mapping rainfall erosivity at a regional scale: a comparison of interpolation methods in the Ebro Basin (NE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angulo-Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity is a major causal factor of soil erosion, and it is included in many prediction models. Maps of rainfall erosivity indices are required for assessing soil erosion at the regional scale. In this study a comparison is made between several techniques for mapping the rainfall erosivity indices: i the RUSLE R factor and ii the average EI30 index of the erosive events over the Ebro basin (NE Spain. A spatially dense precipitation data base with a high temporal resolution (15 min was used. Global, local and geostatistical interpolation techniques were employed to produce maps of the rainfall erosivity indices, as well as mixed methods. To determine the reliability of the maps several goodness-of-fit and error statistics were computed, using a cross-validation scheme, as well as the uncertainty of the predictions, modeled by Gaussian geostatistical simulation. All methods were able to capture the general spatial pattern of both erosivity indices. The semivariogram analysis revealed that spatial autocorrelation only affected at distances of ~15 km around the observatories. Therefore, local interpolation techniques tended to be better overall considering the validation statistics. All models showed high uncertainty, caused by the high variability of rainfall erosivity indices both in time and space, what stresses the importance of having long data series with a dense spatial coverage.

  3. Carbonatites and primary carbonates in the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, NE Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin-Chiaramonti, Piero; De Min, Angelo; Girardi, Vicente A. V.; Gomes, Celso B.

    2014-02-01

    In the Rio Apa and Amambay regions, north-eastern Paraguay (NPAA), potassic, alkaline-carbonatitic rocks (138-139 Ma) predate the eruption of tholeiitic flood basalts (133 ± 1 Ma). These rocks, mainly outcropping as dykes or ring-like complexes, intrude a Cambro-Ordovician carbonate platform and Precambrian metamorphic rocks along with their Silurian and Permo-Carboniferous sediments. The main rock-types range from basanite to trachyte and trachyphonolite (and intrusive equivalents) to carbonatite, in addition to glimmeritic and pyroxenitic veins. Geological and geophysical evidence indicate that the NPAA magmatism is related to extensional tectonics, like the Early Cretaceous alkaline-carbonatitic complexes from central-eastern Paraguay (127 ± 1 Ma) and the eastern magmatic occurrences of the Paraná Basin. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions (whole rocks and carbonates) vary from values close to the field of continental lithospheric mantle, or that of primary carbonatites, up to values typical of a hydrothermal environment. An isotope exchange model implies that the main isotope variations, ranging from a magmatic (e.g., 1200 °C) to a low temperature (< 400 °C) environment, involved fluids with CO2/H2O ratios between 0.8 and 1.0. In particular, the Osbnd C isotopic variations, in combination with the La vs La/Yb ratios, suggest an increasingly higher level of carbonate in the silicate liquids, with increasing evolution, i.e., basanite → phonotephrite → trachyphonolite-phonolite (trachyte) → carbonatite. Srsbnd Nd isotopes show that the carbonatites are mantle derived without significant crustal contamination and that they can be related to isotopically enriched sources where newly formed veins (enriched component) and peridotite matrix (depleted component) underwent differing isotopic evolution. TDM model ages for NPAA range from 1.2 to 2.3 Ga. Considering that in the whole Paraná Basin isotopically distinct K-alkaline and tholeiitic magmas were

  4. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    OpenAIRE

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van, G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m temperature, T-ann.max). Linear trends in T-ann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data are compared with trends in gridded station data. The ensemble of RCMs significantly...

  5. CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM UNDER ECONOMIC TRANSITION: NATIONAL TRENDS AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Guo, Rong; Wang, Qingbin

    2003-01-01

    China's Tourism industry, especially international tourism, has expanded rapidly since its market-oriented economic reform started in 1978. There has been limited information regarding the trends and regional disparities. This paper examines the national trends of China's international tourism since 1982 and analyzes the changes in regional disparities since 1995. While the trend analysis suggests that China's international tourism is likely to keep growing at a significant rate, the analysis...

  6. Investigation of regional trends and seasonal shifts in the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The historical trend and variability of river is investigated in 502 river flow gauging in 9 countries of the Southern African region with a view to document the special variability of the river flow regimes. The study identifies regions with strong evidence of declining or increasing trend in annual runoff and those with strong ...

  7. Region Evolution eXplorer - A tool for discovering evolution trends in ontology regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Victor; Hartung, Michael; Groß, Anika

    2015-01-01

    A large number of life science ontologies has been developed to support different application scenarios such as gene annotation or functional analysis. The continuous accumulation of new insights and knowledge affects specific portions in ontologies and thus leads to their adaptation. Therefore, it is valuable to study which ontology parts have been extensively modified or remained unchanged. Users can monitor the evolution of an ontology to improve its further development or apply the knowledge in their applications. Here we present REX (Region Evolution eXplorer) a web-based system for exploring the evolution of ontology parts (regions). REX provides an analysis platform for currently about 1,000 versions of 16 well-known life science ontologies. Interactive workflows allow an explorative analysis of changing ontology regions and can be used to study evolution trends for long-term periods. REX is a web application providing an interactive and user-friendly interface to identify (un)stable regions in large life science ontologies. It is available at http://www.izbi.de/rex.

  8. Trends in seasonal temperatures over the Indian region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An investigation has been carried out to identify the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and temperature range over the Indian land mass during the winter (January, and February), premonsoon (March–May), southwest monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon (October–December) seasons by ...

  9. Trends of temperature and precipitation extremes in the Loess Plateau Region of China, 1961-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-xiang; Wang, Meng-ben; Fan, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Shi-zhong; Zhao, Tian-liang

    2017-08-01

    The spatial and temporal trends of 11 (7) temperature (precipitation) extreme indices are examined for the Loess Plateau Region (LPR) and its southeast and northwest sub-regions based on daily observations at 214 meteorological stations. Results show widespread significant warming trends for all the temperature extremes except for the diurnal temperature range (DTR) and the lowest daily maximum temperature in each year (TXn) during 1961-2010. When regionally averaged, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn in the past 50 years. Compared with the entire LPR, a significant warming trend is detected for all the indices except for DTR and TXn over the southeast sub-region of LPR; while it is observed for all the indices over the northwest. The trends for these indices are generally stronger in the northwest than in the southeast in the past 50 years. In contrast, for precipitation indices, only a small percentage of areas show significant drying or wetting trends and, when regionally averaged, none of them displays significant trends during the past 50 years. On the sub-regional scale, however, a larger percentage of areas show significant drying trends for precipitation indices generally over the southeast relative to the entire LPR, and noticeably, the sub-regional average heavy precipitation (R10mm) and wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT) display significant decreasing trends during the past 50 years; whereas only a slightly larger percentage of areas show significant wetting trends for these indices over the northwest compared with the entire LPR, and when sub-regionally averaged, none of the indices have significant trends during the past 50 years.

  10. Sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios for the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions based on dense seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua; Lai, Guijuan; Cai, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The sedimentary and crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios of the NE Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent regions are estimated by the h- κ stacking and CCP image of receiver functions from the data of 1,317 stations. The horizontal resolution of the obtained results is as high as 0.5° × 0.5°, which can be used for further high resolution model construction in the region. The crustal thicknesses from Airy's equilibrium are smaller than our results in the Sichuan Basin, Qilian tectonic belt, northern Alxa block and Qaidam Basin, which is consistent with the high densities in the mantle lithosphere and may indicate that the high-density lithosphere drags crust down overall. High Poisson's ratios and low velocity zones are found in the mid- and lower crust beneath eastern Qilian tectonic belt and the boundary areas of the Ordos block, indicating that partial melting may exist in these regions. Low Poisson's ratios and low-velocity anomalies are observed in the crust in the NE Tibetan Plateau, implying that the mafic lower crust is thinning or missing and that the mid- and lower crust does not exhibit melting or partial melting in the NE Tibetan Plateau, and weak flow layers are not likely to exist in this region.

  11. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  12. Ischaemic heart disease deaths in Brazil: current trends, regional disparities and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cristina P; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Sabbag, Ary Elias; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Olandoski, Marcia; Franco, Oscar H; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the trend of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) deaths in Brazil during the last decade (2000-2010) for various population characteristics and to forecast the upcoming mortality trends across regions in Brazil until the year 2015. Nationwide comparative observational study. The population studied encompassed all adult residents (≥ 20 years) living in five Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, economic and mortality data were obtained from Brazilian National Mortality Data System and National Applied Economics Research Institute. Subnotified deaths were redistributed proportionally to IHD deaths. Age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex and region, were calculated employing a standard Brazilian population and constructing multivariate regression models to quantify and to project temporal trends. Absolute numbers of death due to IHD and region-specific death rates in Brazil by age and sex. During the study period, 627 786 men and 452 690 women died due to IHD in Brazil. ASMR trends across all regions for men and women converged, driven by a declining trend in the South and Southeast and an opposite incline in the North and Northeast (p < 0.05). Future projections demonstrated potential widening of the observed North-South gap in coming years. The IHD death trend in Brazil has changed from a decline to a stagnant state. However, a significant discrepancy in mortality trends exists between the northern and southern regions, which is likely to widen further. Reappraisal of the public health policies tailored to populations with diverse socioeconomic structures is urgently required.

  13. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Llasat, Maria C.; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-te...

  14. Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available . Seasonal trends in rainfall did, however, demonstrate some spatial variability across the region. Spatial trends in evapotranspiration obtained from the 8-day MOD16 ET product were characterised by a steepening inland-coastal gradient where areas along...

  15. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette

    1994-01-01

    and the mortality varied between the regions, with maximum differences of 22%. The analysis showed no variation in the time trends in the different regions, and thus indicates that the use of a regional comparison group would be a valid basis for evaluation of the Copenhagen programme. Our study, however, underlies...

  16. Trophic relationships in deep-water decapods of Le Danois bank (Cantabrian Sea, NE Atlantic): Trends related with depth and seasonal changes in food quality and availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Huguet, C.; Parra, S.; Sanchez, F.

    2007-07-01

    The trophic relationships of decapod crustaceans on Le Danois bank (NE of Iberian Peninsula, NE Atlantic Ocean) were studied within the framework of the multidisciplinary project ECOMARG during two surveys, one in October 2003 and the other in April 2004. The diets of eleven species of decapods were analyzed and, within a rather continuous gradient of food source exploitation, 3 trophic groups were identified: (1) plankton feeders, comprising the shrimps Acanthephyra pelagica, Sergia robusta, and Pasiphaea tarda, which preyed on meso-bathypelagic taxa such as euphausiids and calanoids; (2) benthos feeders, comprising the crangonids Pontophilus norvegicus and Pontophilus spinosus, the crab Geryon trispinosus and the shrimp Aristeus antennatus; and (3) an intermediate group, including the rest of species, with mixed diets that included detritus. Among the third group, anomurans ( Munida tenuimana, Pagurus alatus, and Parapagurus pilosimanus) consumed phytoplanktonic detritus in April, suggesting a link with peaks of surface Chl a occurring between March and April in the study area. Gut pigment and isotopic (δ 13C/δ 15N correlations) analyses revealed that assemblages inhabiting the top of the bank (455-612 m) and the inner basin (642-1048 m, close to the Lastres canyon head) had different food sources, with species inhabiting the deepest region exhibiting a stronger dependence on marine snow derivatives. These results are consistent with the higher proportion of mud and sediment organic matter (OM) content in the inner basin (82.2% pellites; 6.3% OM at 1028 m) compared to the top of the Le Danois bank (only 13.9% pellites; 2.8% OM at 485 m), which is a hydrodynamically more active zone. Exploitation of different food sources is also consistent with differences in the trophic level of species, inferred from stable δ 15N isotope analyses, which yield values ranging from 6.88‰ for the hermit crab P. alatus to 13.52‰ for the crangonid shrimp P. norvegicus. Stomach

  17. Trends bodybuilding development in Ukraine and Kharkov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the features of bodybuilding and Ukraine in Kharkiv region. Material and Methods: results conducted on the basis of archival materials and records of events, publications and other sources. Incrementally conducted research of bodybuilding Ukraine and Kharkiv from the first event to modern times. Results: bodybuilding – a sport that can be practiced at any age. This makes bodybuilding common among different population groups. Conclusions: every year in Ukraine, the growing number of athletes and their level of preparedness. Athletes of Ukraine and the Kharkiv region show good results in international competitions.

  18. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  19. Volcanological, petrographical and geochemical characteristics of Late Cretaceous volcanic rocks around Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Rasim; Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge

    2015-04-01

    This study presents volcanological, petrographical and geochemical data for late Cretaceous volcanic rocks from the Borçka-Artvin region (NE Turkey) in order to investigate their origin and magmatic evolution. Based on the previous ages and recent field studies, the late Cretaceous time in the study area is characterized by two different bimodal volcanic periods. The first bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism is mainly represented by mafic rock series (basaltic-basaltic andesitic pillow lavas and hyaloclastites) in the lower part, and felsic rock series (dacitic lavas, hyaloclastites, and pyrite-bearing tuffs) in the upper part. The second bimodal period of the late Cretaceous volcanism begins with mafic rock suites (basaltic-andesitic lavas and dikes-sills) and grades upward into felsic rock suites (biotite-bearing rhyolitic lavas and hyaloclastites), which are intercalated with hyaloclastites and red pelagic limestones. All volcano-sedimentary units are covered by Late Campanian-Paleocene clayey limestones and biomicrites with lesser calciturbidites. The mafic volcanic series of the study area, which comprise basaltic and andesitic rocks, generally show amygdaloidal and aphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of calcic to sodic plagioclase and augite in a hyalopilitic matrix of plag+cpx+mag. Zircon and magnetite are sometimes observed as accessory minerals, whereas chlorite, epidote and calcite are typical alteration products. On the other hand, the felsic volcanic series consisting of dacitic and rhyolitic rocks mostly display porphyritic and glomeroporphyritic textures with predominant feldspar, quartz and some biotite phenocrysts. The microgranular to felsophyric groundmass is mainly composed of aphanitic plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz. Accessory minerals such as zircon, apatite and magnetite are common. Typical alteration products are sericite and clay minerals. Late Cretaceous Artvin-Borçka bimodal rock series generally display a

  20. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African penguins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1987 to 2005, numbers of African penguins Spheniscus demersus breeding in South Africa's Western Cape Province increased by about 50%. Numbers decreased at the four northernmost colonies in the region: Lambert's Bay and the three colonies in Saldanha Bay, although at Jutten Island the decrease is inferred ...

  1. Past storminess recorded in the internal architecture of coastal formations of Estonia in the NE Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Vilumaa, Kadri; Kont, Are; Sugita, Shinya; Rosentau, Alar; Muru, Merle; Anderson, Agnes

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, storminess has increased in northern Europe because of the changes in cyclonic activity. The cyclone season in the Baltic Sea area has shifted from autumn to winter; this has led to intensification of shore processes (erosion, sediment transport and accumulation) and has increased pressure to the economy (land use, coastal protection measures) of the coastal regions in the Baltic states. Therefore, studing the effects of such changes on shore processes in the past is critical for prediction of the future changes along the Baltic coasts. Beach ridge plains are found worldwide, where cyclones and storm surges affect accumulation forms. These sandy shores are highly susceptible to erosion. Due to the isostatic uplift on the NE coast of the Baltic Sea, the signs of major past events are well-preserved in the internal architecture of old coastal formations (dune ridge-swale complexes). Wave-eroded scarps in beach deposits are visible in subsurface ground-penetrating radar (GPR) records, indicating the past high-energy events. Several study areas and transects were selected on the NW coast of Estonia, using high-resolution topographic maps (LiDAR). Shore-normal subsurface surveys have been conducted with a digital GSSI SIR-3000 georadar with a 270 MHz antenna at each transect. Interpretation of GPR facies was based on hand auger and window sampler coring, which provided accurate depths of key stratigraphic boundaries and bounding surfaces. Several samples for luminescence and 14C dating were collected to determine the approximate chronology of the coastal formations along the Estonian coast. We have found that changes in storminess, including the periods of high and low intensity of storms in late Holocene, are clearly reflected in the internal patterns of ancient coastal formations. The sections with small ridges with short seaward-dipped layers (interface between wave-built and aeolian deposits) in deeper horizons are probably formed during

  2. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions.

  3. Global Disparities Since 1800: Trends and Regional Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahid Alam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the growing body of evidence on the relative economic standing of different regions of the world in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In general, it does not find support for Euro-centric claims regarding Western Europe’s early economic lead. The Eurocentric claims are based primarily on estimates of per capita income, which are plagued by conceptual problems, make demands on historical data that are generally unavailable, and use questionable assumptions to reconstruct early per capita income. A careful examination of these conjectural estimates of per capita income, however, does not support claims that Western Europe had a substantial lead over the rest of the world at the beginning of the nineteenth century. An examination of several alternative indices of living standards in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries—such as real wages, labor productivity in agriculture, and urbanization—also fails to confirm claims of European superiority. In addition, this paper examines the progress of global disparities—including the presence of regional patterns—using estimates of per capita income.

  4. Validation of dose-response curve of CRCN-NE - Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences from Northeast Brazil for {sup 60}Co: preliminary results; Validacao da curva dose-resposta do CRCN-NE para {sup 60}Co: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Julyanne C.G.; Mendes, Mariana E.; Hwang, Suy F.; Lima, Fabiana F. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Neide, E-mail: july_cgm@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica

    2014-07-01

    The cytogenetic study has the chromosomal alterations as biomarkers in absorbed dose estimation by the body of individuals involved in exposure to ionizing radiation by interpreting a dose response calibration curve. Since the development of the technique to the analysis of data, you can see protocol characteristics, leading the International Atomic Energy Agency indicate that any laboratory with intention to carry out biological dosimetry establish their own calibration curves. The Biological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN), Brazil, recently established the calibration curve related to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co). Thus, this work aimed to start the validation of this calibration curve from samples of three different blood donors which were irradiated with an absorbed known single dose of 1 Gy. Samples were exposed to {sup 60}Co source (Glaucoma 220) located in the Department of Nuclear Energy (DEN/UFPE). After fixation with methanol and acetic acid and 5% Giemsa staining, the frequency of chromosomal alterations (dicentric chromosomes, acentric rings and fragments) were established from reading of 500 metaphases per sample and doses were estimated using Dose Estimate program. The results showed that, using the dose-response curve calibration for dicentrics, the dose absorbed estimated for the three individuals ranged from 0.891 - 1,089Gy, taking into account the range of confidence of 95%. By using the dose-response curve for dicentrics added to rings and for the same interval of confidence the doses ranged from 0,849 - 1,081Gy. Thus, the estimative encompassed known absorbed dose the three individuals in confidence interval of 95%. These preliminary results seems to demonstrate that dicentric dose-response curves and dicentrics plus rings established by CRCN-NE / CNEN are valid for dose estimation in exposed individuals. This validation will continue with samples from different individuals at different doses.

  5. Cuban Migration Trends and Their Impact on Central America Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleene Cortez Sosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.

  6. Evaluation of trends in high temperature extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, E.; Hazeleger, W.; Oldenborgh, van G.J.; Sterl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Projections of future changes in weather extremes on the regional and local scale depend on a realistic representation of trends in extremes in regional climate models (RCMs). We have tested this assumption for moderate high temperature extremes (the annual maximum of the daily maximum 2 m

  7. Trends in temperature and rainfall extremes in the Yellow River source region, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Y.; Maskey, S.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in daily temperature and rainfall indices are analyzed for the source region of Yellow River. Three periods are examined: 1960–1990, 1960–2000 and 1960–2006. Significant warming trends have been observed for the whole study region over all the three periods, particularly

  8. Transformation of regional educational space: inline with world and Russian trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. Fokina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article points some problems and prospects in evolution of Russian educational space in context with the world trends in education. It presents the author’s vision over the vector of transforming the regional education space, which contribute to raiseof the level of professional potential of indigenous peoples of the North of Tyumen region.

  9. Analysis of the female mortality trend due to assault in Brazil, States and Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Franciele Marabotti Costa; Mascarello, Keila Cristina; Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Fávero, Juliana Lopes; Santos, Andréia Soprani Dos; Silva, Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da; Wehrmeister, Fernando César

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze time trend of female mortality due to assault in Brazil, regions and states from 2002 to 2012. This is an ecological times series study with secondary data from women aged 20-59 years who died due to assault. Mortality rates were analyzed by simple linear regression and stratified by region, Gini Index and Human Development Index (HDI). The trend of female rate of mortality due to assault was stable in the country, with differences between states and regions. The Midwest had the highest rates and stagnation trend. There was an increased trend in the North, Northeast and South and a decreased trend in the Southeast. The states of the tertile with the highest HDI evidenced a declining trend and stabilization in the first and second tertiles. An increased mortality rate was recorded in states with greater social inequality. Notwithstanding the national stabilization behavior, results point to the need for social policies appropriate to the specificities of states and regions.

  10. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-E. Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961–2010. Before the early 1980s (1961–1983, change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984–2010, the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  11. Dominance of climate warming effects on recent drying trends over wet monsoon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Su-Jong; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Park, Hoonyoung; Piao, Shilong; Kim, Jinwon; Feng, Song

    2017-09-01

    Understanding changes in background dryness over land is key information for adapting to climate change because of its critical socioeconomic consequences. However, causes of continental dryness changes remain uncertain because various climate parameters control dryness. Here, we verify dominant climate variables determining dryness trends over continental eastern Asia, which is characterized by diverse hydroclimate regimes ranging from arid to humid, by quantifying the relative effects of changes in precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed, surface air temperature, and relative humidity on trends in the aridity index based on observed data from 189 weather stations for the period of 1961-2010. Before the early 1980s (1961-1983), change in precipitation is a primary condition for determining aridity trends. In the later period (1984-2010), the dominant climate parameter for aridity trends varies according to the hydroclimate regime. Drying trends in arid regions are mostly explained by reduced precipitation. In contrast, the increase in potential evapotranspiration due to increased atmospheric water-holding capacity, a secondary impact of warming, works to increase aridity over the humid monsoon region despite an enhanced water supply and relatively less warming. Our results show significant drying effects of warming over the humid monsoon region in recent decades; this also supports the drying trends over warm and water-sufficient regions in future climate.

  12. Evaluating the patterns of spatiotemporal trends of root zone soil moisture in major climate regions in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohaib, Muhammad; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-08-01

    Root zone soil moisture (RZSM) is a crucial variable in land-atmosphere interactions. Evaluating the spatiotemporal trends and variability patterns of RZSM are essential for discerning the anthropogenic and climate change effects on the regional and global hydrological cycles. In this study, the trends of RZSM, computed by the exponential filter from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative soil moisture, were evaluated in major climate regions of East Asia from 1982 to 2014. Moreover, the trends of RZSM were compared to the trends of precipitation (P), skin temperature (Tskin), and actual evapotranspiration (AET) to investigate how they influence the RZSM trends in each climate region. Drying trends were predominant in arid and continental regions, whereas wetting trends were found in the tropical and temperate regions. The increasing trends of Tskin and AET cause drying in arid and continental regions, whereas in tropical regions, these cause wetting trends, which might be due to convective P. In temperate regions, despite decreasing P and increasing Tskin, the RZSM trend was increasing, attributed to the intensive irrigation activities in these regions. This is probably the first time to analyze the long-term trends of RZSM in different climate regions. Hence, the results of this study will improve our understanding of the regional and global hydrological cycles. Despite certain limitations, the results of this study may be useful for improving and developing climate models and predicting long-term vast scale natural disasters such as drought, dust outbreaks, floods, and heat waves.

  13. Long-term trends in the ionospheric E and F1 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground based ionosonde measurements are the most essential source of information about long-term variations in the ionospheric E and F1 regions. Data of such observations have been derived at many different ionospheric stations all over the world some for more than 50 years. The standard parameters foE, h'E, and foF1 are used for trend analyses in this paper. Two main problems have to be considered in these analyses. Firstly, the data series have to be homogeneous, i.e. the observations should not be disturbed by artificial steps due to technical reasons or changes in the evaluation algorithm. Secondly, the strong solar and geomagnetic influences upon the ionospheric data have carefully to be removed by an appropriate regression analysis. Otherwise the small trends in the different ionospheric parameters cannot be detected.

    The trends derived at individual stations differ markedly, however their dependence on geographic or geomagnetic latitude is only small. Nevertheless, the mean global trends estimated from the trends at the different stations show some general behaviour (positive trends in foE and foF1, negative trend in h'E which can at least qualitatively be explained by an increasing atmospheric greenhouse effect (increase of CO2 content and other greenhouse gases and decreasing ozone values. The positive foE trend is also in qualitative agreement with rocket mass spectrometer observations of ion densities in the E region. First indications could be found that the changing ozone trend at mid-latitudes (before about 1979, between 1979 until 1995, and after about 1995 modifies the estimated mean foE trend.

  14. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while there is no trend detectable at Barrow.

    To reveal the contribution of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the

  15. Evaluation of regional trends in power plant siting and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Wolsko, T.D.; Mueller, R.O.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Senew, M.J.; Gamauf, K.; Seymour, D.A.

    1977-07-01

    This study reviews trends in power plant siting and energy transport. The perspective is regional and covers the contiguous United States. A review of the methodologies used by utilities in siting power plants is given, as well as a detailed summary of state and Federal siting legislation. Air quality management programs that impact on siting are discussed, and trends in the inter-regional transport of energy in the form of fuel and electricity are evaluated. The review of siting trends presented is based on an empirical analysis of data submitted to the Federal Power Commission. For each region, alternative patterns of energy transport are analyzed, with particular emphasis on environmental impacts. A discussion of the movement toward development of energy parks concludes the report. 63 refs., 72 figs., 122 tables.

  16. Changes to urban form and commuting patterns: trends in two Danish city regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares indicators of polycentricity in a monocentric (MUR) and a polycentric urban region (PUR) in Denmark at two points in time (1982 and 2002). It describes how population, jobs and commuting indicators of polycentricity develop and interact over time. Both the MUR and the PUR tend...... towards more balanced development. The increasing size of the main node in the PUR is the only deviation from the general trend. The general tendency towards a more polycentric regional structure was most marked in changing interaction and commuting patterns. Inter-urban commuting increased, while intra......-urban commuting decreased, leading to dispersion of commuters and a rapid increase in commuting across the region. Commuting distances were shortest in the polycentric region, but it also had the highest growth rates. In both regions, the balancing trend leads to a dispersal of commuting demand over...

  17. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978-2004: a joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracci, Fabrizio; Canosa, Antonio; Minelli, Liliana; Petrinelli, Anna Maria; Cassetti, Tiziana; Romagnoli, Carlo; La Rosa, Francesco

    2007-01-16

    The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness). Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Mortality data for the periods 1978-1993 and 1994-2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM) respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers were recently introduced. Besides gastric cancer, tobacco

  18. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  19. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  20. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  1. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B.; Dalgaard, Tommy; Thorling, L.

    2012-01-01

    The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have......, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average......, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate...

  2. Trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide over the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S. D.; Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Ahlström, A.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H.; Heinze, C.; Huntingford, C.; Levis, S.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.; Arneth, A.; Bonan, G.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Ellis, R.; Gloor, M.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S.; Le Quéré, C.; Smith, B.; Zhu, Z.; Myneni, R.

    2013-12-01

    The land and ocean absorb on average over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) and four Ocean Biogeochemical General Circulation Models (OBGCMs) to quantify the global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 - driven trends in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990-2009, attribute these trends to underlying processes, and quantify the uncertainty and level of model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; Land Use and Land Cover Changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990-2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of -2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr-1 with a small significant trend of -0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990-2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of -2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr-1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (-0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small trend of -0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP) whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr-2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-2 - primarily as a consequence of wide-spread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (-0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2), with almost no trend over the northern land region, where recent warming and

  3. Recent trends and drivers of regional sources and sinks of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitch, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gruber, N.; Jones, S. D.; Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Ahlström, A.; Doney, S. C.; Graven, H.; Heinze, C.; Huntingford, C.; Levis, S.; Levy, P. E.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.; Arneth, A.; Bonan, G.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Ellis, R.; Gloor, M.; Peylin, P.; Piao, S. L.; Le Quéré, C.; Smith, B.; Zhu, Z.; Myneni, R.

    2015-02-01

    The land and ocean absorb on average just over half of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. These CO2 "sinks" are modulated by climate change and variability. Here we use a suite of nine dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) and four ocean biogeochemical general circulation models (OBGCMs) to estimate trends driven by global and regional climate and atmospheric CO2 in land and oceanic CO2 exchanges with the atmosphere over the period 1990-2009, to attribute these trends to underlying processes in the models, and to quantify the uncertainty and level of inter-model agreement. The models were forced with reconstructed climate fields and observed global atmospheric CO2; land use and land cover changes are not included for the DGVMs. Over the period 1990-2009, the DGVMs simulate a mean global land carbon sink of -2.4 ± 0.7 Pg C yr-1 with a small significant trend of -0.06 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-2 (increasing sink). Over the more limited period 1990-2004, the ocean models simulate a mean ocean sink of -2.2 ± 0.2 Pg C yr-1 with a trend in the net C uptake that is indistinguishable from zero (-0.01 ± 0.02 Pg C yr-2). The two ocean models that extended the simulations until 2009 suggest a slightly stronger, but still small, trend of -0.02 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2. Trends from land and ocean models compare favourably to the land greenness trends from remote sensing, atmospheric inversion results, and the residual land sink required to close the global carbon budget. Trends in the land sink are driven by increasing net primary production (NPP), whose statistically significant trend of 0.22 ± 0.08 Pg C yr-2 exceeds a significant trend in heterotrophic respiration of 0.16 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-2 - primarily as a consequence of widespread CO2 fertilisation of plant production. Most of the land-based trend in simulated net carbon uptake originates from natural ecosystems in the tropics (-0.04 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-2), with almost no trend over the northern land region

  4. Decadal-scale trends in regional aerosol particle properties and their linkage to emission changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Diner, David; Worden, John; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Xing, Jia; Garay, Michael; Huang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Understanding long-term trends in aerosol loading and properties is essential for evaluating the health and climatic effects of these airborne particulates as well as the effectiveness of pollution control policies. While many studies have used satellite data to examine the trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD), very few have investigated the trends in aerosol properties associated with particle size, morphology, and light absorption. In this study, we investigate decadal-scale (13-15 year) trends in aerosol loading and properties during 2001-2015 over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). We use observations from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Relationships between aerosol property trends and air pollutant emission changes are examined. We find that annual mean AOD shows pronounced decreasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, as a result of considerable emission reductions in all major pollutants except for mineral dust and ammonia (NH3). Over the ECC region, AOD increases before 2006 due to emission increases induced by rapid economic development, fluctuates between 2006 and 2011, and subsequently decreases after 2011 in conjunction with effective emission reduction in anthropogenic primary aerosols, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fraction of small-size AOD (albedo have generally decreased, while the fractions of large-size (>1.4 μm diameter), nonspherical and absorbing AOD have generally shown increasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, indicating that fine and light-scattering aerosol constituents have been more effectively reduced than coarse and light-absorbing constituents. These trends are consistent with the larger reduction ratios in SO2 and NOx emissions than in primary aerosols, including mineral dust and black carbon (BC). Over the ECC region, no significant trends are observed with

  5. The Current State and Trends of Development of Stores in Kyiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beglarashvili Oksana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state and trends of development of stores in Kyiv region for 2010-2016 are analyzed. The research reflects regional aspects of the basic indicators of development of the stores — there analyzed the dynamics of retail turnover, consumer price indices, retail turnover of retail trade enterprises, commodity stocks in the enterprises’ retail network, basic indicators of stores of enterprises-legal entities, namely the number of stores; sales area; provision of the population with sales area; sales area per store, etc. Carrying out the research of development trends of the retail trade network in Kiev region, the indicators characterizing the network of stores of enterprises-legal entities trading in food and non-food goods of are analyzed. There proposed measures to level the disproportions in the development of the retail trade network in urban and rural area of Kyiv region.

  6. Climate trends in a non-traditional high quality wine producing region

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    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global warming may put pressure over some world's highest quality wine producing regions. This fact indicates the need to evaluate the presence of climate change in non-traditional wine producing regions of the Globe. Therefore, the goals of this study were to detect trends in rainfall and air temperature series obtained from three locations of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (a non-traditional high quality wine producing region and to evaluate the effect of the detected climate trends on agrometeorological indices frequently used to indicate suitable areas for wine production. The trend analyses were applied to maximum and minimum air temperature series, rainfall series and to the following agrometeorological parameters: heliothermal index, cool night index and growing degree-days. These three indices were selected due to their previous use in studies that address the effect of regional climate conditions on the general wine style. The analyses took into account the grape phenological aspects for both summer and winter growing seasons. The results found in this study support the hypothesis of the presence of climate trends in the wine producing regions of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo-Brazil. These trends are mostly linked to changes in the minimum air temperature. The results also reveal a shortening in the duration of grapevines phenological phases and a change to warmer conditions during the ripening Months. These changes are consistent with the climate changes observed in other wine producing regions of the world and may negatively affect the wine production of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo.

  7. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. The data were analyzed for maximum temperature increases and the trends were confirmed statistically using Spearman’s nonparametric test. Temperature trends were correlated with the mortality information related with extreme heat events in the region. The results showed a clear trend of increasing maximum temperatures during the months of June, July, and August for five of the six cities and statically confirmed using Spearman’s rho values. Las Vegas was the only city where the temperature increase was not confirmed using Spearman’s test, probably because it is geographically located outside of the Sonoran Desert or because of its proximity to the Hoover Dam. The relationship between mortality and temperature was analyzed for the cities of Mexicali, Mexico and Phoenix. Arizona.

  8. Disparities in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction: long-term trends from the Hunter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Allan J; Naudin, Crystal; Al-Omary, Mohammed; Khan, Arshad; Oldmeadow, Chris; Jones, Mark; Bastian, Bruce; Bhagwandeen, Rohan; Fletcher, Peter; Leitch, James; Boyle, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Trends in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) provide important information for healthcare providers and can allow for accurate planning of future health needs and targeted interventions in areas with an excess burden of cardiovascular disease. To investigate the regional variations in AMI incidence in the Hunter region. Incident cases of AMI identified between 1996 and 2013 from the Hunter New England Health Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit were prospectively collected for this study. We calculated crude and age-adjusted incidence of AMI over an 18-year period and explored differences in remoteness, age, sex and indigenous status. During 1996-2013, a total of 15 480 cases of AMI were identified. There was a significantly higher incidence of AMI in patients from regional areas compared to patients from metropolitan areas. More importantly, while rates of AMI declined by 28% in metropolitan patients, they increased by 8% in regional patients. Males had higher rates of AMI throughout the study period than females, however there was trend over time towards a reduction in AMI incidence in males that was not seen in females. The age-adjusted incidence of AMI for indigenous patients increased by 48% from 2007 to 2013, compared to a 23% decrease in non-indigenous patients. Between 1996 and 2013 in the Hunter region, the adjusted incidence of AMI increased for regional patients compared to metropolitan patients with a trend towards a higher adjusted incidence of AMI in the indigenous population. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  9. Regional analysis of groundwater nitrate concentrations and trends in Denmark in regard to agricultural influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sørensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The act of balancing between an intensive agriculture with a high potential for nitrate pollution and a drinking water supply almost entirely based on groundwater is a challenge faced by Denmark and similar regions around the globe. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30–55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg l−1. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988–2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N surplus in agriculture, high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater and the largest number of downward nitrate trends in groundwater in the livestock-dense northern and western parts of Denmark compared with the southeastern regions with lower livestock densities. These results indicate that the livestock farms dominating in northern and western parts of Denmark have achieved the largest reductions in N surpluses. Groundwater recharge age determinations allow comparison of long-term changes in N surplus in agriculture with changes in oxic groundwater quality. The presented data analysis is based on groundwater recharged from 1952

  10. Climatic warming above the Arctic Circle: are there trends in timing and length of the thermal growing season in Murmansk Region (Russia) between 1951 and 2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Ilona; Chmielewski, Frank-Michael

    2015-06-01

    Anomalies in the timing of the thermal growing season have become obvious in the NE part of Fennoscandia since 2000. They are in accordance with climatic changes reported for Europe and Fennoscandia. The actual length of the growing season reached 120 days on average, onset on 30 May and ending on 27 September (1981-2010). Shifts in the timing of the growing season and its mean prolongation by 18.5 days/62a are demonstrated for Murmansk Region (1951-2012). In this period, the onset of the growing season advanced by 7.1 days/62a, while the end was extended by 11.4 days/62a. The delay in the end of the growing season is similar to the entire Fennoscandian pattern but it has not been detected in the rest of Europe. The regional pattern of climatic regimes in Murmansk Region remained stable in comparison with earlier climatic maps (1971). However, the actual shifts in the timing of the growing season were more pronounced in colder (oceanic and mountainous) parts. Recent climatic trends could influence the retreat of the tundra zone and changes in the forest line. Losses of tundra biodiversity and enrichment of the northern taiga by southern species could be expected from present climatic trends.

  11. Regional trends in surface solar radiation derived from satellite-based data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Posselt, Rebekka; Krähenmann, Stefan; Müller, Richard W.; Wild, Martin; Stöckli, Reto; Ahrens, Bodo

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of the surface solar radiation and the detection of its variability and possible changes is highly relevant for our understanding of the climate system. Clouds and aerosols are the main contributors to the observed changes in the solar energy reaching the surface. Clouds are well observed from satellites, especially during daytime, making satellite-derived data sets of the surface radiation a potentially powerful source of information to assess the spatial structure of surface solar radiation. Surface-based observations, e.g., from the BSRN and GEBA networks, have been used to assess the temporal variability and trend of the surface radiation. Due to the limited spatial distribution of the surface stations, a generalization of the trends derived from measurements at individual stations is difficult. Satellite-derived data of the surface radiation, providing up to global coverage, are available since the 1980s allowing an analysis of the regional variability of temporal changes of the surface radiation. Here, we use surface solar radiation data generated and provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF, www.cmsaf.eu) based on geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. The ability of the satellite-derived data sets to detect trends is tested and assessed by comparison with surface reference observations in Europe. It is shown that, at least for part of the available time series, the satellite data is stable and can be used to derive trend estimates. Substantial regional differences in the trend of the surface solar radiation are detected across Europe between 1994 and 2005, with strong positive trends over Central Europe (brightening) and negative trends over the Mediterranean Sea (dimming).

  12. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  13. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women.

  14. Long-term variations and trends in the polar E-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoland, L. M.; Ogawa, Y.; Hall, C.; Rietveld, M.; Løvhaug, U. P.; La Hoz, C.; Miyaoka, H.

    2017-10-01

    As the EISCAT UHF radar system in Northern Scandinavia started its operations in the early 1980s, the collected data cover about three solar cycles. These long time-series provide us the opportunity to study long-term variations and trends of ionospheric parameters in the high latitude region. In the present study we have used the EISCAT Tromsø UHF data to investigate variations of the Hall conductivity and ion temperatures in the E-region around noon. Both the ion temperature and the peak altitude of the Hall conductivity are confirmed to depend strongly on solar zenith angle. However, the dependence on solar activity seems to be weak. In order to search for trends in these parameters, the ion temperature and peak altitude of the Hall conductivity data were adjusted for their seasonal and solar cycle dependence. A very weak descent (∼0.2 km/ decade) was seen in the peak altitude of the Hall conductivity. The ion temperature at 110 km shows a cooling trend (∼10 K/ decade). However, other parameters than solar zenith angle and solar activity seem to affect the ion temperature at this altitude, and a better understanding of these parameters is necessary to derive a conclusive trend. In this paper, we discuss what may cause the characteristics of the variations in the electric conductivities and ion temperatures in the high latitude region.

  15. Current state and development trends of the agroindustrial complex and rural territories of Perm Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Vladimirovich Klimenkov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of regional agricultural sector status and rural areas of Perm in 1990-2011 years indicates a systemic crisis of agriculture in Perm region, which is largely determined by the fact that Perm region has no strategy or strategic plan and program for sustainable agricultural sector and rural areas of Perm region development, there is no scheme of territorial development and master plans of territorial development with the development of agro-industrial complex of Perm region. In these circumstances, there is a steady downward trend in production, weakening and bankruptcy of enterprises, social impoverishment of rural areas, appearance of many of irreversible processes (sale and neglect of agricultural land, demographic problems associated with low living standards, population migration, policy optimization in the areas of education and health, union of territories, policy of depopulation of territories etc.. This paper presents main recommendations for improving the situation in agriculture of Perm region.

  16. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    OpenAIRE

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria; Erick R. Bandala

    2017-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico) and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada) were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. Th...

  17. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  18. Trend of annual temperature and frequency of extreme events in the MATOPIBA region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Mozar de A.; de Brito, J. I. B.

    2017-06-01

    During the 1980s, a new agricultural frontier arouse in Brazil, which occupied part of the states of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia. Currently, this new frontier is known as the MATOPIBA region. The region went through intense transformations in its social and environmental characteristics, with the emergence of extensive areas of intensive agriculture and large herds. The purpose of this research was to study the climatic variabilities of temperature in the MATOPIBA region through extreme climate indexes of ClimAp tool. Data from 11 weather stations were analyzed for yearly air temperature (maximum and minimum) in the period of 1970 to 2012. To verify the trend in the series, we used methods of linear regression analysis and Kendall-tau test. The annual analysis of maximum and minimum temperatures and of the temperature extremes indexes showed a strong positive trend in practically every series (with p value less than 0.05). These results indicated that the region went through to a significant heating process in the last 3 decades. The indices of extreme also showed a significant positive trend in most of the analyzed stations, indicating a higher frequency of warm days during the year.

  19. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrinelli Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness. Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Methods Mortality data for the periods 1978–1993 and 1994–2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. Results For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Conclusion Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers

  20. Regional Trends in Large Wildfires and Climate in the Western U.S., 1984-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Brewer, S.; Arnold, J.; Moritz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database provides remote sensing-based maps of fire perimeters for all fires larger than 405 ha (1000 acres) in the Western U.S. The database uniquely permits analysis of large fires on all lands, collected using a uniform methodology, for the 1984-2010 period. We used MTBS data to examine changes in the annual number of large fires, total area burned in large fires, large fire size, and day of year of ignition (DOY) for ten ecoregions across the Western U.S. Fire trends were compared to seasonal trends in maximum temperature, precipitation, and Self-Calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (SCPDSI) derived from monthly PRISM data. In a majority of ecoregions, our analysis revealed statistically significant positive trends in the number of large fires and/or total area burned in large fires per year. When all regions were combined, fire occurrence increased at a rate of six large fires per year and total area burned increased at a rate of 274 km2 per year over the 1984-2010 period. Multiple ecoregions demonstrated significant increases in the 90th percentile of large fire size, with trends as high as +3 km2 per year. The 10th percentile of DOY, an indicator of early season large fires, declined in two high elevation ecoregions. This finding agrees with previous research that has observed correlations between earlier snowmelt and increased fire activity at high elevation. Fall maximum temperature trended warmer and SCPDI in all seasons trended drier in the ecoregions with strongest increases in fire activity. At the Western U.S. scale, increases in large fire occurrence and total area burned coincide with increased drought severity over the 1984-2010 period.

  1. TRENDS OF TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OF INTERNATIONAL FACTORS IN MARKETING ADAPTATIONAL STRATEGIES OF REGIONAL CENTRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna BUDNIKEVYCH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the impact of international factors to formation of marketing adaptation strategies of regional centres development; regards influence of “regional revolution” to strategic trends of cities of Chernivtsi and Suceava; forms a list of factors that can either open additional opportunities for a city or, on the contrary, become potential bearers of threats for implementation of sustainable development strategy; attention is paid to threats and advantages for regional economy of activation processes of activity of global trade networks; examples of cooperation in geo-space direction are given; the role of regional marketing technologies is determined in provision of complex long-term cross-border effect of cooperation of Chernivtsi and Suceava as regional centres of Bukovyna.

  2. Recent trends in incidence of cervical cancer in several regions of south-western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L; Ménégoz, F; Fioretta, G

    1995-01-01

    In recent decades, most Western countries have experienced a decline in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. More recently, a reversal of this trend has been noted in young women, especially in anglo-saxon countries. These trends have been attributed to the beneficial results of cervical cancer screening on the one hand, to the widespread increase of high risk sexual behaviors on the other. Recent trends in Latin European countries have not previously been studied. Time trends of incidence data from 10 regions of South-Western Europe (Geneva, Vaud, Calvados, Doubs, Bas-Rhin, Isère, Ragusa, Varese, Zaragoza and Navarra) were analysed by means of log-linear models. The data were provided for various periods of time between 1970 and 1990. The mean incidence rate varies threefold between Navarra where rates are the lowest to Calvados where they are the highest. The overall decrease rate is of the order of -3% per year but rate changes differ by age group. The reduction seems to concern mostly middle aged women. A definite trend could not be determined among younger women due to low case numbers. Thus, the hypothesis of a rising incidence in young women cannot be confirmed at this time.

  3. [Variation trends of the vegetations in distribution region of Amur tiger based on MODIS NDVI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ru; Wang, Tian-Ming; Ge, Han-Ping

    2012-10-01

    By using the averaged 250 m MODIS NDVI data in growth seasons of 2000-2010 and the approach of ordinary linear regression, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the vegetations in the distribution region of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica), the Far East region of Russia and the eastern part of Northeast China, as well as the relationships between these variation trends and the anthropogenic activities. In 2000 - 2010, the areas with significantly decreased NDVI were sparsely distributed and accounted for 9.6% of the total, while the areas with significantly increased NDVI were mainly concentrated in the central part of northern Russia Far East Region and only accounted for 0.5% of the total. The percentage of the areas with significantly decreased NDVI in the distribution region of Amur tiger was slightly higher than that in the whole study region. The areas with significantly decreased NDVI were mainly distributed in the places of low elevation, gentle slope, and close to roads/railroads. The number of the pixels with significantly decreased NDVI increased with the increase of the nearest distance to residential locations first, and then decreased gradually. The significant decrease of the NDVI was closely related to the anthropogenic activities, and thus, to adopt effective measures to reduce human disturbances could control the vegetation degradation, and further, provide sustainable basis for the protection of Amur tiger and the conservation of the biodiversity in the studied region.

