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Sample records for nb-1zr alloy jointed

  1. Tensile Strength of Welded Joint of 1Cr18Ni9 Stainless Steel and Nb-1Zr Alloy Jointed by Electron Beam Self-material Brazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with Nb-1Zr alloy stainless steels have a quite difference in melting point, thermalphysical and electromagnetism properties etc.. Therefore, it is very difficulty to joint by melting weldingmethod. Electron beam self-brazing method is an accepted method to use for this kind of welding. Make

  2. Effects of thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-1Zr-C alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titran, Robert H.; Uz, Mehmet

    1996-01-01

    A systematic study to evaluate the effects of thermomechanical processing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-1Zr alloy sheet containing 0.06 and 0.1 wt.%C (PWC-11) was conducted and compared to the results of Nb-1Zr. Coarse orthorhombic Nb2C precipitates were present in all the cast, extruded and cold rolled Nb-Zr samples containing C. After high temperature (greater than 0.5 T(sub m)) exposure (with or without applied stress), the Nb2C transforms to very fine and extremely stable FCC (Zr, Nb)C dispersoid, resulting in a highly creep resistant material. Only ZrO2 precipitates were found in Nb-1Zr. The creep strength of the 0.06C and the 0.1C carbide strengthened alloys were much superior to Nb-1Zr. At 1350 K the strength of the 0.06C alloy was about three times that of Nb-1Zr, while the 0.1C alloy had about five times the creep stress capability of Nb-1Zr. The tensile strength, long term creep strength, and stability of the microstructure of the PWC-11 sheet appear to be independent of the number of 1900 K extrusions performed prior to cold rolling. The microhardness of these single, double and triple extnided PWC-11 sheets also were comparable. The tensile strength of PWC-11 and Nb-1Zr at room temperature and 1350 K were comparable.

  3. Stress cycle testing during creep of a particle-strengthened Nb-1Zr-0.1C alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D.M. [California Univ., Davis (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mukherjee, A.K. [California Univ., Davis (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-01-01

    Stress cycle testing was performed during high-temperature creep of a particle-strengthened alloy of niobium (Nb-1Zr-0.1C). Two methods were used to analyze the data from the stress cycles to determine the back stress arising from the dislocation substructure as a function of applied stress, temperature, and accumulated strain. Back stresses as high as 96% of the applied stress were measured. In general, the normalized effective stress, calculated from the dislocation back stress, was shown to be independent of the applied stress and temperature. (orig.)

  4. Review of oxidation of Nb-1Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    A major objective of the SP-100 Program Nuclear Assembly Test is to demonstrate the performance of a full-scale nuclear subsystem of a 100-kWe space nuclear power supply. The test will be run in a large vacuum chamber to protect the Nb-1Zr components from oxidation during operation. Much information about the oxidation of niobium and Nb-1Zr alloy already exists, and previous work in this area is reviewed. Oxidation of Nb-1Zr can proceed by solution, internal oxidation, and/or film formation. At temperatures up to about 650 K (377/degree/C), oxidation generally follows a parabolic rate law because of the formation of protective oxide(s). At higher temperatures, oxidation becomes linear, but results are extremely sensitive to pressure and other system variables. Results obtained by several investigators could not be predicted using empirical equations developed by one investigator relating the increase in oxygen concentration to pressure, temperature, time, and specimen thickness. Additional data are required to provide more reliable guidelines for system operation that will protect against catastrophic effects. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Preliminary study on pressure brazing and diffusion welding of Nb-1Zr to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Future space power systems may include Nb-1Zr/Inconel 718 dissimilar metal joints for operation at 1000 K for 60,000 h. The serviceability of pressure-brazed and diffusion-welded joints was investigated. Ni-based metallic glass foil filler metals were used for brazing. Ni and Fe foils were used as diffusion welding inter-layers. Joint soundness was determined by metallographic examination in the as-brazed and as-welded condition, after aging at 1000 K, and after thermal cycling. Brazed joints thermally cycled in the as-brazed condition and diffusion-welded joints were unsatisfactory because of cracking problems. Brazed joints may meet the service requirements if the joints are aged at 1000 K prior to thermal cycling.

  6. Contamination Control to Meet Nb-1Zr Property Requirements for SP-100 Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ricky C.; Kangilaski, Mike; Ring, Peter J.