  4. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  5. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and Consumption of Food Legume Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Akibode, Comlanvi Sitou; Maredia, Mywish K.

    2012-01-01

    Food legumes play an important and diverse role in the farming systems and in the diets of poor people around the world. They are ideal crops for simultaneously achieving three developmental goals in targeted population—reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing ecosystem resilience. This report provides global and regional trend analysis and sheds light on the pulse crop production, price, trade, and consumption patterns observed in the developing world, developed ...

  6. Dynamic spatiotemporal trends of dengue transmission in the Asia-Pacific region, 1955-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera Banu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease's cluster areas. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: The World Health Organization's DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02 of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004. The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. CONCLUSIONS: This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed.

  7. Regional transport modelling for nitrate trend assessment and forecasting in a chalk aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Philippe; Brouyère, Serge; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Couturier, Julie; Goderniaux, Pascal; Leroy, Mathieu; Maloszewski, Piotr; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-10-21

    Regional degradation of groundwater resources by nitrate has become one of the main challenges for water managers worldwide. Regulations have been defined to reverse observed nitrate trends in groundwater bodies, such as the Water Framework Directive and the Groundwater Daughter Directive in the European Union. In such a context, one of the main challenges remains to develop efficient approaches for groundwater quality assessment at regional scale, including quantitative numerical modelling, as a decision support for groundwater management. A new approach combining the use of environmental tracers and the innovative 'Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell' (HFEMC) modelling technique is developed to study and forecast the groundwater quality at the regional scale, with an application to a regional chalk aquifer in the Geer basin in Belgium. Tritium data and nitrate time series are used to produce a conceptual model for regional groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the combined unsaturated and saturated zones of the chalk aquifer. This shows that the spatial distribution of the contamination in the Geer basin is essentially linked to the hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the basin, more precisely to groundwater age and mixing and not to the spatial patterns of land use or local hydrodispersive processes. A three-dimensional regional scale groundwater flow and solute transport model is developed. It is able to reproduce the spatial patterns of tritium and nitrate and the observed nitrate trends in the chalk aquifer and it is used to predict the evolution of nitrate concentrations in the basin. The modelling application shows that the global inertia of groundwater quality is strong in the basin and trend reversal is not expected to occur before the 2015 deadline fixed by the European Water Framework Directive. The expected time required for trend reversal ranges between 5 and more than 50 years, depending on the location in the basin and the expected reduction

  8. Breast cancer mortality trends in Italy by region and screening programme, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Zappa, Marco; Cortini, Barbara; Martini, Andrea; Mantellini, Paola; Ventura, Leonardo; Carreras, Giulia

    2014-12-01

    To describe trends in breast cancer mortality in 14 Italian regions representing 90% of the Italian population, and in the country overall, in relation to the diffusion of organized or opportunistic breast cancer screening programmes. Settings : Breast cancer mortality figures from 1980-2008 in Italy and 14 Italian regions were retrieved from the National Statistics Institute. Estimated annual percent change (EAPC) was calculated for three time-periods (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2008). To estimate the age-adjusted and age-specific EAPC, trends in mortality based on annual data were examined using a log-linear regression model, and the year of death as a regressor variable. In the period 1980-1989 an increasing trend was observed in Italy overall (EAPC = +1.1%; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: + 0.9%; + 1.3%) and in the 14 regions. In the second decade a decreasing trend was recorded both overall in Italy (EAPC = -1.6%; 95CI:-1.8%;-1.4%) and in all the regions. Between 2000-2008 a slightly decreasing trend was observed in Italy overall (EAPC = -0.8%; 95%CI:-1.0%;-0.5%). A steeper and earlier decrease compared with the rest of Italy was observed in 1990-1999 in Liguria (EAPC = -3.1%; 95%CI:-4.0%,-2.1%), Lombardy (EAPC = -2.3%; 95%CI:-2.8%;-1.9%), and Tuscany (EAPC = -3.0%; 95%CI:-3.7%;-2.2%), mainly due to the 55-64 age-group. There were significant EAPCs between -4.1% and -3.7% in these three regions, 2.5-3.0 times greater than in the rest of Italy (EAPC = -1.4%). This earlier decline in three Italian regions could be partially attributable to local organized screening programmes implemented earlier than in the rest of Italy, and to opportunistic screening that became more common in 1990s. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Trends and Perspectives of Social and Economic Development of the Perm region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliya Kh. Usmanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main purpose of the article is study the current prerequisites and trends of the economic development of the Perm Region to formulate proposals and recommendations within the framework of the program for the long-term development of regional social and economic systems. The main hypothesis of the article is that the social and economic development of the Perm Region requires the creation of innovative ways to develop promising areas of business based on relevant trends and assumptions.Methods: the methodology of solving the tasks is based on the use of the method of dialectical research, methods of economic analysis, forecasting, situational and system analysis, expert assessments and analysis of empirical data.Results: the results of the work are to study the economic processes in the region, including indicators and indicators of the region's social and economic development, and further develop recommendations and proposals for the development of priority areas in project management and selection of optimal project planning models to ensure sustainable development of the region and its competitiveness.Conclusions and Relevance: priority goals for solving the current economic problems of the Perm Region are to increase the income of the population and increase the revenue of the regional budget. To increase the pace and ensure the stability of economic growth, increase the real income of citizens, achieve technological leadership, a consistent solution to a number of specific tasks is necessary. It is important that the implementation of economic policy should be based on building partnerships between public authorities and entrepreneurship, aimed at increasing the efficiency of companies and the development of the economy of the region.

  10. Trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wan C

    2011-03-01

    The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is rapidly growing in the Asia-Pacific region. There is the need for region-specific research and analysis of the epidemiology of COPD to raise awareness of the disease and highlight its causes. Such information is essential to for the development of effective national health policies to ensure evidence-based deployment of finite healthcare resources in the prevention and management of COPD. Recent population-based epidemiological studies have confirmed previous assumptions that COPD in the Asia-Pacific region is as prevalent as in the mature economies of the western world. The greatest numbers of deaths and hospitalizations from COPD are concentrated in this populous region of the world. The patterns in trends in mortality and hospitalization in the past 10 years in Asia-Pacific countries show a spectrum from the 'mature' to the 'evolving' and are likely related to the combined effects of cigarette smoking and nonsmoking risk factors. Gross underdiagnosis of COPD and underutilization of spirometry further contribute to burden and are barriers to appropriate and timely management of COPD. COPD is a common disease with a large disease burden throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Effective public health preventive measures coupled with timely case detection are needed for the reversal of trends and the reduction of disease burden.

  11. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  12. Mobility trends of Patients across Italian Regions: implications for planning and evaluation of hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, N; Messina, G; Lispi, L; Serafini, A; Prisco, G; Moirano, F

    2016-01-01

    The study of patients' mobility is useful for health planning and identifying deficiencies in care supply. The Italian Health Service, with 21 different regional realities, can be considered as a macrocosmic test bench. Our study aims: (1) to describe the trend of patients' hospital mobility across the Italian Regions; (2) to offer an immediate visual approach for decision making; (3) to identify some factors involved in patient's mobility. Observational cross sectional study. We used ordinary and day hospital discharge data from 1998 to 2014. The study was carried out using: (1) the Gandy's Nomogram (GN), a graphical tool that assesses the power of attraction and the escape's containment of hospital regional networks; (2) the vector analysis; (3) the trend analysis with Cuzik's test; (4) the panel data analysis, with multiple logistic regression model. The mean number of annual admissions, in Italian hospitals, was 10,976,290, progressively decreasing from 2001 to 2014, and 7% of it occurred "in mobility". We have drawn the different paths of patients' mobility by Regions and observed critical situations almost in Regions of Southern Italy, compared with Regions of the Centre-North. Moreover we analyzed the factors implied in such mobility, highlighting that attraction is influenced by the hospitalization rate in private structures, by the percentage of graduates in the Regions, and by the number of hospital beds/10,000 inhabitants; while escapes are influenced by GDP per capita, by the number of hospital beds/10,000 inhabitants and by the sanitary expenses per capita of the Region. We have shown the potentialities of the GN, applicable at micro level but also on a large scale in the analysis of patients' hospital mobility; and this, together with panel data analysis, can lead to a more conscious and effective health planning.

  13. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  14. Discrepancies in the Climatology and Trends of Cloud Cover in Global and Regional Climate Models for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Alonso, Aaron; Calbó, Josep; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Tan, Elcin

    2017-11-01

    The present study aims at comparing total cloud cover (TCC) as simulated by regional climate models (RCM) from CORDEX project with the same variable as simulated by the driving global climate models (GCM), which are part of the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project ensemble. The comparison is performed for the Mediterranean region, and for the 1971-2005 period, when results from the "historical" scenario can also be compared with two data sets of ground-based cloud observations. We work with 14 modeling results (resolution, 0.11° × 0.11°), which are a combination of five GCMs and five RCMs. In general, RCMs improve only very slightly the climatic estimation of TCC when compared with observations. Indeed, not all RCMs behave the same, and some indicators (monthly evolution of the relative bias) show an enhancement, while other indices (overall mean bias and annual range difference) improve only very slightly with respect to GCMs. Changes in the estimate of TCC in summer might be the most relevant value added by RCMs, as these should describe in a more proper way several mesoscale processes, which play a more relevant role in summer. Noticeably, RCMs are unable to capture the observed decadal trend in TCC. Thus, TCC simulated by RCMs is almost stable, in contradiction with observations and GCMs, which both show statistically significant decreasing trends in the Mediterranean area. This result is somewhat unsatisfactory, as if RCMs cannot reproduce past trends in TCC, their skill in projecting TCC into the future may be questioned.

  15. Landsat-based trend analysis of lake dynamics across northern permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Ingmar; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Arp, Christopher D.; Ulrich, Mathias; Federov, Alexander; Veremeeva, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Lakes are a ubiquitous landscape feature in northern permafrost regions. They have a strong impact on carbon, energy and water fluxes and can be quite responsive to climate change. The monitoring of lake change in northern high latitudes, at a sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal resolution, is crucial for understanding the underlying processes driving lake change. To date, lake change studies in permafrost regions were based on a variety of different sources, image acquisition periods and single snapshots, and localized analysis, which hinders the comparison of different regions. Here we present, a methodology based on machine-learning based classification of robust trends of multi-spectral indices of Landsat data (TM,ETM+, OLI) and object-based lake detection, to analyze and compare the individual, local and regional lake dynamics of four different study sites (Alaska North Slope, Western Alaska, Central Yakutia, Kolyma Lowland) in the northern permafrost zone from 1999 to 2014. Regional patterns of lake area change on the Alaska North Slope (-0.69%), Western Alaska (-2.82%), and Kolyma Lowland (-0.51%) largely include increases due to thermokarst lake expansion, but more dominant lake area losses due to catastrophic lake drainage events. In contrast, Central Yakutia showed a remarkable increase in lake area of 48.48%, likely resulting from warmer and wetter climate conditions over the latter half of the study period. Within all study regions, variability in lake dynamics was associated with differences in permafrost characteristics, landscape position (i.e. upland vs. lowland), and surface geology. With the global availability of Landsat data and a consistent methodology for processing the input data derived from robust trends of multi-spectral indices, we demonstrate a transferability, scalability and consistency of lake change analysis within the northern permafrost region.

  16. Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Barbara Insley; Caravati, E Martin; Booth, Jeremy

    2004-06-15

    Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center over a 10-year period were examined. Human exposures to toxic substances reported to the Utah Poison Control Center between January 1990 and December 1999 were reviewed. Cases were selected for analysis if the exposure involved a nonprescription drug, the patient was 6-19 years old, and the reason for exposure was intentional abuse. Frequencies and cross-tabulations were calculated to identify trends in nonprescription drug abuse. There were 2214 reports of intentional drug abuse among children and teenagers 6-19 years old. Of those, 844 (38.1%) involved nonprescription drugs. The percentage of exposures Involving nonprescription products varied every year and declined over time. Exposures were slightly more common In males (51.7%). The site of exposure was a residence in 65% of cases and a school in 10% of cases. The majority of patients with exposures (68.4%) were treated In a health care facility. The most common types of nonprescription medications abused were drugs with anticholinergic properties, caffeine, dextromethorphan, and nonprescription stimulants. Reports of the Intentional abuse of nonprescription drugs by children and teenagers were common at a regional poison control center. There was significant variation in the type of nonprescription medication most commonly abused. The knowledge of these trends may assist public health policymakers, physicians, pharmacists, and child educators in their attempts to curb nonprescription drug abuse. drugs.

  17. Using PS-InSAR data in landslide hazard management: the case of Veneto Region (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Mario; Viganò, Alessandro; Busnardo, Enrico; Arziliero, Luciano; Zanette, Doriano

    2013-04-01

    The Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry, performed by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory of the Sea (METS) in the framework of the Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing, has made available a high quantity of data useful for local Authorities (Regions, Provinces, and Municipalities) in the management of the main geological hazards, such as landslides, subsidence, and sinkholes. The main output of the Project consists of ground displacements and velocities measured at target points over the entire Italian territory by using PS-InSAR processing technique applied to SAR data acquired by satellites ESA (European Space Agency) ERS-1 and ERS-2 (Earth Resources Satellite) and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) in the period 1992-2010. Description and results of the Project are available for public browsing at the geoportal of the METS (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it). On the basis of PS-InSAR data, several studies have been recently performed for the identification and characterization of landslides both at small and large scale. These studies led to a more precise delimitation of instable areas and to a better evaluation of the state of activity of mass movements. But, as now well known, interferometry techniques can't be applied to the whole territory due to geometric distortions in SAR data acquisition and to ground conditions. In this work we analyze the potentiality of PS-InSAR data from the Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry in landslide hazard management of the Veneto Region, located in the north-eastern part of Italy. A synthetic description on the main features of landslides affecting the Region is reported, then the percentage of instabilities where PS-InSAR data can be used, is calculated. At the scale of the entire Region we suggest to follow the method proposed in the scientific literature to evaluate the state of activity of landslides on the basis of the measured velocities at the ground surface, while at local

  18. Intrapartum-related neonatal encephalopathy incidence and impairment at regional and global levels for 2010 with trends from 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C C; Kozuki, Naoko; Blencowe, Hannah; Vos, Theo; Bahalim, Adil; Darmstadt, Gary L; Niermeyer, Susan; Ellis, Matthew; Robertson, Nicola J; Cousens, Simon; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-12-01

    Intrapartum hypoxic events ("birth asphyxia") may result in stillbirth, neonatal or postneonatal mortality, and impairment. Systematic morbidity estimates for the burden of impairment outcomes are currently limited. Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following an intrapartum hypoxic event is a strong predictor of long-term impairment. Linear regression modeling was conducted on data identified through systematic reviews to estimate NE incidence and time trends for 184 countries. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the risk of NE by sex of the newborn, neonatal case fatality rate, and impairment risk. A compartmental model estimated postneonatal survivors of NE, depending on access to care, and then the proportion of survivors with impairment. Separate modeling for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD2010) study estimated disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributed to intrapartum-related events. In 2010, 1.15 million babies (uncertainty range: 0.89-1.60 million; 8.5 cases per 1,000 live births) were estimated to have developed NE associated with intrapartum events, with 96% born in low- and middle-income countries, as compared with 1.60 million in 1990 (11.7 cases per 1,000 live births). An estimated 287,000 (181,000-440,000) neonates with NE died in 2010; 233,000 (163,000-342,000) survived with moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment; and 181,000 (82,000-319,000) had mild impairment. In GBD2010, intrapartum-related conditions comprised 50.2 million DALYs (2.4% of total) and 6.1 million YLDs. Intrapartum-related conditions are a large global burden, mostly due to high mortality in low-income countries. Universal coverage of obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation would prevent most of these deaths and disabilities. Rates of impairment are highest in middle-income countries where neonatal intensive care was more recently introduced, but quality may be poor. In settings without

  19. Explaining regionally coherent trends in daily rainfall extremes during the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Boos, W. R.; Huybers, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events during the Indian monsoon can have deleterious effects on the Indian economy, where an estimated two-thirds of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. With increasing mean temperature, rainfall variability is also expected to change. Here, we identify regionally coherent patterns of 1980-2015 time trends for 95th-99th percentile daily JJAS rainfall events over the Indian subcontinent. Using a 0.25 by 0.25 degree resolution rainfall data-set that incorporates nearly 7000 weather stations, at least three times as many as the 1 degree by 1 degree IMD Pune data-set, we find that time-trends over the western slope of the Western Ghats change from negative to positive with higher elevation, whereas previous work using a coarser network of stations have found overall declines. Less apparent in the coarser data but present in the finer resolution data-set are marked declines in extremes over the Indo-Gangetic Plains. This may be linked to declining average rainfall over northeastern central India, which has been attributed to aerosols through modeling studies. However, consistency in trends between both fine and coarse resolution data-sets is seen in the increases in extremes across North Central India. Extreme events in each of three regions-North Central India, the Western Ghats, and interior Peninsular India-can be connected with low pressure systems and orographic precipitation, possibly allowing for inferences about the reasons for observed trends. Understanding temporal changes in these phenomena may assist in future prediction of local extreme daily rainfall events.

  20. Daily temperature changes and variability in ENSEMBLES regional models predictions: Evaluation and intercomparison for the Ebro Valley (NE Iberia)

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-12-18

    We employ a suite of regional climate models (RCMs) to assess future changes in summer (JJA) maximum temperature (Tmax) over the Ebro basin, the largest hydrological division in the Iberian Peninsula. Under the A1B emission scenario, future changes in both mean values and their corresponding time varying percentiles were examined by comparing the control period (1971-2000) with two future time slices: 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. Here, the rationale is to assess how lower/upper tails of temperature distributions will change in the future and whether these changes will be consistent with those of the mean. The model validation results demonstrate significant differences among the models in terms of their capability to representing the statistical characteristics (e.g., mean, skewness and asymmetry) of the observed climate. The results also indicate that the current substantial warming observed in the Ebro basin is expected to continue during the 21st century, with more intense warming occurring at higher altitudes and in areas with greater distance from coastlines. All models suggest that the region will experience significant positive changes in both the cold and warm tails of temperature distributions. However, the results emphasize that future changes in the lower and upper tails of the summer Tmax distribution may not follow the same warming rate as the mean condition. In particular, the projected changes in the warm tail of the summer Tmax are shown to be significantly larger than changes in both mean values and the cold tail, especially at the end of the 21st century. The finding suggests that much of the changes in the summer Tmax percentiles will be driven by a shift in the entire distribution of temperature rather than only changes in the central tendency. Better understanding of the possible implications of future climate systems provides information useful for vulnerability assessments and the development of local adaptation strategies for multi

  1. Trends in flash flood events versus convective precipitation in the Mediterranean region: The case of Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Marcos, Raul; Turco, Marco; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the potential relationship between flash flood events and convective precipitation in Catalonia, as well as any related trends. The paper starts with an overview of flash floods and their trends in the Mediterranean region, along with their associated factors, followed by the definition of, identification of, and trends in convective precipitation. After this introduction the paper focuses on the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, for which there is a long-term precipitation series (since 1928) of 1-min precipitation from the Fabra Observatory, as well as a shorter (1996-2011) but more extensive precipitation series (43 rain gauges) of 5-min precipitation. Both series have been used to characterise the degree of convective contribution to rainfall, introducing the β parameter as the ratio between convective precipitation versus total precipitation in any period. Information about flood events was obtained from the INUNGAMA database (a flood database created by the GAMA team), with the aim of finding any potential links to convective precipitation. These flood data were gathered using information on damage where flood is treated as a multifactorial risk, and where any trend or anomaly might have been caused by one or more factors affecting hazard, vulnerability or exposure. Trend analysis has shown an increase in flash flood events. The fact that no trends were detected in terms of extreme values of precipitation on a daily scale, nor on the associated ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) extreme index, could point to an increase in vulnerability, an increase in exposure, or changes in land use. However, the summer increase in convective precipitation was concentrated in less torrential events, which could partially explain this positive trend in flash flood events. The β parameter has been also used to characterise the type of flood event according to the features of the precipitation. The highest values

  2. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN OF DEVELOPMENT OF REGION MACHINE BUILDING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виталий Николаевич Маковеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transition of the Russian economy to an innovation type of development, selected by leaders of the country as a priority one, creates the need of solving number of problems. A key one is the need for large-scale renovation of the economy’s production basis, which can not be implemented without a modern machine building sector.Purpose. To analyze development of machine building complex in theVologda region against the all-Russian background, to identify common trends and challenges of the sector’s development.Methodology. Methods of system and structural analysis, comparison, differences and similarities analysis, deduction and induction were used. Official statistics, as well as the works of prominent scientists in this field, served as an information basis for the study.Results. The author conducted an analysis of basic production assets, growth rates, the financial situation, investments, levels of profitability, staffing and salary levels of employees of machine building sector of the Vologda Region and Russia. The main trends and problems of the sector development were identified. Measures that are able to change the situation were proposed.Practical implications. The research materials could be useful for regional authorities in forming industrial and innovation policy, as well as for all those interested in problems of machine building development.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-24

  3. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  4. [Analysis on regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Shi, Ting-Ting; Yang, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Through the collection and collation of the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2014,the regional distribution characteristics and changing trend of Chinese patent medicine industry in the past ten years were analyzed by using the descriptive statistical analysis method in statistics.The results showed that the industrial sales output values of Chinese patent medicines in Jilin, Shandong, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Guangdong accounted for the largest proportion of the country, while Ningxia accounted for only 0.04% of the whole country. Anhui Province had the largest fluctuations in data, and its coefficient of variation was as high as 102.03%.The average annual growth rate of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines was lowest in Ningxia, only -1.09%.Based on the statistical analysis of the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines in four major economic regions, the data concentration trend was as follows: east> west> central> northeast; the data fluctuation trend was northeast> central> west> east, and the average annual growth rate from large to small was northeast> central> west> east.This study was conducive to understand the differencesin the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines among various provinces and economic regions,and to lay the foundation for the correct understanding and in-depth exploration of the factors that may affect the industrial sales output value of Chinese patent medicines.This study has reference value for the management and economic research of traditional Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Regional trend analysis of surface ozone observations from monitoring networks in eastern North America, Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lan Chang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface ozone is a greenhouse gas and pollutant detrimental to human health and crop and ecosystem productivity. The Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is designed to provide the research community with an up-to-date observation-based overview of tropospheric ozone’s global distribution and trends. The TOAR Surface Ozone Database contains ozone metrics at thousands of monitoring sites around the world, densely clustered across mid-latitude North America, western Europe and East Asia. Calculating regional ozone trends across these locations is challenging due to the uneven spacing of the monitoring sites across urban and rural areas. To meet this challenge we conducted a spatial and temporal trend analysis of several TOAR ozone metrics across these three regions for summertime (April–September 2000–2014, using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM. Our analysis indicates that East Asia has the greatest human and plant exposure to ozone pollution among investigating regions, with increasing ozone levels through 2014. The results also show that ozone mixing ratios continue to decline significantly over eastern North America and Europe, however, there is less evidence for decreases of daytime average ozone at urban sites. The present-day spatial coverage of ozone monitors in East Asia (South Korea and Japan and eastern North America is adequate for estimating regional trends by simply taking the average of the individual trends at each site. However the European network is more sparsely populated across its northern and eastern regions and therefore a simple average of the individual trends at each site does not yield an accurate regional trend. This analysis demonstrates that the GAMM technique can be used to assess the regional representativeness of existing monitoring networks, indicating those networks for which a regional trend can be obtained by simply averaging the trends of all individual sites and those networks that

  6. Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Kokkalis, Alexandros; Bardarson, H.

    2016-01-01

    across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we...... representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social...

  7. Linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices in the arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaijun; Pan, Yingping; Chen, Yaning; Ye, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, climate extreme events have caused increasing direct economic and social losses in the arid region of northwestern China. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010, this paper discussed the linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices. The general evolution was obtained by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), the Mann-Kendall test, and the distribution-free cumulative sum chart (CUSUM) test. The results are as follows: (1) climate showed a warming trend at annual and seasonal scale, with all temperature indices exhibiting statistically significant changes. The warm indices have increased, with 1.37%days/decade of warm days (TX90p), 0.17 °C/decade of warmest days (TXx) and 1.97 days/decade of warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), respectively. The cold indices have decreased, with - 1.89%days/decade, 0.65 °C/decade and - 0.66 days/decade for cold nights (TN10p), coldest nights (TNn) and cold spell duration indicator (CSDI), respectively. The precipitation indices have also increased significantly, coupled with the changes of magnitude (max 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day)), frequency (rain day (R0.1)), and duration (consecutive dry days (CDD)). (2) Abrupt changes of the annual regional precipitation indices and the minimum temperature indices were observed around 1986, and that of the maximum temperature indices were observed in 1996. (3) The EOF1 indicated the overall coherent distribution for the whole study area, and its principal component (PC1) was also observed, showing a significant linear trend with an abrupt change, which were in accordance with the regional observation results. EOF2 and EOF3 show contrasts between the southern and northern study areas, and between the eastern and western study areas, respectively, whereas no significant tendency was observed for their PCs. Hence, the climate indices have changed significantly, with linear trends and abrupt changes noted for all climate indices

  8. Broadleaf deciduous forest counterbalanced the direct effect of climate on Holocene fire regime in hemiboreal/boreal region (NE Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Veski, Siim; Florescu, Gabriela; Vannière, Boris; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; O'Hara, Robert B.; Stivrins, Normunds; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Vassiljev, Jüri; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Disturbances by fire are essential for the functioning of boreal/hemiboreal forests, but knowledge of long-term fire regime dynamics is limited. We analysed macrocharcoal morphologies and pollen of a sediment record from Lake Lielais Svētiņu (eastern Latvia), and in conjunction with fire traits analysis present the first record of Holocene variability in fire regime, fuel sources and fire types in boreal forests of the Baltic region. We found a phase of moderate to high fire activity during the cool and moist early (mean fire return interval; mFRI of ∼280 years; 11,700-7500 cal yr BP) and the late (mFRI of ∼190 years; 4500-0 cal yr BP) Holocene and low fire activity (mFRI of ∼630 years) during the Holocene Thermal Optimum (7500-4500 cal yr BP). Charcoal morphotypes and the pollen record show the predominance of frequent surface fires, occasionally transitioning to the crown during Pinus sylvestris-Betula boreal forests and less frequent surface fires during the dominance of temperate deciduous forests. In contrast to the prevailing opinion that fires in boreal forests are mostly low to moderate severity surface fires, we found evidence for common occurrence of stand-replacing crown fires in Picea abies canopy. Our results highlight that charcoal morphotypes analysis allows for distinguishing the fuel types and surface from crown fires, therefore significantly advancing our interpretation of fire regime. Future warmer temperatures and increase in the frequency of dry spells and abundant biomass accumulation can enhance the fire risk on the one hand, but will probably promote the expansion of broadleaf deciduous forests to higher latitudes, on the other hand. By highlighting the capability of broadleaf deciduous forests to act as fire-suppressing landscape elements, our results suggest that fire activity may not increase in the Baltic area under future climate change.

  9. Regional contribution to variability and trends of global gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Rafique, Rashid; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Ciais, Philippe; Zhao, Fang; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Ostberg, Sebastian; Chang, Jinfeng; Ito, Akihiko; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Kalnay, Eugenia; West, Tristram; Leng, Guoyong; Francois, Louis; Munhoven, Guy; Henrot, Alexandra; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Nishina, Kazuya; Viovy, Nicolas; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Betts, Richard; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest component of the global carbon cycle and a key process for understanding land ecosystems dynamics. In this study, we used GPP estimates from a combination of eight global biome models participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact-Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a (ISIMIP2a), the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP product, and a data-driven product (Model Tree Ensemble, MTE) to study the spatiotemporal variability of GPP at the regional and global levels. We found the 2000–2010 total global GPP estimated from the model ensemble to be 117 ± 13 Pg C yr‑1 (mean ± 1 standard deviation), which was higher than MODIS (112 Pg C yr‑1), and close to the MTE (120 Pg C yr‑1). The spatial patterns of MODIS, MTE and ISIMIP2a GPP generally agree well, but their temporal trends are different, and the seasonality and inter-annual variability of GPP at the regional and global levels are not completely consistent. For the model ensemble, Tropical Latin America contributes the most to global GPP, Asian regions contribute the most to the global GPP trend, the Northern Hemisphere regions dominate the global GPP seasonal variations, and Oceania is likely the largest contributor to inter-annual variability of global GPP. However, we observed large uncertainties across the eight ISIMIP2a models, which are probably due to the differences in the formulation of underlying photosynthetic processes. The results of this study are useful in understanding the contributions of different regions to global GPP and its spatiotemporal variability, how the model- and observational-based GPP estimates differ from each other in time and space, and the relative strength of the eight models. Our results also highlight the models’ ability to capture the seasonality of GPP that are essential for understanding the inter-annual and seasonal variability of GPP as a major component of the carbon cycle.

  10. Regional contribution to variability and trends of global gross primary productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min; Rafique, Rashid; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Ciais, Philippe; Zhao, Fang; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Ostberg, Sebastian; Chang, Jinfeng; Ito, Akihiko; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Kalnay, Eugenia; West, Tristram; Leng, Guoyong; Francois, Louis; Munhoven, Guy; Henrot, Alexandra; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Shufen; Nishina, Kazuya; Viovy, Nicolas; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Betts, Richard; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Hickler, Thomas

    2017-09-28

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) is the largest component of the global carbon cycle and a key process for understanding land ecosystems dynamics. In this study, we used GPP estimates from a combination of eight global biome models participating in the Inter-Sectoral Impact-Model Intercomparison Project phase 2a (ISIMIP2a), the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP product, and a data-driven product (Model Tree Ensemble, MTE) to study the spatiotemporal variability of GPP at the regional and global levels. We found the 2000-2010 total global GPP estimated from the model ensemble to be 117±13 Pg C yr-1 (mean ± 1 standard deviation), which was higher than MODIS (112 Pg C yr-1), and close to the MTE (120 Pg C yr-1). The spatial patterns of MODIS, MTE and ISIMIP2a GPP generally agree well, but their temporal trends are different, and the seasonality and inter-annual variability of GPP at the regional and global levels are not completely consistent. For the model ensemble, Tropical Latin America contributes the most to global GPP, Asian regions contribute the most to the global GPP trend, the Northern Hemisphere regions dominate the global GPP seasonal variations, and Oceania is likely the largest contributor to inter-annual variability of global GPP. However, we observed large uncertainties across the eight ISIMIP2a models, which are probably due to the differences in the formulation of underlying photosynthetic processes. The results of this study are useful in understanding the contributions of different regions to global GPP and its spatiotemporal variability, how the model- and observational-based GPP estimates differ from each other in time and space, and the relative strength of the eight models. Our results also highlight the models’ ability to capture the seasonality of GPP that are essential for understanding the inter-annual and seasonal variability of GPP as a major component of the carbon cycle.

  11. Hillslope terracing effects on the spatial variability of plant development as assessed by NDVI in vineyards of the Priorat region (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casasnovas, José A; Ramos, María Concepción; Espinal-Utgés, Sílvia

    2010-04-01

    The availability of heavy machinery and the vineyard restructuring and conversion plans of the European Union Common Agricultural Policy (Commission Regulation EC no. 1227/2000 of 31 May 2000) have encouraged the restructuring of many vineyards on hillslopes of Mediterranean Europe, through the creation of terraces to favor the mechanization of agricultural work. Terrace construction requires cutting and filling operations that create soil spatial variability, which affects soil properties and plant development. In the present paper, we study the effects of hillslope terracing on the spatial variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in fields of the Priorat region (NE Spain) during 2004, 2005, and 2006. This index was computed from high-resolution remote sensing data (Quickbird-2). Detailed digital terrain models before and after terrace construction were used to assess the earth movements. The results indicate that terracing by heavy machinery induced high variability on the NDVI values over the years, showing significant differences as effect of the cut and fill operations.

  12. Integration of spectral, spatial and morphometric data into lithological mapping: A comparison of different Machine Learning Algorithms in the Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan A.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Lithological mapping in mountainous regions is often impeded by limited accessibility due to relief. This study aims to evaluate (1) the performance of different supervised classification approaches using remote sensing data and (2) the use of additional information such as geomorphology. We exemplify the methodology in the Bardi-Zard area in NE Iraq, a part of the Zagros Fold - Thrust Belt, known for its chromite deposits. We highlighted the improvement of remote sensing geological classification by integrating geomorphic features and spatial information in the classification scheme. We performed a Maximum Likelihood (ML) classification method besides two Machine Learning Algorithms (MLA): Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) to allow the joint use of geomorphic features, Band Ratio (BR), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), spatial information (spatial coordinates) and multispectral data of the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The RF algorithm showed reliable results and discriminated serpentinite, talus and terrace deposits, red argillites with conglomerates and limestone, limy conglomerates and limestone conglomerates, tuffites interbedded with basic lavas, limestone and Metamorphosed limestone and reddish green shales. The best overall accuracy (∼80%) was achieved by Random Forest (RF) algorithms in the majority of the sixteen tested combination datasets.

  13. A systematic regional trend in helium isotopes across the northernbasin and range province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2006-05-01

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g., Coso, Long Valley,Steamboat, and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east,the ratios decline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. Theregional trend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentratedalong the western margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increasein the magnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strainenhances crustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow ratesthat preserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposedon the regional trend are "helium spikes," local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  14. Regional Science trends through the analysis of the main facts of the 51st ERSA Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Royuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 51st ERSA Conference held in Barcelona in 2011 was one of the largest ever. By examining the characteristics of the conference, this paper identifies the main trends in Regional Science and draws on a broad array of sources of information: the delegates’ demographic details, the conference program itself, a satisfaction survey conducted among delegates, a quality survey addressed to those chairing the sessions and, finally, a bibliometric database including each author signing a paper presented at the conference. We finally run a regression analysis from which we show that for ERSA delegates what matters most is quality, and this must be the direction that future conferences should move toward. Ultimately, ERSA conferences are comprehensive, all-embracing occasions, representing an ideal opportunity for regional scientists to present their work to each other and to network.

  15. Trends in temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions in China, 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xushu; Wang, Zhaoli; Zhou, Xiaowen; Lai, Chengguang; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-08-01

    By characterizing the patterns of temperature extremes over nine integrated agricultural regions (IARs) in China from 1961 to 2011, this study performed trend analyses on 16 extreme temperature indices using a high-resolution (0.5° × 0.5°) daily gridded dataset and the Mann-Kendall method. The results show that annually, at both daytime and nighttime, cold extremes significantly decreased but warm extremes significantly increased across all IARs. Overall, nighttimes tended to warm faster than daytimes. Diurnal temperature ranges (DTR) diminished, apart from the mid-northern Southwest China Region and the mid-Loess Plateau Region. Seasonally, DTR widely diminished across all IARs during the four seasons except for spring. Higher minimum daily minimum temperature (TNn) and maximum daily maximum temperature (TXx), in both summer and winter, were recorded for most IARs except for the Huang-Huai-Hai Region; in autumn, all IARs generally encountered higher TNn and TXx. In all seasons, warming was observed at daytime and nighttime but, again, nighttimes warmed faster than daytimes. The results also indicate a more rapid warming trend in Northern and Western China than in Southern and Eastern China, with accelerated warming at high elevations. The increases in TNn and TXx might cause a reduction in agriculture yield in spring over Northern China, while such negative impact might occur in Southern China during summer. In autumn and winter, however, the negative impact possibly occurred in most of the IARs. Moreover, increased TXx in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta is possibly related to rapid local urbanization. Climatically, the general increase in temperature extremes across Chinese IARs may be induced by strengthened Northern Hemisphere Subtropical High or weakened Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex.

  16. [Population ageing and health implication. Thinking time trends in Emilia-Romagna Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchetti, Angelina; Caranci, Nicola; Addis, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Ageing is doubtless a factor characterizing population in Europe, and particularly in Emilia-Romagna, a north-east Italian region of about 4,5 million people. From 1990 to 2010 life expectancy in Emilia-Romagna has grown by about 6 years for men and 5 for women. At the same time good health life expectancy has grown even more rapidly, particularly among women. While it is expected that in 2030 the number of over-65s will have exceeded one million people, the trends in good health life expectancy is not granted. Strengthen actions aimed at increasing good health conditions promotes ageing sustainability and can feed the positive trend observed for the life expectancy in good health. The Emilia-Romagna Region takes up the demographic challenge of the coming years in the European context and promotes strategies for active and healthy ageing, working on prevention in its broadest sense and for the entire life span, with the aim of actively contribute to the achievement of the EU2020 target of an increase of two years in life expectancy in good health of European citizens.

  17. Regional paleotopographic trends and production, Chesterian and Morrowan strata, Western Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolson, J.; Adams, C.; Van Zant, K. (Amoco Production Co., Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Late Chesterian (Mississippian) and Morrowan (Pennsylvanian) unconformity-bounded packages in the Western Interior have traditionally been viewed as sequences separated by a regional basal Pennsylvanian unconformity. Analysis of alluvial valley trends and paleontological data suggests that these sequences are related and formed in response to multiple relative sea level fluctuations initiated in the Chesterian which continued throughout the Pennsylvanian. The Darwin, Tyler, Morrowan, and Humbug formations of the Western Interior appear to have formed in retrogradational parasequence sets of alluvial valley fills and marine transgressive systems tracts repeatedly developed around the flanks of the transcontinental arch. Relative sea level rises following each major incisement created a complex intertonguing of marine strata responsible for fluvial aggradation of each valley system. These sequences progressively backstep and grow younger toward the transcontinental arch, where Atokan and Desmoinesan strata cap the oldest preserved surfaces. At least four major paleodrainage basins have been identified, and valley-fill production has been established in three of these. The previously unrecognized age equivalency of these formations provides a new regional sequence stratigraphic interpretation which has hydrocarbon exploration implications in frontier areas of Utah and Colorado. Seismic resolution and an understanding of hydrocarbon migration paths hold the key to developing new exploration trends.

  18. An enhanced trend surface analysis equation for regional-residual separation of gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, A. I.; Onwuemesi, A. G.; Romanus, O. M.

    2016-12-01

    Trend surface analysis is a geological term for a mathematical technique which separates a given map set into a regional component and a local component. This work has extended the steps for the derivation of the constants in the trend surface analysis equation from the popularly known matrix and simultaneous form to a more simplified and easily achievable format. To achieve this, matrix inversion was applied to the existing equations and the outcome was tested for suitability using a large volume of gravity data set acquired from the Anambra Basin, south-eastern Nigeria. Tabulation of the field data set was done using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet, while gravity maps were generated from the data set using Oasis Montaj software. A comparison of the residual gravity map produced using the new equations with its software derived counterpart has shown that the former has a higher enhancing capacity than the latter. This equation has shown strong suitability for application in the separation of gravity data sets into their regional and residual components.

  19. An examination of global and regional opioid consumption trends 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Barbara A; Gilson, Aaron M; Maurer, Martha A; Cleary, James F

    2014-09-01

    Despite expert recognition that strong opioid analgesics are the cornerstone of treatment for moderate to severe pain, most of the world's population lacks adequate availability of opioids. Moreover, great disparities in availability of opioids continue to exist between higher- and lower-to-middle-income countries. This study examined more than 30 years of consumption data reported to the International Narcotics Control Board, from 1980 to 2011, for five opioids that are indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain: fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone, and pethidine. As such, this study offers a regional and global perspective on opioid consumption, providing an indication of preparedness for treating moderate to severe pain. Countries are categorized according to the World Health Organization's six geographical regions. Morphine equivalence (ME) statistics were calculated for each study drug, allowing for equianalgesic comparisons between consumption of the study opioids and well as the ability to aggregate all study opioids (Total ME). The ME statistic is adjusted for country population, which allows for uniform global-, regional-, and country-level equianalgesic comparisons of consumption of morphine with other opioids. Although overall trend lines revealed general increases by region, profound inequities in opioid consumption continue to abound globally.

  20. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  1. Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Davis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Namaqualand is especially vulnerable to future climate change impacts. Using a high-resolution (0.5°x0.5° gridded data set (CRU TS 3.1 and individual weather station data, we demonstrated that temperatures as well as frequency of hot extremes have increased across this region. Specifically, minimum temperatures have increased by 1.4 °C and maximum temperatures by 1.1 °C over the last century. Of the five weather stations analysed, two showed evidence of a significant increase in the duration of warm spells of up to 5 days per decade and a reduction in the number of cool days (TX10P by up to 3 days per decade. In terms of rainfall, we found no clear evidence for a significant change in annual totals or the frequency or intensity of rainfall events. Seasonal trends in rainfall did, however, demonstrate some spatial variability across the region. Spatial trends in evapotranspiration obtained from the 8-day MOD16 ET product were characterised by a steepening inland-coastal gradient where areas along the coastline showed a significant increase in evapotranspiration of up to 30 mm per decade, most notably in spring and summer. The increase in temperature linked with the increases in evapotranspiration pose significant challenges for water availability in the region, but further research into changes in coastal fog is required in order for a more reliable assessment to be made. Overall, the results presented in this study provide evidence-based information for the management of climate change impacts as well as the development of appropriate adaptation responses at a local scale.

  2. Temporal trends and regional variations in gastrointestinal cancer mortality in Peru, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Azañedo, Diego; Huarez, Bertha; Rodríguez-Lema, Belén

    2016-01-01

    To estimate and analyze the evolution of mortality rates of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Peru and its regions between 2005-2014. We performed a nationwide secondary analysis of Peru's Health Ministry registry of deaths during the period 2005-2014, with a focus on regional differences. Deaths registered with codes C15 to C25 (malignant neoplasms of digestive organs) from the ICD-10 were included. Calculation of age-standarized mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) due to GI cancer per 100,000 habitants were also performed. Data of 67,527 deaths from GI cancers was analyzed, 35,055 (51.91%) were women. In 2005, the number of GI cancer deaths was 6,484, for 2014, 7,532 cases were recorded. The GI cancer age-standarized mortality rates at the country level showed a decrease of 12.70% between 2005-2014. Stomach cancer presented the highest age-standarized mortality rate despite showing a downward trend in the last years, equal for gallbladder, liver and biliary tract, and esophagus cancer. Colorectal, small intestine and anus cancer show a progressive increase. In 2014, Callao (48.8), Huancavelica (48.5), La Libertad (39.6), Lambayeque (40.5) and Huanuco (38.9) had the highest rates. The three types of GI cancers with the highest rates of YLL in 2014 were stomach cancer (118.51), followed by liver and biliary tract cancer (58.68) and colorectal (44.86). GI cancer mortality in Peru is high and a priority issue in regions like Huancavelica, Huanuco, Callao, La Libertad and Lambayeque. Stomach cancer remains the most frequent GI cancer, but with a downward trend in the study period.

  3. An age-stratified poisson model for comparing trends in cancer rates across overlapping regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Tiwari, Ram C; Zou, Zhaohui

    2008-08-01

    The annual percent change (APC) has been used as a measure to describe the trend in the age-adjusted cancer incidence or mortality rate over relatively short time intervals. The yearly data on these age-adjusted rates are available from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The traditional methods to estimate the APC is to fit a linear regression of logarithm of age-adjusted rates on time using the least squares method or the weighted least squares method, and use the estimate of the slope parameter to define the APC as the percent change in the rates between two consecutive years. For comparing the APC for two regions, one uses a t-test which assumes that the two datasets on the logarithm of the age-adjusted rates are independent and normally distributed with a common variance. Two modifications of this test, when there is an overlap between the two regions or between the time intervals for the two datasets have been recently developed. The first modification relaxes the assumption of the independence of the two datasets but still assumes the common variance. The second modification relaxes the assumption of the common variance also, but assumes that the variances of the age-adjusted rates are obtained using Poisson distributions for the mortality or incidence counts. In this paper, a unified approach to the problem of estimating the APC is undertaken by modeling the counts to follow an age-stratified Poisson regression model, and by deriving a corrected Z -test for testing the equality of two APCs. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the test and an application of the test to compare the trends, for a selected number of cancer sites, for two overlapping regions and with varied degree of overlapping time intervals is presented. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  4. Climate change: A trend of increasingly frequent droughts in Kakheti Region (East Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meladze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the global warming, in Kakheti Region, in East Georgia (by municipalities, the trends of changes (increase or decrease in agro-climatic characteristics for the development of agricultural crops were identified. Such changes result in the prolonged vegetation period, increased sum of temperatures and mostly, decreased sum of precipitations. Based on the latter indicators, a trend of a decreasing index of the hydrothermal coefficient is observed evidencing more frequent droughts with low or moderate intensity. The data of the 60-year-long period of meteorological observations (1949–2008 were divided into two 30-year-long periods in order to compare them. It was found that in the second period (1979–2008, the indices of a hydrothermal coefficient in all municipalities (except Kvareli are decreased in the active vegetation period (VI-VIII. The dynamics of the course of a hydrothermal coefficient is shown with trends. Based on the many-year meteorological observation data (1949–2008 in different municipalities, the sums of active annual temperatures (>10 °C and atmospheric precipitations were calculated. On the background of global warming, the repeated nature of droughts of different types was identified. The nomograms of the frequency of the droughts of the type typical to the study object and moisture evaporation have been drafted. Based on the sums of the annual active temperatures (>10 °C and atmospheric precipitations, an equation to calculate the hydrothermal coefficient was given. A correlation between the date of the temperature rising over 10 °C and the sum of temperatures was identified (r=0.80 and a regression equation to forecast different types of droughts was designed. Against frequent droughts following the global warming, it is recommended to take relevant adaptation measures to avoid negative events.

  5. A phytogeochemical study of the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal): possible species for plant-based soil remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Lázaro, J; Kidd, P S; Monterroso Martínez, C

    2006-02-01

    Phytoremediation techniques are now considered to be promising alternatives to conventional techniques for the remediation of diffused or moderately contaminated soils. Despite their growing acceptance relatively few plant species have been studied for phytoremediation purposes. Further geobotanical surveys and plant screenings are necessary since these could lead to the identification of additional species with potential value for such applications. Serpentine areas could prove valuable sources of such plants. In this study heavy metal accumulation was determined in the flora associated with ultramafic and non-ultramafic soils of the Trás-os-Montes region of NE Portugal. Study sites were selected to represent a wide range of soil-forming rocks (serpentinized (S), ultrabasic (UB), basic (B) and acid (migmatite, M and schists, SC) rocks) and plant metal accumulation was related to soil metal bioavailability. Nine plant species (representing 7 families) were sampled including the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum. The greatest metal accumulation, transport (leaf[metal]:root[metal]) and bioaccumulation (leaf[metal]/soil[metal]) was found in four of the non metal-hyperaccumulating species: Cistus ladanifer, Lavandula stoechas, Plantago subulata subsp. radicata and Thymus mastichina. Metal accumulation depended on both the plant species and the edaphic conditions at its provenance. While P. subulata is of less interest due to its low biomass the remaining three species could be of use in phytoremediation technologies such as phytoextraction, and particularly in soils contaminated with Cr, Mn and Zn. These three species are also of economic interest due to their oil and fragrance producing biomass.

  6. Factors associated with Pap smear screening among French women visiting a general practitioner in the Rhône-Alpes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussaid, N; Lutringer-Magnin, D; Barone, G; Haesebaert, J; Lasset, C

    2013-10-01

    To help prevent cervical cancer, three yearly opportunistic Pap smear screening is recommended in France for women aged 25-65 years. Pap smear screening coverage varies with age and socioeconomic level. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify factors associated with a low uptake of Pap smear screening among women with no limited access to healthcare. We analyzed data from women aged 25-65 living in the Rhône-Alpes region who completed a self-administered questionnaire given to them by general practitioners between June and August 2008. The questionnaire covered knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention as well as the women's history of Pap smear screening and other health-related behaviors. The relationship between low uptake of Pap smear screening--defined as not having had the test within the past 3 years--and a range of possible contributing factors was investigated using logistic regression. Of 1186 women with an intact uterus who completed the questionnaire, 89.1% said they had had a Pap smear within the past 3 years. On multivariate analysis, the 10.9% who had not were significantly more likely to live alone (1.76 [1.13-2.74]), to have no children (2.17 [1.31-3.62]), to have never used contraception (5.35 [2.98-9.62]), to have less knowledge about Pap smear screening (3.40 [1.55-7.49]), and to be unvaccinated against hepatitis B (0.55 [0.35-0.87]). Despite high overall compliance with Pap smear screening recommendations among women who consulted general practitioners, several factors were significantly associated with a low uptake of the service. Considering these factors may help to refine messages aimed at cervical cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional patterns and trends in cancer mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, David; Paisano, Roberta; Cobb, Nathaniel

    2005-03-01

    National estimates of cancer mortality indicate relatively low rates for American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs). However, these rates are derived from state vital records in which racial misclassification is known to exist. In this cross-sectional study of cancer mortality among AIs and ANs living in counties on or near reservations, the authors used death records and census population estimates to calculate annualized, age-adjusted mortality rates for key cancer types for the period 1996-2001 for 5 geographic regions: East (E), Northern Plains (NP), Southwest (SW), Pacific Coast (PC), and Alaska (AK). Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) also were calculated to compare rates with those in the general United States population (USG) for the same period. To examine temporal trends, MRRs for 1996-2001 were compared with MMRs for 1990-1995. The overall cancer mortality rate was lower in AIs and ANs (165.6 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 161.7-169.5) than in the USG (200.9 per 100,000 population; 95% CI, 200.7-201.2). In the regional analysis, however, cancer mortality was higher in AK (MRR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.17-1.36) and in the NP (MMR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.31-1.44) than in the USG. In both regions, the excess mortality was attributed to cancer of the lung, colorectum, liver, stomach, and kidney. In the SW, the mortality rate for cancer of the liver and stomach was higher than the rate in the USG, in contrast with that region's nearly 4-fold lower mortality rate for lung cancer (MRR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.19-0.27). Rates of cervical cancer mortality were higher among AIs and ANs (MRR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.62), notably in the NP and SW. Rates of breast cancer mortality generally were lower (MRR=0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.66), notably in the PC, SW, and E. Cancer mortality increased by 5% in AIs and ANs (MRR for 1996-2001 compared with 1990-1995: 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08), whereas it decreased by 6% in the USG (MMR=0.94; 95% CI, 0.94-0.94). Regional data

  8. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wonsuk; Kim, Sangmi; Huh, Warner K; Dilley, Sarah; Coughlin, Steven S; Partridge, Edward E; Chung, Yunmi; Dicks, Vivian; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Bae, Sejong

    2017-01-01

    Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000-2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Black race and South region were associated

  9. [Trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer in Murcia Region (Spain) from 1984 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirlaque, María Dolores; Moldenhauer, Fernando; Salmerón, Diego; Navarro, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To study the trend pattern of the incidence of thyroid cancer. We selected incident cases of thyroid cancer occurring in the Region of Murcia (Spain) in 1984-2008. The variables gathered were age, sex, date of diagnosis, and morphology. We calculated incidence rates and the annual percentage of change using Bayesian age-period-cohort models. During the study period, 1414 cases were diagnosed, representing an increase in adjusted rates from 2.9/100000 in 1984-1988 to 7.3 in 2004-2008. The incidence was 3.5 times higher in women than in men and the most frequent morphology was papillary carcinoma (67.7%). An increasing trend was found in both genders; these increments were more pronounced in papillary carcinoma. In women, the incidence increased with age, calendar year, and in those born in 1945-1963. The incidence of papillary microcarcinoma increased four-fold in women. Thyroid cancer used to be a rare cancer but has become an emerging tumor. The greatest changes were found in papillary thyroid cancer, including a gradual increase in the proportion of microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Precipitation Trend Analysis over Eastern Region of India Using Cmip5 Based Climatic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, A.; Dwivedi, S.; Chandra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Climate science is a complex field as climate is governed by processes that interact and operate on a vast array of time and space scales. The processes involving radiative transfer, chemistry and phase changes of water are most easily described at atomic and molecular scales; the influence of ice sheets, continents and planetary scale circulations controlling the basic energy balance of the planet operate at continental scales; even planetary orbital and solar variations operating at millennial time scales cannot be ignored. Global as well as regional climate has changed due to human activities like land use changes, production of industrial effluents and other activities due to the development of the society. The consequences of these changes have a massive impact on atmospheric events like precipitation, temperature etc. So, present and future information of precipitation is required to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies at national and international levels. Precipitation is one of the major phenomena of the atmosphere. So, its prediction and the trend are very necessary to realize the change of climate. The study attempted some model based analysis to assess prediction of rainfall trend using MK test and the Sen's slope estimator.

  11. Trends and risk factors for syphilis infection in Piedmont Region, Italy, 2002-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Vigna-Taglianti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: This work aims to analyze trends of syphilis infections in the Piedmont Region (Italy between 2002 and 2008, and to evaluate risk factors for infection. Methods: Syphilis trends were described according to socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, condom use, number of partners and HIV infection. Independent risk factors for syphilis among men having sex with men (MSM, men having sex with women (MSW, and women were identified through logistic regression comparing cases with 12,773 negative patients. Results: Between 2002 and 2008, 1,046 cases of syphilis were diagnosed, with peaks in 2004 and 2007. The risk of a syphilis diagnosis was independently associated with being older than 24, having a low education level, homosexual behavior, HIV self-reported infection (for MSM and MSW, number of partners (for MSW and women and non- consistent condom use (for women. Conclusions: Recent outbreaks suggest that the attention to syphilis can’t be lowered. Screening, treatment of cases and notification of partners should be reinforced and integrated with sexual health education and counselling in high-risk environments. Surveillance data must be continuously collected.

  12. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area.

  13. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2010-11-01

    To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression) between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119). The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007) and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007). Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100,000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119). Mexico City as federative entity and socioeconomic region 7 presented the

  15. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R; Shelton, Jennifer L; Dubrovsky, Neil M

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices.

  16. Journal Publication in Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: University Responses to Global, Regional, and National Pressures and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Background. This project was motivated by the impressive growth that scholarly/scientific journals in Latin America have shown in recent decades. That advance is attributed to global, regional, and national pressures and trends, as well as a response to obstacles that scholars/researchers from the region face to be published in prestigious…

  17. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  18. Changing trend in congenital abdominal wall defects in Eastern region of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2002-09-01

    In the past six years, there have been reports from abroad of an unexplained rise in the birth prevalence rate of the congenital abdominal wall defect gastroschisis, while rates for the macroscopically similar anomaly omphalocoele have remained stable. The Dublin EUROCAT Registry of congenital anomalies monitors trends in the birth prevalence of birth defects in the eastern region of Ireland. We analysed births of children with omphalocoele and gastroschisis born in the period 1981-2000, with comparisons of a number of demographic and obstetric variables. During the 20 year period the birth prevalence rate for omphalocoele remained stable at 2.5\\/10,000 births, whereas the rate for gastroschisis increased significantly during the 1990s from 1.0\\/10,000 in 1991 to 4.9\\/10,000 in 2000. Most of the increase occurred among mothers under 25 years of age. Omphalocoele was associated with a relatively high proportion of other major congenital anomalies. This study showed that there has been an unexpected rise in the birth prevalence of gastroschisis in the region, similar to that experienced in other countries in the same time period and likely to have common aetiological features.

  19. Infant mortality due to perinatal causes in Brazil: trends, regional patterns and possible interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes Victora

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Brazilian infant and child mortality levels are not compatible with the country's economic potential. In this paper, we provide a description of levels and trends in infant mortality due to perinatal causes and malformations and assess the likely impact of changing intermediate-level determinants, many of which are amenable to direct interventions through the health or related sectors. TYPE OF STUDY: Review paper. METHODS: Two main sources of mortality data were used: indirect mortality estimates based on censuses and surveys, and rates based on registered deaths. The latter were corrected for under-registration. Combination of the two sources of data allowed the estimation of cause-specific mortality rates. Data on current coverage of preventive and curative interventions were mostly obtained from the 1996 Demographic and Health Survey. Other national household surveys and Ministry of Health Statistics were also used. A thorough review of the Brazilian literature on levels, trends and determinants of infant mortality led to the identification of a large number of papers and books. These provided the background for the analyses of risk factors and potential interventions. RESULTS: The indirect infant mortality rate estimate for 1995-97 is of 37.5 deaths per thousand live births, about six times higher than in the lowest mortality countries in the world. Perinatal causes account for 57% of all infant deaths, and congenital malformations are responsible for 11.2% of these deaths. Mortality levels are highest in the Northeast and North, and lowest in the South and Southeast; the Center-West falls in between. Since surveys of the North region do not cover rural areas, mortality for this region may be underestimated. CONCLUSIONS: A first priority for the further reduction in infant mortality in Brazil is to improve equality among regions, since the North and Northeast, and particularly rural areas, still show very high death rates. Further

  20. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  1. Climate related trends and meteorological conditions in European Arctic region - Porsanger fjord, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszyńska, Agata; Stramska, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change has significant effect on the Arctic environment, where global trends are amplified. In this study, we have focused on the Porsanger fjord, located in European Arctic in the coastal region of the Barents Sea. We have analyzed climate related trends and meteorological condititions in the area of interest. Meteorological data included wind speed and direction, air temperature (AT) and precipitation from Era-Interim reanalysis (1986-2015) and local observations (1996-2015) from Lakselv (L, fjord's head area) and Honningsvaag (H - fjord's exit area). Our results confirm that this region is undergoing climate change related warming, which is indicated by rising air temperatures. Based on long-term reanalysis data, estimated trends for air temperature (AT) in Porsanger fjord are: 0.0536 °C year-1 at fjord's exit and 0.0428 °C year-1 at fjord's head. The results show that climate change does not seem to have a significant effect on long-term changes of wind speed and precipitation in the Porsanger fjord. Statistical analysis underlined significant spatial variability of meteorological conditions inside the fjord. For example, there are large differences in the annual cycle of AT with monthly mean January and July values of -8.4 and 12.6 °C in L and -2.5 and 10.1 °C in H. Dominant wind directions in Lakselv are S and SSE, while in Honningsvaag S and SSW directions prevail. Strong wind events (above 12 m s-1) are more frequent in H than in L. Annual cycle is characterized by stronger winds in winter and seasonality of wind direction. Precipitation for a given location can change by about 50% between years and varies spatially. Synoptic scale and within day variability are extremely intense in the area of interest. Air temperature and wind speed and direction can change dramatically in hours. In addition, regular patterns of the daily cycle of AT have different intensity in L and H. It is interesting to note that in spring/summer season, the daily cycle of

  2. Interethnic Relationships and Migration Process at the Regional Level: Problems and Main Trends of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Sabirdzyanovna Krestyanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems and trends of the development of interethnic relationships at the regional level. The assumption that migration process has direct influence upon them is proved. The hypothesis of the research is that the interethnic relationships of “traditional” ethnic communities for the region fundamentally differ from the interethnic relationships of the ethnic communities formed by the new migrants. For the first ethnic communities, ethnicity is not so important while the civil identity is more relevant and over-ethnic integrated images are developed. That results in the reduction of interethnic tension. For the other ethnic communities, ethnic and cultural barriers are strong, ethnicity is relevant for them. Furthermore, the language curtain and social distance strengthen interethnic tension for these ethnic communities. In our opinion, the basic threat is that the efforts of public authorities for the harmonization of interethnic relationships are mainly bending to the first ethnic communities. The public authorities attempt to save and develop the ethnic culture to form tolerance. Meanwhile, the major interethnic tension is associated with the migration process, a negative perception of migrants and a number of sociopsychological problems. Main factors having the influence on the negative perception of migrants and interethnic tension are analyzed. The conclusions are based on the research conducted by the author in 2011, relying on the questionnaire and expert survey, on the research conducted from 2008 till 2015, on the analysis of national population census and analytical reviews about migration situation. The results of the study can be used by the public authorities of the region developing ethnic policy, migration policy in formulation forecast of socio-economic development and social tension.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION ACOUSTIC MAPPING OF GAS CHARGED SEDIMENTS AND LIVING BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE NE REGION OF THE GUANABARA BAY (RJ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Paula Delavy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed in the NE region of the Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted Brazilian coastal system, located in Rio de Janeiro State. It aimed to: i identify and map the areas with occurrence of gas in the sediment, as well as its acoustic signature; ii characterize the physical properties of the sediments and; iii document the response of microbenthic organisms (living benthic foraminifera to changes in quantity and quality of organic matter. Seismic surveys at the frequency of 12 kHz identified a large area with about 50% gas charged sediments in the study area. The main acoustic signatures of the shallow gas were black shadow and gas blanket. In addition, features related to gas seepages to the water column (acoustic plumes and pockmarks and gas percolation within the sediments (intra-sedimentary plumes, turbidity pinnacles were also identified. The gas has a biogenic origin and results from the high sedimentation rate between 0.03 to 0.9 cm.year-1 and from the decomposition of large amount of organic matter (10-20%. Vertical distribution of gas ranges from few centimeters to 9 m below the water-sediments interface. These occurrences are related to both gas migration from lower sedimentary layers to Holocene muds above, and to recent generation in near-surface sediments as the area display favorable conditions for gas production. Cores ranging from 150-240 cm in length have predominantly muddy sediments and variations in the P-wave velocity followed the changes in sediment density, controlled mainly by the presence of gas in sediments, bioclasts accumulation, textural variation and percentage of organic matter. The TOC content and Rock-Eval pyrolysis parameters evaluated in nine surface sediment samples indicate that good to excellent amount of organic matter associated with moderate to good source potential for gas production is present in the study area. In these areas living benthic foraminifera are of reduced diversity and density

  4. Regional disparities in infant mortality in Canada: a reversal of egalitarian trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Huang, Ling; Dzakpasu, Susie; McCourt, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Background Although national health insurance plans and social programs introduced in the 1960s led to reductions in regional disparities in infant mortality in Canada, it is unclear if such patterns prevailed in the 1990s when the health care and related systems were under fiscal duress. This study examined regional patterns of change in infant mortality in Canada in recent decades. Methods We analysed regional changes in crude infant mortality rates and in infant mortality rates among live births with a birth weight ≥ 500 g and ≥ 1,000 g in Canada from 1945 to 2002. Associations between baseline infant mortality rates in the provinces and territories (e.g., in 1985–89) and the change observed in infant mortality rates over the subsequent period (e.g., between 1985–89 and 1995–99) were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Trends in regional disparities were also assessed by calculating period-specific rate ratios between provinces/territories with the highest versus the lowest infant mortality. Results Provincial/territorial infant mortality rates in 1945–49 were not correlated with changes in infant mortality over the next 10 years (rho = 0.01, P = 0.99). However, there was a strong negative correlation between infant mortality rates in 1965–69 and the subsequent decline in infant mortality (rho = - 0.85, P = 0.002). Provinces/territories with higher infant mortality rates in 1965–69 (Northwest Territories 64.7 vs British Columbia 20.7 per 1,000 live births) experienced relatively larger reductions in infant mortality between 1965–69 and 1975–79 (53.7% decline in the Northwest Territories vs a 36.6% decline in British Columbia). This pattern was reversed in the more recent decades. Provinces/territories with higher infant mortality rates ≥ 500 g in 1985–89 experience relatively smaller reductions in infant mortality between 1985–89 and 2000–02 (rho = 0.82, P = 0.004). The infant mortality ≥ 500 g rate ratio

  5. Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanling; Achberger, Christine; Linderholm, Hans W.

    2013-04-01

    Rain-season trends in precipitation and its' effect in different climate regions of China during 1961-2008 Yanling Song, Christine Achberger, Hans W. Linderholm National Climate Centre, China Meteorological Administration, 100081, Beijing, China Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden Using high-quality precipitation data from 524 stations, the trends of a set of precipitation variables during the main rain season (May to September) were analyzed from 1961 to 2008 for different climate regions in China. Averaged over China, the results indicated an increase in total precipitation, where days with low precipitation were decreasing while precipitation intensity increased. However, different characteristics were displayed in different regions of China. In most temperate monsoon regions (north-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days showed decreasing trends, while positive tendencies in precipitation intensity were, noted for most stations. It is suggested that the decrease in rain-season precipitation is mainly related to fewer rain days and a change towards drier conditions in north-eastern China, and as a result, the available water resources have been negatively affected in the temperate monsoon regions. In most subtropical and tropical monsoon climate regions (south-eastern China), total precipitation and precipitation days (11-50mm, >50 mm) showed slightly positive trends. However, precipitation days (≤10mm) decreased in these regions. Changes towards wetter conditions in this area, together with more frequent heavy rainfall events causing floods, have a severe impact on the peoples' lives and socio-economic development. In general, the rain-season precipitation, precipitation days as well as rain-season precipitation intensity all had increased in the temperate continental and plateau/mountain regions of western China. This increase in rain-season precipitation has been favourable to pasture

  6. 20-Year Trend of CVD Risk Factors: Urban and Rural National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Ambuj; Praveen, Pradeep A; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gupta, Ruby; Amarchand, Ritvik; Kondal, Dimple; Singh, Kalpana; Sharma, Meenakshi; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Krishnan, Anand

    2017-09-01

    The World Health Organization and the Government of India have set targets to reduce burden of noncommunicable diseases. Information on population level trend of risk factors would provide insights regarding the possibility of achieving them. This study aimed to determine the population trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the National Capital Region of Delhi over 2 decades. Two representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted among men and women ages 35 to 64 years, residing in the urban and rural areas (survey 1 [1991 to 1994] and survey 2 [2010 to 2012]) using similar methodology. The urban sample was collected from the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, and the rural sample was from the Ballabgarh block of the adjoining state of Haryana. A total of 3,048 and 2,052 subjects of urban areas and 2,487 and 1,917 subjects of rural areas were surveyed in surveys 1 and 2, respectively. Behavioral (smoking and alcohol use), physical (overweight, abdominal obesity, and raised blood pressure), and biochemical risk factors (raised fasting blood glucose and raised total cholesterol) were measured using standard tools. Urban and rural prevalence of overweight, alcohol use, raised blood pressure, and blood glucose increased with increases in age-standardized mean body mass index (urban: 24.4 to 26.0 kg/m2; rural: 20.2 to 23.0 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (urban: 121.2 to 129.8 mm Hg; rural: 114.9 to 123.1 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (urban: 74.3 to 83.9 mm Hg; rural: 73.1 to 82.3 mm Hg), and fasting glucose (urban: 101.2 to 115.3 mg/dl; rural: 83.9 to 103.2 mg/dl). The smoking prevalence increased in the rural male population. Raised total cholesterol declined in urban and increased significantly in rural populations. The study indicates an overall worsening of population levels of all cardiovascular disease risk factors in National Capital Region over past 20 years, though some signs of stabilization and reversal are seen in urban Delhi. Copyright

  7. Detection Probability of Trends in Rare Events: Theory and Application to Heavy Precipitation in the Alpine Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Christoph; Schär, Christoph

    2001-04-01

    A statistical framework is presented for the assessment of climatological trends in the frequency of rare and extreme weather events. The methodology applies to long-term records of event counts and is based on the stochastic concept of binomial distributed counts. It embraces logistic regression for trend estimation and testing, and includes a quantification of the potential/limitation to discriminate a trend from the stochastic fluctuations in a record. This potential is expressed in terms of a detection probability, which is calculated from Monte Carlo-simulated surrogate records, and determined as a function of the record length, the magnitude of the trend and the average return period (i.e., the rarity) of events.Calculations of the detection probability for daily events reveal a strong sensitivity upon the rarity of events:in a 100-yr record of seasonal counts, a frequency change by a factor of 1.5 can be detected with a probability of 0.6 for events with an average return period of 30 days; however, this value drops to 0.2 for events with a return period of 100 days. For moderately rare events the detection probability decreases rapidly with shorter record length, but it does not significantly increase with longer record length when very rare events are considered. The results demonstrate the difficulty to determine trends of very rare events, underpin the need for long period data for trend analyses, and point toward a careful interpretation of statistically nonsignificant trend results.The statistical method is applied to examine seasonal trends of heavy daily precipitation at 113 rain gauge stations in the Alpine region of Switzerland (1901-94). For intense events (return period: 30 days) a statistically significant frequency increase was found in winter and autumn for a high number of stations. For strong precipitation events (return period larger than 100 days), trends are mostly statistically nonsignificant, which does not necessarily imply the absence

  8. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-05-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7-71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet that

  9. The global metabolic transition: Regional patterns and trends of global material flows, 1950–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Mayer, Andreas; Gingrich, Simone; Eisenmenger, Nina; Loy, Christian; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2014-01-01

    Since the World War II, many economies have transitioned from an agrarian, biomass-based to an industrial, minerals-based metabolic regime. Since 1950, world population grew by factor 2.7 and global material consumption by factor 3.7–71 Gigatonnes per year in 2010. The expansion of the resource base required by human societies is associated with growing pressure on the environment and infringement on the habitats of other species. In order to achieve a sustainability transition, we require a better understanding of the currently ongoing metabolic transition and its potential inertia. In this article, we present a long-term global material flow dataset covering material extraction, trade, and consumption of 177 individual countries between 1950 and 2010. We trace patterns and trends in material flows for six major geographic and economic country groupings and world regions (Western Industrial, the (Former) Soviet Union and its allies, Asia, the Middle East and Northern Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa) as well as their contribution to the emergence of a global metabolic profile during a period of rapid industrialization and globalization. Global average material use increased from 5.0 to 10.3 tons per capita and year (t/cap/a) between 1950 and 2010. Regional metabolic rates range from 4.5 t/cap/a in Sub-Saharan Africa to 14.8 t/cap/a in the Western Industrial grouping. While we can observe a stabilization of the industrial metabolic profile composed of relatively equal shares of biomass, fossil energy carriers, and construction minerals, we note differences in the degree to which other regions are gravitating toward a similar form of material use. Since 2000, Asia has overtaken the Western Industrial grouping in terms of its share in global resource use although not in terms of its per capita material consumption. We find that at a sub-global level, the roles of the world regions have changed. There are, however, no signs yet

  10. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawvere Silvana

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort design that included all infant deaths occurring among persons residing within the Mogilev oblast of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Patterns of death and death rates were examined across 3 intervals: 1980–1985 (pre-Chernobyl, 1986–1991 (post-Chernobyl & pre-FSU breakup, and 1992–2000 (post-Chernobyl & post-FSU breakup. Results Annual infant mortality rates declined during the 1980s, increased during the early 1990s, and have remained stable thereafter. While infant mortality rates in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females, this decrement appears due to decreases in postneonatal mortality. Rates of postneonatal mortality in Mogilev have decreased since the period 1980–1985 among both males and females. Analyses of trends for infant mortality and neonatal mortality demonstrated continuous decreases between 1990, followed by a bell-shaped excess in the 1990's. Compared to rates of infant mortality for other countries, rates in the Mogilev region are generally higher than rates for the United States, but lower than rates in Russia. During the 1990s, rates for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality in Mogilev were two times the comparable rates for East and West Germany. Conclusions While neonatal mortality rates in Mogilev have remained stable, rates for postneonatal mortality have decreased among both males and females during the period examined. Infant mortality rates in the Mogilev region of Belarus remain

  11. The trends of burns epidemiology in a tropical regional burns centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee, Jolie; Song, Christopher; Tan, Kok Chai; Tan, Bien Keem; Chong, Si Jack

    2016-05-01

    Singapore General Hospital (SGH) is a regional burns centre in Southeast Asia and is the only dedicated burns facility providing specialized burns care in Singapore. A cohort study was performed for burns patients admitted to SGH from 2011 to 2013. We compared our data with earlier studies and observed the trends of burns epidemiology in Singapore. Results were analyzed using the SPSS programme. 655 patients were admitted during this study period, a 35.9% increase from 2003 to 2005. Scalding by water and flame injury remain the top causes of burns and the mean extent of burn is 9.5%. TBSA correlates with the incidence of burn infection, bacteremia and mortality. Patients with ≥20% TBSA are at a higher risk of bacteremia, and ≥ 34% TBSA is a predictor of mortality. 4.9% (n=32) of our patients developed bacteremia. Bacteremia was associated with a surgical duration of ≥80min. Patients with bacteremia incurred longer hospitalization, and had higher mortality rates. Overall mortality rate of our burns patients has decreased from 4.5% to 2.7% (n=18). Key factors of mortality include inhalational injury, bacteremia and ≥20% TBSA. This is a large epidemiology study of a tropical region burns centre. A total of 655 burns cases over a 3-year period were analyzed. We analysed the key factors associated with adverse outcomes including burns infection, bacteremia and mortality, factors associated with mortality, and discussed strategies on the optimization of burns care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface radiation over the pan-Arctic land region: temporal variability and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Wild, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    Surface radiation fluxes are not only a major component of the surface energy balance, but also control a diverse set of physical-biological processes, including the land surface hydrological cycle and plant photosynthesis. Past studies of the pan-Arctic region have identified changes in land surface hydrological fluxes, but less attention has been focused on the energy inputs to the system. Recent satellite data and atmospheric model reanalysis products have provided several data sets that predict most or all terms in the surface energy budget, and provide the opportunity to investigate spatial and temporal variations in surface radiation fluxes. We analyzed surface downward shortwave and longwave fluxes and albedo from (1) Off-line simulations with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, (2) International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-FD) products, (3) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast 40-Year Reanalysis (ERA-40), and (4) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the period 1984 to 2006. In addition, diurnal and mean seasonal cycles were compared at 35 sites with in situ measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA), the Asian Automatic Weather Station Network (AAN), the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), and the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). At the regional scale, the consistency of dominant spatial, temporal and latitudinal variability of these surface parameters across different data sets was examined. Also, for a small number of GEBA stations with records spanning the period from the 1950s and 1960s to post-2000, we analyzed long-term trends in surface downward shortwave radiation.

  13. Filicide and fatal abuse in Japan, 1994-2005: temporal trends and regional distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumi, Katsuhiro; Kageyama, Jinsuke

    2009-02-01

    To describe the recent filicide features in Japan, data were collected from newspaper databases between 1994 and 2005 and compared with several official statistics. From this dataset, 933 cases and 1084 victims under age 15 were identified. Fatal abuse cases were most prevalent (309 cases, or 33.1%), followed by filicide-suicide cases (303, or 32.5%) and unwanted child cases (225, or 24.1%). Infants under the age of one were most at risk (filicide rate: 2.72 per 100,000 for the same aged infants). Annual filicide numbers showed an upward trend between 1994 and 2001 and the average filicide rate per year was 0.42 per 100,000 for children under age 15. Both the number of cases over the period and the filicide rate per year by prefecture ranged widely. Furthermore, the annual filicide rates over the period were strongly correlated with both suicide rates and unemployment rates for the general population (r=.884 and .926, respectively; pfilicide per region and the predominating category in a prefecture provides direction for filicide prevention. Result suggests that recent socioeconomic situations have a significant effect on not only filicide-suicide but also the overall filicide rate in Japan.

  14. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  15. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions - commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change - and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions.

  16. Recent trends in pre-monsoon daily temperature extremes over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), North Central (NC), East coast (EC), West coast (WC) and ... the period 1954–1999 over South Korea and they observed that .... The homogeneous regions of EC, WC and IP show a significant increasing trend in frequency of hot days. The regions in the northern part of India. (north of 22.

  17. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  18. Air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.; Rice, Karen C.

    2015-12-14

    in-stream sediments, so understanding changes in stream-water temperature throughout the bay watershed is critical to resource managers seeking to restore the bay ecosystem.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses indicators that “represent the state or trend of certain environmental or societal conditions … to track and better understand the effects of changes in the Earth’s climate” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014). Updates to these indicators are published biennially by the EPA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, has completed analyses of air- and stream-water-temperature trends in the Chesapeake Bay region to be included as an indicator in a future release of the EPA report.

  19. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finucane, Mariel M; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cowan, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    Excess bodyweight is a major public health concern. However, few worldwide comparative analyses of long-term trends of body-mass index (BMI) have been done, and none have used recent national health examination surveys. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean BMI....

  20. The MiniBooNE detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bartoszek, L. M.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Martin, P. S.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyer, H.-O.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Nelson, R. H.; Nguyen, V. T.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Sands, W.; Schirato, R.; Schofield, G.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.; MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2009-02-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν→ν oscillations in the (sin 2θ,Δm) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  1. Trends in body weight for 7-year boys from different environmental sites of copper mining region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Posłuszny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The epidemic of the XXI century – a disease that threatens through development of other ailments, caused by pathological accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, beyond the physiological needs and adaptability – the obesity. A significant number of diseases are largely a consequence of obesity, and despite the fact that it mainly occurs in adults, that problem may start influencing our health from an early age. In childhood and adolescence the most common form is simple obesity, and frequency of occurrence shows significant growing trend, regardless of gender. The prevalence of obesity in early stages of life is associated with a significant probability of a continuation of or increase in adulthood, therefore one should look for the onset of obesity in childhood. The results of studies and projections show steady growth in the number of overweight and obese in populations of developing countries and developed economies, including Poland. Therefore it is important to continuously monitor body weight and degree of fatness of children and adolescents. Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 in six rural primary schools from the Copper Mining Region and in all three primary schools from Polkowice. More measurements were made in 2008 and 2010. The total number of 7-year old boys was 277. The measurements covered Body height, Body weight, Lean Body Mass, Total Body Water and Total Body Fat. These data were collected with the use of anthropometer, body scale and FUTREX 5000, the optical body composition analyzer. Measurements were necessary to get the BMI. Results. Based on analysis, it was observed that the height and weight of 7-year-old boys from the Copper Mining Region has increased compared to the first series of tests. The BMI and amount of body fat have also increased. This situation was observed both in rural and urban environment. There was a difference in body fat percentage. Lower values were

  2. Regional trends for bud burst and flowering of woody plants in Norway as related to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordli, Ø; Wielgolaski, F E; Bakken, A K; Hjeltnes, S H; Måge, F; Sivle, A; Skre, O

    2008-09-01

    Data series for bud burst, beginning of flowering and petal fall for 20 species of deciduous trees and conifers at four sites in different regions of southern Norway have been analysed and related to temperature series. On average, the spring phenophases occurred 7 days earlier during the period 1971-2005. The most significant linear trends were observed for the earliest phases. The trends in this period were compared with trends in other periods, the longest one starting in 1927. Those starting in cold decades and ending in 2005 were in most instances statistically significant, whereas hardly any significant trend appeared for series starting in warm decades. This fact showed that the results of trend studies are very sensitive to the choice of starting year. There were significant decadal variations in 40% of the series. The dates of occurrence of the phenophases, varying from the first days of May to the first days of June, correlated with seasonal temperature series, in most cases strongest to mean temperatures for the seasons March-May and April-May. The North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) for January and February appeared to have some predictive power for the date of occurrence of the recorded phases. The basis for this may be that the oscillations described by the index are of importance for the fulfilment of physiological chilling requirements needed to break bud dormancy. The same genotypes of the trees were grown in region West Norway and in Central Norwegian region; during the period 1965-2005 the trends towards earlier bud burst were more pronounced and steeper at the western site.

  3. Spatiotemporal reference evapotranspiration changes in humid and semi-arid regions of Iran: past trends and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Milad; Homaee, Mehdi; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) changes in semi-arid and humid regions of Iran during the past (1966-2010) and future (2011-2099). For detecting possible trend in ET0 over 1966-2010, the Mann-Kendall trend test was employed. The outputs of Hadley Centre coupled model version 3 (HadCM3) and the third generation couple global climate model (CGCM3) under A2, B2, and A1B emission scenarios were also used to simulate the future ET0 changes by statistical downscaling model (SDSM). The results indicated upward trends in annual ET0 during 1966-2010 in the most sites. Furthermore, the significant increasing ET0 trends were identified for 54.5, 18.2, 27.3, 22.7, and 36.3% of studied locations during winter, spring, summer, autumn, and entire year, respectively. Positive trends in ET0 were mostly found in northeast, west, and northwest Iran, and insignificant downward ET0 trends were primarily detected in southwestern and southern stations in 1966-2010. The ET0 changes were attributed to wind speed changes in semi-arid regions and mean temperature changes in humid areas in the past period. An increase in ET0 was projected under all scenarios due mainly to temperature rise and declined relative humidity in the investigated regions from 2011 to 2100. Averaged over all stations, the lowest and highest ET0 increment were, respectively, modeled for autumn and summer using CGCM3 outputs and winter and autumn using HadCM3 outputs. Given significant ET0 increase over the twenty-first century, appropriate adaptive measures are required to reduce negative impacts of climate change on water resources and agricultural productions.

  4. Trends in cigarette use behaviors among adolescents by region in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop; Park, Soon Woo; Kim, Jong Yeon; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Ki Su

    2011-07-01

    Understanding recent trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents is important in order to develop strategies to prevent cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to compare recent trends in cigarette smoking for adolescents living in rural areas, small towns and metropolitan cities in Korea. The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2005 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate significant linear time trends in cigarette smoking. The indicators of cigarette use behaviors were 'current smoking rate', 'frequent smoking rate', 'heavy smoking rate' and 'smoking experience rate before 13 years of age'. All analyses were conducted according to gender. Statistically significant increasing trends in current smoking rate and frequent smoking rate were observed and borderline significant increasing trends in heavy smoking rate were shown among rural boys. Among metropolitan city boys, statistically significant increasing trends were also seen for frequent smoking. Statistically significant decreasing trends in current smoking rate were observed among small town and metropolitan city girls. Smoking experience rate before 13 years of age for rural girls decreased significantly. Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescents in the rural areas has increased in the last five years especially among boys. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco program for adolescents should be conducted primarily for those in rural areas.

  5. Multi-regional synthesis of temporal trends in biotic assemblages in streams and rivers of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Keenen, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic assemblages in aquatic ecosystems are excellent integrators and indicators of changing environmental conditions within a watershed. Therefore, temporal changes in abiotic environmental variables often can be inferred from temporal changes in biotic assemblages. Algae, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected from 91 sampling sites in 4 geographic regions (northeastern/north-central, southeastern, south-central, and western), collectively encompassing the continental United States, from 1993 to 2009 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report uses a multivariate approach to synthesize temporal trends in biotic assemblages and correlations with relevant abiotic parameters as a function of biotic assemblage, geographic region, and land use. Of the three groups of biota, algal assemblages had temporal trends at the greatest percentage of sites. Of the regions, a greater percentage of sites in the northeastern/north-central and western regions had temporal trends in biotic assemblages. In terms of land use, a greater percentage of watersheds draining agricultural, urban, and undeveloped areas had significant temporal changes in biota, as compared to watersheds with mixed use. Correlations between biotic assemblages and abiotic variables indicate that, in general, macroinvertebrate assemblages correlated with water quality and fish assemblages correlated with physical habitat. Taken together, results indicate that there are regional differences in how individual biotic assemblages (algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) respond to different abiotic drivers of change.

  6. Disparity in rainfall trend and patterns among different regions: analysis of 158 years' time series of rainfall dataset across India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debasish; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Samanta, Sandipan; Singh, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Rainfall anomaly during crop-growing season can have large impact on the agricultural output of a country, especially like India, where two-thirds of the crop land is rain-fed. In such situation, decreased agricultural production not only challenges food security of the country but directly and immediately hits the livelihood of its farming community. In a vast country like India, rainfall or its anomalies hardly follow a specific pattern, rather it is having high variability in spatial domain. This study focused on the trends of national and regional rainfall anomalies (wetness/dryness) along with their interrelationship using time series data of past 158 years. The significant reducing wetness trend (p tests indicate that major abrupt changes occurred between early to mid-twentieth century having regional variations. The regional interrelationship was studied using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and pair-wise difference test, which clearly indicated a significantly different pattern in rainfall anomalies for north east India (p = 0.022), north central India (p = 0.022), and north mountainous India (p = 0.011) from that of the all India. Result of this study affirmed high spatial variability in rainfall anomaly and most importantly established the unalike pattern in trends of regional rainfall vis-à-vis national level, ushering towards paradigm shift in rainfall forecast from country scale to regional scale for pragmatic planning.

  7. Geochemistry and petrology of Late Cretaceous subvolcanic rocks (Macka-Trabzon) in the north of the eastern Black Sea region, NE-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk

    2013-04-01

    In this study, geochronological, geochemical and isotopical data for the early Campanian subvolcanic rocks (Macka-Trabzon) in the north of the eastern Blacksea region, northeastern Turkey, have initially been presented with the aim of determining its magma source and geodynamic evolution. The subvolcanic rocks cutting the subduction-related Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimantary rocks in the region are characterized by several sills and dykes with columnar structures and they consist of amphibole-rich quartz-diorite and quartz-tonalite porphyries, with some dioritic mafic microgranular enclaves. The host rocks have a microgranular porphyritic texture, and they contain 15-25% phenocryst of plagioclase and amphibole and have a matrix that is composed primarily of fine-grained quartz, orthoclase, and plagioclase. Accessory apatite, zircon and Fe-Ti oxides are present in all of the rocks. Secondary minerals such as epidote, calcite, sericite and clays are sometimes observed in the matrix or as hydothermal alteration products of some amphibole and plagioclase phenocrysts. When compared to the host rocks, the magmatic enclaves without quartz are fine-grained, and they contain higher ferromagnesian phases and lower feldspar minerals. Ar-Ar geochronology studies on the amphibole separates reveal that the porphyries have a crystallization ages of 81±0.5 Ma. All samples show a high-K calc-alkaline differentiation trend and I-type features with metaluminous character. The rocks and magmatic enclaves are characterized by enrichment of LILE and depletion of HFSE with negative Nb, Ti, Zr and P anomalies. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns are not fractionated [(La/Yb)N = 9-11] and do not display Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.7-0.9). The porphyritic rocks and their enclaves are almost isotopically similar. Sr-Nd isotopic data for all of the samples display initial Sr = 0.7085-0.7087, epsilon Nd (81 Ma) = -6.0 to -6.9, with TDM = 1.38-1.63 Ga. The lead isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb

  8. Regional acidification trends in Florida shellfish estuaries: A 20+ year look at pH, oxygen, temperature and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Lisle, John T.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing global CO2 and local land use changes coupled with increased nutrient pollution are threatening estuaries worldwide. Local changes of estuarine chemistry have been documented, but regional associations and trends comparing multiple estuaries latitudinally have not been evaluated. Rapid climate change has impacted the annual and decadal chemical trends in estuaries, with local ecosystem processes enhancing or mitigating the responses. Here, we compare pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity data from 10 Florida shellfish estuaries and hundreds of shellfish bed stations. Over 80,000 measurements, spanning from 1980 to 2008, taken on Atlantic Ocean and West Florida coast showed significant regional trends of consistent pH decreases in 8 out of the 10 estuaries, with an average rate of decrease on the Gulf of Mexico side estuaries of Florida of 7.3 × 10−4 pH units year−1, and average decrease on the Atlantic Coast estuaries of 5.0 × 10−4 pH units year−1. The rates are approximately 2–3.4 times slower than observed in pH decreases associated with ocean acidification in the Atlantic and Pacific. Other significant trends observed include decreasing dissolved oxygen in 9 out of the 10 estuaries, increasing salinity in 6 out of the 10, and temperature increases in 3 out of the 10 estuaries. The data provide a synoptic regional view of Florida estuary trends which reflect the complexity of changing climate and coastal ocean acidification superimposed on local conditions. These data provide context for understanding, and interpreting the past and predicting future of regional water quality health of shellfish and other organisms of commercial and ecological significance along Florida’s coasts.

  9. Multi-annual changes of NOx emissions in megacity regions: nonlinear trend analysis of satellite measurement based estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burrows

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous impact of air pollutant emissions from megacities on atmospheric composition on regional and global scales is currently an important issue in atmospheric research. However, the quantification of emissions and related effects is frequently a difficult task, especially in the case of developing countries, due to the lack of reliable data and information. This study examines possibilities to retrieve multi-annual NOx emissions changes in megacity regions from satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide and to quantify them in terms of linear and nonlinear trends. By combining the retrievals of the GOME and SCIAMACHY satellite instrument data with simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model, we obtain the time series of NOx emission estimates for the 12 largest urban agglomerations in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. We employ then a novel method allowing estimation of a nonlinear trend in a noisy time series of an observed variable. The method is based on the probabilistic approach and the use of artificial neural networks; it does not involve any quantitative a priori assumptions. As a result, statistically significant nonlinearities in the estimated NOx emission trends are detected in 5 megacities (Bagdad, Madrid, Milan, Moscow and Paris. Statistically significant upward linear trends are detected in Istanbul and Tehran, while downward linear trends are revealed in Berlin, London and the Ruhr agglomeration. The presence of nonlinearities in NOx emission changes in Milan, Paris and Madrid is confirmed by comparison of simulated NOx concentrations with independent air quality monitoring data. A good quantitative agreement between the linear trends in the simulated and measured near surface NOx concentrations is found in London.

  10. HANDICRAFTS MOTIFS’ REFLECTION IN FOLKSAY IN KONYA REGION KONYA YÖRESİ EL SANATLARINDA ANLAM YÜKLÜ MOTİFLERİN HALK DİLİNE YANSIMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine NAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish folk culture which incorporates material and spiritual concepts like history, belief, language, philosophy, art which continually has a continually developing dynamic structure. Language which enables social and cultural communication within this structure is a living treasure which feeds on customs and traditions of the people’s lifestyle and reaches to literary relish, thinking and eloquence and which symbolically lives in varieties local handicrafts. When Turkish handicraft history is reviewed, Konya region stands out with its rich accumulation and cultural structure. Knitting and embroidery which can be regarded among Konya folk plastic arts includes a rich vocabulary about the motifs which people coined with regard to three main periods shaping human life; birth, marriage and death. This vocabulary treasure preserving its functions as consolidator of harmony, unity and solidarity in the society is a product of folklore and functions as transmitters of culture which maintain tradition in communication only among women. This study aims to document some of samples in this rich vocabulary which were coined in relation to motifs and thus contribute to database on Turkish cultural history. Türk halk kültürü; tarih, inanç, dil, felsefe, sanat gibi maddimanevi kavramlar bütününü bünyesinde barındıran ve sürekli gelişim gösteren dinamik bir yapıya sahiptir. Bu sistem içinde sosyal ve kültürel iletişimi sağlayan dil; halkın yaşam biçiminde gelenek ve göreneklerden beslenerek, edebî zevk, düşünce ve anlatım gücüne ulaşan varlığı ile yöresel el sanatı çeşitlerinde de sembolik olarak yaşayan bir hazinedir. Türk el sanatları geçmişine bakıldığında Konya yöresi, tarihi birikimi ve kültürel yapısı ile önem taşımaktadır. Konya halk plastik sanatları içinde değerlendirilebilecek; örücülük ve işlemecilik alanlarında; doğum, evlenme ve ölüm gibi insan yaşamını şekillendiren

  11. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... for conservation management by monitoring vegetation dynamics, projecting the persistence of vegetation trends and identifying areas of interest for upcoming restoration measures. In this study, we use MODIS satellite time series (2001-2013) and the Hurst exponent to classify the study area (Guizhou and Guangxi...... Provinces) according to the persistence of future vegetation trends (positive, anti-persistent positive, negative, anti-persistent negative, stable or uncertain). The persistence of trends is interrelated with terrain conditions (elevation and slope angle) and results in an index providing information...

  12. Evaluation of a Regional Monitoring Program's Statistical Power to Detect Temporal Trends in Forest Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service's Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of the Vital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year-1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year-1 in most indicators.