    1994-07-01

    The SP-100 Space Reactor is a high temperature liquid metal reactor constructed mainly of Nb-1Zr and the related alloy PWC-11 (Nb-lZr-0.1C). Lithium metal is used as the heat transfer medium. Contamination of Nb-lZr and PWC-11 can result in degradation of mechanical properties and attack by lithium or liquid metal embrittlement during operation at 1350 K. A study was initiated to identify the most deleterious metallic contaminants. First, a theoretical evaluation was performed based on metallurgical principles which indicated potential contaminants to be aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, platinum, silver, tin, and zinc. This was followed by an experimental program in which deliberately contaminated Nb-1Zr specimens were tensile tested at a temperature of 1350 K. In this series of tests, copper was shown to be the major risk, no other material was found to be as conclusively deleterious to Nb-lZr as copper. Indications of degrading effects were observed for lead, zinc, steel, alumina, cadmium, platinum, and aluminum. In addition, these materials and other materials tested may increase the susceptibility to lithium attack. Further testing in this area would be necessary to fully understand the extent of degradation. In the interim, strict contamination controls must be maintained with particular emphasis on the identified contaminants.

  7. Effects of processing history on the creep strength of Nb-1Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, J.A.; Egner, L.K.

    1993-06-01

    Power systems that are used to provide electrical power in space are designed to optimize conversion of thermal energy to electrical energy and to minimize the mass and volume that must be launched. Only refractory metals and their alloys have sufficient long-term strength for several years of uninterrupted operation at the temperatures required (e.g., >1200 K). The high power densities and temperatures at which these reactors must operate require the use of liquid-metal coolants. The alloy Nb-1 wt % (Nb-1Zr), which exhibits excellent corrosion resistance to alkali liquid-metals at high temperatures, is being considered for the fuel cladding, reactor structural, and heat transport systems for current space exploration missions. Useful lifetimes of these power systems are limited by creep deformation in the reactor core. Nb-1Zr sheet procured to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications for rector grade and commercial grade has been processed by several different cold work and annealing treatments to attempt to produce the grain structure (size, shape, and distribution of sizes) that provides the maximum creep strength of this alloy at temperatures from 1250 to 1450 K. The effects of grain size, differences in oxygen concentrations, tungsten concentrations, and electron beam and gas tungsten arc weldments on creep strength were studied. Grain size has a large effect on creep strength at 1450 K but much less of an effect at 1350 K. Differences in oxygen or tungsten concentrations did not affect creep strength, and the creep strengths of weldments were equal to, or greater than, those for base metal.

  8. Investigation of reactivity between SiC and Nb-1Zr in planned irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, C.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-08-01

    Thermodynamic calculations and diffusion couple experiments showed that SiC and Nb-1Zr were reactive at the upper range of temperatures anticipated in the planned irradiation creep experiment. Sputter-deposited aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was selected as a diffusion barrier coating. Experiments showed that although the coating coarsened at high temperature it was an effective barrier for diffusion of silicon from SiC into Nb-1Zr. Therefore, to avoid detrimental reactions between the SiC composite and the Nb-1Zr pressurized bladder during the planned irradiation creep experiment, a coating of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} will be required on the Nb-1Zr bladder.

  9. ADIP ORNL contribution: 12th ADIP quarterly progress report for period October-December 1980. [Nb-1Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigh, R.; Duncan, D.; Ermi, A.M.; Gelles, D.; Zimmerchied, M.

    1980-01-01

    The following ADIP tasks are reported on: MFE-5 in-reactor fatigue crack growth in 316 SS in ORR, titanium alloy tensile properties after neutron irradiation in EBR-II, voids in neutron-irradiated Ti alloys, fabrication of ferritic alloys for RB-1 experiment in HFIR, microstructural examination of commercial ferritic alloys irradiated to very high fluence, microstructural examination of HT-9 archive material from the AD-2 test, and swelling of commercial alloys irradiated to a very high fluence. (DLC)

  10. Polyimide weld bonding for titanium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Kurland, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two weld bonding processes were developed for joining titanium alloy; one process utilizes a weld-through technique and the other a capillary-flow technique. The adhesive used for the weld-through process is similar to the P4/A5F system. A new polyimide laminating resin, BFBI/BMPM, was used in the capillary-flow process. Static property information was generated for weld-bonded joints over the temperature range of 219 K (-65 F) to 561 K (+550 F) and fatigue strength information was generated at room temperature. Significant improvement in fatigue strength was demonstrated for weld-bonded joints over spot-welded joints. A demonstration was made of the applicability of the weld-through weld-bonding process for fabricating stringer stiffened skin panels.