  13. Evaluation of a regional monitoring program's statistical power to detect temporal trends in forest health indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perles, Stephanie J.; Wagner, Tyler; Irwin, Brian J.; Manning, Douglas R.; Callahan, Kristina K.; Marshall, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are socioeconomically and ecologically important ecosystems that are exposed to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stressors. As such, monitoring forest condition and detecting temporal changes therein remain critical to sound public and private forestland management. The National Parks Service’s Vital Signs monitoring program collects information on many forest health indicators, including species richness, cover by exotics, browse pressure, and forest regeneration. We applied a mixed-model approach to partition variability in data for 30 forest health indicators collected from several national parks in the eastern United States. We then used the estimated variance components in a simulation model to evaluate trend detection capabilities for each indicator. We investigated the extent to which the following factors affected ability to detect trends: (a) sample design: using simple panel versus connected panel design, (b) effect size: increasing trend magnitude, (c) sample size: varying the number of plots sampled each year, and (d) stratified sampling: post-stratifying plots into vegetation domains. Statistical power varied among indicators; however, indicators that measured the proportion of a total yielded higher power when compared to indicators that measured absolute or average values. In addition, the total variability for an indicator appeared to influence power to detect temporal trends more than how total variance was partitioned among spatial and temporal sources. Based on these analyses and the monitoring objectives of theVital Signs program, the current sampling design is likely overly intensive for detecting a 5 % trend·year−1 for all indicators and is appropriate for detecting a 1 % trend·year−1 in most indicators.

  14. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    R Clive Landis; Kelly Carmichael-Simmons; Hambleton, Ian R; Anton Best

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. ...

  15. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Razavi

    2016-01-01

    All climate models predicted increasing trends for extreme temperature indices, maximum 1-day and 5-day precipitation (RX1day and RX5day, total wet day precipitation (PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation days (R20mm, Summer Days (SU, and Tropical Nights (TR and decreasing trend for Forest Days (FD and Ice Days (ID in 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to present. CanRCM4 model did consistently project values in the upper range of the CMIP5 ensemble while the PRECIS ensemble was more in-line with the CMIP5 mean values. This difference may however be a function of different emission scenarios used.

  16. Time trends for prostate cancer mortality in Brazil and its geographic regions: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Sonia Faria Mendes; de Souza, Mirian Carvalho; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2017-10-01

    In the 1980s, an increase in mortality rates for prostate cancer was observed in North America and developed European countries. In the 1990s, however, mortality rates decreased for these countries, an outcome related to early detection of the disease. Conversely, an upward trend in mortality rates was observed in Brazil. This study describe the trends in mortality for prostate cancer in Brazil and geographic regions (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Central-West) between 1980 until 2014 and analyze the influence of age, period, and cohort effects on mortality rates. This time-series study used data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) and population data from Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The effects on mortality rates were examined using age-period-cohort (APC) models. Crude and standardized mortality rates showed an upward trend for Brazil and its regions more than 2-fold the last 30 years. Age effects showed an increased risk of death in all regions. Period effects showed a higher risk of death in the finals periods for the North and Northeast. Cohort effects showed risk of death was higher for younger than older generations in Brazil and regions, mainly Northeast (RR Adjusted =3.12, 95% CI 1.29-1.41; RR Adjusted =0.28, 95% CI 0.26-0.30, respectively). The increase in prostate cancer mortality rates in Brazil and its regions was mainly due to population aging. The differences in mortality rates and APC effects between regions are related to demographic differences and access of health services across the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna Mcconnel; /Columbia U.

    2007-03-01

    MiniBooNE is a short baseline neutrino experiment designed to confirm or refute the LSND observed excess of electron anti neutrinos in a muon anti neutrino beam. The experimental setup, data samples, and oscillation fit method are discussed. Although the result was not public at the time of the talk, MiniBooNE has since published results, which are discussed briefly as well.

  18. Trends in the inter-regional and international research collaboration of the PRC’s regions: 2000-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luwel, M.; Van Wijk, E.; Van der Wurff, L.J.; Wang, L.

    2016-07-01

    The regional structure of the PRC’s scientific output is analyzed using publications processed for the Web of Science. Over the period 2000-2015 and measured by the Salton Index of the co-publications the scientific collaboration among the PRC’s regions increased only slightly, in stark contrast with the USA’ states and during the most recent years the EU member countries. Only for research with other nations, representing about 30% of the total publication output, inter-regional collaboration is on the rise. For the leading PRC’s regions the USA is the dominant partner co-authoring about 50% of their publications. Germany and especially Japan seems to lose attractiveness to the advantage of the UK, Australia and neighboring Asian countries. (Author)

  19. Recent trends in urbanization in the ASEAN region: implications for health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteria, T S

    1987-01-01

    "This paper examines recent trends in urbanization in four selected ASEAN countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand--giving particular attention to the scale and pace of urbanization, the unique features of urban communities, and the health changes and adjustments that accompany urban development in these countries." excerpt

  20. Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby the overall abortion rate is a function of the modelled rates in subgroups of women of reproductive age defined by their marital status and contraceptive need and use, and the sizes of these subgroups. Findings We estimated that 35 abortions (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 33 to 44) occurred annually per 1000 women aged 15–44 years worldwide in 2010–14, which was 5 points less than 40 (39–48) in 1990–94 (90% UI for decline −11 to 0). Because of population growth, the annual number of abortions worldwide increased by 5·9 million (90% UI −1·3 to 15·4), from 50·4 million in 1990–94 (48·6 to 59·9) to 56·3 million (52·4 to 70·0) in 2010–14. In the developed world, the abortion rate declined 19 points (–26 to −14), from 46 (41 to 59) to 27 (24 to 37). In the developing world, we found a non-significant 2 point decline (90% UI −9 to 4) in the rate from 39 (37 to 47) to 37 (34 to 46). Some 25% (90% UI 23 to 29) of pregnancies ended in abortion in 2010–14. Globally, 73% (90% UI 59 to 82) of abortions were obtained by married women in 2010–14 compared with 27% (18 to 41) obtained by unmarried women. We did not observe an association between the abortion rates for 2010–14 and the

  1. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  2. Anthropogenic hydrological cycle disturbance at a regional scale: State-wide evapotranspiration trends (1979-2015) across Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2018-02-01

    Trends in monthly evapotranspiration (ET) rates across Nebraska, the most intensely irrigated state within the US, were calculated by the calibration-free version of the nonlinear complementary relationship of evaporation over the 1979-2015 period utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) net radiation, 10-m wind velocity, as well as Parameter Regression Independent Slope Model (PRISM) air- and dew-point temperature data. State-averaged modeled ET rates rose by 5.5 mm decade-1 due to the presence of wide-spread large-scale irrigation projects in accordance with a 2.4 mm decade-1 increase in PRISM precipitation (P) and a simultaneous -2.8 mm decade-1 drop in United States Geological Survey's state-averaged annual streamflow rates, raising the state-wide ET to P ratio from 0.89 to 0.91 over the modeled time-period. ET rates over irrigated crops increased by 7 mm decade-1 despite a -4.4 mm decade-1 drop in precipitation rates. A similar increase in ET rates (6 mm decade-1) required 8.1 mm decade-1 increase in precipitation rates across the non-irrigated Sand Hills of Nebraska. Published NARR ET rates are unable to pick up this unusual regional trend. Since an increase in precipitation rates should normally decrease the ET ratio, as predicted by the Budyko curve, this study yields evidence on how dramatically sustained large-scale irrigation can alter the regional hydrologic cycle not only through a) trivially depleting streamflow rates and/or lowering groundwater table levels; b) suppressing precipitation locally (while enhancing it a long distance downwind), but also; c) reversing the trajectory of the regional ET ratio under generally increasing trends of precipitation.

  3. Extreme values of snow-related variables in Mediterranean regions: trends and long-term forecasting in Sierra Nevada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Pérez-Palazón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain areas in Mediterranean regions constitute key monitoring points for climate variability and its impacts, but long time datasets are not always available due to the difficult access to high areas, relevant for capturing temperature and precipitation regimes, and the predominance of cloudy remote sensing images during the snow season. Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain, with altitudes higher than 3500 m a.s.l., is part of the Global Change in Mountain Regions network. Snow occurrence just 40 km from the seaside determines a wide range of biodiversity, a snowmelt fluvial regime, and the associated ecosystem services. This work presents the local trend analysis of weather variables at this area together with additional snow-related variables. For this, long term point and distributed observations from weather stations and remote sensing sources were studied and used as input and calibration datasets of a physically based snow model to derive long term series of mean and maximum daily fraction of snow covered area, annual number of days with snow, annual number of days with precipitation, mean and maximum mean daily snow water equivalent, and snowmelt and evaporation volumes. The joint analysis of weather and snow variables showed a decrease trend in the persistence and extent of the snow cover area. The precipitation regime, rather than the temperature trend, seems to be the most relevant driver on the snow regime forcing in Mediterranean areas. This poses a constraint for rigorous scenario analysis in these regions, since the precipitation pattern is poorly approximated by climatic models in these regions.

  4. Isotopic source signatures: Impact of regional variability on the δ13CH4 trend and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Aryeh I.; Coulon, Ancelin; Stenke, Andrea; Schwietzke, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate has fluctuated over the past three decades, signifying variations in methane sources and sinks. Methane isotopic ratios (δ13CH4) differ between emission categories, and can therefore be used to distinguish which methane sources have changed. However, isotopic modelling studies have mainly focused on uncertainties in methane emissions rather than uncertainties in isotopic source signatures. We simulated atmospheric δ13CH4 for the period 1990-2010 using the global chemistry-climate model SOCOL. Empirically-derived regional variability in the isotopic signatures was introduced in a suite of sensitivity simulations. These simulations were compared to a baseline simulation with commonly used global mean isotopic signatures. We investigated coal, natural gas/oil, wetland, livestock, and biomass burning source signatures to determine whether regional variations impact the observed isotopic trend and spatial distribution. Based on recently published source signature datasets, our calculated global mean isotopic signatures are in general lighter than the commonly used values. Trends in several isotopic signatures were also apparent during the period 1990-2010. Tropical livestock emissions grew during the 2000s, introducing isotopically heavier livestock emissions since tropical livestock consume more C4 vegetation than midlatitude livestock. Chinese coal emissions, which are isotopically heavy compared to other coals, increase during the 2000s leading to higher global values of δ13CH4 for coal emissions. EDGAR v4.2 emissions disagree with the observed atmospheric isotopic trend for almost all simulations, confirming past doubts about this emissions inventory. The agreement between the modelled and observed δ13CH4 interhemispheric differences improves when regional source signatures are used. Even though the simulated results are highly dependent on the choice of methane emission inventories, they emphasize that the commonly used

  5. Extreme values of snow-related variables in Mediterranean regions: trends and long-term forecasting in Sierra Nevada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palazón, M. J.; Pimentel, R.; Herrero, J.; Aguilar, C.; Perales, J. M.; Polo, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Mountain areas in Mediterranean regions constitute key monitoring points for climate variability and its impacts, but long time datasets are not always available due to the difficult access to high areas, relevant for capturing temperature and precipitation regimes, and the predominance of cloudy remote sensing images during the snow season. Sierra Nevada National Park (South Spain), with altitudes higher than 3500 m a.s.l., is part of the Global Change in Mountain Regions network. Snow occurrence just 40 km from the seaside determines a wide range of biodiversity, a snowmelt fluvial regime, and the associated ecosystem services. This work presents the local trend analysis of weather variables at this area together with additional snow-related variables. For this, long term point and distributed observations from weather stations and remote sensing sources were studied and used as input and calibration datasets of a physically based snow model to derive long term series of mean and maximum daily fraction of snow covered area, annual number of days with snow, annual number of days with precipitation, mean and maximum mean daily snow water equivalent, and snowmelt and evaporation volumes. The joint analysis of weather and snow variables showed a decrease trend in the persistence and extent of the snow cover area. The precipitation regime, rather than the temperature trend, seems to be the most relevant driver on the snow regime forcing in Mediterranean areas. This poses a constraint for rigorous scenario analysis in these regions, since the precipitation pattern is poorly approximated by climatic models in these regions.

  6. Bi-decadal groundwater level trends in a semi-arid south indian region: Declines, causes and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P. Sishodia

    2016-12-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Contrary to common perception of widespread groundwater declines only 22–36% of the wells showed statistically significant declines. The use of well depth during dry well periods may slightly underestimate the number of declining wells (by 1% and rate of decline. Increase in groundwater irrigated area combined with rainfall and power subsidy policy, were the main causative factors for the decline. Groundwater decline after implementation of free-electricity policy in 2004 confirmed the nexus between power subsidy and groundwater. These declines are likely to worsen due to future well drillings. Trends in other regions with similar hydro-geologic conditions need to be analyzed to verify groundwater declines and its linkages with power subsidy. Once established, reforms in power subsidy and well permit policy along with conversion to efficient micro–irrigation may be needed to maintain or enhance groundwater availability in the crystalline aquifer region of India (240 million ha.

  7. The evaluation of the trends of Polish farms incomes in the FADN regions after the integration with the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Grzelak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was to identify trends regarding income changes in the period of 2004-2008 in Poland between the regions of FADN. In 2004-2008 we noticed the processes of convergence in range of income situation of farms among the FADN regions. It was noticed that the convergence of beta type and the sigma were in place. This situation appears for general group of farms, as well as in farms with mixed production. Although, exclusion of the subsidies would initiate the divergence processes. This means that direct payments make up a kind of catalytic situation in range of levelling incomes situation in farms among these regions. We could initially signal that instruments of the CAP favour getting differences of incomes smaller in spatial range, what would indicate some kind of strategy in the aims of the EU policy with reference to sustainable growth in spatial range.

  8. Le rôle des grandes infrastructures dans la structuration des espaces régionaux : le cas de l’arrivée du TGV dans le réseau métropolitain Rhin-Rhône The role of the main infrastructures in the structuring process of the regional areas : the case of the TGV in the Rhin-Rhône metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyprien Richer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans un contexte d’émergence d’un réseau métropolitain entre des aires urbaines de Bourgogne, Franche-Comté et Sud-Alsace débordant sur la Suisse et l’Allemagne, cet article porte sur les effets territoriaux potentiels d’un projet de grande infrastructure, la ligne à grande vitesse Rhin-Rhône, actuellement en construction. Après avoir mené une réflexion sur la morphologie des réseaux de transport dans ces espaces qualifiés “d’intermédiaires”, il mesure les perspectives qu’ouvre le TGV Rhin-Rhône en matière de déplacements et d’accessibilité métropolitaine. Il identifie les tensions et recompositions des jeux d’acteurs dans ce projet d’infrastructure. L’objectif de cette contribution est d’analyser les opportunités et les risques que comporte, pour ces territoires régionaux, l’aménagement du réseau TGV construit pour répondre à des enjeux relevant d’autres échelles spatiales.In the context of an emerging transborder metropolitan region between urban areas of France (Dijon, Besançon, Mulhouse, Switzerland (Basel, Neuchâtel and Germany (Fribourg, this article deals with the potential territorial effects of a main infrastructure project, the Rhin-Rhône high-speed lane (TGV, currently in construction. After a reflexion on the morphology of the transport network in the intermediate spaces, we measure the prospects of mobility offered by the TGV Rhin-Rhône. This work will identify the tensions and recompositions in the role-playing of actors in this project of high-speed rail infrastructure. The issue of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and the risks resulting from the construction of the TGV network, built to answer to stakes of a higher space scale.

  9. Borderlands in the diagnosis of regional enteritis: trends in overdiagnosis and value of therapeutic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Burrell, M I; Belleza, N A; Spiro, H M

    1978-04-15

    Our regional experience in the state of Connecticut indicates that Crohn's disease is being overdiagnosed. Six patients with disorders mimicking regional enteritis are presented, one of whom had an atypical clinical course and the remainder had atypical therapeutic responses. The radiologist should be aware of clinical responses and make reassessments if necessary, in order not to overlook surgically treatable conditions.

  10. HIV/AIDS: trends in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökengin, Deniz; Doroudi, Fardad; Tohme, Johnny; Collins, Ben; Madani, Navid

    2016-03-01

    To give an overview of the HIV epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Articles on the MENA region were reviewed. The MENA region comprises a geographically defined group of countries including both high-income, well-developed nations and low- and middle-income countries. While the annual number of new HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined by 33% since 2005, new HIV infections in the MENA region have increased by 31% since 2001, which is the highest increase among all regions in the world. Moreover, the number of AIDS-related deaths in 2013 was estimated to be 15000, representing a 66% increase since 2005. However, the current prevalence of 0.1% is still among the lowest rates globally. There is substantial heterogeneity in HIV epidemic dynamics across MENA, and different risk contexts are present throughout the region. Despite unfavorable conditions, many countries in the region have put significant effort into scaling up their response to this growing epidemic, while in others the response to HIV is proving slower due to denial, stigma, and reluctance to address sensitive issues. The HIV epidemic in the MENA region is still at a controllable level, and this opportunity should not be missed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Mortality trends and risk of dying from colorectal cancer in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, J J

    In Mexico, there has been an upward trend in mortality rates from colorectal cancer (CRC) over the past three decades. This tumor is ranked among the ten most prevalent causes of morbidity from malignancies in Mexico. To determine the mortality trends by socioeconomic region and by state, and to establish the relative risk between both educational level and socioeconomic region with mortality from CRC within the time frame of 2000-2012. Records of mortality associated with colorectal cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality by state and by socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained through the Poisson regression) between both socioeconomic region and educational level and the mortality from CRC. A total of 45,487 individuals died from CRC in Mexico from 2000 to 2012. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants increased from 3.9 to 4.8. Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora had the highest mortality from CRC. Individuals with no school or incomplete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from this cancer (RR of 3.57, 95% CI: 3.46-3.68). Region 7 had the strongest association with mortality from CRC (Mexico City: RR was 2.84, 95% CI: 2.39-3.37 [2000] and 3.32, 95% CI: 2.89-3.82 [2012]). In Mexico, the age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants that died from CRC increased from 3.9 to 4.8 in the study period, using the world population age distribution as the standard. Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora had the highest mortality from CRC. Mexico City, which was socioeconomic region 7, had the strongest association with mortality from CRC. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  13. Improvement of tool support of the spatial approach to regional planning: problems, specifics, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Gennadievna Yushkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging imperatives of innovation economic development in Russia determine the content of conceptual and institutional constraints to the development of regional economic systems (RES. They consider the regional planning system as a leading priority in its inseparable unity with modern public administration tasks. However, the practice of development of long-term plans in the RF subjects proves that the innovation challenges of economic policy are not reflected properly in them or they are significantly distorted. The following reasons reduce the effectiveness of modernization processes in the RF subjects and hamper the appropriate reaction of RES on their impact: the lack of coordination between socio-economic and spatial regional plans, the imbalance of interaction between state authorities engaged in long-term planning, the lack of real prerequisites for the implementation of innovation initiatives in the regions. Systematization and analysis of long-term plans make it possible to substantiate the consistency of the spatial approach to regional planning expressed in the dominance of the transformational function that synchronizes the configuration and parameters of RES, and to establish ways to integrate spatial components in the system of regional planning through optimization of its tool support. The change in the content of the instrumentation support is based on the synthesis of the predominant basic characteristics of the existing tools used in isolated subsystems of regional planning of socio-economic and territorial development. The study has established a system of tool support for regional planning that adapts to the changes in both internal and external factors in the development of RES. Three main groups of tools: organizing, regulating, and coordinating are defined by their typing in accordance with the groups of management functions. The article proposes the modeling of combinations of tools that are subordinated to the

  14. How chemical pollution becomes a social problem. Risk communication and assessment through regional newspapers during the management of PCB pollutions of the Rhône River (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comby, Emeline; Le Lay, Yves-François; Piégay, Hervé

    2014-06-01

    The case study of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollutions of the Rhône River (France) offers the possibility of studying criteria for the construction of social problems that result from chemical pollution (2005-2010). We investigated the dynamics of competition that create and define pollution as a social problem and entail its decline. News outlets are crucial for determining how an environmental issue emerges locally or nationally; this study used newspapers to highlight the potential of new outlets as a data source to analyze discourse variability, science-policy-media connections and the hydrosphere. Media coverage was based on a content analysis and textual data analysis of 75 articles. Analytical frameworks such as the Downs Model and the Public Arena Model (Hilgartner and Bosk, 1988) that consider time and stakeholders were tested to determine how human alteration of the hydrosphere can become a social problem and to analyze different communication strategies held by stakeholders. In terms of management, we described the temporal dynamics of the social problem based on the case study and considered an explanation of the selections. We considered the organization of particular stakeholders who define the social problem from its beginning to end by focusing on their discourses, relationships, decision-making and political choices, and scientific studies. Despite some biases, newspapers are useful for retrospectively evaluating the emergence of a social problem in the public arena by describing it through discourse and then understanding the temporal patterns of information. Despite uncertainties and information flow, decisions are made and science is translated to the public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends and regional inequalities in mortality from stroke in the context of health care reform in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalėdienė, Ramunė; Rastenytė, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze mortality from stroke in Lithuania the context of health care reform with particular interest in urban/rural and regional inequalities. Based on the analysis of trends in mortality, and to detection of break-points over two decades of socioeconomic transition, it focused on the challenges in stroke care provision. The analysis covered the entire country. Information on deaths from 1991 to 2012 was gathered from death certificates held by the Lithuanian Department of Statistics. The joinpoint analysis was used to identify the best-fitting points, wherever a statistically significant change in mortality occurred. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for 60 municipalities of Lithuania. The positive break-points in mortality from stroke were registered in 2007 for females and 2008 for males, when the increasing trends reversed to the declining. More positive changes occurred in urban areas, where stroke mortality is lower compare to rural since 1996. Considerable inequalities were disclosed among administrative regions of Lithuania: ratio between the highest and the lowest rates in different municipalities reached 4.88 for males and 3.35 for females. There are good reasons to expect the favorable stroke mortality trends observed will follow the same direction in the future. Stroke centers are growing up in their competence while networking is also under the development. The new strategies in stroke care should result not only in the declining mortality rates and numbers of severely handicapped stroke patients, but also in diminishing regional and urban/rural inequalities. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Response of surface water chemistry to reduced levels of acid precipitation: Comparison of trends in two regions of New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; McHale, M.R.; Driscoll, C.T.; Roy, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of recent reductions in sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions mandated by Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, temporal trends and trend coherence in precipitation (1984-2001 and 1992-2001) and surface water chemistry (1992-2001) were determined in two of the most acid-sensitive regions of North America, i.e. the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains of New York. Precipitation chemistry data from six sites located near these regions showed decreasing sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and base cation (CB) concentrations and increasing pH during 1984-2001, but few significant trends during 1992-2001. Data from five Catskill streams and 12 Adirondack lakes showed decreasing trends in SO42- concentrations at all sites, and decreasing trends in NO3-, CB, and H+ concentrations and increasing trends in dissolved organic carbon at most sites. In contrast, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC increased significantly at only about half the Adirondack lakes and in one of the Catskill streams. Flow correction prior to trend analysis did not change any trend directions and had little effect on SO42- trends, but it caused several significant non-flow-corrected trends in NO3- and ANC to become non-significant, suggesting that trend results for flow-sensitive constituents are affected by flow-related climate variation. SO42- concentrations showed high temporal coherence in precipitation, surface waters, and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, reflecting a strong link between S emissions, precipitation SO42- concentrations, and the processes that affect S cycling within these regions. NO3- and H+ concentrations and ANC generally showed weak coherence, especially in surface waters and in precipitation-surface water comparisons, indicating that variation in local-scale processes driven by factors such as climate are affecting trends in acid-base chemistry in these two regions. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    HBV) vaccination, every country needs to take into concern factors of infection transmission in its own region. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B among all age groups in northern ...

  18. Regional climate change trends and uncertainty analysis using extreme indices: A case study of Hamilton, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razavi, Tara; Switzman, Harris; Arain, Altaf; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2016-01-01

    .... Several different global climate models, downscaling methods, and emission scenarios were used to develop extreme temperature and precipitation indices at the local scale in the Hamilton region, Ontario, Canada...

  19. Regional biomass burning trends in India: Analysis of satellite fire data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensors over different regions of India during 1998–2009 have been presented. Generally, the activities of open biomass burning show large spatial and temporal variations in India. The highest and lowest ...

  20. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meskoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state,

  1. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  2. Infant mortality trends in a region of Belarus, 1980–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Lawvere Silvana; Mahoney Martin C; Zichittella Lauren J; Michalek Arthur M; Chunikhovskiy Sergey P; Khotianov Natan

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and the breakup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) in 1991 challenged the public health infrastructure in the former Soviet republic of Belarus. Because infant mortality is regarded as a sensitive measure of the overall health of a population, patterns of neonatal and postneonatal deaths were examined within the Mogilev region of Belarus between 1980 and 2000. Methods Employing administrative death files, this study utilized a regional cohort d...

  3. Age at Birth of First Child and Fecundity of Women Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (1987-2007): A Study of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region in France (ARCERRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Berlier, Pascale; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Berger, Claire

    2015-05-01

    We studied the fecundity of 174 successive ALL (1987-2007) in females of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region (ARCERRA) with a median age at follow-up of 25.6 years (18.0-37.4). We distinguished five treatment groups: Group Ia, chemotherapy only (n = 130); Ib, chemotherapy with cranial radiotherapy (n = 10); II, TBI conditioning allograft (n = 27); III, chemotherapy conditioning allograft (n = 4); IV, TBI conditioning autograft (n = 3). Twenty-three women had their first child at the mean age of 25.8 ±3.0 years, i.e., 2.0 ±2.9 years earlier than the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (P = 0.003). The standardized fertility ratio (SFR), expressed as the number of actual births observed (O) to the number that would be expected in women of the same age in the general population (E) (SFR = O/E) was decreased for Group Ia (0.62; 95%CI, 0.52-0.74) and collapsed in Group II (0.17; 0.11-0.25). In univariate analysis, TBI (P = 0.013) and alkylating agents (P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with fecundity, but not with the age at diagnosis or the anthracyclines doses. In multivariate analysis including TBI and alkylating agents, we still found a negative correlation between TBI (P = 0.035), as well as alkylating agents (P = 0.028), and fecundity. More precisely, fecundity was negatively correlated with cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (P = 0.001), with a fecundity decreased for ≥1g/m(2), but without any dose effect; results not found in the Group Ia. Age at first child seems younger but the young median age of the cohort not allows concluding; fecundity is collapsed after fractionated total body irradiation and decreased after chemotherapy without any demonstrable cause. A delay of fertility is not excluded.

  4. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasushi [Center of Information and Communication Technology, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8601 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro, E-mail: jungmi.kwon@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  5. Seasonal trends and spatial variations of PM10-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Veneto Region, Northeast Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Pasqualetto, Alberto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The Veneto Region extends for ˜18.4·103 km2 in the northeastern part of the Po Valley and includes mountains, hills, plain and coastal environments with very different and discontinuous anthropogenic pressures. Although many efforts have been made to mitigate air pollution, the European air quality standards for atmospheric pollutants are frequently breached. This study investigates the levels of eight PM10-bound PAHs collected in 21 stations categorized as rural background, urban and suburban backgrounds, traffic and industrial hot-spots during one year (2011). Data were statistically processed to detect the PAH seasonal trends, their relationship with other air pollutants and micro-meteorological parameters and the space variations at a regional scale. Results show that PAHs levels are relatively high in the largest part of the region, with 10 sites exceeding the levels of BaP targeted by the European legislation. Two sites exhibited anomalously high PAHs concentrations and this anomaly became even more evident when considering the population density as a surrogate for the potential anthropogenic pressure. The PAHs levels were found directly proportional to other gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) suggesting common polluting sources. The analysis of time trends of PAH concentrations reveals significant coincidences throughout the region, i.e. simultaneous changes are observed in most sites as a consequence of similar emission sources and accumulation/removal processes. In this scenario, the control strategies currently imposed at local level (e.g. traffic limitations) have proven scarcely effective in mitigating air pollution and a real coordination at regional or even interregional level cannot be further postponed. Peculiar features of the PAHs pollution in the Veneto were also identified and some measures for protecting the human health were suggested.

  6. Trends of tropospheric NO2 over the Yangtze River Delta region and the possible linkage to rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingliang; Zhang, Deying; Liu, Qiyang; Song, Yue; Zhou, Jiayuan; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, China has experienced a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban built-up areas (population) of Shanghai increased by 16.1% (22.9%) from 2006 to 2015. This study aims to analyze the variations of tropospheric NO2 over Yangtze River Delta region and the impacts of rapid urbanization during 2006-2015. The results indicate that tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) of all cities in the study area showed an increasing trend during 2006-2011 whereas a decreasing trend during 2011-2015. Most cities showed a lower tropospheric NO2 VCD value in 2015 compared to that in 2006, except for Changzhou and Nantong. Shanghai and Ningbo are two hotspots where the tropospheric NO2 VCD decreased most significantly, at a rate of 22% and 19%, respectively. This effect could be ascribed to the implementation of harsh emission control policies therein. Similar seasonal variability was observed over all cities, with larger values observed in the summer and smaller values shown in the winter. Further investigations show that the observed increasing trend of tropospheric NO2 during 2006-2011 could be largely explained by rapid urbanization linked to car ownership, GDP, power consumption, population and total industrial output. Such effect was not prominent after 2011, mainly due to the implementation of emission control strategies.

  7. The Desired Image of the Future Economy of the Industrial Region: Development Trends and Evaluation Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors emphasize that industrial regions play an important role in the increasing of technological independence of Russia. We show that the decline in the share of processing industries in the gross regional product can not be treated as a negative de-industrialization of the economy. The article proves that the increase in the speed of changements, instability of socio-economic systems, the diverse risks predetermine the need to develop new methodological approaches to predictive research. The studies aimed at developing a technology for the design of the desired image of the future and the methodology for its evaluation are of high importance. For the initial stage of the research, the authors propose the methodological approach for assessing the desired image of the future of metallurgy as one of the most important industry of the region. We propose the term of «technological image of the regional metallurgy». We show that repositioning the image of the regional metallurgical complex is quite a long process. This have determined the need to define the stages of repositioning. The proposed methodology of the evaluation of desired future includes the methodological provisions to quantify the characteristics of goals achieved at the respective stages of the repositioning of the metallurgy. The methodological approach to the design of the desired image of the future implies the following stages: the identification of the priority areas of the technological development of regional metallurgy on the basis of bibliometric and patent analysis; the evaluation of dynamics of the development of the structure of metal products domestic consumption based on comparative analysis and relevant analytical methods as well as its forecasting; the design of the factor model, allowing to identify the parameters quantifying the technological image of the regional metallurgy based on the principal components method,; systematization of

  8. Latin American Development Trends and Brazil’s Role in the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto De Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main directions of development of Latin American countries in XX century, defines the features of the process of economic stabilization (the case of Argentina and Brazil, the resolution of debt crisis, the development of democratization and the influence of globalization. The author reveals the main features of the integration processes in the region (Mercosur, UNASUR, the Pacific Alliance and the Venezuelan project of Alba, the consequences of the implosion of the FTAA. The author shows that most of Latin American countries followed their roles of primary products exporters, a characteristic even reinforced in the last decade by the impressive growth of China. The role of trade and economic policy of China in the region has changed and it turned into the main regional trade partner, taking the place previously held by the United States. The analyses of the successes and failures in the implementation of economic reforms in Brazil is provided. Three scenarios of regional development are proposed depending on the degree of regional inclusion in the process of globalization.

  9. The semi-Arid integrated model (SIM), a regional integrated model assessing water availability, vulnerability, of ecossytems and society in NE-Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Jaeger, A.; Bronstert, A.; Krywkow, Jorg

    2001-01-01

    Northeastern Brazil, an example of vulnerable semi-arid regions on the earth, is characterised by water scarcity and vulnerability of natural resources, pronounced climatic variability and social stress situations. Integrated studies involving hydrology, ecology, meteorology, climatology, pedology,

  10. Consumption trends for specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid (Spain) from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoyos-Alonso, M C; Tapias-Merino, E; Meseguer Barros, C M; Sánchez-Martínez, M; Otero, A

    2015-09-01

    Analysing drug consumption in large population groups lets us observe consumption trends and compare them between different settings. to analyse the time trends for consumption and costs of specific drugs used to treat dementia in the region of Madrid (Spain) and compare trends by sex and age cohort. Descriptive study of cholinesterase inhibitors (N06DA) and memantine (N06DX01) dispensed in Madrid between 2002 and 2012 and covered by the Spain's national health system. Consumption was calculated by analysing changes in DDD (defined daily doses) to find total and yearly increases. The cost was estimated based on DDD price. To compare consumption rates by age and sex, we calculated DDD per 100 inhabitants/day. Between 2002 and 2012, consumption of drugs used to treat dementia increased sixfold. During this period, cholinesterase inhibitors accounted for 76.70% of the drugs consumed and memantine, 23.30%. The estimated cost rose by a by a factor of 5.7 over 11 years (or by a factor of 4 taking into account the use of generic drugs). In 2012, 2.42% of the patients aged 65 or over consumed cholinesterase inhibitors (women 2.82%, men 1.83%) and 0.90% consumed memantine (women 1.10%, men 0.61%). Consumption increased in age cohorts up to 86 to 90 (5.84% for cholinesterase inhibitors and 2.33% for memantine) and declined thereafter. Consumption of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine gradually increased, but consumption in 2012 did not reach levels equivalent to dementia prevalence figures. Pharmaceutical expenditure restraint measures may temporarily slow the cost increase temporarily but if the same trend of consumption persists, costs will rise. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome among adults in the asia-pacific region: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranasinghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asia-Pacific region is home to nearly half of the world’s population. The region has seen a recent rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present systematic review summarizes the recent prevalence and trends of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among adults in countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. Methods Data on MetS in Asia-Pacific countries were obtained using a stepwise process by searching the online Medline database using MeSH terms ‘Metabolic Syndrome X’ and ‘Epidemiology/EP’. For the purpose of describing prevalence data for the individual countries, studies that were most recent, nationally representative or with the largest sample size were included. When evaluating secular trends in prevalence in a country we only considered studies that evaluated the temporal change in prevalence between similar populations, prospective studies based on the same population or National surveys conducted during different time periods. Results This literature search yielded a total of 757 articles, and five additional article were identified by screening of reference lists. From this total, 18 studies were eligible to be included in the final analysis. Of the 51 Asia-Pacific countries (WHO we only located data for 15. There was wide between country variation in prevalence of MetS. A national survey from Philippines conducted in 2003 revealed the lowest reported prevalence of 11.9% according to NCEP ATP III criteria. In contrast, the highest recorded prevalence in the region (49.0% came from a study conducted in urban Pakistan (Karachchi, 2004. Most studies reported a higher prevalence of MetS in females and urban residents. Data on secular trends were available for China, South Korea and Taiwan. An increase in the prevalence of MetS was observed in all three countries. Conclusion Despite differences in methodology, diagnostic criteria and age of subjects studied, the Asia

  12. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage : a systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, N. K.; Linn, F. H. H.; van der Plas, J. A.; Algra, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim: To update our 1996 review on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and assess the relation of incidence with region, age, gender and time period. Methods: We searched for studies on the incidence of SAH published until October 2005. The overall incidences with

  13. Spatial and topgraphic trends in forest expansion and biomass change, from regional to local scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Buma; Tara M. Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Natural forest growth and expansion are important carbon sequestration processes globally. Climate change is likely to increase forest growth in some regions via CO2 fertilization, increased temperatures, and altered precipitation; however, altered disturbance regimes and climate stress (e.g. drought) will act to reduce carbon stocks in forests...

  14. Trends in Inclusive Education at Regional and Interregional Levels: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opertti, Renato; Belalcazar, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE), through the Community of Practice (COP) in Curriculum Development, organized eight Regional Preparatory Workshops on Inclusive Education in 2007. These workshops had the overall goal of initiating a participatory, consultative process in order to highlight key issues and challenges regarding…

  15. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Jassir, Fiorella Bianchi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous estimates have highlighted a large global burden of stillbirths, with an absence of reliable data from regions where most stillbirths occur. The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP) targets national stillbirth rates (SBRs) of 12 or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births by 2030. We es...

  16. Trends in Hepatitis B Virus Seroprevalence in Black Sea Region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow. Context: To determine new strategies for complete coverage of hepatitis B virus. (HBV) vaccination, every country needs to take into concern factors of infection transmission in its own region. Aims: The aim of this study ...

  17. PHYSICAL GROWTH OF CHILDREN IN VORONEZH REGION. ITS DYNAMICS AND TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Ivannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical growth of children is one of the most important dices for the health status of the younger generation. The study of the children's physical growth and development peculiarities in the changing social and economic conditions is deferred to the key problems of the hygiene and health protection of children and adolescents. The object of the study was he children of Voronezh region. The authors estimated the ain indices of the physical growth: height and body mass. They amined over 12 000 children: 6310 boys and 6242 girls aged between 0 and 14 years, living in the urban and rural areas. Such studies never took place in Voronezh region in a capacity like this, as well as in such a variety of sample and high degree of their representativeness (р < 0,01. The acquired data on the physical growth of children in Voronezh region in the end of the 2nd millennium demonstrates a more favor able situation (towards the capital social and economic sphere in the region, where the children population under the study resides, if compared with the beginning of the 20th century, as well as the advantage of influence on the physical growth of biological, medical and genetic factors over the social and hygienic ones (lifestyle, environment and etc..Key words: physical growth, children, height, body mass.

  18. Demographic and social trends affecting intergenerational relations in the MENA region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Messkoub (Mahmood)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on poverty in the MENA region and whether it can be alleviated by intergenerational support within and across households. Intergenerational relations are mediated through several institutions. The most prominent of these are households, state, civil society and market.

  19. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  20. Assessment of Humidity Conditions and Trends Based on Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SEPI Over Different Climatic Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghabaei S

    2017-01-01

    temperature, mean relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed at 2 m height. A probability-based overall water deficit assessment was achieved from multiple drought-related indices (i.e. SPEI, SPI and RDI. The humidity conditions were monitored for given stations based on each index during annual, short term (1, 3 and 6 months and long term (9 , 12, 18 and 24 months periods. This research further examine the Locally Weighted Scatter plot Smoothing (LOWESS graphical method and nonparametric Man- Kendal test to evaluate the trends associated with humidity deficiency in annual and monthly time scales during 51 years period (i.e. 1960-2010. Results and Discussion: Our results revealed that the maximum correlation between SPEI index with indices of SPI and RDI was achieved in the coastal wet region and with a declining trend in relative humidity condition in the rest of the regions, this correlation is down over both short- and long-term periods. A comparison between SPI and SPEI also performed that the SPI index was able to reflect prolonged drought over the costal wet region where it showed significant inconstancy in desert and semi desert regions. SPEI result suggested substantial deficiencies in relative humidity at the beginning of 1997 during long term period which indicated an increasing trend of drought statues during last decades. Overall, according to the results of SPEI index in 1month periods monthly drought assessment showed a declining trend in drought magnitude during autumn, winter and spring season months (October to June at investigated stations excepts Tehran and Shiraz stations and with a potential deficiency in relative humidity conditions. Unlikely, annual trend showed increasing trends in drought frequency and persistent over last decade. Conclusion: Our results can be summarized as below: Focusing on various types of deficits, the result of humidity based deficiencies indicated that for semi-mountains, mountains, semi-arid, arid and costal desert

  1. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region: distributions, trends and coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gautam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO. In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950–2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU of tropospheric temperatures from 1979–2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period.

  2. Global and regional trends of Aerosol Optical Thickness derived using satellite- and ground-based observations

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jongmin

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol plays a critical role for human health, air quality, long range transport of pollution, and the Earth s radiative balance, thereby influencing global climate change. To test our scientific understanding and provide an evidence base for policymakers, long-term temporal changes of local, regional, and global aerosols are needed. Remote sensing from satellite borne and ground based observations offers unique opportunities to provide such data. However, only a few studies have...

  3. Bibliometric analysis of public health research in Africa: The overall trend and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.

  4. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  5. University–Industry Interaction Trends in the Baltic Sea Region: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murashova Elena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to summarise and analyse the level of scientific interest from researchers from the Baltic Sea Region in interacting with each other on scientific and research projects in university–industry interaction field. This study will use bibliometric analysis based on actual joint initiatives and their published results. The growth of interest from both universities and industry in joint initiatives and changes in the nature of their cooperation (Butcher & Jeffren, 2005 has led to a significant increase in the Baltic Region and the number of scientific publications has doubled in the years 2010–2014. However, compared to the number of similar published studies from the United States, the United Kingdom, China and Japan, those results far outnumber the achievements of the Baltic regions. At the same time, there has been significant increase in the number of studies undertaken by Sweden, Germany and Finland in the period from 2012 to 2014, facilitated by active international and interdisciplinary cooperation and involvement in the research by a large number of authors. The results of the evaluation indicators through this bibliometric analysis can assist in the specific targeting and allocation of available finance and funding into promising fields of research and aid in communication and cooperation between stakeholders and interested organisations.

  6. Registration of NE Trailblazer C-1, NE Trailblazer C0, NE Trailblazer C2, NE Trailblazer C3, NE Trailblazer C4, and NE Trailblazer C5 Switchgrass Germplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    NE Trailblazer C-1 (GP-101, PI 672015), NE Trailblazer C0 (GP-100, PI 672014), NE Trailblazer C2 (GP-102, PI 672016), NE Trailblazer C3 (GP-103, PI 672017), NE Trailblazer C4 (GP-104, PI 672018), and NE Trailblazer C5 (GP-105, PI 672019) switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) germplasms were released by ...

  7. Structural Transformations of the Economy in the Pacific Region of Russia and Efficiency Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Yakovlevich Baklanov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Russia is considered as an aqua-territorial macro-region entering the Far Eastern Federal Okrug and its adjacent water area within a 200-mile sea economic zone. The macro-region has the richest nature-resource potential of a dry land and the sea, the possibilities to use the sea transport for communications of Russia and Europe with the countries of the Asian-Pacific region. In Pacific Russia, two latitudinal zones are allocated: the northern and southern ones, consisting of the territories of the Far Eastern Federal Okrug of Russia. Combinations of activities by the subjects and by the latitudinal zones are considered as the territorial structures of economy. The distinctions of these latitudinal zones by their socio-economic potential and the level of development are shown. By the changes of homogeneous activities in the subjects and their ratios, measured in the shares of the added cost, the assessment of the structural transformation of economy was carried out in the latitudinal zones from 2004 to 2013. The tendencies of the transformation of the territorial structures of economy were revealed in the latitudinal zones. The greatest changes of the structures of economy occurred in the northern zone for this period. In the southern zone, the structural transformations of economy were a little less, except for Sakhalin. In this case, in both latitudinal zones, a share of processing manufactures reduced and that of the extracting industries increased. The generalized assessment of the changes in social and economic efficiency (by increased personal income, labor productivity, profits in correlation with the structural changes in the economy of the regions of Pacific Russia has been made. The authors note that an important premise for building a sufficiently sustainable system of interregional division of labor in Pacific Russia is the location of extractive industries and initial stages of the manufacturing industry activities in the

  8. Analysis of magnetotelluric profile data from the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex and southern Carlin Trend region, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, Philip E.; Doerner, William M.; Stodt, John A.; Sodergen, Timothy L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    We have collected about 150 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings in northeastern Nevada in the region of the Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex uplift and southern Carlin mineral trend, in an effort to illuminate controls on core complex evolution and deposition of world-class gold deposits. The region has experienced a broad range of tectonic events including several periods of compressional and extensional deformation, which have contributed to the total expression of electrical resistivity. Most of the soundings are in three east-west profiles across increasing degrees of core uplift to the north (Bald Mountain, Harrison Pass and Secret Pass latitudes). Two shorter lines cross a prominent east-west structure to the north of the northern profile. MT impedance tensor and vertical magnetic field rotations imply a N-NNE average regional geoelectric strike, similar to surface geologic trends. Model resistivity cross sections were derived using a 2-D inversion algorithm, which damps departures of model parameters from an a priori structure, emphasizing the transverse magnetic (TM) mode and vertical magnetic field data. Geological interpretation of the resistivity combines previous seismic, potential field and isotope models, structural and petrological models for regional compression and extension, and detailed structural/stratigraphic interpretations incorporating drilling for petroleum and mineral exploration. To first order, the resistivity structure is one of a moderately conductive, Phanerozoic sedimentary section fundamentally disrupted by intrusion and uplift of resistive crystalline rocks. Late Devonian and early Mississippian shales of the Pilot and Chainman Formations together form an important conductive marker sequence in the stratigraphy and show pronounced increases in conductance (conductivity-thickness product) from east to west. These increases in conductance are attributed to graphitization caused by Elko-Sevier era compressional shear deformation and

  9. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  10. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Gail V; Shelly, Alice

    2013-08-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of "vertical" line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  11. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  12. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  13. African regional conferences as an indicator of research trends in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa Not known 2 [3] 1959 Lourenco Marques, Mozambique No theme 3 [4] 1963 Salisbury, Rhodesia African soils present their own problems 4 [5] 1967 Cape Town, South Africa Soil forming processes and associated engineering problems 5 [1] 1971.... Proceedings of the 3rd Regional Conference for Africa on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, RIE, Salisbury, Rhodesia, RIE, Bulawayo, 1963. [5] A. Burgers, J.S. Gregg, S.M. Lloyd & A.D.W. Sparks (Eds), Soil forming processes and associated...

  14. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: An Unlikely Driver of the Regional Trends in Antarctic Sea Ice in Austral Fall in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Laura L.; Holland, Marika M.; Raphael, Marilyn N.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that recent regional trends in Antarctic sea ice might have been caused by the formation of the ozone hole in the late twentieth century. Here we explore this by examining two ensembles of a climate model over the ozone hole formation period (1955-2005). One ensemble includes all known historical forcings; the other is identical except for ozone levels, which are fixed at 1955 levels. We demonstrate that the model is able to capture, on interannual and decadal timescales, the observed statistical relationship between summer Amundsen Sea Low strength (when ozone loss causes a robust deepening) and fall sea ice concentrations (when observed trends are largest). In spite of this, the modeled regional trends caused by ozone depletion are found to be almost exactly opposite to the observed ones. We deduce that the regional character of observed sea ice trends is likely not caused by ozone depletion.

  15. Emerging trends of malaria-dengue geographical coupling in the Southeast Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Sarita; Lio, Pietro

    2014-09-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are the most common mosquito-borne diseases in the Southeast Asia region (SEAR). We analysed a temporal record of annual cases of malaria and dengue fever from 1985-2009 in SEAR. Data of dengue and malaria cases were obtained from WHO website for the period from 1985-2009. El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) fluctuation data were obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre, Maryland. The wavelet analysis was conducted to analyse the data. RESULTS showed that multiyear cycles of malaria outbreaks appeared in 1986 and 1996, concomitant with the timing of dengue cases at one year lag. The dynamics of both cases pronounce a regime shift in the 1999, when the coupling between dengue and ENSO is also stronger. The statistical significance of this coupling is evident from wavelet band-averaged cross power in 2-4 yr scale (95% confidence level). The present analysis suggests that the dengue incidence patterns in SEAR are periodic. There is not much evidence of malaria and ENSO having periodic association in the region; however, dengue fever and ENSO shows statistical significant cross-coherence in the 2-4 yr wavelet band and the results are statistically significant in the last decade. This study also provides statistical evidence of geographical clustering which quantitatively demonstrate the cross-country and cross-epidemic situations that exist across SEAR.

  16. Acalyptrate flies (Diptera) on glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NE Czech Republic): most interesting records

    OpenAIRE

    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    Records of six species of the families Ulidiidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Milichiidae, Chloropidae and Curtonotidae from glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NW Czech Republic) are presented and their association with sandy habitats are discussed. Two thermophilous and/or xerophilous species, Anthomyza elbergi Andersson, 1976 (Anthomyzidae) and Desmometopa discipalpis Papp, 1993 (Milichiidae) represent new additions to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Two psammophilous or psammobio...

  17. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya N Mascarenhas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global, regional, and national estimates of prevalence of and tends in infertility are needed to target prevention and treatment efforts. By applying a consistent algorithm to demographic and reproductive surveys available from developed and developing countries, we estimate infertility prevalence and trends, 1990 to 2010, by country and region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We accessed and analyzed household survey data from 277 demographic and reproductive health surveys using a consistent algorithm to calculate infertility. We used a demographic infertility measure with live birth as the outcome and a 5-y exposure period based on union status, contraceptive use, and desire for a child. We corrected for biases arising from the use of incomplete information on past union status and contraceptive use. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate prevalence of and trends in infertility in 190 countries and territories. In 2010, among women 20-44 y of age who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 1.9% (95% uncertainty interval 1.7%, 2.2% were unable to attain a live birth (primary infertility. Out of women who had had at least one live birth and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 10.5% (9.5%, 11.7% were unable to have another child (secondary infertility. Infertility prevalence was highest in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Levels of infertility in 2010 were similar to those in 1990 in most world regions, apart from declines in primary and secondary infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa and primary infertility in South Asia (posterior probability [pp] ≥0.99. Although there were no statistically significant changes in the prevalence of infertility in most regions amongst women who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, reduced child-seeking behavior resulted in a reduction of primary infertility among all women from 1.6% to 1.5% (pp=0.90 and a reduction of secondary

  18. National, Regional, and Global Trends in Infertility Prevalence Since 1990: A Systematic Analysis of 277 Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Vanderpoel, Sheryl; Stevens, Gretchen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Global, regional, and national estimates of prevalence of and tends in infertility are needed to target prevention and treatment efforts. By applying a consistent algorithm to demographic and reproductive surveys available from developed and developing countries, we estimate infertility prevalence and trends, 1990 to 2010, by country and region. Methods and Findings We accessed and analyzed household survey data from 277 demographic and reproductive health surveys using a consistent algorithm to calculate infertility. We used a demographic infertility measure with live birth as the outcome and a 5-y exposure period based on union status, contraceptive use, and desire for a child. We corrected for biases arising from the use of incomplete information on past union status and contraceptive use. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate prevalence of and trends in infertility in 190 countries and territories. In 2010, among women 20–44 y of age who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 1.9% (95% uncertainty interval 1.7%, 2.2%) were unable to attain a live birth (primary infertility). Out of women who had had at least one live birth and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 10.5% (9.5%, 11.7%) were unable to have another child (secondary infertility). Infertility prevalence was highest in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, and Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Levels of infertility in 2010 were similar to those in 1990 in most world regions, apart from declines in primary and secondary infertility in Sub-Saharan Africa and primary infertility in South Asia (posterior probability [pp] ≥0.99). Although there were no statistically significant changes in the prevalence of infertility in most regions amongst women who were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, reduced child-seeking behavior resulted in a reduction of primary infertility among all women from 1.6% to 1.5% (pp = 0.90) and a reduction of secondary

  19. Hydrogeophysics and Water Balance of Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis, V.; de León Gómez, H.; Masuch Oesterreich, D.; Izaguirre, F.

    2007-05-01

    The geographical location of the State of Nuevo Leon, due to its physiographic features, has temperate and arid climate; undeveloped drainage, low precipitations, and high evapotranspiration rates, as well as rapid demographic growth. The hydrological data of the Pablillo basin, registered in the hydrometric station Cerro Prieto, showed an annual precipitation from 415 up to 1130 mm/a , the mean evaporation of 705 mm/a (up to 2460 mm/a in 1996). The maximum water storage of the Cerro Prieto reservoir is 395 millions m3 which corresponds to a water level of 295 meters. However, this level was reached only three times after the dam's construction. By the end of June 2006 the water level was at 276.2 m which corresponds to a water volume of about 127,806,300 m3 which is less than a third of maximum storage. Analysis of hydrological data showed sufficient misbalance between water recharge (by rain, river flow) and loss due to evaporation, filtration, extraction, discharge, etc. 160 gravity reading points, 400 onshore magnetic field readings as well as about 250 offshore magnetic points were carried out. The standard corrections as instrumental drift, latitude, elevation, IGRF, etc. were applied to obtained data. Data procession includes Fourier transformation, wavelength filters, upward continuation, vertical and horizontal derivates, etc. As a result a 2D geological-geophysical models and 3D maps were elaborated. The general trend of the magnetic field reduced to a pole is NW - SE on which background anomalies of northeast trend are obviously traced. The general trend of the gravity field received as a result of our works is the same. However, local magnetic and residual gravity anomalies have mosaic character and, being morphologically extended in a NE direction, grouped in chains of northwest trend. Potential data interpretation allows assuming a series of the superficial fractures focused in a NE direction, perpendicular (NW-SE) to the general deep fault. The

  20. Trends of ionospheric irregularities over African low latitude region during quiet geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungufeni, Patrick; Habarulema, John Bosco; Jurua, Edward

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence patterns of ionospheric irregularities during quiet geomagnetic conditions over the African low latitude region were analysed. GNSS-derived Total Electron Content of the ionosphere data during the period 2001-2012 were used. The data were obtained from Libreville, Gabon (0.35°N, 9.68°E, geographic, 8.05°S, magnetic), Mbarara, Uganda (0.60°S, 30.74°E, geographic, 10.22°S, magnetic), and Malindi, Kenya (2.99°S, 40.19°E, geographic, 12.42°S, magnetic). The rate of change of total electron content index greater than 0.5 TECU/Min were considered as severe ionospheric irregularities. For most of the time, the strength of ionospheric irregularities in March equinox were greater than those during September equinox over East Africa and an opposite observation was made over West Africa. These asymmetries might be due to the direction of the meridional winds during equinoxes over the different stations. Severity of ionospheric irregularity reduced from west towards the east. This might have been related to the decreasing geomagnetic field strength from east towards the west. This is the first study that reveals the equinoctial asymmetry is different in the West and East African sectors. Moreover, the importance of this study lies in the fact that it has used extensive data to examine the isolated and un-explained earlier observations of equinoctial asymmetry and longitudinal variation of ionospheric irregularities over the African low latitude region.

  1. Effects of climate change on phenological trends and seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ji, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981-2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2-9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49-3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17-4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future.

  2. Effects of climate change on phenological trends and seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Ji, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic change on phenological phases of cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) in oasis of arid regions may help optimize management schemes to increase productivity. This study assessed the impacts of climatic changes on the phenological phases and productivity of spring cotton. The results showed that climatic warming led the dates of sowing seed, seeding emergence, three-leaf, five-leaf, budding, anthesis, full bloom, cleft boll, boll-opening, boll-opening filling, and stop-growing become earlier by 24.42, 26.19, 24.75, 23.28, 22.62, 15.75, 14.58, 5.37, 2.85, 8.04, and 2.16 days during the period of 1981-2010, respectively. The growth period lengths from sowing seed to seeding emergence and from boll-opening to boll-opening filling were shortened by 1.76 and 5.19 days, respectively. The other growth period lengths were prolonged by 2-9.71 days. The whole growth period length was prolonged by 22.26 days. The stop-growing date was delayed by 2.49-3.46 days for every 1 °C rise in minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures; however, other development dates emerged earlier by 2.17-4.76 days. Rising temperatures during the stage from seeding emergence to three-leaf reduced seed cotton yields. However, rising temperatures increased seed cotton yields in the two stages from anthesis to cleft boll and from boll-opening filling to the stop-growing. Increasing accumulated temperatures (AT) had different impacts on different development stages. During the vegetative phase, rising AT led to reduced seed cotton yields, but rising AT during reproductive stage increased seed cotton yields. In conclusion, climatic warming helpfully obtained more seed cotton yields in oasis of arid regions in northwest China. Changing the sowing date is another way to enhance yields for climate change in the future.

  3. Past and future trends of hydroclimatic intensity over the Indian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, T. S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2017-01-01

    The hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT) is a single index that quantitatively combines measures of precipitation intensity and dry spell length, thus providing an integrated response of the hydrological cycle to global warming. The HY-INT index is a product of the precipitation intensity (PINT, intensity during wet days) and dry spell length (DSL). Using the observed gridded rainfall data sets of 1951-2010 period, the changes in HY-INT, PINT, and DSL over the Indian monsoon region have been examined in addition to changes in maximum consecutive dry days (MCD). We have also considered 10 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models for examining the changes in these indices during the present-day and future climate change scenarios. For climate change projections, the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario was considered. The analysis of observational data during the period 1951-2010 suggested an increase in DSL and MCD over most of central India. Further, statistically significant (95% level) increase in HY-INT is also noted during the period of 1951-2010, which is mainly caused due to significant increase in precipitation intensity. The CMIP5 model projections of future climate also suggest a statistically significant increase in HY-INT over the Indian region. Out of the 10 models considered, seven models suggest a consistent increase in HY-INT during the period of 2010-2100 under the RCP4.5 scenario. However, the projected increase in HY-INT is mainly due to increase in the precipitation intensity, while dry spell length (DSL) showed little changes in the future climate.

  4. Surveying trends in radiation oncology medical physics in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Healy, Brendan; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-07-01

    Our study aims to assess and track work load, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific Region over time. A structured questionnaire was mailed in 2008, 2011 and 2014 to senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. The questionnaire covers 7 themes: education and training including certification; staffing; typical tasks; professional organisations; resources; research and teaching; job satisfaction. Across all surveys the response rate was >85% with the replies representing practice affecting more than half of the world's population. The expectation of ROMP qualifications (MSc and between 1 and 3years of clinical experience) has not changed much over the years. However, compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. Formal professional certification is only available in a small number of countries. The number of experienced ROMPs is small in particular in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff numbers from 2008 to 2014 is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units which is accompanied by an increase in treatment complexity. Many ROMPs are required to work overtime and not many find time for research. Resource availability has only improved marginally and ROMPs still feel generally overworked, but professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving slowly. While number of physicists and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased significantly, ROMP practice remains essentially unchanged over the last 6years in the Asia Pacific Region. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global and regional trends in particulate air pollution and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, E. W.; Turnock, S. T.; Rigby, R.; Reddington, C. L.; Yoshioka, M.; Johnson, J. S.; Regayre, L. A.; Pringle, K. J.; Mann, G. W.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of changes in PM2.5 and attributable health burdens over the last few decades, a period where air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic and background disease data to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional ambient PM2.5 concentrations and attributable health burdens over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, global mean population-weighted PM2.5 concentrations increased by 38%, dominated by increases in China and India. Global attributable deaths increased by 89% to 124% over the period 1960 to 2009, dominated by large increases in China and India. Population growth and ageing contributed mostly to the increases in attributable deaths in China and India, highlighting the importance of demographic trends. In contrast, decreasing PM2.5 concentrations and background disease dominated the reduction in attributable health burden in Europe and the United States. Our results shed light on how future projected trends in demographics and uncertainty in the exposure–response relationship may provide challenges for future air quality policy in Asia.

  6. Perception and trends of associated health risks with seasonal climate variation in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloukoi, Grace; Bob, Urmilla; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the perceived and observed trends of associated health risks with seasonal climate variability and identifies types of and preference for adaptation strategies that are available at households and community levels in Oke-Ogun region, Nigeria. The study made use of household survey and rapid appraisal through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. For a short term climate-health impacts analysis, cases of notable diseases were correlated with monthly mean temperature and rainfall for the period 2006 and 2008. The findings show similar trends in relation to local perception on climate-health risks and observed cases of some notable diseases during seasonal changes. Diarrhea, measles and malaria were prevalent during dry season, while flu cases increased at the onset of harmattan and monsoon of rainy season. Available adaptation strategies are autonomous, mostly in the form of treatment measures such as consultation with medical officers in hospitals (17.5%), self-medication (34%) and use of traditional therapy such as herbs (48.5%). Traditional therapy is mostly preferred and approved based on long-term experience of the study population. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Systematic Regional Trend in Helium Isotopes Across the NorthernBasin and Range Province, Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-03-22

    An extensive study of helium isotopes in fluids collectedfrom surface springs, fumaroles and wells across the northern Basin andRange Province reveals a systematic trend of decreasing 3He/4He ratiosfrom west to east. The western margin of the Basin and Range ischaracterized by mantle-like ratios (6-8 Ra) associated with active orrecently active crustal magma systems (e.g. Coso, Long Valley, Steamboat,and the Cascade volcanic complex). Moving towards the east, the ratiosdecline systematically to a background value of ~;0.1 Ra. The regionaltrend is consistent with extensive mantle melting concentrated along thewestern margin and is coincident with an east-to-west increase in themagnitude of northwest strain. The increase in shear strain enhancescrustal permeability resulting in high vertical fluid flow rates thatpreserve the high helium isotope ratios at the surface. Superimposed onthe regional trend are "helium spikes", local anomalies in the heliumisotope composition. These "spikes" reflect either local zones of mantlemelting or locally enhanced crustal permeability. In the case of theDixie Valley hydrothermal system, it appears to be a combination ofboth.

  8. Trends in land use and land cover change in the protected and communal areas of the Zambezi Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwi, Jonathan Mutau; Kaetsch, Christoph; Graz, Friedrich Patrick; Chirwa, Paxie; Manda, Samuel

    2017-05-01

    Land management decisions have extensively modified land use and land cover in the Zambezi Region. These decisions are influenced by land tenure classifications, legislation, and livelihoods. Land use and land cover change is an important indicator for quantifying the effectiveness of different land management strategies. However, there has been no evidence on whether protected or communal land tenure is more affected by land use and land cover changes in southern Africa and particularly Namibia. Our study attempted to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between land use and land cover change and land tenure regimes stratified according to protected and communal area in the Zambezi Region. Multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery were used to determine the temporal dynamics of land use and land cover change from 1984 to 2010. The landscape showed distinctive modifications over the study period; broad trends include the increase in forest land after 1991. However, changes were not uniform across the study areas. Two landscape development stages were deduced: (1) 1984-1991 represented high deforestation and gradual increase in shrub land; (2) 1991-2000 and 2000-2010 represented lower deforestation and slower agropastoral expansion. The results further show clear patterns of the dynamics, magnitude, and direction of land use and land cover change by tenure regime. The study concluded that land tenure has a direct impact on land use and land cover, since it may restrict some activities carried out on the land in the Zambezi Region.

  9. Colorectal cancer burden and trends in a South Asian cohort: experience from a regional tertiary care center in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasinghe, P C; Ediriweera, D S; Hewavisenthi, J; Kumarage, S K; Fernando, F R; Deen, K I

    2017-10-30

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in the south Asian region due to the changing socio-economic landscape and population demographics. There is a lack of robust high quality data from this region in order to evaluate the disease pattern and comparison. Using generalized linear models assuming Poisson distribution and model fitting, authors describe the variation in the landscape of CRC burden along time since 1997 at a regional tertiary care center in Sri Lanka. Analyzing 679 patients, it is observed that both colon and rectal cancers have significantly increased over time (pre 2000-61, 2000 to 2004-178, 2005 to 2009-190, 2010 to 2014-250; P < 0.05). Majority of the cancers were left sided (82%) while 77% were rectosigmoid. Over 25% of all CRC were diagnosed in patients less than 50 years and the median age at diagnosis is < 62 years. Increasing trend is seen in the stage at presentation while 33% of the rectal cancers received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Left sided preponderance, younger age at presentation and advanced stage at presentation was observed. CRC disease pattern in the South Asian population may vary from that observed in the western population which has implications on disease surveillance and treatment.

  10. Southeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2013) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena Carpio, Oswaldo; Royle, J. Andrew; Weir, Linda; Foreman, Tasha M.; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy for eight states of the southeastern United States, based on 13 y (2001–2013) of North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data. The NAAMP is a longterm monitoring program in which observers collect anuran calling observation data at fixed locations along random roadside routes. We assessed occupancy trends for 14 species. We found weak evidence for a general regional pattern of decline in calling anurans within breeding habitats along roads in the southeastern USA over the last 13 y. Two species had positive regional trends with 95% posterior intervals that did not include zero (Hyla cinerea and Pseudacris crucifer). Five other species also showed an increasing trend, while eight species showed a declining trend, although 95% posterior intervals included zero. We also assessed state level trends for 107 species/state combinations. Of these, 14 showed a significant decline and 12 showed a significant increase in occupancy (i.e., credible intervals did not include zero for these 26 trends).

  11. Acalyptrate flies (Diptera on glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NE Czech Republic: most interesting records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of six species of the families Ulidiidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Milichiidae, Chloropidae and Curtonotidae from glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NW Czech Republic are presented and their association with sandy habitats are discussed. Two thermophilous and/or xerophilous species, Anthomyza elbergi Andersson, 1976 (Anthomyzidae and Desmometopa discipalpis Papp, 1993 (Milichiidae represent new additions to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Two psammophilous or psammobiont species, Eutropha variegata Loew, 1866 (Chloropidae and Curtonotum anus (Meigen, 1830 (Curtonotidae are recorded for the first time from Moravia and the Czech Silesia respectively, the latter from a locality lying on northern border of its distributional range. Also Asteia elegantula Zetterstedt, 1847 (Asteiidae is first recorded from the Czech Silesia and Desmometopa discipalpis is recorded from its northernmost known locality. Information on microhabitats of these species and also the psammobiont Tetanops myopina Fallén, 1820 (Ulidiidae in sandpits are provided and most of them were photographed alive. The origins of populations of these species on glacial sands in the Hlučínsko region are discussed and it is concluded that while Asteia elegantula and Eutropha variegata are widespread in the W Palaearctic, Curtonotum anus and Desmometopa discipalpis are distinctly of southern origin and, most interestingly, Tetanops myopina and Anthomyza elbergi seem to originate from northern Europe and may have reached this area already during the Saalian glaciation (cca 160 000 ya.

  12. Religiousness/spirituality do not necessarily matter: Effect on risk perception and adaptive strategies in the semi-arid region of NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental changes is a major threat to livelihoods, especially for small farmers in semi-arid regions. Therefore, local communities undertake efforts to cope with these new environmental conditions and researchers try to understand the limits of possible adaptive strategies. Religiousness/spirituality are two important factors that can influence environmental awareness and adaptive responses to risks caused by natural phenomena. However, studies addressing the relationship between such factors are either scarce or based on anecdotal information. This article discusses the influence of religiousness/spirituality on the perception of environmental risks by farmers in a rural community in Brazil's northeast region, and their knowledge of adaptive strategies to deal with such concerns. Religiousness/spirituality can positively or negatively influence the perception of risk and knowledge of adaptive strategies when facing environmental uncertainty. We note that dimensions of religiousness/spirituality such as religious history, values/beliefs, commitment, and daily spiritual experiences influence wealth and the sharing of natural perceived risks, as well as adaptive strategies. Based on our results, we conclude that religiousness/spirituality dimensions exert both positive and negative effects on the perception of environmental risks and ways of coping with the impacts of rapid environmental changes.

  13. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. First, the statistically significant increase over time in seedling diversity in the South suggests that conditions there have become more favorable for the reproduction and dispersal of a wider variety of species, whereas the significant decrease in northern seedling diversity indicates that northern conditions have become less favorable. Second, we found weak correlations between seedling diversity change and latitude in both zones

  14. Overcoming trends in irregularly spaced locations by regional polish - exemplified by estimation of the range of influence between Salmonella Dublin-seropositive cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low-resolutio......The aim of the study was to develop a procedure to remove spatial trends in irregularly spaced data, with trends partly due to regional differences. Median polish is often used on regularly spaced (lattice) data where column and row medians are removed. For irregularly spaced data a low......-resolution map of the spatial locations is often used where data locations are assigned to the nearest lattice node followed by median polish. In this study regional polish was developed. The inverse distance weighted median was calculated based on observations from locations in the neighbourhood of the actual...... observation. The regional polish residual is obtained as the difference between the observed value and the weighted median. The regional polish procedure was applied to Salmonella Dublin data showing strong regional trends. Estimation of the range of influence between cattle herds with positive S. Dublin herd...

  15. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P Media, Inc.

  16. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    A database of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled using established techniques. This database indicates that in the ten year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is very heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and SE. Brazil. The number of landslides varies considerably between years; the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerges as a major factor controlling this variation, although the study period did not capture a large event. Analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of research articles with a local author, which shows that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distributions causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  18. Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, S. A.; Petley, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    A new data set of landslides that caused loss of life in Latin America and the Caribbean in the 10-year period from 2004 and 2013 inclusive has been compiled, providing new insight into the impact of landslides in this key part of the world. This data set indicates that in the 10-year period a total of 11 631 people lost their lives across the region in 611 landslides. The geographical distribution of the landslides is highly heterogeneous, with areas of high incidence in parts of the Caribbean (most notably Haiti), Central America, Colombia, and southeast Brazil. There is significant interannual variation in the number of landslides, with the El Niño/La Niña cycle emerging as a key control. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. On a national basis we have compared the occurrence of fatality-inducing landslide occurrence with the production of locally authored research articles, demonstrating that there is a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean. Understanding better the mechanisms, distribution causes and triggers of landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean must be an essential first step towards managing the hazard.

  19. Trends in body image of adolescent females in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Craike

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dissatisfaction is associated with a range of adverse outcomes, including impaired psychological health, low physical activity and disordered eating. This longitudinal study used the Factors Influencing Transitions in Girls’ Active Leisure and Sport (FITGALS dataset to examine trends in body image of adolescent females. Specifically, the study examined satisfaction with body size, physical appearance and dieting behaviour for two cohorts at transitional life phases in two geographic regions longitudinally over a 3-year period. Methods A sample of 732 adolescent females in Grade 7 (n = 489, 66.8 % and Grade 11 (n = 243, 33.2 % at randomly selected Australian metropolitan and non-metropolitan secondary schools responded to a questionnaire in three successive years from 2008 to 2010. Participants reported perceptions about their body size and physical appearance and whether they were, or ought to be, on a diet. The data were analysed using a series of longitudinal logistic regression models. Results Dieting and dissatisfaction with body size significantly increased over time and more so for older than younger girls. Region significantly moderated the effect of grade level regarding dissatisfaction with body size but not dieting. In non-metropolitan regions, those in the younger cohort were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their body size than the older cohort; whereas in metropolitan regions, those in the older cohort were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their body size than the younger cohort. Adolescent female’s perceptions of their appearance were unchanged over time, region and grade level. Conclusions Differences across time, region and grade level were found among adolescent females on body size and dieting behaviour, but not physical appearance. Adolescent females experience early and increasing body size dissatisfaction and dieting as they age, but stable perceptions

  20. Trends in body image of adolescent females in metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craike, M; Young, J A; Symons, C M; Pain, M D; Harvey, J T; Eime, R M; Payne, W R

    2016-11-08

    Body dissatisfaction is associated with a range of adverse outcomes, including impaired psychological health, low physical activity and disordered eating. This longitudinal study used the Factors Influencing Transitions in Girls' Active Leisure and Sport (FITGALS) dataset to examine trends in body image of adolescent females. Specifically, the study examined satisfaction with body size, physical appearance and dieting behaviour for two cohorts at transitional life phases in two geographic regions longitudinally over a 3-year period. A sample of 732 adolescent females in Grade 7 (n = 489, 66.8 %) and Grade 11 (n = 243, 33.2 %) at randomly selected Australian metropolitan and non-metropolitan secondary schools responded to a questionnaire in three successive years from 2008 to 2010. Participants reported perceptions about their body size and physical appearance and whether they were, or ought to be, on a diet. The data were analysed using a series of longitudinal logistic regression models. Dieting and dissatisfaction with body size significantly increased over time and more so for older than younger girls. Region significantly moderated the effect of grade level regarding dissatisfaction with body size but not dieting. In non-metropolitan regions, those in the younger cohort were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their body size than the older cohort; whereas in metropolitan regions, those in the older cohort were significantly more likely to be dissatisfied with their body size than the younger cohort. Adolescent female's perceptions of their appearance were unchanged over time, region and grade level. Differences across time, region and grade level were found among adolescent females on body size and dieting behaviour, but not physical appearance. Adolescent females experience early and increasing body size dissatisfaction and dieting as they age, but stable perceptions of physical appearance. Age and geographic region are important

  1. Spring onset variations and trends in the continental United States: past and regional assessment using temperature-based indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Ault, Toby R.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2012-01-01

    Phenological data are simple yet sensitive indicators of climate change impacts on ecosystems, but observations have not been made routinely or extensively enough to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns across most continents, including North America. As an alternative, many studies use weather-based algorithms to simulate specific phenological responses. Spring Indices (SI) are a set of complex phenological models that have been successfully applied to evaluate variations and trends in the onset of spring across the Northern Hemisphere’s temperate regions. To date, SI models have been limited by only producing output in locations where both the plants’ chilling and warmth requirements are met. Here, we develop an extended form of the SI (abbreviated SI-x) that expands their application into the subtropics by ignoring chilling requirements while still retaining the utility and accuracy of the original SI (now abbreviated SI-o). The validity of the new indices is tested, and regional SI anomalies are explored across the data-rich continental United States. SI-x variations from 1900 to 2010 show an abrupt and sustained delay in spring onset of about 4–8 d (around 1958) in parts of the Southeast and southern Great Plains, and a comparable advance of 4–8 d (around 1984) in parts of the northern Great Plains and the West. Atmospheric circulation anomalies, linked to large-scale modes of variability, exert modest but significant roles in the timing of spring onset across the United States on interannual and longer timescales. The SI-x are promising metrics for tracking spring onset variations and trends in mid-latitudes, relating them to relevant ecological, hydrological, and socioeconomic phenomena, and exploring connections between atmospheric drivers and seasonal timing.

  2. Seabird population trends along the west coast of North America: causes and the extent of regional concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, D.G.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Wilson, U.W.

    1994-01-01

    We compared trends in breeding population size among cormorants, gulls, alcids, and others, among the Farallon Islands, and sites in northern California and Washington, Gulf of Alaska, and Bering Sea, but in most cases only during the last two decades. For a given species, trends were usually concordant within the same oceanographic domain, except for Rhinoceros Auklet, which increased across all domains in its northeastern Pacific range. Overall, humans and their domestic animals have had severe negative impacts to individual islands, but recent restoration efforts have had spectacular results. On the other hand, the California Current and the eastern Bering Sea now seem unable to support historic populations of natural, top-trophic predators. The major factor responsible appears to be overfishing by humans of important seabird prey, especially, in a period when climate has been unstable. Notable trends indicating these general patterns were as follows: 1) The Ashy Storm-Petrel on the Farallon Islands, where 80% of this species breeds, may have decreased in response to the increase of gulls in the storm-petrel breeding habitat. 2) Brandt's and Pelagic cormorants in the central California Current declined radically owing to El Nino and antropogenic factors in the early 1980s, and have since failed to recover, contrary to trends in the 1970s; farther north, populations fluctuated slightly but at low levels during this period. 3) Large Larus gulls have increased. 4) Common Murres in the central and northern portions of the California Current exhibited a marked decline during the early 1980s and have since failed to recover. 5) Most Common Murre populations in the Gulf of Alaska appear to be stable; whereas those in the eastern Bering Sea are decreasing. 6) Rhinoceros Auklet has increased throughout its range and has (re-)colonized new sites in the southern portion of it. 7) Tufted Puffin has ceased recovery in the California Current, but in Alaska it has continued to

  3. New Evidence of Regional Geological Structures Inferred from Reprocessing and Resistivity Data Interpretation in the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi Area of Southwestern Ilan County, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong-Ruei Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the southwestern tip of the back arc basin of the Okinawa Trough, which propagates westward into the Taiwan orogen. A long discussed issue concerns whether the opening normal-fault system of the Okinawa Trough propagates and transforms into the thrust-fault system of the Taiwan orogen. We have reprocessed and inverted resistivity measurements from a series of surveys conducted in the 1970s around the Chingshui-Sanshing-Hanchi area of southwestern Ilan County. The 2D and 3D inverted resistivity images reveal the regional structures. A major conductive structure dipping toward the northwest at an angle of 30° - 40° is located at the expected site of the Niudou Fault separating the Early Miocene Szeleng and Kangkou Formations from the Lushan Formation in the Sanshing area, which dip direction of two conductive structures with a dipping angle of 50° - 70° were coinciding with the dip direction of normal faults identified from the field surveys. In addition three high-angle discontinuity structures, dipping toward the north with an angle of 60° - 80° can be identified in the resistivity profile along Hanchi. We tend to suggest these structures as the extended portions of the normal faults that have been identified under the unconsolidated sediments in the Ilan Plain. Resistivity profiles from the Chingshuichi area reveal the existence of the vertical Chingshuichi, the Dachi, and the Xiaonanauo Fault. Hot springs were found in the junction area of the Chingshuichi and the Xiaonanauo Fault. The junction region of these two fault systems is the potential Chingshui geothermal field that provides fluid geothermals from the deep.

  4. Forest Bird Distribution, Density and Trends in the Ka'u Region of Hawai'i Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate and current measure of population status and trend is necessary for conservation and management efforts. Scott and Kepler (1985) provided a comprehensive review of the status of native Hawaiian birds based on the extensive Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (HFBS) of the main islands (Scott et al. 1986). At that time, they documented declining populations and decreasing ranges for most species, and the extinction of several species over the previous 50 years. Many native bird species continue to decline throughout Hawai`i (Camp et al. In review, Gorresen et al. In prep.). The focus of this study is the mid-to-high elevation rainforest on the southeast windward slopes of Mauna Loa Volcano (Figure 1). Known as Ka`u, the region encompasses forest lands protected by Kamehameha Schools, The Nature Conservancy, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HVNP), and the State of Hawai'i's Ka`u Forest Reserve, Kapapala Forest Reserve and Kapapala Cooperative Game Management Area,. Together these lands support one of three main concentrations of native forest birds on the Hawai`i Island (the other two being centered on the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge and Kulani-Keauhou area in the north and central windward part of the island, respectively.) Because this region harbors important populations of native and endangered forest birds in some of the best remaining forest habitat on the island, it has been a focus of forest bird surveys since the 1970s. The Ka`u region was first quantitatively surveyed in 1976 by the Hawaii Forest Bird Survey (Scott et al. 1986). Surveys were conducted by State of Hawai`i Division of Forestry and Wildlife in 1993 and 2002 and by the U.S. National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey in 2004 and 2005. In this report, we present analyses of the density, distribution and trends of native and introduced forest bird within the Ka`u region of Hawai`i Island. The analyses cover only those species with sufficient detections to model detection

  5. Regional scale climatic trends derived from Younger Dryas glaciers in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D.; Rea, B. R.; Barr, I.; Small, D.; McDougall, D.

    2014-12-01

    In the U.K., the glacial geomorphological record has been utilised to infer paleo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics, with much of this work focussing on the Scottish Highlands during the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). During the YD the West Highlands Ice-cap covered the majority of the Scottish Highlands (c. 13,000 sq mi), which is thought to have affected accumulation rates beyond the ice-cap margins, resulting in a steep (c. 80%) easterly decline in precipitation and smaller ice-masses. We present multi-proxy data investigating YD glaciation in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland (55°46' N, 03°34' W), suggesting conditions were less arid. The area forms the most easterly upland region in the Southern Uplands and south of the West Highlands Ice-cap, reaching an altitude of 840 m and covering c. 200 sq mi. Results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, have demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped. The reconstruction consists of two separate icefields covering an area c. 40 sq mi. and new 14C dates of basal contact organics place the ice-mass within the context of the YD but new Cosmogenic Nuclide Analysis (CNA) of bedrock and in situ boulders are inconclusive, implying limited erosion and limited resetting during the YD. Equilibrium Line Altitudes are calculated to have ranged from c. 419 - 634 m. Paleo-precipitation values were derived using two precipitation-temperature relationships and suggest slightly lower totals than YD ice-masses located on the west coast of the U.K. but do not support a significant easterly reduction in precipitation. Analysis of present-day (c. 30 year) meteorological data across the U.K. demonstrates a pronounced reduction in precipitation of c. 50% on the east coast. This disparity between present-day and glacier-based YD precipitation patterns is partly attributable to the methodology employed in glacier reconstruction and

  6. Late Glacial to Holocene environments in the present-day coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere inferred from a pollen record of Lake Billyakh, Verkhoyansk Mts, NE Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a radiocarbon-dated pollen record from Lake Billyakh (65°17' N, 126°47' E; 340 m a.s.l. in the Verkhoyansk Mountains was used to reconstruct vegetation and climate change since about 15 kyr BP. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction suggest that open cool steppe (STEP and grass and sedge tundra (TUND communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer (CLDE trees in the regional vegetation during the Late Glacial. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae, alder (Duschekia fruticosa and willow (Salix species, is dated to 13.5–12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the Last Glaciation, particularly during the Bølling-Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the relatively cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen.

  7. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  8. Hydro-thermal processes and thermal offsets of peat soils in the active layer in an alpine permafrost region, NE Qinghai-Tibet plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfeng; Jin, Huijun; Zhang, Tingjun; Cao, Bin; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Kang; Xiao, Xiongxin; Guo, Hong; Mu, Cuicui; Li, Lili

    2017-09-01

    the Eboling Mountains. Moreover, the thermophysical properties of peat soils and high moisture contents in the active layer on peatlands resulted in the lower soil temperatures in the active layer close to the LLP on the northern slope of the Eboling Mountains than those found at the LLP at the western branch of the UHRB in the warm season, especially at the deeper depths (20-77 cm). They also resulted in the smaller freezing index (FI) and thawing index (TI) and larger FI/TI ratios of soils at the depths of 5 to 77 cm in the active layer near the LLP on the northern slope of the Eboling Mountains. In short, peatlands have unique thermophysical properties for reducing heat absorption in the warm season and for limiting heat release in the cold season as well. However, the permafrost zone has shrunk by 10-20 km along the major highways at the western branch of the UHRB since 1985, and a medium-scale retrogressive slump has occurred on the peatlands on the northern slope of the Eboling Mountains in recent decades. The results can provide basic data for further studies of the hydrological functions of different landscapes in alpine permafrost regions. Such studies can also enable evaluations and forecasts the hydrological impacts of changing frozen ground in the UHRB and of other alpine mountain regions in West China.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE MAIN TRENDS AND FORECASTING THE LEVEL OF POVERTY OF THE POPULATION OF THE ASTRAKHAN REGION ON THE BASIS OF TIME SERIES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kolomeiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodical bases of research and forecast of the level of poverty are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the analysis of the main trends and predicting the level of poverty on the basis of time series. The author offer two predictive models of poverty level in Astrakhan region on the basis of trend analysis of time series and poverty by using the exponential smoothing - the multiplicative Holt-Winters model with a linear increase.

  10. EUGÈNE SOUBEIRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Wisniak

    2016-01-01

    Eugène Soubeiran (1793 - 1858), farmacéutico y médico francés, conocido especialmente por se r uno de los descubridores del cloroformo, estudió además un gran número de principios vegetales, el cultivo y comercio de la sanguijuela, la sangre de diversos animales, preparaciones farmacéuticas, los tartratos dobles, los cloruros del amoníaco y mercur io, la química de los azúcares, la síntesis de numerosos nuevos compuestos orgánicos, etc.

  11. Global and regional trends in the nutritional status of young people: a critical and neglected age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Nadia; Al-Gashm, Sara; Mehta, Seema; Mokdad, Ali; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood form a critical time period for the achievement of optimal health and nutrition across all stages of the life course. We undertook a review of published literature and global data repositories for information on nutrition levels, trends, and patterns among young people aged 10-24 years from January 1, 2016 to September 20, 2016. We describe patterns for both males and females at the global level and for geographic regions for the period covering 1990-2015. The results of this study paint a less than ideal picture of current young people's nutrition, suggesting dual burdens of underweight and high body-mass index in many countries and variable improvements in micronutrient deficiencies across geographical regions. Poor diet diversity and lack of nutrient-dense food, high risk for metabolic syndrome, and sedentary lifestyles also characterize this population. The need for objective, comparable, and high-quality data is also recognized for further study in this area. As the global community works toward supporting and scaling up health gains in the sustainable development goal era, realizing the critical role of young people is essential. Investing in young people's nutrition is critical to making strides in improving the overall health and well-being of all populations. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Regional demographic trends from long-term studies of saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) across the northern Sonoran Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Ten saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) populations in the northern Sonoran Desert were monitored from 1959 to 2005 to discriminate how climate influences plant growth, abundance, reproductive potential, survivorship, age structure and regeneration trends. Thousands of saguaros were measured to determine site-specific growth rates and survivorship through time. Observed growth rates were used to predict the ages of saguaros and reconstruct local and regional regeneration patterns back to the late 18th century. Both growth rates and degree of branching generally tracked temperature and moisture gradients. Site-specific age-height models explained 89-97% of variance in observed ages, with a slope of nearly one. Regeneration was more consistent at sites in the western (hotter/drier) than eastern (cooler/wetter) sites, which exhibited clear multidecadal variability in regeneration rates. Averaged across the region, saguaro regeneration rates were highest from 1780 to 1860, coincident with wet conditions and high Pinus ponderosa recruitment in the highlands. Milder and wetter winters and protection from livestock grazing likely promoted late 20th century regeneration surges at some sites. Predictions of saguaro population dynamics in the 21st century likely will be confounded by the saguaro's episodic and asynchronous regeneration, continued urbanization, ongoing grass invasions and associated wildfires, and changing climate.

  13. Attribution of satellite-observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Roderick, M. L.; Shen, Y.; Sun, F.

    2014-09-01

    Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by both climate and by both climate and by land use and/or land cover change (LULCC) caused by human activities. Both can change over time in a monotonic way and it can be difficult to separate the effects of climate change from LULCC on vegetation. Here we attempt to attribute trends in the fractional green vegetation cover to climate variability and to human activity in Ejina Region, a hyper-arid landlocked region in northwest China. This region is dominated by extensive deserts with relatively small areas of irrigation located along the major water courses as is typical throughout much of Central Asia. Variations of fractional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2012 were determined using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index data with 250 m spatial resolution over 16-day intervals. We found that the fractional vegetation cover in this hyper-arid region is very low but that the mean growing season vegetation cover has increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We further report that the area of land irrigated each year can be predicted using the runoff gauged 1 year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010. The results demonstrate that it is possible to separate the satellite-observed changes in green vegetation cover into components due to climate and human modifications. Such results inform management on the implications for water

  14. Decadal Regional Trends in Trace Gases and Reflectance As Measured with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Eos Aura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Boersma, F. F.; Kleipool, Q.; Desmedt, I.; Levelt, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a UV-visible spectrometer on board of the NASA EOS Aura mission. Due to its innovative design, OMI combines a high spatial resolution (13x24km2 at nadir) with a wide swath of 2600 km that enables daily global coverage. The OMI science data record started in October 2004 and already spans a decade. The instrument shows very low optical degradation: after 10 years in orbit the throughput at its shortest UV wavelengths has only been reduced by a few percent and at longer wavelengths this degradation is about 1%. This stability makes the instrument extremely valuable for trend analysis, although due to the so-called "row anomaly" part of the swath is no longer providing science-quality data since 2009. Both the optical degradation and the row anomaly are well characterized. The OMI data record shows that in the past decade the emissions of trace gases have changed considerably. Over most of the industrialized countries in Europe, North America and Asia emissions of NOx and SO2 have been reduced, whereas in the developing countries the emissions have generally increased. These changes in emissions directly affect the air quality, including the concentration of secondary aerosol particles. Due to the direct and indirect effect of aerosols, it is expected that the radiation balance is also affected, resulting in changes in shortwave radiance at the surface and at the top of the atmosphere. In this contribution we will present time series analysis of tropospheric NO2 and formaldehyde columns from OMI, in combination with aerosol optical depth time series from MODIS on EOS Aqua. We concentrate on mega-cities in India, China and the U.S.A., because in these densely populated regions the effects of air quality are the largest. To quantify the local effects of aerosols on the radiation balance, we combine the trends in the aerosol optical depth with trends of the reflectance at the top of the atmosphere, as measured by OMI.

  15. Long-term trend of chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation at a regional background station in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weiwei; Quan, Weijun; Ma, Zhiqiang; Shi, Xuefeng; Zhao, Xiujuan; Zhang, Linna; Wang, Zhenfa; Wang, Wenyan

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the trend of chemical composition of precipitation is of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. A comprehensive study on the long-term chemical compositions of precipitation was carried out from 2003 to 2014 at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station in northern China. All samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity and major ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ and Na+). The average pH during this period was 4.53±0.35, which is considerably lower than those reported in other background stations in China (Linan, Waliguan and Longfengshan). NH4+, SO42-, Ca2+ and NO3- were the dominant ions in precipitation, with concentrations (volume-weighted mean) of 212.99μeqL-1, 200.20μeqL-1, 116.88μeqL-1 and 98.56μeqL-1, respectively. The ion concentrations at SDZ were much higher than those of other background stations and megacities in China. A significantly increasing trend was observed for NO3- (7.26%year-1), and a decreasing trend was observed for SO42-/NO3-, suggesting that the precipitation of SDZ evolved from a sulfuric acid type to a mixed type dominated by both sulfuric and nitric acid. The source identification indicated that SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and F- were dominated by secondary sources, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+ mostly originated from natural sources, and K+ and Cl- probably associated with anthropogenic sources. Long-range transport of air masses could influence the acidity, electrical conductivity and ion concentrations of precipitation at SDZ. The higher acidity and ion concentrations mainly occurred in the southerly and westerly trajectory pathways and partially in northwest pathways. Anthropogenic pollutants and crustal sources along these pathways were significant contributors to the chemical composition of precipitation in SDZ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional and Local Trends in helium isotopes, basin and rangeprovince, western North America: Evidence for deep permeablepathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2005-07-15

    Fluids from the western margin of the Basin and Range have helium isotope ratios as high as {approx}6-7 Ra, indicating a strong mantle melt influence and consistent with recent and current volcanic activity. Moving away from these areas, helium isotope ratios decrease rapidly to ''background'' values of around 0.6 Ra, and then gradually decrease toward the east to low values of {approx}0.1 Ra at the eastern margin of the Basin and Range. Superimposed on this general regional trend are isolated features with elevated helium isotope ratios (0.8-2.1 Ra) compared to the local background. Spring geochemistry and local geology indicate that these ''He-spikes'' are not related to current or recent magmatic activity, suggesting that the spikes may reflect either localized zones deep mantle melting or deep permeable pathways (faults) with high vertical fluid flowrates. A detailed study of one of the He-spikes (Dixie Valley and the Stillwater Range Front Fault system), indicates that features with high 3He/4He ratios are confined to the range front normal faults characteristic of the extensional regime in the Basin and Range, suggesting that these faults are deep permeable pathways. However, not all range front fault systems transmit fluids with a mantle signature, implying that not all have deep permeable pathways.

  17. Melting trends over the Greenland ice sheet (1958–2009 from spaceborne microwave data and regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To study near-surface melt changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS since 1979, melt extent estimates from two regional climate models were compared with those obtained from spaceborne microwave brightness temperatures using two different remote sensing algorithms. The results from the two models were consistent with those obtained with the remote sensing algorithms at both daily and yearly time scales, encouraging the use of the models for analyzing melting trends before the satellite era (1958–1979, when forcing data is available. Differences between satellite-derived and model-simulated results still occur and are used here to identify (i biases in the snow models (notably in the albedo parametrization, in the thickness of a snow layer, in the maximum liquid water content within the snowpack and in the snowfall impacting the bare ice appearance in summer and (ii limitations in the use of passive microwave data for snowmelt detection at the edge of the ice sheet due to mixed pixel effect (e.g., tundra or rock nearby the ice sheet. The results from models and spaceborne microwave sensors confirm a significant (p-value = 0.01 increase in GrIS surface melting since 1979. The melt extent recorded over the last years (1998, 2003, 2005 and 2007 is unprecedented in the last 50 yr with the cumulated melt area in the 2000's being, on the average, twice that of the 1980's.

  18. Epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah Province, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miskelyemen Abdelatti Elmekki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the epidemiological trends of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, western region of KSA. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and sixty-seven parasitologically confirmed CL cases attending Al-Meeqat Hospital, Al-Madinah, during 2012–2015, were included in this study. Results: Both Saudi and non-Saudi nationals were infected, with the highest infection rate being among Saudis (68.7%. Males were more affected than females as 86.9% of the total CL cases were males. Moreover, CL was prevalent in all age groups with higher frequency among young adults and adolescents (23.1% and 22.7%, respectively. Interestingly, almost all the patients in the adolescent and child age groups were Saudis (96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. Considering geographical distribution, the highest percentage of the cases (40.5% were from the northern parts of Al-Madinah province while the eastern parts reported the least infection rate (7.3%. Few cases (2.5% were supposed to encounter the infection abroad. Additionally, the frequency of infection was found to follow a seasonal distribution. Regarding treatment, pentostam, ketoconazole, or cryotherapy were the treatment options usually used. Conclusion: CL is prevalent in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah area and new foci are being introduced. Thus, detailed studies with large surveillances regarding vector and reservoir hosts in and around the area are needed.

  19. A Mapping of Marine Biodiversity Research Trends and Collaboration in the East Asia Region from 1996–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungjoon Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many countries define policies to manage oceans and coastal areas in order to utilize marine ecosystems strategically. When we reviewed the strategies and policies of various countries in relation to ocean sustainability, we found that biodiversity preservation is a key issue for policies related to sustainable marine development. We investigated the research trends and collaboration status of China, Japan and South Korea regarding marine biodiversity through the analysis of scientific articles using bibliometric analysis. The results showed that Japan collaborated the most with other countries compared to China and South Korea. All three countries collaborated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN countries frequently. South Korea showed the strongest inter-collaboration amongst China, Japan and South Korea. Microorganism research is a common research topic in China, Japan and South Korea. Each country demonstrated its own prominent research area, such as local region research in China, deep-sea research in Japan and aquaculture research in South Korea.

  20. A long-term trend in precipitation of different spatial regions of Bangladesh and its teleconnections with El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser; Alam, Mohammad Samsul; Yousuf, Abu Hena Muhammad; Islam, Md. Monirul

    2017-07-01

    A long-term (1948 to 2012) trend of precipitation (annual, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons) in Bangladesh was analyzed in different regions using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. Moreover, the possible teleconnections of precipitation (annual and monsoon) variability with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) were investigated using both average and individual (both positive and negative) values of ENSO index and IOD. Our findings suggested that for annual precipitation, a significant increasing monotonic trend was found in whole Bangladesh (4.87 mm/year), its western region (5.82 mm/year) including Rangpur (9.41 mm/year) and Khulna (4.95 mm/year), and Sylhet (10.12 mm/year) and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) from eastern region. In pre-monsoon, only Rangpur (2.88 mm/year) showed significant increasing trend, while in monsoon, whole Bangladesh (3.04 mm/year), Sylhet (7.17 mm/year), and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) showed similar trend. In post-monsoon, there was no significant trend. Our results also revealed that the precipitation (annual or monsoon) of whole Bangladesh and almost all of the spatial regions did not show any significant correlation with ENSO events, whereas the average IOD values showed significant correlation only in monsoon precipitation of western region. The individual positive IODs showed significant correlation in whole Bangladesh, western region, and its two divisions (Rajshahi and Khulna). So, in the context of Bangladesh climate, IOD has the more teleconnection to precipitation than that of ENSO. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of ENSO and IOD events may suppress their influence on each other.

  1. Gastric adenocarcinoma trends in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil: what has changed in 25 years?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rampazzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Its incidence varies greatly by geographic region. The highest rate is in Eastern Asia, mainly in Japan and China. In Brazil, gastric cancer is the third most common cancer in males and the fifth most common cancer in females. Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, has similar figures. The main histological type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends of this cancer over 25 years in a reference center in central Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: We reviewed the records of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies performed at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, RS, between 1986 and 2010. We evaluated the incidence, age and gender distribution, anatomical subsite and histological subtype of gastric cancer throughout this 25-year period. RESULTS: We identified histologically confirmed primary gastric adenocarcinoma in 335 (1.6% of the 20,521 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period. The mean age of patients was 62.4 (± 13.0 years, and 67.8% were male (a male: female ratio of 2.0:1. Cardia cancer accounted for 14.3% of the cases, and non-cardia cancer accounted for 85.7%. According to Lauren's classification, 48.1% were intestinal subtype and 40.9% were diffuse subtype. There were no differences in mean age or gender distribution by anatomical location or histological subtype. There was also no difference in the proportions of histological subtypes by anatomical location. Over the 25-year period, there was no change in the anatomical distribution of tumors, but there was a significant decrease in the intestinal subtype and a steady increase in the diffuse subtype (P = 0.02. The subset of 39 patients (11.6% who presented at < 45 years of age was more likely to be female and to have tumors of the diffuse subtype than was the total series of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over this 25-year period, there were no

  2. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  3. Climatology and trend of wind power resources in China and its surrounding regions: a revisit using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    The mean climatology, seasonal and interannual variability and trend of wind speeds at the hub height (80 m) of modern wind turbines over China and its surrounding regions are revisited using 33-year (1979–2011) wind data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) that has many improvements including higher spatial resolution over previous global reanalysis...

  4. THGEM operation in Ne and Ne/CH4

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, M; Bartesaghi, G; Miyamoto, J; Cohen, S; Chechik, R; Maia, J M; Santos, J M F dos; Gambarini, G; Dangendorf, V; Breskin, A

    2009-01-01

    The operation of Thick Gaseous Electron Multipliers (THGEM) in Ne and Ne/CH4 mixtures, features high multiplication factors at relatively low operation potentials, in both single- and double-THGEM configurations. We present some systematic data measured with UV-photons and soft x-rays, in various Ne mixtures. It includes gain dependence on hole diameter and gas purity, photoelectron extraction efficiency from CsI photocathodes into the gas, long-term gain stability and pulse rise-time. Position resolution of a 100x100 mm^2 X-rays imaging detector is presented. Possible applications are discussed.

  5. Trends of abiotic damage in forest ecosystems in Germany at regional scale under SRES A1B, B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferov, O.; Doering, C.; Sogachev, A.; Merklein, J.; Ahrends, B.

    2009-09-01

    Current climate projections indicate that the ongoing climate change may cause an increase of frequency of weather extremes (Leckebusch et al., 2008), which can result in wide area abiotic and consequent biotic damage events (e.g. drought and following insect attacks) within forest ecosystems. The type and degree of damage depends not only on the strength of a primary driving force itself (e.g. wind speed) but also on complex interactions between combinations of effecting agents with above- and belowground forest structure characteristics. The present study investigates the projected trends of abiotic risks factors and their combinations on coniferous and deciduous forests during the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The downscaling of ECHAM5-MPIOM by the regional climate model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of 0.2° x 0.2° with daily time-steps is used for the analysis of future climate extremes and their combinations. With these input data the small-scale modeling with coupled process based sub-models (Jansen et al., 2008) was carried out for Solling region, (Central Germany) calculating the water and energy balance of spruce and beech forest ecosystems on cambisols and podzols with BROOK90 (Federer et al. 2003) and wind loading on trees with 3D ABL model SCADIS (Panferov and Sogachev, 2008). The risks of drought or wind damage for a certain forest stand result from combinations of soil water characteristics, static and gust wind loads, which in turn depend on current above- and belowground tree structure and on soil texture. The actual soil water content and forest structure depends on climate-soil-vegetation interactions in previous years. Therefore, differences of microclimatological conditions in the remaining stand after changes in forest structure are taken into account. Model outputs are aggregated to 30-years periods and compared to "present” conditions of 1971-2000. The results demonstrate an increment of abiotic risks

  6. International Materials Research Meeting in the Greater Region: “Current Trends in the Characterisation of Materials and Surface Modification”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Preface Dear ladies and gentlemen, On 6th and 7th of April 2017 took place the “International Materials Research Meeting in the Greater Region” at the Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. This meeting corresponded to the 9th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research and it was intended as a meeting place for researchers of the Greater Region as well as their partners of the different cooperation activities, like the EEIGM program, the ‘Erasmus Mundus’ Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master program (AMASE), the ‘Erasmus Mundus’ Doctoral Program in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE) and the CREATe-Network. On this meeting, 72 participants from 15 countries and 24 institutions discussed and exchanged ideas on the latest trends in the characterization of materials and surface modifications. Different aspects of the material research of metals, ceramics, polymers and biomaterials were presented. As a conclusion of the meeting, the new astronaut of the European Space Agency Dr. Matthias Maurer, who is an alumni of the Saarland University and the EEIGM, held an exciting presentation about his activities. Following the publication of selected papers of the 2009 meeting in Volume 5 and 2012 meeting in Volume 31 of this journal, it is a great pleasure to present this selection of 9 articles to the readers of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. The editors are thankful to all of the reviewers for reviewing the papers. Special praise is also given to the sponsors of the conference: European Commission within the program Erasmus Mundus (AMASE and DocMASE), Erasmus+ (AMASE), and Horizon2020 (CREATe-Network, Grant agreement No 644013): the DAAD (Alumni Program), and the German-French University (PhD-Track). List of Author signatures, Conference topics, Organization, Conference impressions and list of the participants are available in this PDF.

  7. Scattering study of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction on an ab initio based analytical potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koner, Debasish; Panda, Aditya N., E-mail: adi07@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Barrios, Lizandra; González-Lezana, Tomás, E-mail: t.gonzalez.lezana@csic.es [IFF-CSIC, Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2016-01-21

    Initial state selected dynamics of the Ne + NeH{sup +}(v{sub 0} = 0, j{sub 0} = 0) → NeH{sup +} + Ne reaction is investigated by quantum and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods on the ground electronic state. The three-body ab initio energies on a set of suitably chosen grid points have been computed at CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVQZ level and analytically fitted. The fitting of the diatomic potentials, computed at the same level of theory, is performed by spline interpolation. A collinear [NeHNe]{sup +} structure lying 0.72 eV below the Ne + NeH{sup +} asymptote is found to be the most stable geometry for this system. Energies of low lying vibrational states have been computed for this stable complex. Reaction probabilities obtained from quantum calculations exhibit dense oscillatory structures, particularly in the low energy region and these get partially washed out in the integral cross section results. SQM predictions are devoid of oscillatory structures and remain close to 0.5 after the rise at the threshold thus giving a crude average description of the quantum probabilities. Statistical cross sections and rate constants are nevertheless in sufficiently good agreement with the quantum results to suggest an important role of a complex-forming dynamics for the title reaction.

  8. Long-term midlatitude mesopause region temperature trend deduced from quarter century (1990–2014 Na lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. She

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term midlatitude temperature trend between 85 and 105 km is deduced from 25 years (March 1990–December 2014 of Na Lidar observations. With a strong warming episode in the 1990s, the time series was least-square fitted to an 11-parameter nonlinear function. This yields a cooling trend starting from an insignificant value of 0.64 ± 0.99 K decade−1 at 85 km, increasing to a maximum of 2.8 ± 0.58 K decade−1 between 91 and 93 km, and then decreasing to a warming trend above 103 km. The geographic altitude dependence of the trend is in general agreement with model predictions. To shed light on the nature of the warming episode, we show that the recently reported prolonged global surface temperature cooling after the Mt Pinatubo eruption can also be very well represented by the same response function.

  9. Predicting the recruitment of established regeneration into the sapling size class following partial cutting in the Acadian Forest Region: Using long-term observations to assess the performance of FVS-NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Ray; Chad Keyser; Robert Seymour; John Brissette

    2008-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly called upon to provide long-term predictions of forest development. The dynamics of regeneration establishment, survival and subsequent recruitment of established seedlings to larger size classes is a critical component of these forecasts, yet remains a weak link in available models. To test the reliability of FVS-NE for simulating...

  10. Trend analysis of ground-water levels and spring discharge in the Yucca Mountain Region, Nevada and California, 1960-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Joseph M.; Moreo, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Ground-water level and discharge data from 1960 to 2000 were analyzed for the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. Included were water-level data from 37 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole) and discharge data from five springs and from a flowing well. Data were evaluated for variability and for upward, downward, or cyclic trends with an emphasis on the period 1992-2000. Potential factors causing trends in water levels and discharge include ground-water withdrawal, infiltration of precipitation, earthquakes, evapotranspiration, barometric pressure, and earth tides. Statistically significant trends in ground-water levels or spring discharge from 1992 to 2000 were upward at 12 water-level sites and downward at 14 water-level sites and 1 spring-discharge site. In general, the magnitude of the change in water level from 1992 to 2000 was small (less than 2 feet), except where influenced by pumping or local effects such as possible equilibration from well construction or diversion of nearby surface water. Seasonal trends are superimposed on some of the long-term (1992-2000) trends in water levels and discharge. Factors causing seasonal trends include barometric pressure, evapotranspiration, and pumping. The magnitude of seasonal change in water level can vary from as little as 0.05 foot in regional aquifers to greater than 5 feet in monitoring wells near large supply wells in the Amargosa Farms area. Three major episodes of earthquake activity affected water levels in wells in the Yucca Mountain region between 1992 and 2000: the Landers/Little Skull Mountain, Northridge, and Hector Mine earthquakes. The Landers/Little Skull Mountain earthquakes, in June 1992, had the largest observed effect on water levels and on discharge during the study period. Monthly measurements of wells in the study network show that earthquakes affected water levels from a few tenths of a foot to 3.5 feet. In the Ash Meadows area, water levels remained relatively stable

  11. NANCEIJu-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    forces are balanced by bond stress developed between concrete and steel in the joint region. If the column is not wide enough or if the strength of concrete in the joint is low, there is insufficient grip of concrete on the steel bars. In such circumstances, the bar slips inside the joint region, and beams loose their capacity to.

  12. Trend analysis of the quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme by region and state from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; de Lima Vazquez, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro

    2018-02-02

    Quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme can provide a perspective on its effectiveness in Brazilian macro-regions and states. The aim of this study was to perform a trend analysis of the cervical cancer screening program's quality indicators, according to Brazilian regions and states, from 2006 to 2013. Using information from approximately 62,000,000 exams obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer Screening (SISCOLO), joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the Annual Percentage Change (APC). The estimated number of women in the target age group (25-64 years) who underwent Pap testing over a three-year interval was lower than that recommended by international guidelines in the North, Northeast and Midwest regions, and the trends for this indicator remained stationary over the years in all regions of Brazil. Overall, the index of positivity in Brazilian regions and states is below that preconized by the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Additionally, the frequencies of unsatisfactory cases are in line with international guidelines but above those preconized by INCA guidelines. All positive cytological diagnoses were lower than those preconized by INCA. The results show that the cervical cancer screening programme is still far from efficient because most of the quality indicators in Brazilian regions and states are outside of the parameters preconized by national and international organizations.

  13. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2009 with trends since 1995: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Stanton, Cynthia; Chou, Doris; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Steinhardt, Laura; Creanga, Andreea A; Tunçalp, Ozge; Balsara, Zohra Patel; Gupta, Shivam; Say, Lale; Lawn, Joy E

    2011-04-16

    stillbirths occurred in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This study draws attention to the dearth of reliable data in regions where most stillbirths occur. The estimated trend in stillbirth rate reduction is slower than that for maternal mortality and lags behind the increasing progress in reducing deaths in children younger than 5 years. Improved data and improved use of data are crucial to ensure that stillbirths count in global and national policy. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth, Saving Newborn Lives/Save the Children, and the International Stillbirth Alliance. The Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, through the UN Development Programme, UN Population Fund, WHO, and World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Decadal Regional and Global Trend Analysis of the Aerosol Optical Depth using a Data-Assimilation Grade Over-Water MODIS and Level 2 MISR Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MODIS –MISR calibration differences using surface albedo around AERONET sites and cloud reflectance, Remote Sens. En- viron.,107, 12–21...over-water MODIS and Level 2 MISR aerosol products J. Zhang1 and J. S. Reid2 1Department of Atmospheric Science, University of North Dakota, Grand Folks...Assimilation (DA) quality Terra MODIS and MISR aerosol products, as well as 7 years of Aqua MODIS , we studied both regional and global aerosol trends over

  15. Long-term trends in the D- and E-region based on rocket-borne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, M.; Pock, C.; Torkar, K.

    2017-10-01

    Electron densities obtained from rocket borne measurements are compared to an empirical, steady state model built from these data. The ratios between each measured value and its corresponding model value vs. time yield trends which significantly vary with altitude. Notably above 120-130 km the electron densities generally increase, whereas between 95 and 120 km the ionosphere appears stable. Somewhere below 80-90 km - depending on the investigated data subset - there is again a positive trend down to below 70 km. Tentative explanations such as cooling of the mesosphere are suggested and may be confirmed by comprehensive theoretical models of the upper atmosphere.

  16. The small mammals from the upper Miocene of the Teruel-Alfambra region (Spain): paleobiology and paleoclimatic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, J.A. van

    1997-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to unravel in greatest possible detail trends and events in fauna, environment and climate in NE Spain during the late Miocene (Vallesian and Turolian). The Teruel-Alfambra region in the Teruel basin has been chosen as the study area, because earlier studies in the

  17. The small mammals from the upper Miocene of the Teruel-Alfambra region (Spain) : paleobiology and paleoclimatic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to unravel in greatest possible detail trends and events in fauna, environment and climate in NE Spain during the late Miocene (Vallesian and Turolian). The Teruel-Alfambra region in the Teruel basin has been chosen as the study area, because earlier studies in the

  18. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  19. Trends in Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization in a Regional Census of High School Students, 2006-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; O'Donnell, Lydia; Smith, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools are increasingly being called upon to address cyberbullying and its consequences. This study compares cyberbullying and school bullying trends and examines help-seeking among cyberbullying victims. Methods: We analyzed self-report data over 4 surveys (2006-2012) from more than 16,000 students in 17 MetroWest Boston high…

  20. Trends and variations of pH and hardness in a typical semi-arid river in a monsoon climate region during 1985-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaonan; Li, Xuyong; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Hongtao; Yang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization, along with dramatic climate change, has strongly influenced hydrochemical characteristics in recent decades in China and thus could cause the variation of pH and general total hardness of a river. To explore such variations and their potential influencing factors in a river of the monsoon climate region, we analyzed a long-term monitoring dataset of pH, SO4 (2-), NOx, general total hardness (GH), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) in surface water and groundwater in the Luan River basin from 1985 to 2009. The nonparametric Seasonal Kendall trend test was used to test the long-term trends of pH and GH. Relationship between the affecting factors, pH and GH were discussed. Results showed that pH showed a decreasing trend and that GH had an increasing trend in the long-term. Seasonal variation of pH and GH was mainly due to the typical monsoon climate. Results of correlation analysis showed that the unit area usage amounts of chemical fertilizer, NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-) were negatively correlated with pH in groundwater. In addition, mining activity affected GH spatial variation. Acid deposition, drought, and increasing the use of chemical fertilizers would contribute to the acidification trend, and mining activities would affect the spatial variation of GH. Variations of precipitation and runoff in semi-arid monsoon climate areas had significant influences on the pH and GH. Our findings implied that human activities played a critical role in river acidification in the semi-arid monsoon climate region of northern China.

  1. ANCEI--Ju-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... was possible only because of the crucial discovery of Leavitt. Since then, astronomers have devised a number of other relations between the properties of different astronomical objects (supernovae, HII regions, to name a few), which can be used to determine even larger distances, from where Cepheids are hard to o zo.

  2. Assessing temporal trends and source regions of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in air under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Shoeib, Mahiba; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil; Su, Yushan; Hung, Hayley

    2018-01-01

    Long-term Arctic air monitoring of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is essential in assessing their long-range transport and for evaluating the effectiveness of chemical control initiatives. We report for the first time temporal trends of neutral and ionic PFASs in air from three arctic stations: Alert (Canada, 2006-2014); Zeppelin (Svalbard, Norway, 2006-2014) and Andøya (Norway, 2010-2014). The most abundant PFASs were the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). All of these chemicals exhibited increasing trends at Alert with doubling times (t2) of 3.7 years (y) for PFOA, 2.9 y for PFOS, 2.5 y for PFBA, 5.0 y for 8:2 FTOH and 7.0 y for 10:2 FTOH. In contrast, declining or non-changing trends, were observed for PFOA and PFOS at Zeppelin (PFOA, half-life, t1/2 = 7.2 y; PFOS t1/2 = 67 y), and Andøya (PFOA t1/2 = 1.9 y; PFOS t1/2 = 11 y). The differences in air concentrations and in time trends between the three sites may reflect the differences in regional regulations and source regions. We investigate the source region for particle associated compounds using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Model results showed that PFOA and PFOS are impacted by air masses originating from the ocean or land. For instance, PFOA at Alert and PFOS at Zeppelin were dominated by oceanic air masses whereas, PFOS at Alert and PFOA at Zeppelin were influenced by air masses transported from land.

  3. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  4. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  5. NARAVOSLOVNE DIDAKTIČNE IGRE

    OpenAIRE

    Kohne, Eva

    2012-01-01

    V diplomskem delu z naslovom Naravoslovne didaktične igre je predstavljeno projektno delo v vrtcu, ki smo ga poimenovali Naravoslovni igralni dnevi. Namen projekta je ugotoviti, ali si lahko otroci razvijejo določene naravoslovne spretnosti in sposobnosti ob igranju naravoslovne didaktične igre. Z izvajanjem projekta smo otrokom želeli približati naravoslovje, izvajanje poskusov, obenem pa jih navajati na upoštevanje pravil igre in pomen sodelovanja v skupini. Na podlagi strokovne liter...

  6. Trends in major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among adults in the Mississippi Delta region, Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, Vincent L; Vargas, Rodolfo

    2015-02-19

    The prevalences of major modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are disproportionately high in the 18-county Mississippi Delta region, and many of these risk factors disproportionately affect blacks. Temporal trends in the prevalence of CVD risk factors in the Mississippi Delta have not been determined. We examined trends in CVD risk factors from 2001 to 2010 in the region. Longitudinal trends in prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and current smoking were investigated using self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Joinpoint regression models were used to examine annual percentage change (APC) in the prevalence of these risk factors. Overall, from 2001 to 2010, we observed significant increases in the prevalence of high cholesterol (APC, 4.22%), obesity (APC, 3.65%), and diabetes (APC, 3.54%). Among blacks, we found significant increases in the prevalence of high cholesterol (APC, 3.41%), obesity (APC, 3.48%), and diabetes (APC, 4.96%). Among whites, we found significant increases in high blood pressure (APC, 2.18%), high cholesterol (APC, 4.78%), obesity (APC, 4.18%), and physical inactivity (APC, 3.06%). We also observed a significant decrease in smoking among whites (APC, -1.99%). From 2001 to 2010, we found a significant increase in the prevalence of high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity in the Mississippi Delta. We also observed racial differences in those prevalences.

  7. Decadal trend of precipitation and temperature patterns and impacts on snow-related variables in a semiarid region, Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    In the current context of global change, mountainous areas constitute singular locations in which these changes can be traced. Early detection of significant shifts of snow state variables in semiarid regions can help assess climate variability impacts and future snow dynamics in northern latitudes. The Sierra Nevada mountain range, in southern Spain, is a representative example of snow areas in Mediterranean-climate regions and both monitoring and modelling efforts have been performed to assess this variability and its significant scales. This work presents a decadal trend analysis throughout the 50-yr period 1960-2010 performed on some snow-related variables over Sierra Nevada, in Spain, which is included in the global climate change observatories network around the world. The study area comprises 4583 km2 distributed throughout the five head basins influenced by these mountains, with altitude values ranging from 140 to 3479 m.a.s.l., just 40 km from the Mediterranean coastline. Meteorological variables obtained from 44 weather stations from the National Meteorological Agency were studied and further used as input to the distributed hydrological model WiMMed (Polo et al., 2010), operational at the study area, to obtain selected snow variables. Decadal trends were obtained, together with their statistical significance, over the following variables, averaged over the whole study area: (1) annual precipitation; (2) annual snowfall; annual (3) mean, (4) maximum and (5) minimum daily temperature; annual (6) mean and (7) maximum daily fraction of snow covered areas; (8) annual number of days with snow cover; (9) mean and (10) maximum daily snow water equivalent; (11) annual number of extreme precipitation events; and (12) mean intensity of the annual extreme precipitation events. These variables were also studied over each of the five regions associated to each basin in the range. Globally decreasing decadal trends were obtained for all the meteorological variables

  8. Trends and Regional Variation in Hospital Mortality, Length of Stay and Cost in Hospital of Ischemic Stroke Patients in Alberta Accompanying the Provincial Reorganization of Stroke Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohinmaa, Arto; Zheng, Yufei; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Klarenbach, Scott; Häkkinen, Unto; Nguyen, Thanh; Friesen, Dan; Ruseski, Jane; Kaul, Padma; Ariste, Ruolz; Jacobs, Philip

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the trends and regional variation of stroke hospital care in 30-day in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS), and 1-year total hospitalization cost after implementation of the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy. New ischemic stroke patients (N = 7632) admitted to Alberta acute care hospitals between 2006 and 2011 were followed for 1 year. We analyzed in-hospital mortality with logistic regression, LOS with negative binomial regression, and the hospital costs with generalized gamma model (log link). The risk-adjusted results were compared over years and between zones using observed/expected results. The risk-adjusted mortality rates decreased from 12.6% in 2006/2007 to 9.9% in 2010/2011. The regional variations in mortality decreased from 8.3% units in 2008/2009 to 5.6 in 2010/2011. The LOS of the first episode dropped significantly in 2010/2011 after a 4-year slight increase. The regional variation in LOS was 15.5 days in 2006/2007 and decreased to 10.9 days in 2010/2011. The 1-year hospitalization cost increased initially, and then kept on declining during the last 3 years. The South and Calgary zones had the lowest costs over the study period. However, this gap was diminishing. After implementation of the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy, both mortality and hospital costs demonstrated a decreasing trend during the later years of study. The LOS increased slightly during the first 4 years but had a significant drop at the last year. In general, the regional variations in all 3 indicators had a diminishing trend. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  10. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT, weaning weight (3WT, 6 months weight (6WT, and greasy fleece weight (GFY in a Bharat Merino (BM flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY. Materials and Methods: The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI, Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal’s birth year. Results: The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01 for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and −0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.

  11. Radiation Fog in the US Mid-Atlantic Region: Chemical Composition, Trends, and Gas-Liquid Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, D.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of radiation fog has been studied at a rural site in central Pennsylvania over an eight year period extending through 2015. Bulk fog samples were collected with an automated Caltech Heated Rod Cloud Collector (CHRCC) and analyzed for pH, inorganic ions, organic acids, total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN). Over the duration of the project, 146 samples were collected and used to document chemical composition, evaluate changes over time, and to investigate partitioning between the gas and aqueous phases. Ammonium, sulfate, calcium, and nitrate were the most abundant inorganic ions while acetate and formate were the dominant organic acids. Organic acids contributed about 15% to TOC. Inorganic nitrogen accounted for the majority of TN, with only 18% of TN attributed to organic nitrogen. Overall, organic matter contributed 52% to the total mass loading of the fog samples, a value that is higher than reported for other radiation fog studies. Statistically significant decreasing trends were observed for sulfate, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, and pH. These trends coincide with reductions in emissions from fossil fuel combustion that have been documented over this time period. Seasonal trends were also detected for nitrate, ammonium, potassium, phosphate, acetate and formate which appear to be related to the agricultural growing season. Based on simultaneous measurements of gas phase ammonia and ammonium in the fog samples, significant deviations from equilibrium were found. In low pH samples, ammonium concentrations were much lower than equilibrium predicts, while the opposite occurred in high pH samples. Modeling suggested that mass transfer limitations contributed to the departure from equilibrium. Similarly, predictions of bicarbonate concentrations based on equilibrium with gas phase carbon dioxide appears to underestimate the actual amount of bicarbonate present in samples collected during this study.

  12. [Mortality trends and years of potential life lost from prostate cancer in the 32 states and 7 sociecononomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2013-01-01

    To determine trends of mortality from prostate cancer (PC) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) by federative entity and by socioeconomic region in the period 2000-2010. Records of mortality associated with PC 2000-2010 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography through death certificates issued throughout the country. International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes corresponding to the basic cause of death from PC were identified. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. Rates of YPLL were calculated by federative entity and by socioeconomic region. The seven socioeconomic regions were elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography and include the 31 states and Mexico City according to indicators that are related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. Raw mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants who died from PC increased from 7.8 to 9.8 between 2000-2010. The states and socioeconomic regions with the higher rates of mortality from PC were Sinaloa, Sonora, Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Colima and regions 6 and 3. The state and socioeconomic regions with higher rate of APVP from PC were Aguascalientes, Nuevo León, Campeche, Baja California Sur, Durango and regions 6, 5, 3, 1 and 2. Raw mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants who died from PC increased from 7.8 to 9.8 between 2000-2010. The states and socioeconomic region with the higher mortality rates were Sinaloa, Sonora, Baja California Sur, Nayarit, Colima and regions 6 and 3. Mexico.

  13. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  14. Trends in Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization in a Regional Census of High School Students, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel Schneider, Shari; O'Donnell, Lydia; Smith, Erin

    2015-09-01

    Schools are increasingly being called upon to address cyberbullying and its consequences. This study compares cyberbullying and school bullying trends and examines help-seeking among cyberbullying victims. We analyzed self-report data over 4 surveys (2006-2012) from more than 16,000 students in 17 MetroWest Boston high schools. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined school and cyberbullying victimization trends by sex, grade, and sexual orientation. From 2006 to 2012, cyberbullying increased from 15% to 21% (p bullying was 1.7 times higher than cyberbullying (26% versus 15%); by 2012, school bullying and cyberbullying were similar (23% versus 21%). Cyberbullying increased more among girls (17% to 27%; p bullying among girls (26% in 2006 and 2012) and a decrease among boys (25% to 18%; p bullied at school and online at every survey. Only 33% of cyberbullying victims told an adult; more victims told parents/non-school adults (29%) than school adults (17%). Despite decreases in school bullying, cyberbullying rose steadily, particularly among girls. Increased attention to sociodemographic differences in bullying could promote help-seeking and positive online behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  15. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  16. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Assessment of global-scale model performance for global and regional ozone distributions, variability, and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Young

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR is to provide the research community with an up-to-date scientific assessment of tropospheric ozone, from the surface to the tropopause. While a suite of observations provides significant information on the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone, observational gaps make it necessary to use global atmospheric chemistry models to synthesize our understanding of the processes and variables that control tropospheric ozone abundance and its variability. Models facilitate the interpretation of the observations and allow us to make projections of future tropospheric ozone and trace gas distributions for different anthropogenic or natural perturbations. This paper assesses the skill of current-generation global atmospheric chemistry models in simulating the observed present-day tropospheric ozone distribution, variability, and trends. Drawing upon the results of recent international multi-model intercomparisons and using a range of model evaluation techniques, we demonstrate that global chemistry models are broadly skillful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric ozone over the seasonal cycle, for extreme pollution episodes, and changes over interannual to decadal periods. However, models are consistently biased high in the northern hemisphere and biased low in the southern hemisphere, throughout the depth of the troposphere, and are unable to replicate particular metrics that define the longer term trends in tropospheric ozone as derived from some background sites. When the models compare unfavorably against observations, we discuss the potential causes of model biases and propose directions for future developments, including improved evaluations that may be able to better diagnose the root cause of the model-observation disparity. Overall, model results should be approached critically, including determining whether the model performance is acceptable for

  17. Secular trends of salted fish consumption and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-jurisdiction ecological study in 8 regions from 3 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hiu-Ying; Leung, Chit-Ming; Chan, Yap-Hang; Lee, Anne Wing-Mui; Kwong, Dora Lai-Wan; Lung, Maria Li; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2013-06-19

    Despite salted fish being a classical risk factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC), whether secular trends in salted fish consumption worldwide accounted for changes in NPC rates were unknown. The relationship between vegetable and cigarette consumption to NPC risk worldwide were also largely uncertain. We investigated the longitudinal trends in standardised NPC incidence/mortality rates across 8 regions and their associations with secular trends in salted fish, vegetable and tobacco consumptions. Age standardised mortality rate (ASMR) and age standardised incidence rate (ASIR) of NPC were obtained from the WHO cancer mortality database and Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Per capita consumption of salted fish, tobacco and vegetables in Hong Kong and 7 countries (China, Finland, Japan, Portugal, Singapore, United Kingdom and United States) were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) and Hong Kong Trade and Census Statistics. Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis were performed to examine both crude and adjusted associations. There were markedly decreasing trends of NPC ASIR and ASMR in Hong Kong over the past three decades, which were correlated with corresponding secular changes in salted fish consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years : ASIR = 0.729 (male), 0.674 (female); ASMR = 0.943 (male), 0.622 (female), all p ASMR). However such associations no longer correlated with adjustments for decreasing tobacco and increasing vegetable consumption per capita (Pearson r for 10 cumulative years: ASIR = 2.007 (male), 0.339 (female), ASMR = 0.289 (male), 1.992 (female), all p > 0.05). However, there were no clear or consistent patterns in relations between NPC ASIR and ASMR with salted fish consumption across 7 regions in 3 continents. Our results do not support the notion that changes in salted fish consumption had played an important role in explaining secular trends of NPC rates in Hong

  18. Pluvial Period over NE Brazil linked to Heinrich Stadial 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, K. A.; Häuselmann, A.; Fleitmann, D.; Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The precise timing and duration of Heinrich Stadials (HS) remains a topic of active debate. Here we present multiple NE Brazilian stalagmites known to grow during HS 4[i]. Using a combination of U/Th dating, confocal microscopy, and stable isotope analysis, we aim to provide additional age constraints on the Brazilian pluvial anomaly associated with HS 4. Stalagmite growth in this region is caused by increased rainfall due to a southerly displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone during HS Events. We focus on three stalagmites—TBV40, TBV63, and TBR14—collected from Toca da Boa Vista (TBV) and Toca da Barriguda (TBR) caves[ii], respectively. TBV40 and TBV63 each contain an aragonite phase U/Th dated from 40.02 to 39.57 ka B.P., followed by a calcitic phase U/Th dated from 39.27 to 38.74 ka B.P., within errors of ±0.1 ka. The switch from aragonite to calcite at approximately 39.57 ka B.P. is characterized by an abrupt 4‰ decrease in the δ18O record of TBV40. We infer that rainfall increased over NE Brazil at this time. TBR14 has a single calcite growth phase from 39.66 to 39.45 ka B.P., which correlates in part with the calcite phases of TBV40 and TBV 63. Stable isotope values for TBR14 are similar in range, trend, and absolute values to the correlative calcite portion of TBR40. Fluorescent banding was discovered in the calcitic portion of all three stalagmites using confocal laser scanning microscopy. If annual, band-counts may add additional constrains to the duration of the HS 4 growth phases. Adopting ice core band-counting methods, an average of 325±128 bands per sample and 17 small hiatuses were identified. The estimated duration of the calcitic HS 4 growth phases is therefore consistent with the U/Th dates. Growth phases may correlate in detail with other global records of HS 4, such as the Hulu Cave record[iii]from China, with the aragonitic portion correlating to the weak monsoon immediately following Chinese Interstadial 9 and the calcitic

  19. Patterns and Trends of Primary Production, Inorganic Carbon and Oxygen and Their Ecosystem Impacts in a Regional Biogeochemical Ocean Model for Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, K.; Rutherford, K. E.; Kuhn, A. M.; Zhang, W.; Brennan, C. E.; Zhang, R.

    2016-12-01

    Representing coastal oceans in global biogeochemical models is a challenge, yet the ecosystems in these regions are most vulnerable to the combined stressors of ocean warming, deoxygenation, acidification, eutrophication and fishing. Coastal regions also have large air-sea fluxes of CO2, making them an important but poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle, and are the most relevant for human activities. Regional model applications that are nested within large-scale or global models are necessary for detailed studies of coastal regions. We present results from such a regional biogeochemical model for the northwestern North Atlantic shelves and adjacent deep ocean of Atlantic Canada. The model is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and includes an NPZD-type nitrogen cycle model with explicit representation of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon. The region is at the confluence of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current making it highly dynamic, a challenge for analysis and prediction, and prone to large changes. Historically a rich fishing ground, coastal ecosystems in Atlantic Canada have undergone dramatic changes including the collapse of several economically important fish stocks and the listing of many species as threatened or endangered. Furthermore it is unclear whether the region is a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2 with estimates of the size and direction of the net air-sea CO2 flux remaining controversial. We will discuss simulated patterns of primary production, inorganic carbon fluxes and oxygen trends in the context of circulation features and shelf residence times for the present ocean state and present future projections.

  20. Norwegian trends in numbers of lower extremity revascularisations and amputations including regional trends in endovascular treatments for peripheral arterial disease: a retrospective cross-sectional registry study from 2001 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kjersti; Kristiansen, Ronny; Krohg-Sørensen, Kirsten; Gregersen, Fredrik Alexander; Fosse, Erik

    2017-11-14

    The numbers of lower extremity revascularisations and amputations are insufficiently reported in Norway. To support future policy decisions regarding the provision of vascular treatment, knowledge of such trends is important. This retrospective cross-sectional study from 2001 to 2014 used data from the Norwegian Patient Registry. The revascularisation treatments were categorised in multilevel, aortoiliac, femoral to popliteal and popliteal to foot levels and sorted as open, endovascular and hybrid. The sessions in amputations were divided in major (thigh and below knee) and minor (ankle, foot or digit). Incidence rates were assessed per 100 000 for patients in the age group >60 years. The diabetic prevalence was calculated and the endovascular numbers at the South-Eastern, Western, Central and Northern Norway Regional Health Authority were compared. The overall revascularisation rates increased from 308.7 to 366.8 (p=0.02). Open revascularisations decreased from 158.9 to 98.7 (p<0.01) while endovascular revascularisations increased from 142.2 to 243.4 (p<0.01). Hybrid revascularisations increased from 7.4 to 24.8 (p<0.01). Major amputation rates decreased from 87.8 to 48.7 (p<0.01) while minor amputations increased from 12.3 to 19.6 (p=0.01). The diabetic percentages increased from 12.2 to 22.3 (p<0.01) in revascularisations, from 26.5 to 30.8 (p=0.02) in major amputations and from 43.0 to 49.3 (p=0.13) in minor. (p values refer to average annual changes.) The regional trends in endovascular treatments varied within and between the vascular groups. From 2001 to 2014, the revascularisation rates increased due to the rise in endovascular procedures. Open revascularisations and major amputation rates decreased, minor increased. The regional variances in endovascular treatments indicate that the availability of this technology differed between the health regions of Norway. The increase in patients with diabetes requires continued awareness of diabetes and its

  1. Melting trends over the Greenland ice sheet (1958–2009) from spaceborne microwave data and regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Tedesco, M.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Ettema, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831913

    2011-01-01

    To study near-surface melt changes over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) since 1979, melt extent estimates from two regional climate models were compared with those obtained from spaceborne microwave brightness temperatures using two different remote sensing algorithms. The results from the two models

  2. Temporal and elevation trends in rainfall erosivity on a 149 km2 watershed in a semi-arid region of the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Nearing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporal changes in rainfall erosivity can be expected to occur with changing climate, and because rainfall amounts are known to be in part of a function of elevation, erosivity can be expected to be influenced by elevation as well. This is particularly true in mountainous regions such as are found over much of the western United States. The objective of this study was to identify temporal and elevation trends in rainfall erosivity on a 149 km2 (58 miles2 watershed in a semi-arid region of southeastern Arizona. Data from 84 rain gages for the years 1960–2012 at elevations ranging from 1231 to 1644 m (4038–5394 ft were used in the analyses. The average annual erosivity over the watershed as a whole was 1104 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 (65 hundreds of foot ton inch acre−1 h−1 yr−1, and ranged from approximately 950 to 1225 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 (56–72 hundreds of foot ton inch acre−1 h−1 yr−1, with a statistical trend showing greater erosivity at the higher elevations. No statistically significant temporal changes in annual or summer erosivities were found. This result stands in contrast to recent modeling studies of runoff and erosion in the area based on downscaled GCM information that project significant levels of erosivity changes over coming decades. These results are consistent with known orographic rainfall effects, but contrast with recent studies that presented projections of significant trends of increasing erosivity in the future based on downscaled GCM outputs for the area. The results illustrate the need for testing and developing improved techniques to evaluate future erosion scenarios for purposes of making targeted soil conservation decisions.

  3. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal ...

  4. Indicators of early successional trends in environmental condition and community function in constructed wetlands of the Athabasca Oilsands region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciborowski, J.; Kovalenko, K. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Mollard, F.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Smits, J.; Turcotte, D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that compared interannual environmental variation in post-mining Athabasca oil sands landscapes. In particular, it compared biological, ecotoxicological and carbon dynamic aspects of sixteen 5 to 30 year old wetlands with different ages, reclamation materials and stockpiled surface materials such as peat. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, standing stocks of hydrocarbons were measured along with organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, litter, zoobenthos, and aquatic insect emergence. Gas fluxes, microbial, plant, zoobenthic, amphibian, and tree swallow nestling production, and stable isotope signatures were used to determine carbon pathways, fluxes and budgets. Coarse taxon richness in reference wetlands reached an asymptote in 5 to 7 years. Richness, composition and emergent plant cover of oilsands-affected wetlands converged over a 15 to 20 year period with reference wetland patterns. The development of emergent but not submergent plant cover and associated biota accelerated with the addition of peat. Water chemistry was found to be more important than sediment in terms of regulating submergent biological properties. The study showed that the most important regulator of community composition may be residual salinity. Compared to more temperate biomes, the successional trends were slower.

  5. Evaluating persistence and identifying trends and abrupt changes in monthly and annual rainfalls of a semi-arid region in Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Jha, Madan Kumar

    2017-05-01

    In this study, 43-year (1965-2007) monthly and annual rainfall time series of ten rainfall stations in a semi-arid region of western India are analyzed by adopting three tests for testing normality and by applying autoregressive technique for exploring persistence. Gradual trends are identified by three tests, and their magnitudes are assessed by the Sen's slope estimator. Also, abrupt changes are detected by using four tests and they are further confirmed by two tests. Box-whisker plots revealed that the rainfalls of June and September are right skewed for all the stations. The annual rainfalls of Bhinder, Dhariawad, and Gogunda stations are found considerably right skewed. The normality tests indicated that the rainfall of July does not deviate from the normal distribution at all the stations. However, the annual rainfall is found non-normal at five stations. The monthly rainfalls of June, July, and August have persistence respectively at three (Mavli, Salumber, and Sarada), two (Kherwara and Sarada), and one (Mavli) stations, whereas the annual rainfall has persistence at Girwa and Mavli stations. Significantly increasing trend is detected at Mavli in the rainfall of July and in the annual rainfall ( p value > 0.05), while the negative trend in August rainfall at Dhariawad is found significant ( p value > 0.10). This study revealed that the presence of serial correlation does not affect the performance of the Mann-Kendall test. Mean values of trend magnitudes for the rainfalls of June, July, August, and September are 0.3, 0.8, -0.4, and 0.4 mm year-1, respectively, and the overall mean value for the annual rainfall is 0.9 mm year-1. It is found that the standard normal homogeneity test and the Pettitt test are biased towards the end of the series to locate a change point. Conversely, the Bayesian test has a tendency to look for a change point in the beginning of time series. Confirmed abrupt changes in the rainfall time series are found in the year 2003 (Bhinder

  6. Trends of air pollution in the Western Mediterranean Basin from a 13-year database: A research considering regional, suburban and urban environments in Mallorca (Balearic Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, J. C.; Cerdà, V.; Pey, J.

    2015-02-01

    This study is focused in the evolution of NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10 concentrations, from 2000 to 2012, at urban, suburban and regional observatories in the Balearic Islands (Spain), an insular region in the Western Mediterranean. At urban and suburban areas, daily patterns of most pollutants are strongly linked to land-traffic emissions, being the regional background less influenced. SO2 variations, however, are mostly driven by the impact of other sources different from road traffic, including shipping emissions and power generation. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM10 concentrations exhibit a common weekly pattern, with a very slight accumulation during the weekdays and sharp decreases (15-39%) on weekends. Our long-term database displays clear decreasing NO and NO2 concentrations from 2000 onwards, prominent in the urban environment (-1.1 μg/m3 year), and moderate in suburban and regional areas (up to -0.3 μg/m3 year). At urban sites, O3 behaviour (+1.0 μg/m3 year) is opposite to that of NO, one of its main depletion agents. A moderate O3 increasing trend (+0.5 μg/m3 year) is detected at regional background areas, whereas a modest decreasing trend occurred at the suburban background (-0.4 μg/m3 year), probably caused by enhanced vehicular emissions over these areas induced by urban planning and mobility policies. Finally, substantial PM10 drops are obvious, -0.7 μg/m3 year at urban and suburban areas, and -0.5 μg/m3 year in the regional background. Our results link the sharpest declines to air masses from western to northern sectors, pointing to effective pollution abatement strategies at a European scale. Some additional benefits are connected to the implementation of diverse local policies. The effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) was investigated. Negative NAO phases were related to additional air quality benefits, while positive phases mostly contributed to air degradation.

  7. Search for neutrino charged current coherent pion production at SciBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraide, K

    2009-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino experiment measuring the neutrino cross sections on carbon in the one GeV region. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, \

  8. Incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, trends in deaths in the Tula region (1991—2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nikolayevna Sorotskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF and chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD and theirs outcomes in the Tula Region in 1991 to 2011. In this period, the incidence of ARF decreased to 0.002, which was much lower than Russia's rates. That of CRHD in 2011 accounted for 1.6 per 1,000 adult population, which was comparable to the values in Russia. CRHD mortality rates showed a 2.5-fold decrease. The main causes of fatal outcomes were cardiovascular disorders.

  9. Early antenatal care visit: a systematic analysis of regional and global levels and trends of coverage from 1990 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Ann-Beth; Petzold, Max; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2017-10-01

    The timing of the first antenatal care visit is paramount for ensuring optimal health outcomes for women and children, and it is recommended that all pregnant women initiate antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (early antenatal care visit). Systematic global analysis of early antenatal care visits has not been done previously. This study reports on regional and global estimates of the coverage of early antenatal care visits from 1990 to 2013. Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys and national health information systems. Estimates of coverage of early antenatal care visits were generated with linear regression analysis and based on 516 logit-transformed observations from 132 countries. The model accounted for differences by data sources in reporting the cutoff for the early antenatal care visit. The estimated worldwide coverage of early antenatal care visits increased from 40·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 34·6-46·7) in 1990 to 58·6% (52·1-64·3) in 2013, corresponding to a 43·3% increase. Overall coverage in the developing regions was 48·1% (95% UI 43·4-52·4) in 2013 compared with 84·8% (81·6-87·7) in the developed regions. In 2013, the estimated coverage of early antenatal care visits was 24·0% (95% UI 21·7-26·5) in low-income countries compared with 81·9% (76·5-87·1) in high-income countries. Progress in the coverage of early antenatal care visits has been achieved but coverage is still far from universal. Substantial inequity exists in coverage both within regions and between income groups. The absence of data in many countries is of concern and efforts should be made to collect and report coverage of early antenatal care visits to enable better monitoring and evaluation. Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO and UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Copyright © This is an Open Access article published under the

  10. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. A case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Gusev, B.I.; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kimura, Akiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. (author)

  11. Variability of the circulation processes in the Lower Volga Region on the background of global climate trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, S. V.; Polyanskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. F.; Levitskaya, N. G.; Denisov, K. E.; Molchanova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    In this article we consider variability of the character of atmospheric circulation during different periods of climatic variability in the Lower Volga region as part of the Atlantic-Eurasian hemisphere sector. Variability of the circulation regime is analyzed with the involvement of the regional typification of synoptic processes by V. L. Arkhangelsky - E. A. Polyanskaya. It is shown that during the phase of the second wave of global warming compared to the period of stabilization in the South-East of the Russian Plain we actually see the decrease of the polarfront cyclones occurrence frequency, the increase of cyclones frequency on the Arctic front and the intrusion of Arctic anticyclones. The revealed character of synoptic processes changes is reflected in the reconstructions of geopotential fields at the middle level of the troposphere. The climatically meaningful conclusion was also made about the stabilizing role of the atmospheric circulation and the formation of the specific features of the climatic variability that does not have analogues in the period of regular meteorological observations.

  12. Distribution of ideal cardiovascular health by educational levels from 1978 to 2006: a time trend study from the capital region of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gitte S; Holm, Ann-Sofie S; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-09-01

    The focus on improvements in ideal cardiovascular health is a relatively new approach and to our knowledge nobody has published the trend in regard to educational difference. Time trend analysis from six cross-sectional studies in 1978-2006 from the south-western part of the capital region of Denmark. This analysis included 16,935 individuals aged 30-64 years. Ideal cardiovascular health was achieved if all of the following criteria were met: no established cardiovascular disease, no diabetes, no antihypertensive or lipid-lowering treatment, non-smoker, body mass index educational level as length of vocational training. The proportion of women with ideal cardiovascular health increased from 2% in 1978 to 13% in 2006. From 1991, an educational difference occurred, increasing to a 5-fold difference in 2006 between the highest and lowest educated women. For men, a less pronounced increase occurred from 1% in 1978 to 5% in 2006; a change which was only significant among the highest educated. An educational difference occurred from 1986 to 1999 between the highest and lowest educated men, but was no longer present in 2006. The trend for women shows an increasing proportion in ideal cardiovascular health with a more unfavourable risk profile among women with a low educational level. For men, the educational difference was less pronounced probably because very few men reached an ideal cardiovascular risk profile. This stresses the importance for preventive efforts targeting low educated groups, and men in particular. © Authors 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Historical trends and regional differences in all-cause and amenable mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, Stephen J; Veazie, Mark; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-06-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) death rates declined over most of the 20th century, even before the Public Health Service became responsible for health care in 1956. Since then, rates have declined further, although they have stagnated since the 1980s. These overall patterns obscure substantial regional differences. Most significant, rates in the Northern and Southern Plains have declined far less since 1949 to 1953 than those in the East, Southwest, or Pacific Coast. Data for Alaska are not available for the earlier period, so its trajectory of mortality cannot be ascertained. Socioeconomic measures do not adequately explain the differences and rates of change, but migration, changes in self-identification as an AI/AN person, interracial marriage, and variations in health care effectiveness all appear to be implicated.

  14. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixun Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested foliar δ13C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ13C. We noted that all the studies in which δ13C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ13C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ13C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ13C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ13C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ13C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ13C. This study found that the residual foliar δ13C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ13C.

  15. Computer literacy and attitudes among students in 16 European dental schools: current aspects, regional differences and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheos, N; Nattestad, A; Schittek, M; Attström, R

    2002-02-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the competence and attitude of dental students towards computers. The current study presents the findings deriving from 590 questionnaires collected from 16 European dental schools from 9 countries between October 1998 and October 1999. The results suggest that 60% of students use computers for their education, while 72% have access to the Internet. The overall figures, however, disguise major differences between the various universities. Students in Northern and Western Europe seem to rely mostly on university facilities to access the Internet. The same however, is not true for students in Greece and Spain, who appear to depend on home computers. Less than half the students have been exposed to some form of computer literacy education in their universities, with the great majority acquiring their competence in other ways. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills of the average dental student, within this limited sample of dental schools, do not facilitate full use of new media available. In addition, if the observed regional differences are valid, there may be an educational and political problem that could intensify inequalities among professionals in the future. To minimize this potential problem, closer cooperation between academic institutions, with sharing of resources and expertise, is recommended.

  16. Global and regional trends in particulate air quality and attributable health burden over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Edward W.; Turnock, Steven T.; Rigby, Richard; Reddington, Carly L.; Yoshioka, Masaru; Johnson, Jill S.; Regayre, Leighton A.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Mann, Graham W.; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2017-04-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5, mass of particles with an aerodynamic dry diameter of changes in PM2.5 concentrations and associated health burdens over the last few decades, a period where air quality has changed rapidly. Here we used the HadGEM3-UKCA coupled chemistry-climate model, integrated exposure-response relationships, demographic data and background disease prevalence to provide the first estimate of the changes in global and regional health burdens attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure over the period 1960 to 2009. Over this period, simulated global mean population-weighted PM2.5 increased by 37% to 48% dominated by large increases over China (53% to 66%) and India (70% to 116%). We find that global attributable mortality due to long-term PM2.5 exposure increased by 124% to 147% between 1960 and 2009, substantially more than the increase in PM2.5 concentrations over the same period. This increase is dominated by India and China and is driven by population growth and an ageing population combined with increased PM2.5 concentrations. Our results show that PM2.5 concentrations in China and India will need to be reduced substantially to slow the increasing attributable health burdens that are being driven by population growth and an older population.

  17. The 20Ne(d,p)21Ne Transfer Reaction in Relation to the s-Process Abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsangu, C. T. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Laird, A. M. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Parikh, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalana, Spain & Inst. d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, Spain; Adsley, P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Birch, M. D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Chen, A. A, [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Faestermann, T. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Fox, S. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Fulton, B. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Hertenberger, R. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany; Irvine, D. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Kay, B. P. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Longland, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalana, Barcelona, Spain; Manwell, S. [McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Murphy, A. St. J. [University of Edinburgh, UK; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Séréville, N. de [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d' Orsay & Université Paris Sud 11, Orsay,France; Tomlinson, J. R. [University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom; Wirth, H.-F. [Maier-Leibnitz Lab. der Münchner Univ., Garching, Germany

    2016-01-01

    A study of the Ne-20(d,p)Ne-21 transfer reaction was performed using the Quadrupole Dipole Dipole Dipole (Q3D) magnetic spectrograph in Garching, Germany. The experiment probed excitation energies in Ne-21 ranging from 6.9 MeV to 8.5 MeV. The aim was to investigate the spectroscopic information of Ne-21 within the Gamow window of core helium burning in massive stars. Further information in this region will help reduce the uncertainties on the extrapolation down to Gamow window cross sections of the O-17(alpha,gamma)Ne-21 reaction. In low metallicity stars, this reaction has a direct impact on s-process abundances by determining the fate of O-16 as either a neutron poison or a neutron absorber. The experiment used a 22-MeV deuteron beam, with intensities varying from 0.5-1 mu A, and an implanted target of Ne-20 of 7 mu g/cm(2) in 40 mu g/cm(2) carbon foils. Sixteen Ne-21 peaks have been identified in the E-x = 6.9-8.5 MeV range, of which only thirteen peaks correspond to known states. Only the previously-known E-x = 7.960 MeV state was observed within the Gamow window.

  18. Chaotic He-Ne laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusela, Tom A.

    2017-09-01

    A He-Ne laser is an example of a class A laser, which can be described by a single nonlinear differential equation of the complex electric field. This laser system has only one degree of freedom and is thus inherently stable. A He-Ne laser can be driven to the chaotic condition when a large fraction of the output beam is injected back to the laser. In practice, this can be done simply by adding an external mirror. In this situation, the laser system has infinite degrees of freedom and therefore it can have a chaotic attractor. We show the fundamental laser equations and perform elementary stability analysis. In experiments, the laser intensity variations are measured by a simple photodiode circuit. The laser output intensity time series is studied using nonlinear analysis tools which can be found freely on the internet. The results show that the laser system with feedback has an attractor of a reasonably high dimension and that the maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive, which is clear evidence of chaotic behaviour. The experimental setup and analysis steps are so simple that the studies can even be implemented in the undergraduate physics laboratory.

  19. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  20. Evidence for an east-west regional gravity trend in northern Tunisia: Insight into the structural evolution of northern Tunisian Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mogren, Saad; Mickus, Kevin; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2013-11-01

    The Atlas orogeny in northern Algeria and Tunisia led to the destruction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere and cumulated in a collision of microplates rifted off the European margin with the North African continental margin. The location of the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate is expressed in northern Algeria by a crustal wedge with double vergence of thrust sheets, whereas in northern Tunisia the geologic environment is more complex and the location of the plate boundary is ambiguous. In this study, we analyzed gravity data to constrain the crustal structure along the northern margin of Tunisia. The analysis includes a separation of regional and residual gravity anomalies and the application of gradient operators to locate density contrast boundaries. The horizontal gradient magnitude and directional gradient highlight a prominent regional E-W gravity gradient in the northern Tunisian Atlas interpreted as a deep fault (active since at least the Early Mesozoic) having a variable kinematic activity depending on the tectonic regime in the region. The main E-W gravity gradient separates two blocks having different gravitational and seismic responses. The southern block has numerous gravity lineaments trending in different directions implying several density variations within the crust, whereas the northern block shows a long-wavelength negative gravity anomaly with a few lineaments. Taking into account the geologic context of the Western Mediterranean region, we consider the E-W prominent feature as the boundary between African plate and Kabylian microplate in northern Tunisia that rifted off Europe. This hypothesis fits most previous geological and geophysical studies and has an important impact on the petroleum and mineral resource prospection as these two blocks were separated by an ocean and they did not belong to the same margin.

  1. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Tutto, Marco [Oxford U.

    2017-05-13

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE's neutrino cross section analyses.

  2. Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Del Tutto, Marco

    2017-01-01

    MicroBooNE is a liquid-argon-based neutrino experiment, which began collecting data in Fermilab's Booster neutrino beam in October 2015. Physics goals of the experiment include probing the source of the anomalous excess of electron-like events in MiniBooNE. In addition to this, MicroBooNE is carrying out an extensive cross section physics program that will help to probe current theories on neutrino-nucleon interactions and nuclear effects. These proceedings summarise the status of MicroBooNE'...

  3. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015.(†) In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  4. Geochemical exploration in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Font Cisteró, Xavier; Viladevall Solé, Manuel; Casas i Ponsatí, Albert; Vaquer Navarro, Ramon

    1984-01-01

    A five year program of systematic multi-element geochemical exploration of the Catalonian Coastal Ranges has been initiated by the Geological Survey of Autonomic Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya) and the Department of Geological and Geophysical Exploration (University of Barcelona). This paper reports the first stage results of this regional survey, covering an area of 530 km2 in the Montseny Mountains, NE of Barcelona (Spain). Stream sediments for metals and stream waters fo...

  5. Structural analysis and evolution of the Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Yeongnam massif, Korea: a NS-trend tectonic frame in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deok-Seon, Lee; Ji-Hoon, Kang

    2016-04-01

    The Hadong-Sancheong-Hwagae area in the Jirisan province of the Yeongnam massif, Korea, is mainly composed of Precambrian Hadong anorthosite complex (HAC), Precambrian Jirisan metamorphic rock complex (JMRC), Jurassic˜Triassic granitoids which intrude them, and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks which unconformably cover them. Lithofacies distribution and tectonic frame of the Precambrian constituent rocks mainly show a NS trend, unlike a general NE trend of those in the Korean Peninsula. To unravel the geological structures associated with the NS-trend tectonic frame which was built in the HAC and JMRC, we researched the structural characteristics of each deformation phase based on the geometric and kinematic features and the forming sequence of rock structures of the multi-deformed HAC and JMRC. The results indicate that the pre-Late Paleozoic geological structures of this area were formed at least through the following three times of ductile deformation phases. The D1 deformation happened due to the large-scale top-to-the SE shearing, and formed sheath or A-type folds and a regional NE trend of tectonic frame in the HAC and JMRC. The D2 deformation occurred under the EW-directed tectonic compression, and formed a regional NS trend of active and passive folds and Hadong ductile shear zone over 2.3˜1.4 km width, and transposed most of D1 tectonic frame into D1-2 composite tectonic frame. The extensive Hadong shear zone, which was formed in the mylonitization process accompanying the passive folding, was persistently developed along the eastern boundary of HAC and JMRC which corresponds to a limb of passive fold on a geological map scale. It produced a very strong mylonitic structure and stretching lineation. The NE-trend D1 structural elements were mainly reoriented into NS trend by the powerful active and passive folding. The D3 deformation occurred under the NS-trend tectonic compression environment, and formed EW-trend kink or open folds, and partially rearranged

  6. National and regional breast cancer incidence and mortality trends in Mexico 2001-2011: Analysis of a population-based database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Mexican women since 2006. However, due to a lack of cancer registries, data is scarce. We sought to describe breast cancer trends in Mexico using population-based data from a national database and to analyze geographical and age-related differences in incidence and mortality rates. All incident breast cancer cases reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance System and all breast cancer deaths registered by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography in Mexico from 2001 to 2011 were included. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated for each age group and for 3 geographic regions of the country. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to examine trends in BC incidence and mortality. We estimated annual percentage change (APC) using weighted least squares log-linear regression. We found an increase in the reported national incidence, with an APC of 5.9% (95% CI 4.1-7.7, pincidence (APC 7.89%; 95% CI 5.5 -10.3, pincidence rates were significantly increased in the Center and in the South of the country, while in the North they remained stable. Mortality rates also showed a significant increase, with an APC of 0.4% (95% CI 0.1-0.7, pcancer cases in Mexico had a continuous increase, which could reflect population aging, increased availability of screening, an improvement in the number of clinical facilities and better reporting of cases. Although an improvement in the detection of cases is the most likely explanation for our findings, our results point towards an epidemiological transition in Mexico and should help in guiding national policy in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Miocene uplift of the NE Greenland margin linked to plate tectonics: Seismic evidence from the Greenland Fracture Zone, NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing Andreasen, Arne; Japsen, Peter; Watts, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic models predict that, following breakup, rift margins undergo only decaying thermal subsidence during their post-rift evolution. However, post-breakup stratigraphy beneath the NE Atlantic shelves shows evidence of regional-scale unconformities, commonly cited as outer margin responses to ...... by plate tectonic forces, induced perhaps by a change in the Iceland plume (a hot pulse) and/or by changes in intra-plate stresses related to global tectonics....

  8. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Chalbot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mineral/road dust, accounting for more than 90% of measured PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm mass. The declining trend of PM2.5 mass (0.4 μg m−3 per year was related to lower levels of SO42− (0.2 μg m−3 per year due to SO2 reductions from point and mobile sources. The slower decline for NO3− particles (0.1 μg m−3 per year was attributed to the increasing NH3 emissions in the Midwest. The annual variation of biomass burning particles was associated with fires in the southeast and northwest US. Of the four regions within 500 km from the receptor site, the Gulf Coast and the southeast US accounted cumulatively for more than 65% of PM2.5 mass, nitrate, sulphate and biomass burning aerosol. Overall, more than 50% of PM2.5 and its components originated from sources outside the state. Sources within the Gulf Coast and western Gulf of Mexico include 65% of the busiest ports in the US, intense marine traffic within 400 km of the coast burning rich in S diesel, and a large number of offshore oil and natural gas platforms and many refineries. This approach allowed for the quantitative assessment of the impacts of transport from regions representing diverse mixtures of sources and weather conditions for different types of particles. The findings of this effort demonstrated the influences of emission controls on SO2 and NOx on PM2.5 mass, the potential effect of events (i.e. fires sensitive to climate change phenomena on air pollution and the potential

  9. Unexpected stasis in a changing world: Lake nutrient and chlorophyll trends since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Samantha K.; Collins, Sarah M.; Soranno, Patricia A.; Wagner, Tyler; Stanley, Emily H.; Jones, John R.; Stow, Craig A.; Lottig, Noah R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) has faced major environmental changes in recent decades, including agricultural intensification and urban expansion, as well as changes in atmospheric deposition and climate—all of which may influence eutrophication of freshwaters. However, it is unclear whether or how water quality in lakes across diverse ecological settings has responded to environmental change. We quantified water quality trends in 2913 lakes using nutrient and chlorophyll (Chl) observations from the Lake Multi-Scaled Geospatial and Temporal Database of the Northeast U.S. (LAGOS-NE), a collection of preexisting lake data mostly from state agencies. LAGOS-NE was used to quantify whether lake water quality has changed from 1990 to 2013, and whether lake-specific or regional geophysical factors were related to the observed changes. We modeled change through time using hierarchical linear models for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), stoichiometry (TN:TP), and Chl. Both the slopes (percent change per year) and intercepts (value in 1990) were allowed to vary by lake and region. Across all lakes, TN declined at a rate of 1.1% year−1, while TP, TN:TP, and Chl did not change. A minority (7%–16%) of individual lakes had changing nutrients, stoichiometry, or Chl. Of those lakes that changed, we found differences in the geospatial variables that were most related to the observed change in the response variables. For example, TN and TN:TP trends were related to region-level drivers associated with atmospheric deposition of N; TP trends were related to both lake and region-level drivers associated with climate and land use; and Chl trends were found in regions with high air temperature at the beginning of the study period. We conclude that despite large environmental change and management efforts over recent decades, water quality of lakes in the Midwest and Northeast U.S. has not overwhelmingly degraded or improved.

  10. Experimental evidence for particle stability of {sup 34}Ne and {sup 37}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Y.E.; Astabatyan, R.; Lobastov, S.; Sobolev, Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reaction, Dubna (Russian Federation); Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Faivre, G.; Ibrahim, F.; Mueller, A.C.; Pougheon, F.; Perru, O.; Sorlin, O. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Matea, I.; Anne, R.; Cauvin, C.; Hue, R.; Georgiev, G.; Lewitowicz, M.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Verney, D. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Dlouhy, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Baiborodin, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Negoita, F.; Borcea, C.; Buta, A.; Stefan, I. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grevy, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, 14 - Caen (France)

    2002-07-01

    The neutron drip line in neon-magnesium region has been explored by the projectile fragmentation of a 59.8 A MeV {sup 48}Ca beam using the new fragment separator LISE-2000 at GANIL. New neutron-rich isotopes, {sup 34}Ne and {sup 37}Na, have been observed together with some evidence for the particle instability of {sup 33}Ne and {sup 36}Na. (authors)

  11. Regional Changes in Charcoal-Burning Suicide Rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: A Time Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995–2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. Methods and Findings We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996–2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997–1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998–2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999–2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999–2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006–2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did

  12. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group

  13. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and basal area of standing dead oak trees, respectively. These values are three to five times higher than for white oak group and non-oak species. Oak decline and associated escalating mortality have occurred primarily in red oak species while the white oak group has maintained a relatively stable mortality rate that is comparable to non-oak species. Cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality in the red oak group was significantly correlated with the growing season Palmer drought severity index (PDSI and usually lagged two to three years following single drought events. Moreover, based on the past 17 years PDSI data, it appears that the cumulative impacts of drought may last up to 10 years. The Ozark Highlands experienced a severe drought extending from 1998 to 2000 and another milder drought from 2005 to 2006. These drought events triggered the escalation of mortality starting around year 2000. Spatially, high red oak mortality sites (hot spots with proportional basal area mortality > 0.12 initially occurred in the central Ozarks and spread gradually over most of the Ozark Highlands as regional droughts continued. In contrast, sites with elevated white oak and non-oak mortality occurred sporadically, mainly in the southern portion (Arkansas of the Ozark Highlands. During the most recent inventory period (2006–2010, over 60%, 7% and 5% of red oak, white oak and non-oak groups, respectively, had relative mortality rates of > 12%.

  14. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Rosa, Islene Ferreira; Aguiar, Ada Cristina Pontes

    2013-09-01

    The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026) in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010). With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05) as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  15. Trends of chronic health effects associated to pesticide use in fruit farming regions in the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria Rigotto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lower valley of Jaguaribe has registered, since the XXI century, the arrival of transnational and regional companies, which led to deep transformations in this region. The increased use of the pesticides is one of the most important ones, being able to cause alterations in human procreation and leading to congenital deformations, besides premature birth and low weight newborns. This article is an ecological study related to the period from 2000 to 2010 in the population of some cities in the state of Ceará, and it was divided in two parts: the first one, a draft of historical series of morbidity and mortality databases and trend verification performed by a simple linear regression; the second one comprehends the calculation of the ratio of rates between cities that are highly exposed to pestiides and the cities selected for comparison, with history of little use of these substances. There was statistically considerable growth tendency (p = 0.026 in the number of hospitalized people with neoplasms. Analyzing the ratios of the rates in these same indicators, it is observed that the rates of hospitalized people with neoplasms were 1.76 times higher in the studied cities than in control cities (p < 0.0010. With regard to to fetal deaths, a statistically considerable increase was observed (p < 0.05 as to the mortality rates in the studied cities. Results suggest there was higher morbidity and mortality caused by neoplasms in the cities with broader use of pesticides, which could be influenced by production, environmental and social transformations associated to the process of deterritorialization induced by the expansion of the agricultural modernization over the morbidity and mortality profile of the population of lower Jaguaribe. This process is a reflex of the production chemical-dependent model adopted by the agribusiness companies, expanding the vulnerability of the country side population.

  16. Trace elements in livers of great egret (Ardea alba) from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region: a preliminary assessment of temporal trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo T.M.S., E-mail: poliver@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IME/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the variation of trace element concentrations present in great egret livers during six years, from 2006 to 2011. The data were obtained in twenty six livers of great egrets from the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR). The elements Br, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were determined by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Cd and Hg by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Arithmetic means and standard deviations of element concentrations of the results obtained in each year were calculated for the samples collected in each year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = 0.05) followed by Kruskal Wallis test was applied to examine if there are temporal differences in the element mean concentrations over time. In general, significant differences of element concentrations were not obtained. However, an increase in Cd and Mn concentrations in the recent years was observed which may indicate recent increase to these elements in environment. The preliminary data obtained suggests the continuation of this kind of study to better understand the temporal trends of trace elements in the aquatic environment of SPMR. (author)

  17. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  18. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  19. Web life: Mahalo.ne.Trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mahalo.ne.Trash is the personal blog of John Asher Johnson, an astronomer at Harvard University in the US who began blogging in 2007, when he was about to begin a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Hawaii.

  20. The NeXus data format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  1. Is any awareness necessary for an Ne?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shani eShalgi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Error-Related Negativity (Ne or ERN is a reliable electrophysiological index of error processing, which has been found to be independent of whether a subject is aware of an error or not. A large Ne was equally seen after errors that were consciously detected (Aware errors and those that were not (Unaware errors, compared to a small negativity for correct responses (CRN. This suggests a dissociation between an automatic, preconscious error processing mechanism and subjective evaluation. A common concern regarding this finding is that subjects could have been somewhat aware of their errors, but did not report them due to lack of confidence. Here we tested this possibility directly using a betting paradigm which allowed us to separate occasions in which the subjects were confident of their response and trials in which they were unsure. In a choice reaction time task, subjects directly judged the accuracy of each response (correct or error and then bet on this judgment using a high, medium or low amount of money. The bets were used to determine the level of confidence the subjects had of their response. The average across all subjects regardless of confidence (betting measure replicated the reported finding of an equal Ne for Aware and Unaware errors which was larger than the CRN. However, when Ne measurement was confined to high confidence (high bet trials in confident subjects, a prominent Ne was seen only for Aware errors, while confident Unaware errors (i.e., error trials on which subjects made high bets that they were correct elicited a response that did not differ from the CRN elicited by truly correct answers. In contrast, for low confidence trials in unconfident subjects, an intermediate and equal Ne/CRN was elicited by Correct responses, Aware and Unaware errors. These results provide direct evidence that the Ne is related to error awareness, and suggest the amplitude of the Ne/CRN depends on individual differences in error reporting

  2. Analgesia for labour pain – analysis of the trends and associations in the Grampian region of Scotland between 1986 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tao

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although intrapartum analgesia has been in use since Victorian times, there have been few attempts to study its usage from routinely collected data. This population based epidemiological study aimed to analyse retrospective data on the distribution of different types of labour analgesia used by women in the Grampian region of Scotland between 1986 and 2001 in order to examine time trends and associations. Methods Data records on all deliveries occurring in the years 1986 to 2001 were extracted from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank. The rates of the use of epidural, opioid and Entonox or no analgesia for pain relief in labour in each year were calculated. Maternal, pregnancy, labour and delivery characteristics were compared among the users of three different analgesics by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 81,418 deliveries were analysed. Of these, 12,659 (15.5% women had epidural, 33,819 (41.5% had used opioids and 26,974(33.1% received either Entonox or no analgesia at all. The women who received epidural analgesia were younger, shorter and heavier and had larger babies (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.08. Three quarters of them were primigravidae and had longer periods of gestation. They were also more likely to have suffered pregnancy related complications (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.8, 2.4. Labour was more likely to have been induced (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 2.6, 2.9 and to have lasted longer in this group of women. Women in this group were 5 times more likely to have an instrumental delivery (95% CI 4.9, 5.1 and 7 times more likely to have a Caesarean section (95% CI 5.7, 9.3. Conclusion Non epidural analgesia was found to be the most popular choice for pain relief in labour in the Grampian region between 1986 and 2001, although an increase in the uptake of epidural services is starting to occur. The type of labour analgesia used is associated with the epidemiological characteristics of the women

  3. 50 CFR 648.81 - NE multispecies closed areas and measures to protect EFH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regional Administrator determines, on the basis of sea sampling data or other credible information for this... vessels are adversely affecting habitat or NE multispecies stocks, the Regional Administrator may, through... CA II known as the Habitat Area of Particular Concern, as described in paragraph (h)(1)(v) of this...

  4. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers.

  5. Can data from disparate long-term fish monitoring programs be used to increase our understanding of regional and continental trends in large river assemblages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Casper, Andrew F.; Ward, David L.; Sauer, Jennifer S.; Irwin, Elise R.; Chapman, Colin G.; Ickes, Brian S.; Paukert, Craig P.; Kosovich, John J.; Bayer, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding trends in the diverse resources provided by large rivers will help balance tradeoffs among stakeholders and inform strategies to mitigate the effects of landscape scale stressors such as climate change and invasive species. Absent a cohesive coordinated effort to assess trends in important large river resources, a logical starting point is to assess our ability to draw inferences from existing efforts. In this paper, we use a common analytical framework to analyze data from five disparate fish monitoring programs to better understand the nature of spatial and temporal trends in large river fish assemblages. We evaluated data from programs that monitor fishes in the Colorado, Columbia, Illinois, Mississippi, and Tallapoosa rivers using non-metric dimensional scaling ordinations and associated tests to evaluate trends in fish assemblage structure and native fish biodiversity. Our results indicate that fish assemblages exhibited significant spatial and temporal trends in all five of the rivers. We also document native species diversity trends that were variable within and between rivers and generally more evident in rivers with higher species richness and programs of longer duration. We discuss shared and basin-specific landscape level stressors. Having a basic understanding of the nature and extent of trends in fish assemblages is a necessary first step towards understanding factors affecting biodiversity and fisheries in large rivers. PMID:29364953

  6. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of newly discovered Neoproterozoic orthogneisses in the Mishan region, NE China: Constraints on the high-grade metamorphism and tectonic affinity of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wen-chun; Zhao, Guo-chun; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui; Dong, Yu; Xu, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The Jiamusi-Khanka Block, located in the easternmost segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the least understood blocks in northeastern China. The age of its basement, the timing of the high-grade metamorphism, and the tectonic affinity of this block have all been subjects of controversy. Here we describe newly discovered Neoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Mishan region in the central Jiamusi-Khanka Block. SIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the magmatic cores of zircons from three of these high-grade orthogneisses yielded weighted mean ages that range from 898 ± 4 to 891 ± 13 Ma, indicating that early Neoproterozoic magmatism did occur in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block. Twenty-two analyses of metamorphic zircons (rims as well as some grains) gave two groups of concordant ages, one at ca. 563 Ma, interpreted as the timing of the high-grade metamorphism, and the other around 518-496 Ma, interpreted as representing a subsequent retrograde metamorphism. The orthogneisses represent metamorphosed peraluminous syn-collisional syenogranites with SiO2 = 71.29-78.08 wt%, A/CNK = 1.06-1.99, and Na2O/K2O = 0.03-1.49, and they belong chemically to the high-potassium calc-alkaline series. They have low Sr (32-134 ppm) contents and Sr/Y ratios (1.6-16.9), and display strongly fractionated to nearly flat REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.22-0.95) and depletions in Nb-Ta. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the syenogranitic rocks were derived under low pressures from a crustal source with a high proportion of sedimentary rocks, perhaps in a subduction-related setting that was undergoing transition from compression to extension. In the context of the reconstruction of Gondwana, the ca. 898-891 Ma magmatic activity and the ca. 563 Ma high-grade metamorphism in the Mishan region provide constraints on the possible linkages between the Jiamusi-Khanka Block and East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic.

  7. Performance of the Galileo broadcast NeQuick model: Comparison with GPS and JASON TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Yuan, Yunbin; Li, Zishen

    2016-04-01

    Performances of Galileo NeQuick model are analyzed over the continental and oceanic regions for the whole year of 2013. The three broadcast coefficients of NeQuick are computed from 23 globally distributed tracking stations of the International GNSS Services (IGS), by ingesting the Global Positioning System (GPS) derived ionospheric total electron content (TEC) into the original NeQuick 2 model. In continental regions, the ionospheric TEC derived from 34 IGS stations are used as references for the comparison. In oceanic regions, where the IGS stations are sparse,high-quality vertical TEC sources provided by JASON 1 and 2 altimeters are used as references. GPS broadcast Klobuchar, the original and broadcast NeQuick can mitigate the ionospheric delay by 56.8%, 63.3% and 72.4%, respectively, when compared to GPS TEC. The three models can correct 51.1%, 61.2 % and 68.6% of the ionospheric delay when compared to JASON TEC. Galileo NeQuick model outperforms Klobuchar by 15.6% and 17.5% over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, for the test period.

  8. UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION AND THE PRINCIPLE OF NE BIS IN IDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA AGHENITEI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Universal jurisdiction was defined as “the assertion of jurisdiction to prescribe in the absence of any other accepted jurisdictional nexus at the time of the relevant conduct.” Professor Randall, in his seminal work on universal jurisdiction, opined that the theory of universality “provides every state with jurisdiction over a limitedcategory of offenses generally recognized as of universal concern, regardless of the situs of the offence and the nationalities of the offender and the offended. ”Universal jurisdiction is considered a tool for promoting greater justice, but the rights of the accused must be protected. One of the most important guarantees is the principle of ne bis in idem, which protected persons against multiple prosecutions for the same crime. The main legal consequence of the application of ne bis in idem in most systems is the prohibition and inadmissibility of subsequent prosecutions on the same facts blocking effect.The national ne bis in idem principle is established asan individual right in international human rights legal instruments, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December 1966, in Article 14(7. At the regional level, Article 8(4 of the American Convention of Human Rights (1969 and Article 4 (I of the Seventh Protocol of the European Convention of Human Rights merit mention. In Europe, the ne bis in idem principle is enshrined in Article 54 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985, which prohibits the initiation of a second trial for the same offence when final judgment has been imposed upon a person by a court of a contracting party.

  9. Petrogenesis and U-Pb zircon chronology of felsic tuffs interbedded with turbidites (Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt, NE Turkey): Implications for Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region and accumulation rates of turbidite sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Yener

    2015-01-01

    and also previous data such as southward migration and increasing potassium content of the late Cretaceous arc volcanism, the northward migration of Cenozoic igneous activity, northward drift of the belt since the late Cretaceous and the existence of south-dipping reverse fault systems in the whole region, the Meso-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Pontides Orogenic Belt can be best explained by southward subduction of Tethys oceanic lithosphere, rather than northward subduction.

  10. Sediment cores from kettle holes in NE Germany reveal recent impacts of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeberg, Andreas; Neyen, Marielle; Schkade, Uwe-Karsten; Kalettka, Thomas; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    Glacial kettle holes in young moraine regions receive abundant terrigenous material from their closed catchments. Core chronology and sediment accumulation were determined for two semi-permanent kettle holes, designated RG and KR, on arable land close to the villages of Rittgarten and Kraatz, respectively, in Uckermark, NE Germany. Core dating ((210)Pb, (137)Cs) revealed variable sediment accretion rates through time (RG 0.4-23.1 mm a(-1); KR 0.2-35.5 mm a(-1)), with periods of high accumulation corresponding to periods of intensive agricultural activity and consequent erosional inputs from catchments. Sediment composition (C, N, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Pb, Cd, Zr) was used to determine sediment source and input processes. At RG, annual P input increased from 0.65 kg ha(-1) in the early nineteenth century to 1.67 kg ha(-1) by 2013. At KR, P input increased from 0.6 to 4.1 kg ha(-1) over the last century. There was a concurrent increase in Fe input in both water bodies. Thus, Fe/P ratios showed no temporal trend and did not differ between RG (18.5) and KR (18.4), indicating similar P mobility. At RG, the S/Fe ratio increased from 0.4 to 2.3, indicating more iron sulphides and thus higher P availability, coinciding with high coverage of duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza (L.)) and soft hornwort (Ceratophyllum submersum L.). At KR, however, this ratio remained low and relatively unchanged (0.3 ± 0.4), indicating more efficient Fe-P binding and lower hydrophyte productivity. Trends in sediment composition indicate a shift towards eutrophication in both kettle holes, but with differences in timing and magnitude. Other morphologically similar kettle holes in NE Germany that are prone to erosion could have been similarly impacted but may differ in the extent of sediment infilling and degradation of their ecological functions.

  11. GNSS single frequency ionospheric range delay corrections: NeQuick data ingestion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladipo, O. A.; Schüler, Torben

    2012-11-01

    A study of the performance of the NeQuick model and the Klobuchar model for GNSS single frequency range delay correction on a global scale was done using data for moderate solar activity. In this study NeQuick was used in the way intended for Galileo. This study is to assess the performance of the two models at each ionospheric geographic region during moderate solar activity as previously published studies were concentrated only on high solar activity. The results obtained showed that NeQuick outperformed Klobuchar for the whole year at the three geographical regions of the ionosphere. In terms of monthly root mean square of mismodeling, NeQuick outperformed Klobuchar by 15 TECU or more at low-latitudes, 5 TEC or more at mid-latitudes, and 1 TECU or more at high-latitudes. Also, a study on how the data ingestion technique already developed for NeQuick could be expanded in order to reduce the deviation of NeQuick TEC prediction from observation for a particular day based on the information from the previous day was done. Instead of obtaining a regularly spaced Az grid from monitoring stations spread across the region of interest, we obtained hourly Az coefficients from hourly Az from designated monitoring stations. The obtained hourly Az coefficients were then used to drive NeQuick for the next day at the test stations. The results obtained, in terms of daily RMS of mismodeling, showed a daily maximum improvement of 26.0% at low-latitudes, 54.9% at mid-latitudes, and 41.3% at high-latitudes.

  12. Geologic map of the Vigo NE quadrangle, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    This map of the Vigo NE quadrangle, Lincoln County, Nevada records the distribution, stratigraphy, and structural relationships of Tertiary intracaldera lavas and tuffs in the southeastern part of the Kane Springs Wash caldera, extracaldera Tertiary and upper Paleozoic rocks, and late Cenozoic surficial deposits both within and outside the caldera. The alkaline to peralkaline Kane Springs Wash caldera is the youngest (14 Ma) of three chemically related metaluminous to peralkaline calderas (Boulder Canyon caldera, 15 Ma; Narrow Canyon caldera, 16 Ma) of the nested Kane Springs Wash caldera complex. The chemistry of this caldera complex became progressively more alkalic with time, in contrast to the older calc-alkalic calderas and caldera complexes to the north that migrated progressively southward in eastern Nevada. The increasingly peralkaline eruptions from the Kane Springs Wash caldera complex reached a climax that was simultaneous with the end of both rapid extension and magmatism in this part of the Basin and Range. Using the assumption that degree of tilting is related to the degree of extension, the rate of extension increased until the abrupt halt at about 14 Ma. Silicic volcanism terminated at the Kane Springs Wash caldera followed only by local sporadic basaltic eruptions that ended by about 8 Ma. The northern boundary of an east-west-trending amagmatic corridor appears in the Vigo NE quadrangle south of the Kane Springs Wash caldera.

  13. MicroBooNE: The Search For The MiniBooNE Low Energy Excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleko, David [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes work towards the search for a low energy excess in MicroBooNE. What MicroBooNE is, what the low energy excess is, and how one searches for the latter in the former will be described in detail.

  14. Dynamics of gas phase Ne(*) + NH3 and Ne(*) + ND3 Penning ionisation at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Bertsche, Benjamin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2014-06-28

    Two isotopic chemical reactions, Ne(*) + NH3, and Ne(*) + ND3, have been studied at low collision energies by means of a merged beams technique. Partial cross sections have been recorded for the two reactive channels, namely, Ne(*) + NH3 → Ne + NH3(+) + e(-), and Ne(*) + NH3 → Ne + NH2(+) + H + e(-), by detecting the NH3(+) and NH2(+) product ions, respectively. The cross sections for both reactions were found to increase with decreasing collision energy, Ecoll, in the range 8 μeV NH3 reaction in the entire range of collision energies covered here. Calculations based on multichannel quantum defect theory were performed to reproduce and interpret the experimental results. Good agreement was obtained by including long range van der Waals interactions combined with a 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The branching ratio between the two reactive channels, Γ = [NH2(+)]/[NH2(+)] + [NH3(+)], is relatively constant, Γ ≈ 0.3, in the entire collision energy range studied here. Possible reasons for this observation are discussed and rationalized in terms of relative time scales of the reactant approach and the molecular rotation. Isotopic differences between the Ne(*) + NH3 and Ne(*) + ND3 reactions are small, as suggested by nearly equal branching ratios and cross sections for the two reactions.

  15. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  16. Middle America - Regional Geological Integrity, Hydrocarbon Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K. H.

    2008-05-01

    Dogma holds that the Caribbean Plate and its islands formed in the Pacific and comprise oceanic crust and intra- oceanic arc rocks. Middle America, between N and S America, manifests a regional, N35°E and N60°W tectonic fabric. The NE trend results from Triassic-Jurassic reactivation of Palaeozoic convergent structures as extensional faults during Pangean rifting and commencement of N America drift. The NW trend parallels major inter-continental faults and oceanic fractures along which extension and drift occurred. Triassic-Jurassic red beds accumulated in the NE trending, intra-continental rifts of N, S and Central America. Proximal extended continental margins subsided to accommodate thick Cretaceous carbonate sections (Florida - Bahamas, Campeche, Nicaragua Rise). Distal margins formed continental blocks flanked by seaward-dipping wedges. Seismic and drilling in basins along the eastern seaboard of N America (Baltimore Canyon to Blake Plateau) document Triassic-Jurassic red beds overlain by salt and carbonates. Hydrocarbons are present. In Middle America the Gulf of Mexico remained "intra-continental", surrounded by continental blocks (N America, Maya, Florida). The area further south experienced greater extension, manifest by diverging oceanic fracture patterns to the east and west. Seismic data over the Caribbean Plateau reveal deep architecture of NE trending highs flanked by dipping wedges of reflections, similar to eastern N America distal basins. DSDP drilling calibrated the overlying smooth seismic Horizon B" as recording Cenomanian basalts. Smoothness, great lateral extent and coeval exposed sections with palaeosols followed by shallow marine carbonates suggest they were sub-aerial. Adjacent, rough seismic Horizon B" probably records top of submarine, serpentinized mantle. Seismic over the plateau also reveals features identical to drilled Sigsbee salt diapirs of the Gulf of Mexico. The regional tectonic fabric demonstrates a shared geological history

  17. Could LC-NE-Dependent Adjustment of Neural Gain Drive Functional Brain Network Reorganization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Guedj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system. We propose that these two mechanisms are interdependent such that the LC-NE-dependent adjustment of the neural gain inferred from the clustering coefficient could drive functional brain network reorganizations through coherence in the gamma rhythm. Via the temporal dynamic of gamma-range band-limited power, the release of NE could adjust the neural gain, promoting interactions only within the neuronal populations whose amplitude envelopes are correlated, thus making it possible to reorganize neuronal ensembles, functional networks, and ultimately, behavioral responses. Thus, our proposal offers a unified framework integrating the putative influence of the LC-NE system on both local- and long-range adjustments of brain dynamics underlying behavioral flexibility.

  18. Secular trends in regional differences in nutritional biomarkers and self-reported dietary intakes among American adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2018-01-10

    To understand the contribution of regional differentials in dietary exposures to regional gradients in health, we examined 20-year trends in the association of US census region of residence with nutritional biomarkers and dietary intakes of American adults. Observational. The biomarker and 24 h dietary recall data were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted during 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. The US census region was operationalized as Northeast, Midwest, South and West. Nutritional biomarker outcomes were serum folate, vitamins B6, B12, C, D and E, and carotenoids; dietary outcomes were intakes of nutrients, food groups and eating patterns. US adults, n>8000-40 000 for biomarkers and >43 000 for dietary outcomes. The interactions of survey time period and region were not significant for the examined biomarker and dietary outcomes, indicating similar secular trends among regions. The main effect of region was significant for all nutritional biomarkers except serum vitamin B6, most dietary micronutrients, food groups and eating patterns (P<0·001). The mean serum folate, vitamins B12, C and E, and all carotenoid (except lycopene) biomarker levels, and intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins A, E, C and B6, folate, K, Ca, Mg and Fe, fruits, vegetables and whole grains, were higher in the West and Northeast regions, relative to the South and Midwest regions. Overall, the regional gradients in dietary exposure, expressed objectively as biomarkers or as self-reported nutrient and food group intakes, paralleled trajectories reported for health outcomes and were remarkably persistent over time.

  19. Mortality trends from diabetes mellitus in the seven socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2000-2007 Tendencias de la mortalidad por diabetes mellitus en las siete regiones socioeconómicas de México, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in mortality from diabetes mellitus nationwide according to federative entity, socioeconomic region, and sex and to establish the association between education level, federation entity of residence, and socioeconomic region and mortality from diabetes in Mexico during the years 2000-2007. METHODS: Records of mortality associated with diabetes for 2000-2007 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. This information is generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics through death certificates. Codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, that correspond to the basic cause of death from diabetes mellitus were identified. Rates of mortality by federative entity and socioeconomic region were calculated, along with the strength of association (obtained by Poisson regression between federative entity of residence, socioeconomic region, and education level and mortality from diabetes. The seven socioeconomic regions elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics include the 32 federative entities according to indicators related to well-being such as education, occupation, health, housing, and employment. RESULTS: Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (relative risk [RR] 2.104, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.089-2.119. The federative entity and socioeconomic region with the strongest association with mortality from diabetes were Mexico City (RR 2.5, CI 2.33-2.68 for 2000; RR 2.06, CI 1.95-2.18 for 2007 and region 7 (RR 2.47, CI 2.36-2.57 for 2000; RR 2.05, CI 1.98-2.13 for 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates increased from 77.9 to 89.2 per 100 000 inhabitants in the period 2000-2007. Women had higher mortality than men. Individuals who did not complete elementary school had a higher risk of dying from diabetes (RR 2.104, CI 2.089-2.119. Mexico City as

  20. Current status and temporal trend of heavy metals in farmland soil of the Yangtze River Delta Region: Field survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Diwei; Zhan, Yu; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    While the spatial distributions of heavy metals in farmland soil of China have been comprehensively delineated, their temporal trends are rarely investigated but are important for environmental risk management. In this study, the current status and temporal trends of heavy metals in the farmland soil of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were evaluated through field survey and meta-analysis. The field survey conducted in 2014 showed that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni in the farmland topsoil were 0.23 ± 0.14, 37.63 ± 15.60, 25.83 ± 41.62, 88.38 ± 43.30, and 29.21 ± 12.41 mg kg-1 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. The heavy metals showed relatively higher concentrations on the borders among Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. In the meta-analysis, we selected 68 published studies related to heavy metal pollution in farmland topsoil of YRD from 2000 to the year (2014) when the field survey was conducted. The results show an increasing trend for Cd (p trend for Cu (p trend for Pb (p = 0.155), Zn (p = 0.746), and Ni (p = 0.305). The increasing rate of Cd from the meta-analysis is consistent with the rate (0.0013 mg kg-1 year-1) derived from the mass balance calculation for Cd, where atmospheric deposition originated from intensive coal combustion is considered as the main source of Cd in the topsoil. The decreasing trend of Cu is likely due to largely reduced application of copper-based agrochemicals. Environmental regulation and soil remediation are needed to protect food safety and ecosystem from heavy metal pollution, especially Cd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Zasnova male hidrokinetične turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbovšek, Nejc

    2017-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je opisana zasnova male hidrokinetične turbine laboratorijske velikosti. Namen turbine je izvajanje meritev tehnoloških veličin. Poudarek pri delu je zasnova mehanizma za spreminjanje nastavnega kota lopatic. V diplomskem delu so prikazani štirje modeli mehanizma hidrokinetične turbine z različnimi variacijami za zagotavljanje spremembe nastavnega kota. Zasnova mehanizmov je izvedena po načelu modularne gradnje, kar omogoča izmenljivost delov in vrste mehanizma glede na potr...

  2. Dark Forces at DAΦNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAΦNE Φ-factory is an ideal place to search for forces beyond the Standard Model. By using the KLOE detector, limits on U-boson coupling ε2 of the order of 10−5 ÷ 10−7 and on the αD × ε2 product have been set through the study of the Φ Dalitz decay, Uγ events and the Higgsstrahlung process. An improvement of these limits is expected thanks to the KLOE detector and DAΦNE upgrades of KLOE-2.

  3. Southwestern Region climate change trends and forest planning: A guide for addressing climate change in forest plan revision on southwestern National Forests and Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Periman; Christine Dawe; Bryce Rickel; Amy Unthank; Champe Green; Roy Jemison; Kurt Nelson; Brian Kent

    2009-01-01

    Climate scientists agree that the earth is undergoing a warming trend, and that human-caused elevations in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are among the causes of global temperature increases. The observed concentrations of these greenhouse gases are projected to increase. Climate change may intensify the risk of...

  4. Secular trends (1990-2013) in serotypes and associated non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive disease in the pre-/post-era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Spanish regions without universal paediatric pneumococcal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, Asunción; Granizo, Juan-José; Giménez, María-José; Yuste, José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2015-10-13

    This study analyzed temporal trends of non-susceptibility/serotypes in invasive pneumococci from Spanish regions where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were not included in paediatric immunization programmes. All invasive pneumococcal isolates voluntarily sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci (January 1990-December 2013) from hospitals located in target study regions were analyzed by age group. The PCV estimated coverage in children <24 months was correlated with 13-valent PCV (PCV13) serotypes trends. A total of 28,124 invasive isolates were analyzed: 3138 (11.2%) from children <24 months, 2161 (7.7%) from children 24-59 months, 781 (2.8%) from children 5-14 years, and 22,044 (78.4%) from adults. The estimated coverage increased from 17.6% (2002) to around 40% (2010-2013). The percentage of PCV13 serotypes among all isolates over time followed a cubic significant trend (R(2)=0.884), with an increasing trend up to 2001 followed by a decrease (more prominent from 2010 onwards). The estimated PCVs coverage was significantly correlated with the decrease in the percentage of PCV13 isolates in children <24 months (r(2)=0.824) and in adults (r(2)=0.786), mainly due to decreases in serotypes 1 and 7F in adults, and in serogroup 6 and serotypes 7F and 19A in children <24 months. None of the non-PCV13 serotypes stood out with substantial increases in the last period. This study showed that the different serotypes (and its associated non-susceptibility trends) were not equally affected by low PCVs disposition. Lack of impact in certain serotypes as serotype 1 (in children 24-59 months), 6C (in all age groups), and 19A (in adults) suggests the need for increasing vaccine coverage in the target vaccine population to increase direct and indirect protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  6. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aroha [Department of Applied Biology, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elliott, John E., E-mail: John.Elliott@ec.gc.ca [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Elliott, Kyle H.; Guigueno, Mélanie F. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wilson, Laurie K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Lee, Sandi [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Idrissi, Abde [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003–2012). Dietary tracers (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. - Highlights: • Seabird eggs have been used to monitor POPs on the west coast of Canada since 1979. • Samples of these eggs were analysed retrospectively for PBDEs and HBCDD. • Regulations exist in North America to control PBDEs, but not HBCDD. • PBDEs decreased significantly since regulations were applied. • HBCDD was not detected pre-2003, but is now found in low concentrations.

  7. A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.

  8. Locally adapted NeQuick 2 model performance in European middle latitude ionosphere under different solar, geomagnetic and seasonal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Josip; Kos, Tomislav

    2017-10-01

    The ionosphere introduces positioning error in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). There are several approaches for minimizing the error, with various levels of accuracy and different extents of coverage area. To model the state of the ionosphere in a region containing low number of reference GNSS stations, a locally adapted NeQuick 2 model can be used. Data ingestion updates the model with local level of ionization, enabling it to follow the observed changes of ionization levels. The NeQuick 2 model was adapted to local reference Total Electron Content (TEC) data using single station approach and evaluated using calibrated TEC data derived from 41 testing GNSS stations distributed around the data ingestion point. Its performance was observed in European middle latitudes in different ionospheric conditions of the period between 2011 and 2015. The modelling accuracy was evaluated in four azimuthal quadrants, with coverage radii calculated for three error thresholds: 12, 6 and 3 TEC Units (TECU). Diurnal radii change was observed for groups of days within periods of low and high solar activity and different seasons of the year. The statistical analysis was conducted on those groups of days, revealing trends in each of the groups, similarities between days within groups and the 95th percentile radii as a practically applicable measure of model performance. In almost all cases the modelling accuracy was better than 12 TECU, having the biggest radius from the data ingestion point. Modelling accuracy better than 6 TECU was achieved within reduced radius in all observed periods, while accuracy better than 3 TECU was reached only in summer. The calculated radii and interpolated error levels were presented on maps. That was especially useful in analyzing the model performance during the strongest geomagnetic storms of the observed period, with each of them having unique development and influence on model accuracy. Although some of the storms severely degraded the

  9. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of

  10. Inelastic processes in Na$^{+}-$Ne, Ar and Ne$^{+},$ Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions in energy range $0.5-14$ keV

    CERN Document Server

    Lomsadze, R A; Kezerashvili, R Ya

    2015-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for charge-exchange, ionization and excitation in Na$% ^{+}-$Ne and Na$^{+}-$Ar collisions were measured in the ion energy range $% 0.5-10$ keV using a refined version of a capacitor method, and collision and optical spectroscopy methods simultaneously in the same experimental set-up. Ionization cross sections for Ne$^{+}-$Na and Ar$^{+}-$Na collisions are measured at the energies of $2-14$ keV using a crossed-beam spectroscopy method. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are used to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes. For the charge-exchange process in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions two nonadiabatic regions are revealed and mechanisms responsible for these regions are explained. Structural peculiarity on the excitation function for the resonance lines of argon atoms in Na$^{+}$ $-$Ar collisions are observed and the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are explored. The measured ionization cross sections for Na$^{+}-$Ne and Ne$^{+}-$Na collisi...

  11. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  12. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  13. Ten-Year Trends (2000-2010) of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among the Young and Middle-Aged Adult Population of the Balearic Islands, a Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    This article aimed at assessing the 10-year trends (2000-2010) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for young (18-35 year-olds) and middle-aged (36-55 year-olds) adults living in the Balearics was calculated. Data represented 1,089 people during 1999-2000 and 1,081 people during 2009-2010. The BMI categories were as follows: normal weight (18.5 Balearic adult population; however, a rising prevalence of obesity has been observed in young adults, which suggests a need to develop and change current strategies in order to reverse the current trends in obesity among this age group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    OpenAIRE

    Chalbot, M.-C.; McElroy, B.; I. G. Kavouras

    2013-01-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in the southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources, and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt and mine...

  15. Sources, trends and regional impacts of fine particulate matter in southern Mississippi Valley: significance of emissions from sources in the Gulf of Mexico coast

    OpenAIRE

    M.-C. Chalbot; McElroy, B.; I. G. Kavouras

    2013-01-01

    The sources of fine particles over a 10 yr period at Little Rock, Arkansas, an urban area in southern Mississippi Valley, were identified by positive matrix factorization. The annual trends of PM2.5 and its sources and their associations with the pathways of air mass backward trajectories were examined. Seven sources were apportioned, namely, primary traffic particles, secondary nitrate and sulphate, biomass burning, diesel particles, aged/contaminated sea salt a...

  16. Dental caries trends in 5- to 6-year-old and 11- to 13-year-old children in three UNICEF designated regions--Sub Saharan Africa, Middle East and North Africa, Latin America and Caribbean: 1970-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaton-Jones, Peter; Fatti, Paul; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate trends in dental caries prevalence and severity in three developing regions of the world over 35 years. A systematic review of published information. Online databases were used to find 130 caries epidemiological studies that used WHO caries diagnostic criteria, published between 1970 and 2004 among 5- to 6-year-old and 11- to 13-year-old children. Mean caries rates were calculated in seven 5-year periods followed by plotting, and analysis of co-variance (region, period). Trends in mean prevalence and mean dmft among 5- to 6-year-olds were confusing but among 11- to 13-year-olds were clearer. Both mean prevalence and mean DMFT were lowest in Sub-Saharan Africa and highest in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rates decreased with time in Latin America and the Caribbean and remained more or less static in the other two regions. Analysis of covariance showed a significant effect of region (Pperception that dental caries rates are increasing in developing countries was not supported in this systematic review.

  17. NeXO Web: the NeXO ontology database and visualization platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkowski, Janusz; Ono, Keiichiro; Kramer, Michael; Yu, Michael; Pratt, Dexter; Demchak, Barry; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    The Network-extracted Ontology (NeXO) is a gene ontology inferred directly from large-scale molecular networks. While most ontologies are constructed through manual expert curation, NeXO uses a principled computational approach which integrates evidence from hundreds of thousands of individual gene and protein interactions to construct a global hierarchy of cellular components and processes. Here, we describe the development of the NeXO Web platform (http://www.nexontology.org)-an online database and graphical user interface for visualizing, browsing and performing term enrichment analysis using NeXO and the gene ontology. The platform applies state-of-the-art web technology and visualization techniques to provide an intuitive framework for investigating biological machinery captured by both data-driven and manually curated ontologies.

  18. The effect of trends in tillage practices on erosion and carbon content of soils in the US corn belt. [USA - Midwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.J.; Phillips, D.L.; Liu, R. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.)

    1993-10-01

    The EPIC model was used to simulate soil erosion and soil C content at 100 randomly selected sites in the US corn belt. Four management scenarios were run for 100 years: (1) current mix of tillage practices maintained; (2) current trend of conversion to mulch-till and no-till maintained; (3) trend to increased no-till; (4) trend to increased no-till with addition of winter wheat cover crop. As expected, the three alternative scenarios resulted in substantial decreases in soil erosion compared to the current mix of tillage practices. C content of the top 15 cm of soil increased for the alternative scenarios, while remaining approximately constant for the current tillage mix. However, total soil C to a depth of 1m from the original surface decreased for all scenarios except for the no-till plus winter wheat cover crop scenario. Extrapolated to the entire US corn belt, the model results suggest that, under the current mix of tillage practices, soils used for corn and/or soybean production will lose 3.2 x 10[sup 6] tons of C per year for the next 100 years. About 21% of this loss will be C transported off-site by soil erosion; an unknown fraction of this C will be released to the atmosphere. For the base trend and increased no-till trend, these soils are projected to lose 2.2 x 10[sup 6]t-C yr[sup -1] and 1.0 x 10[sup 6] t-C yr[sup -1], respectively. Under the increased no-till plus cover crop scenarios, these soils become a small sink of 0.1 x 10[sup 6] t-C yr[sup -1]. Thus, a shift from current tillage practices to widespread use of no-till plus winter cover could conserve and sequester a total of 3.3 x 10[sup 6] t-C yr[sup -1] in the soil for the next 100 years. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Deep Structure and Subsidence of Parnaíba Cratonic Basin, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Tribaldos, V.; White, N. J.; Coelho, D. L. O.; Julià, J.

    2016-12-01

    Cratonic basins are typically underlain by thick lithosphere and slowly subside over hundreds of millions of years. Their stratigraphy consist of unconformity-bounded sequences of continental and shallow marine sedimentary rocks. The origin and evolution of these basins remain enigmatic. Here, we address this problem by carrying out an integrative study of the Parnaíba cratonic basin in NE Brazil. We analyse a 1400 km long deep seismic reflection profile crossing the basin, teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 9 broadband and 10 short-period, 3 component seismometers, 25 ancillary seismic reflection profiles, and 46 wells distributed throughout the basin. Our aim is to constrain subsidence histories in the context of crustal structure and basin architecture. Combined interpretation of the deep seismic profile and 1D velocity models calculated by joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves locates the Moho at 39 km beneath the city of Teresina on the basin's eastern region. At the eastern edge of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km beneath Precambrian basement. In the centre of the basin, the Moho lies at 37 km. Beneath Teresina, an increase in S wave velocity at 30 km coincides with mid-crustal reflections on the deep seismic profile. This feature is interpreted as the top of a high-velocity body within the crust. Ancillary seismic profiles show that the stratigraphy is divisible into packages of undisturbed reflections separated by bright, rugged reflections that resemble buried paleolandscapes. Correlation of seismic profiles with well logs shows that these surfaces are basin-wide erosional unconformities that are observable in outcrop. Backstripped and water-loaded subsidence curves show exponential decrease in subsidence over the last 400 Ma. This background subsidence is punctuated by departures from the long-term trend at times when unconformities occur, which we interpret as mild regional uplift events.

  20. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  1. Energy dependent stereodynamics of the Ne($^3$P$_2$)+Ar reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sean D. S.; Zou, Junwen; Tanteri, Silvia; Jankunas, Justin; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The stereodynamics of the Ne($^3$P$_2$)+Ar Penning and Associative ionization reactions have been studied using a crossed molecular beam apparatus. The experiment uses a curved magnetic hexapole to polarise the Ne($^3$P$_2$) which is then oriented with a shaped magnetic field in the region where it intersects with a beam of Ar($^1$S). The ratios of Penning to associative ionization were recorded over a range of collision energies from 320 cm$^{-1}$ to 500 cm$^{-1}$ and the data was used to ob...

  2. Lääne-Virumaa TOP 100 aastal 2000

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Lääne-Virumaa edukamad ettevõtted; Lääne-Virumaa käibe TOP 100; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Käibe languse TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentabluse TOP 20; ROA TOP 20; Kasumi languse TOP 10; Kahjumi TOP 10; Lääne-Virumaa käibelt suuremate ettevõtete finantsandmed. Lääne-Virumaa ettevõtete üldandmed

  3. Bank vole immunoheterogeneity may limit Nephropatia Epidemica emergence in a French non-endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A; Castel, G; Murri, S; Pulido, C; Pons, J-B; Benoit, L; Loiseau, A; Lakhdar, L; Galan, M; Marianneau, P; Charbonnel, N

    2017-09-21

    Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.

  4. Regional Variation in Prevalence of Oral Cleft Live Births in the Netherlands 1997-2007 : Time-Trend Analysis of Data from Three Dutch Registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Anna M.; Mohangoo, Ashna D.; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Bakker, Marian K.; Vermeij-Keers, Christl

    The Eurocat registry Northern Netherlands (NNL) has been used in regional context, as well as in national/international context, to describe the epidemiology of oral clefts (OC). However, the region NNL seems to have prevalence data different fromDutch national registries and certain other European

  5. Regional variation in prevalence of oral cleft live births in the Netherlands 1997-2007: Time-trend analysis of data from three Dutch registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, A.M.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Bakker, M.K.; Vermeij-Keers, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Eurocat registry Northern Netherlands (NNL) has been used in regional context, as well as in national/international context, to describe the epidemiology of oral clefts (OC). However, the region NNL seems to have prevalence data different from Dutch national registries and certain other European

  6. Ionospheric Correction Based on Ingestion of Global Ionospheric Maps into the NeQuick 2 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global ionospheric maps (GIMs, generated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE during a period over 13 years, have been adopted as the primary source of data to provide global ionospheric correction for possible single frequency positioning applications. The investigation aims to assess the performance of new NeQuick model, NeQuick 2, in predicting global total electron content (TEC through ingesting the GIMs data from the previous day(s. The results show good performance of the GIMs-driven-NeQuick model with average 86% of vertical TEC error less than 10 TECU, when the global daily effective ionization indices (Az versus modified dip latitude (MODIP are constructed as a second order polynomial. The performance of GIMs-driven-NeQuick model presents variability with solar activity and behaves better during low solar activity years. The accuracy of TEC prediction can be improved further through performing a four-coefficient function expression of Az versus MODIP. As more measurements from earlier days are involved in the Az optimization procedure, the accuracy may decrease. The results also reveal that more efforts are needed to improve the NeQuick 2 model capabilities to represent the ionosphere in the equatorial and high-latitude regions.

  7. Transformation from Paleo-Asian Ocean closure to Paleo-Pacific subduction: New constraints from granitoids in the eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xing-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Qiao, Shi-Lei

    2017-08-01

    The eastern Jilin-Heilongjiang Belt (EJHB) of NE China is a unique orogen that underwent two stages of evolution within the tectonic regimes of the Paleo-Asian and Paleo-Pacific oceans. 158 available zircon U-Pb ages, including 26 ages obtained during the present study and 132 ages from the literature, were compiled and analyzed for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granitoids from the EJHB and the adjacent Russian Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (SAOB), to examine the temporal-spatial distribution of the granitoids and to constrain the tectonic evolution of the East Asian continental margin. Five stages of granitic magmatism can be identified: Early Triassic (251-240 Ma), Late Triassic (228-215 Ma), latest Triassic to Middle Jurassic (213-158 Ma), Early Cretaceous (131-105 Ma), and Late Cretaceous to Paleocene (95-56 Ma). The Early Triassic granitoids are restricted to the Yanbian region along the Changchun-Yanji Suture, and show geochemical characteristics of magmas from a thickened lower crust source, probably due to the final collision of the combined NE China blocks with the North China Craton. The Late Triassic granitoids, with features of A-type granites, represent post-collisional magmatic activities that were related to post-orogenic extension, marking the end of the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The latest Triassic to Paleocene granitoids with calc-alkaline characteristics were NE-trending emplaced along the EJHB and SAOB and young towards the coastal region, and represent continental marginal arc magmas that were associated with the northwestwards subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. Two periods of magmatic quiescence (158-131 and 105-95 Ma) correspond to changes in the subduction direction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate from oblique relative to the continental margin to subparallel. Taking all this into account, we conclude that: (1) the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean occurred along the Changchun-Yanji Suture during the Early Triassic; (2) the

  8. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  9. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  10. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  11. Mortality trends and risk of dying from pulmonary tuberculosis in the 7 socioeconomic regions and the 32 States of Mexico, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Barriga, Juan Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a world public health problem that still has a high morbidity and mortality rate mainly in countries with significant wealth gaps. Poverty, malnutrition, HIV infection, drug resistance, diabetes and addictions (mainly alcoholism) have been seen to contribute to the persistence of TB as an important health problem in Mexico. Death certificates associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) for 2000-2009 were obtained from the National Information System of the Secretariat of Health. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where individuals resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from PTB was determined. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants who died from PTB decreased from 4.1 to 2 between 2000 and 2009. Men (67.7%) presented higher mortality than women (32.3%). Individuals failing to complete elementary education presented a higher risk of dying from PTB (RR 1.08 [95%CI: 1.05-1.12]). The socioeconomic region and the entities with the strongest association were region 1, 5, Chiapas and Baja California. Region 1 in 2007 presented RR 7.34 (95%CI: 5.32-10.13), and region 5 in 2009 had RR 10.08 (95%CI: 6.83-14.88). In Mexico, the annual mortality rate from PTB decreased. Men presented higher mortality than women. Individuals failing to complete elementary education showed a higher risk of dying from PTB. The states and regions of Mexico that presented a stronger association with mortality from PTB were Chiapas and Baja California, region 1 and 5. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  13. JEZIČNE VJEŽBE

    OpenAIRE

    Slaninaprof., Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Članak razmatra pedagoške i jezične čimbenike u vježbama što se provode u nastavi talijanskog kao drugog jezika. Analiziraju se svojstva pojedinih vježbi, vrste tih vježbi te uloga slika i ikona u nastavi jezika. Članak također pomaže nastavniku pri odabiru i organizaciji didaktičkog materijala.

  14. The Finuda Experiment at DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, V.

    2010-10-01

    The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦNE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  15. The Finuda Experiment on DAΦNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherini, Vincenzo

    FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAΦne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of Λ-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

  16. The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval, NE Svalbard:Chemostratigraphy and genesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Ian J.; Bonnand, Pierre; Davies, Tesni; Fleming, Edward J.; Grassineau, Nathalie; Halverson, Galen P.; Hambrey, Michael J.; McMillan, Emily M.; McKay, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Ian J.; Stevenson, Carl T. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval (LCWI) refers to a non-glacial interval that separates presumed representatives of the Sturtian and Marinoan panglaciations. Its duration is poorly constrained radiometrically and its deposits are relatively poorly known in most geographic regions. This paper aims to constrain the duration, palaeoenvironments and petrogenesis of such deposits in the classic region of NE Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The succession comprises a 200–205 m dolomitic shale (Macdonaldrygg...

  17. Regional Variability of Lifestyle Factors and Hypertension with Prediabetes and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Population-Based KORA-F4 and SHIP-TREND Studies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Doris; Rückert-Eheberg, Ina-Maria; Heier, Margit; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Krabbe, Christine; Völzke, Henry; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) shows regional differences in Germany. The purpose of the project was to compare the prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed T2D in two regions in Germany, the Northeast and the South, and to evaluate their associations with regional variations in lifestyle factors and hypertension. Data from the KORA-F4 study (South Germany, 2006-2008) and the SHIP-TREND study (Northeast Germany, 2008-2012) were used. Participants aged 35-79 years without T2D with an overnight fasting of more than 8 hours and an oral glucose tolerance test were included: KORA-F4: n = 2,616 and SHIP-TREND: n = 1,968. The prevalence of prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D was especially high in men (about 60%) and women (about 50%) in the Northeast, followed by men (about 50%) and women (about 30%) in the South. Lifestyle factors associated with T2D varied between the regions: more participants in the Northeast were active smokers and the percentages of people with overweight or obesity were greater than in their southern counterparts. However, these differences could not explain the striking disparity in prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. The frequency of hypertension was also distinctly higher in the Northeast than in the South and clearly associated with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Especially in men living in the Northeast, screening individuals with blood pressure ≥ 140/90mmHg might reveal up to 70% of those with prediabetes/newly diagnosed T2D. Knowledge about regional variability in T2D and related risk factors is important for the planning of diabetes prevention programs. In our analyses, common lifestyle factors did not nearly explain these variations between the northern SHIP-TREND and the southern KORA-F4 studies. Further examinations of regional socioeconomic, political, environmental and other aspects are needed. Meanwhile, targeted diabetes prevention strategies with a special focus on men living in the northern parts of Germany are reasonable.

  18. A comparison of Internet search trends and sexually transmitted infection rates using Google trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy K; Mehta, Supriya D

    2014-01-01

    Google Trends was used to determine the relationship between sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related search engine trends and STI rates. Trends seem to be similar to the relative rates of STIs and to regional differences in rates. Search engine trends are an innovative tool to integrate into STI surveillance.

  19. Prevalence and prevalence trends of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at four chinese regional blood centers between 2000 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, high prevalence of HBV and HCV parallels with the growing epidemic of syphilis and HIV in the general population poses a great threat to blood safety. This study investigated the prevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among four Chinese blood centers. Methods We examined whole blood donations collected from January 2000 through December 2010 at four Chinese blood centers. Post-donation testing of TTIs (HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were conducted using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for each seromarker. The prevalence of serologic markers for TTIs (% was calculated and additional analysis was conducted to examine donor characteristics associated with positive TTIs serology. Results Of the 4,366,283 donations, 60% were from first-time donors and 40% were from repeated donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis was 0.08%, 0.86%, 0.51% and 0.47%, respectively. The prevalence profile of TTIs varied among different blood centers and appeared at relatively high levels. Overall, the prevalence of HBsAg and HCV demonstrated a decline trend among four blood centers, while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis displayed three different trends: constantly steady, continually increasing and declining among different centers. Conclusions This study reflects the risk of TTIs has been greatly reduced in China, but blood transfusion remains an ongoing risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections, and further work and improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood in China.

  20. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis first presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a different energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fits which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  1. Sterile Neutrino Searches in MiniBooNE and MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignarra, Christina M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tension among recent short baseline neutrino experiments has pointed toward the possible need for the addition of one or more sterile (non-interacting) neutrino states into the existing neutrino oscillation framework. This thesis fi rst presents the motivation for sterile neutrino models by describing the short-baseline anomalies that can be addressed with them. This is followed by a discussion of the phenomenology of these models. The MiniBooNE experiment and results are then described in detail, particularly the most recent antineutrino analysis. This will be followed by a discussion of global fits to world data, including the anomalous data sets. Lastly, future experiments will be addressed, especially focusing on the MicroBooNE experiment and light collection studies. In particular, understanding the degradation source of TPB, designing the TPB-coated plates for MicroBooNE and developing lightguide collection systems will be discussed. We find an excess of events in the MiniBooNE antineutrino mode results consistent with the LSND anomaly, but one that has a di fferent energy dependence than the low-energy excess reported in neutrino mode. This disagreement creates tension within global fi ts which include up to three sterile neutrinos. The low-energy excess will be addressed by the MicroBooNE experiment, which is expected to start taking data in early 2015. Tension among existing experiments calls for additional, more decisive future experiments.

  2. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2017-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0125535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  3. Norepinephrine inhibits mesenchymal stem cell chemotaxis migration by increasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 secretion by vascular endothelial cells via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolei; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xi; Mao, Ming; Ye, Chen; Liu, Peng; Yang, Zihui; Yang, Xinjie; Lei, Delin; Zhang, Chenping

    2016-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are physiologically maintained in vascular endothelial cell (VEC)-based niches, play a critical role in tissue regeneration. Our previous studies demonstrated that sympathetic denervation could promote MSC mobilization, thereby enhancing bone formation in distraction osteogenesis (DO), a self-tissue engineering for craniofacial and orthopeadic surgeries. However, the mechanisms on how sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) regulates MSC migration are not well understood. Here we showed that deprivation of NE by transection of cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST) inhibited stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression in the perivascular regions in rat mandibular DO. In vitro studies showed that NE treatment markedly upregulated p-JNK and therefore stimulated higher SDF-1 expression in VECs than control groups, and siRNA knockdown of the abrd3 gene abolished the NE-induced p-JNK activation. On the other hand, osteoblasts differentiated from MSCs showed an increase in SDF-1 secretion with lack of NE. Importantly, NE-treated VECs inhibited the MSC chemotaxis migration along the SDF-1 concentration gradient as demonstrated in a novel 3-chamber Transwell assay. Collectively, our study suggested that NE may increase the SDF-1 secretion by VECs via NE/abrd3/JNK pathway, thereby inhibiting the MSC chemotaxis migration from perivascular regions toward bone trabecular frontlines along the SDF-1 concentration gradient in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  5. System learning approach to assess sustainability and forecast trends in regional dynamics: The San Luis Basin study, Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a methodology that combines the power of an Artificial Neural Network and Information Theory to forecast variables describing the condition of a regional system. The novelty and strength of this approach is in the application of Fisher information, a key metho...

  6. Are the Dutch long-term care organizations getting better? A trend study of quality indicators between 2007 and 2009 and the patterns of regional influences on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters-van der Meer, S.; Kool, R. B.; Klazinga, N. S.; Huijsman, R.

    2013-01-01

    and setting The Dutch long-term care organizations, providing somatic care, psycho-geriatric care and home care, have to measure the quality of care through client-related and professional indicators since 2007. At the same time, competition was introduced with regional stimuli from healthcare

  7. Trends in TB case notification over fifteen years: the case notification of 25 Districts of Arsi Zone of Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamusse, Shallo Daba; Demissie, Meaza; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-04-03

    The aims of tuberculosis (TB) control programme are to detect TB cases and treat them to disrupt transmission, decrease mortality and avert the emergence of drug resistance. In 1992, DOTS strategy was started in Arsi zone and since 1997 it has been fully implemented. However, its impact has not been assessed. The aim of this study was, to analyze the trends in TB case notification and make a comparison among the 25 districts of the zone. A total of 41,965 TB patients registered for treatment in the study area between 1997 and 2011 were included in the study. Data on demographic characteristics, treatment unit, year of treatment and disease category were collected for each patient from the TB Unit Registers. The trends in all forms of TB and smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) case notification increased from 14.3 to 150 per 100,000 population, with an increment of 90.4% in fifteen years. Similarly, PTB+ case notification increased from 6.9 to 63 per 100,000 population, an increment of 89% in fifteen years. The fifteen-year average TB case notification of all forms varied from 60.2 to 636 (95% CI: 97 to 127, PDOTS sites of more than 25,000 population (AOR, 0.40; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.46) were associated with low TB case notification. TB case notifications were significantly more common among 15-24 years of age (AOR, 1.19; 95% CI:1.03 to 1.38), PTB- (AOR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.33 to 64) and EPTB (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI; 1.33 to 1.60) TB cases. The introduction and expansion of DOTS in Arsi zone has improved the overall TB case notification. However, there is inequality in TB case notification across 25 districts of the zone. Further research is, recommended on the prevalence, incidence of TB and TB treatment outcome to see the differences in TB distribution and performance of DOTS in treatment outcomes among the districts.

  8. National, regional, and global rates and trends in contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning between 1990 and 2015: a systematic and comprehensive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Kantorova, Vladimira; Menozzi, Clare; Biddlecom, Ann

    2013-05-11

    Expansion of access to contraception and reduction of unmet need for family planning are key components to improve reproductive health, but scarce data and variability in data sources create difficulties in monitoring of progress for these outcomes. We estimated and projected indicators of contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning from 1990 to 2015. We obtained data from nationally representative surveys, for women aged 15-49 years who were married or in a union. Estimates were based on 930 observations of contraceptive prevalence between 1950 and 2011 from 194 countries or areas, and 306 observations of unmet need for family planning from 111 countries or areas. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model combined with country-specific time trends to yield estimates of these indicators and uncertainty assessments. The model accounted for differences by data source, sample population, and contraceptive methods included in the measure. Worldwide, contraceptive prevalence increased from 54·8% (95% uncertainty interval 52·3-57·1) in 1990, to 63·3% (60·4-66·0) in 2010, and unmet need for family planning decreased from 15·4% (14·1-16·9) in 1990, to 12·3% (10·9-13·9) in 2010. Almost all subregions, except for those where contraceptive prevalence was already high in 1990, had an increase in contraceptive prevalence and a decrease in unmet need for family planning between 1990 and 2010, although the pace of change over time varied between countries and subregions. In 2010, 146 million (130-166 million) women worldwide aged 15-49 years who were married or in a union had an unmet need for family planning. The absolute number of married women who either use contraception or who have an unmet need for family planning is projected to grow from 900 million (876-922 million) in 2010 to 962 million (927-992 million) in 2015, and will increase in most developing countries. Trends in contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning, and the

  9. Trend of head circumference as a predictor of microcephaly among term infants born at a regional center in Malaysia between 2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan R

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosnah Sutan,1 May Luu Yeong,1 Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy,2 Ahmad Shuhaila,2 Jaafar Rohana,3 Shareena Ishak,3 Khadijah Shamsuddin,1 Aniza Ismail,1 Idayu Badillah Idris,1 Saperi Sulong4 1Department of Community Health, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Medical Records, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the trend of head circumference as predictor of microcephaly among term infants born in a teaching hospital in Malaysia from 2011 to 2015. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the electronic birth census. The independent variables were mothers’ age and height, parity, birth weight and birth length. All term newborns, both alive and stillbirth, with 37–41 completed gestational weeks, and a birth weight of at least 500 g was extracted from the census. Results: A total of 26,503 newborns fulfilled the inclusion criteria (13,655 males, 12,840 females. The mean head circumferences for male and female newborns were 32.93 cm (± SD 1.32 and 32.56 cm (± SD 1.31. The average head circumference for Malaysian newborns was found to be smaller than the World Health Organization Standard Growth Chart for Term Infant. A total of 17.6% (n=4,669 of the total samples were observed to have microcephaly. Among them, 73.2% (n=3,419 were non-proportionate microcephaly with normal birth weight of 2.5kg and above. Bivariate analyses showed that all independent variables were significant predictors of microcephaly. Both simple and multiple logistic regressions demonstrated that low birth weight was the most significant predictors for microcephaly (adjusted OR 12.14, 95% CI 10.80, 13.65. Conclusion: There is an increasing trend of microcephaly across the years and the low birth weight was noted as the main predictor of microcephaly. Future studies are needed to determine the possible cause of increasing

  10. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...... studied changes in the incidence and prognosis of PLC and LMUO over time. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2004, we identified 2675 patients with PLC and LMUO in three Danish counties, with a population of 1.4 million. We computed the standardized incidence rate (SIR), ratio of PLC to LMUO diagnoses, median...... survival, and estimated mortality rate ratio adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. RESULTS: The SIR of PLC increased from 3.2 in 1985 to 5.0 in 2003, and the SIR of LMUO increased from 3.7 to 6.4. No increase was noted in the PLC-to-LMUO ratio over time (P=0.1 for trend). From 1985 to 2004, the median...

  11. Nest-site selection and population trend of Collared Pratincoles (Glareola pratincola breeding in agricultural habitats of the Nagykunság region (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola, which was once a typical breeding species of the sodic grasslands of the Great Plain, has become threatened with extinction from Hungary. It disappeared from the traditional grassland breeding sites before the 2000 and is currently breeding only in three sites in agricultural environments in Hungary. The objectives of our research were to find links between the use of shallow wetlands and the breeding behaviour of the species and to identify the characteristics of its breeding on ploughed fields. Data were collected between 2008 and 2016 as part of preparations for the conservation of the largest population which is found in the Nagykunság. We found a positive correlation between colony size and the area of the nearby wetland. We calculated the proportion of habitat-types used for nesting, and found that cultivated fields and fallow lands were the most important. Additionally, we also found that colony sizes were substantially smaller during the research period than those found earlier in the traditional grassland habitats. Finally, we found a positive trend in the size of the population during the research period.

  12. Regional trends in evaporation loss and water yield based on stable isotope mass balance of lakes: The Ontario Precambrian Shield surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; Jeffries, D.; Yi, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotopes of water, oxygen-18 and deuterium, were measured in water samples collected from a network of 300 lakes sampled in six ∼100 km2 blocks (centred at 49.72°N, 91.46°W; 48.49°N, 91.58°W; 50.25°N, 86.62°W; 49.78°N, 83.98°W; 48.24°N, 85.49°W; 47.73, 84.52°W) within Precambrian shield drainages in the vicinity of Lake Superior, northern Ontario, Canada. Additional sampling was also conducted within the Turkey Lakes watershed (47.03°N, 84.38°W), a research basin situated in the Algoma region located 50 km north of Sault Saint Marie, Ontario. The studies were undertaken to gain a better understanding of hydrology and geochemistry of watersheds in the region in order to better predict acid sensitivity of lakes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the hydrologic variations observed based on stable isotope results. Evaporative isotopic enrichment of lake water was found to be systematic across the region, and its deviation from the isotopic composition of precipitation was used to estimate the evaporation/inflow to the lakes as well as runoff (or water yield) based on a simple isotope mass balance model. The analysis illustrates significant variability in the water yield to lakes and reveals a pattern of positively skewed distributions in all six widely spaced blocks, suggesting that a high proportion of lakes have relatively limited runoff whereas relatively few have greater runoff. Such basic information on the drainage structure of an area can be valuable for site-specific hydrologic assessments but also has significant implications for critical loads assessment, as low runoff systems tend to be less buffered and therefore are more sensitive to acidification. Importantly, the Turkey Lakes sampling program also suggests that isotope-based water yield is comparable in magnitude to hydrometric gauging estimates, and also establishes that uncertainty related to stratification can be as high as ±20% or more for individual lakes

  13. [Trend sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Pralle, H

    2015-06-01

    Popular trend sports are characterized by intensive and high speed performance. Due to the high energy mechanism in falls, typical injury distributions and patterns result. In a retrospective study the injury patterns and frequencies in mountain bike athletes were analyzed and pathophysiological, diagnostic and therapeutic options in the treatment of high energy injuries to the carpal bones are shown. Based on a retrospective survey over 2 successive years, active mountain bike athletes (World Cup Series) were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Injury patterns and frequencies were analyzed. The pathophysiology, diagnostics and therapy of high energy carpal injuries are discussed. In this study 107 World Cup mountain bike athletes were enrolled. Injuries of the extremities were found in more than 75% of athletes with a higher prevalence in the upper extremities (40.7%) than the lower extremities (34.84%), followed by injuries of the head and face (13.3%, of which 10.6% were traumatic brain injuries) and the trunk (10.6%). Fractures and dislocations of the hand and wrist were found in approximately half of the athletes (50.9%). In popular trend sports injuries of the extremities are common, especially of the carpal bones and ligaments. It is important to distinguish stable from destabilizing injuries in order to provide adequate therapeutic options.

  14. Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Prashant

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm is a pilot supra-national subsidy program that aims to increase access and affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT in public sector clinics and private retail shops. It is unclear to what extent the AMFm model will translate into wide scale availability and price reductions in ACT, particularly for rural, remote areas where disparities in access to medicines often exist. This study is the first to rigorously examine the availability and price of subsidized ACT during the first year of the AMFm, measured through retail audits in remote regions of Tanzania. Methods Periodic retail audits of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs were conducted in two remote regions of Tanzania (Mtwara and Rukwa. Temporal and spatial variation in ACT availability and pricing were explored. A composite measure of ADDO remoteness, using variables, such as distance to suppliers and towns, altitude and population density, was used to explore whether ACT availability and price vary systematically with remoteness. Results Between February 2011 and January 2012, the fraction of ADDOs stocking AMFm-ACT increased from 25% to 88% in Mtwara and from 3% to 62% in Rukwa. Availability was widespread, though diffusion throughout the region was achieved more quickly in Mtwara. No significant relationship was found between ACT availability and remoteness. Adult doses of AMFm-ACT were much more widely available than any other age/weight band. Average prices fell from 1529 TZS (1.03 USD to 1272 TZS (0.81 USD over the study period, with prices in Rukwa higher than Mtwara. The government recommended retail price for AMFm- ACT is 1,000 TZS ($0.64 USD. The median retail ACT price in the final round of data collection was 1,000 TZS. Conclusions The AMFm led to large increases in availability of low priced ACT in Tanzania, with no significant variation in availability based on remoteness. Availability

  15. Trends in availability and prices of subsidized ACT over the first year of the AMFm: evidence from remote regions of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Prashant; Cohen, Jessica L; Alphs, Sarah; Arkedis, Jean; Larson, Peter S; Massaga, Julius; Sabot, Oliver

    2012-08-28

    The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a pilot supra-national subsidy program that aims to increase access and affordability of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in public sector clinics and private retail shops. It is unclear to what extent the AMFm model will translate into wide scale availability and price reductions in ACT, particularly for rural, remote areas where disparities in access to medicines often exist. This study is the first to rigorously examine the availability and price of subsidized ACT during the first year of the AMFm, measured through retail audits in remote regions of Tanzania. Periodic retail audits of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) were conducted in two remote regions of Tanzania (Mtwara and Rukwa). Temporal and spatial variation in ACT availability and pricing were explored. A composite measure of ADDO remoteness, using variables, such as distance to suppliers and towns, altitude and population density, was used to explore whether ACT availability and price vary systematically with remoteness. Between February 2011 and January 2012, the fraction of ADDOs stocking AMFm-ACT increased from 25% to 88% in Mtwara and from 3% to 62% in Rukwa. Availability was widespread, though diffusion throughout the region was achieved more quickly in Mtwara. No significant relationship was found between ACT availability and remoteness. Adult doses of AMFm-ACT were much more widely available than any other age/weight band. Average prices fell from 1529 TZS (1.03 USD) to 1272 TZS (0.81 USD) over the study period, with prices in Rukwa higher than Mtwara. The government recommended retail price for AMFm- ACT is 1,000 TZS ($0.64 USD). The median retail ACT price in the final round of data collection was 1,000 TZS. The AMFm led to large increases in availability of low priced ACT in Tanzania, with no significant variation in availability based on remoteness. Availability did remain lower and prices remained higher in Rukwa, which

  16. Comparison of Simulated Trends of Regional Climate Change in the Carpathian Basin for the 21st Century Using Three Different Emission Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIECZKA, Ildikó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the regional climate modeling experiments for the 21stcentury for the Carpathian Basin using the model PRECIS. The model PRECIS is a hydrostaticregional climate model with 25 km horizontal resolution developed at the UK Met Office, HadleyCentre. Simulated future changes – in mean climatic values, distributions and empiricalprobabilities – are analyzed for the period 2071–2100 (compared to 1961–1990, as a referenceperiod. Significant warming is projected at 0.05 level for all of the A2, A1B, and B2 scenarios,the largest warming is estimated in summer. Not only the mean value is likely to change, but alsothe distribution of daily mean temperature. By the end of the century the annual precipitation inthe Carpathian Basin is likely to decrease, and the annual distribution of monthly meanprecipitation is expected to change. Significant drying is projected in the region in summer, whilein winter the precipitation is estimated to increase.

  17. L'hydrogène Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La crise pétrolière et le bouleversement du classement économique des énergies primaires qu'elle entraîne conjuguent leurs effets avec ceux d'une sensibilisation de l'opinion au respect de l'environnement pour favoriser l'avènement industriel d'innovations scientifiques et techniques dont l'intervention n'était prévisible que dans un avenir de plusieurs décennies. Le développement de l'énergie électrique nucléaire, qui actuellement s'impose économiquement, implique, pour élargir la pénétration de cette forme d'énergie à toutes les utilisations, une énergie chimique relais permettant un stockage et une régulation de la production; l'hydro- gène obtenu par électrolyse de l'eau semble pouvoir constituer ce combustible relais dans un délai raisonnable en tenant compte des contraintes de pollution. La chaleur nucléaire soulève a fortiori des problèmes identiques, elle peut théoriquement par dissociation thermique étagée de l'eau liquide fournir de l'hydrogène avec des rendements très satisfaisants, mais les problèmes de principe et de technologie posés par la mise en opération d'une suite de transformations chimiques et de séparations impliquant des composés particulièrement réactifs sont ardus et leur inventaire même n'est pas achevé. L'hydrogène, nouveau combustible polyvalent d'une industrie gazière perpétuelle, semble pouvoir bénéficier également, au niveau de son utilisation disséminée, de techniques nouvelles : stockages solides, turbines à hauts rendements, piles à combustible, qui ouvrent le marché de la traction et le marché électrique des installations isolées. Agent de réduction réactif et puissant, l'hydrogène peut également se substituer aux réducteurs conventionnels en métallurgie et donner une dimension nouvelle à l'hydrogénométallurgie par voie sèche ou par voie humide. Mais plus encore la mise en valeur économique des combustibles fossiles abondants . charbon, schistes

  18. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  19. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ningbo; YUAN Yunbin; LI Zishen; Li, Min; HUO Xingliang

    2017-01-01

    Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS). In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionosphe...

  20. Microseismicity and seismotectonics of the South Caspian Lowlands, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Hollingsworth, James; Zhan, Zhongwen; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Talebian, Morteza

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the microseismicity and seismotectonics of the eastern South Caspian Sea region, where the East Alborz mountains descend to meet the South Caspian Lowlands of NE Iran. To better understand the present-day tectonics and seismicity of this region, which includes the cities of Gorgan and Gonbad-e-Qabus (combined population 500 000), we installed a temporary local seismic network across the area for 6 months between 2009 and 2010. We analysed the seismicity and focal mechanisms together with data from the permanent networks of the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) and the International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), based in Tehran. Microseismicity is focused primarily on the Shahrud fault system, which bounds the east Alborz range to the south. Relatively few earthquakes are associated with the Khazar thrust fault, which bounds the north side of the range. A cluster of shallow microseismicity (Khazar fault (within the South Caspian Lowlands; SCL), an area typically thought to be non-deforming. This area coincides with the location of three relatively deep thrust earthquakes (Mw 5.3-5.5) which occurred in 1999, 2004 and 2005. Inversion of teleseismic body waveforms allows us to constrain the depth of these earthquakes at 26-29 km. Although significant sedimentation throughout the SCL obscures any expression of recent fault activity at the surface, focal mechanisms of well-located events from the shallow cluster of micro-seismicity show a significant component of left-lateral strike-slip motion (assuming slip occurs on NE-SW fault planes, typical of active faults in the region), as well as a small normal component. Inversion of traveltimes for well-located events in our network yields a velocity structure for the region, and a Moho depth of 41 km. The pattern of deep thrust and shallow normal seismicity could be explained by bending of the rigid South Caspian crust as it underthrusts the East

  1. “Mai, inteso nominare”. La citazione in “Dio ne scampi dagli Orsenigo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carapezza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Dio ne scampi dagli Orsenigo Vittorio Imbriani grapples with the form of the novel. In a dialectical fashion, explicit quotations (frequently from French sources clarify his position towards generic paradigms. This article attempts to group these quotations on the basis of their literary genres in order to stress the complexities of an inclusive and versatile text. The intertextual network, ranging from feuilleton literature to academic preciosity, in the last instance reveals itself as an ironic antidote to Romantic identification. This trend is confirmed by the remarkable increase in the number of quotations from the first edition (1876 to the second publication in volume form in 1883.

  2. Mathematical modelling of ionospheric TEC from Turkish permanent GNSS Network (TPGN) observables during 2009-2017 and predictability of NeQuick and Kriging models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Kutubuddin; Panda, Sampad Kumar; Corumluoglu, Ozsen

    2018-03-01

    The present study examines the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations in the lower mid-latitude Turkish region from the Turkish permanent GNSS network (TPGN) and International GNSS Services (IGS) observations during the years 2009 to 2017. The corresponding vertical TEC (VTEC) predicted by Kriging and NeQuick-2 models are evaluated to realize their efficacy over the country. We studied the diurnal, seasonal and spatial pattern of VTEC variation and tried to estimate by a new mathematical model using the long term of 9 years VTEC data. The diurnal variation of VTEC demonstrates a normal trend with its gradual enhancement from dawn to attain a peak around 09:00-14.00 UT and reaching the minimum level after 22.00 UT. The seasonal behavior of VTEC indicates a strong semi-annual variation of VTEC with maxima in September equinox followed by March equinox and minima in June solstice followed by December solstice. Also, the spatial variation in VTEC depicts a meaning