  11. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  12. Microscopy and strength of borosilicate glass-to-Kovar alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanmuang, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)], E-mail: chutimunta@hotmail.com; Naksata, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Chairuangsri, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Jain, H.; Lyman, C.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The microstructural basis of the strength of borosilicate glass-to-Kovar alloy joints has been investigated where the alloy was preoxidised at 750 deg. C for 10 min in air. X-ray diffraction revealed that the oxide scale consisted of hematite and magnetite. Glass was bonded to the alloy by melting at 1000 deg. C for 15 min under two conditions: (a) ambient atmosphere and (b) vacuum (360 mbar). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed an iron oxide interlayer in the joint bonded under normal atmosphere. Dendritic fayalite nucleated on the iron oxide interlayer and grew into the glass. In the joint made under vacuum, neither the interlayer nor the fayalite phase was observed. In both cases, Co and Ni in the alloy were not involved in the chemical bonding. The joint formed under vacuum had a higher bonding strength of 4.3 MPa, compared to 3.6 MPa for the joint bonded under ambient atmosphere.

  13. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  14. Moiré method analysis for tensile strain field of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文立; 魏艳红; 刘雪松; 方洪渊; 赵敏; 田锡唐

    2003-01-01

    Using experimental mechanics method of moiré analysis, strain field distributions of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joints under different conditions were investigated. The results show that moiré stripes of welded joint without trailing peening just before fracture are not only few and scattered but also uneven, and the stress mainly concentrates on the poor position-welded toes during the tensioning process with the relatively poor mechanical properties of welded joints; When the method of welding with trailing peening is adopted, moiré stripes of welded joint just before fracture are relatively thick and even due to the strengthening welded toes during the welding process, and fracture position transfers from the welded toes to weld, at the same time the mechanical properties of welded joints are improved greatly than conventional welding which can show that the technology of trailing peening is effective to strengthen welded joints of aluminum alloy with high strength.

  15. Tensile Fracture Location Characterizations of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Different Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJII; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2004-01-01

    The tensile fracture location characterizations of the friction stir welded joints of the AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6Al alloys were evaluated in this study. The experimental results show that the fracture locations of the joints are different for the different Al alloys, and they are affected by the FSW parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured in the HAZ and TMAZ on the AS and the fracture parts undergo a large amount of plastic deformation, while the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured in the HAZ on the RS and the fracture surfaces are inclined a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When some welding defects exist in the joints, the AA1050-H24 joints are fractured on the RS or AS, the AA6061-T6 joints are fractured on the RS, and all the fracture locations are near to the weld center. The fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained by the microhardness profiles and defect morphologies of the joints.

  16. Investigation of the Microstructure of Joints of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Special features of the microstructure of joints of aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-copper alloys produced by friction stir welding are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a layered structure with ultradisperse grains is produced by friction stir welding at the center of the weld joint. An analogy is drawn between the microstructures of joints produced by friction stir welding and surface layer produced by sliding friction.

  17. Effect of Multi-repair Welding on Fatigue Performance of Aluminum Alloy Profile Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, You-De; Shi, Chun-Yuan; Tian, Hong-Lei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum alloy profile has been widely used in the manufacture of the rail vehicles. But it's necessary for the repair welding of the welded joints to be conducted because some defects exist in the weld such as porosity, inclusions and incomplete penetrations in the welding processes. In this paper, the influence of the multi-repair welding of 6005A aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints on the fatigue performance are investigated based on the results of fatigue tests. The parameters of curves and the fatigue strength of the welded joints are calculated, and Goodman fatigue limit diagram is also obtained. The results show that fatigue strength of aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints, in condition of 107 cycle life, meet the standard requirement for the as-welded, repair welded state one time or two times respectively.

  18. Microstructures and properties of welded joint of TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小明; 孙大谦; 李明高; 刘卫红

    2004-01-01

    The fracture characteristics of the joint were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope(SEM).Microstructures of the joint were examined by means of optical microscope, SEM and an image analyzer. The results show that the tensile strength of the inhomogeneous joint of TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel is lower than that of the homogeneous joint and a plastic field appears in the heat affected zone on the side of TiNi shape memory alloy. Because TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel melted, a brittle as-cast structure was formed in the weld. The tensile strength and the shape memory effect of the inhomogeneous joint are strongly influenced by the changes of composition and structure of the joint. Measures should be taken to reduce the base metal melting and prevent the weld metal from the invasion by O for improving the properties of the TiNi shape memory alloy and stainless steel inhomogeneous joint.

  19. Structure and Properties of Thick-Walled Joints of Alloy 1570s Prepared by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, O. V.; Ivanov, S. Yu.; Karkhin, V. A.; Lopota, V. A.; Makhin, I. D.

    2016-09-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of thick-walled joints of Al - Mg - Sc alloy 1570S, prepared by friction stir welding are studied. Joint microstructural and mechanical inhomogeneity are revealed.

  20. Titanium alloys in total joint replacement--a materials science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, M; Rack, H J

    1998-09-01

    Increased use of titanium alloys as biomaterials is occurring due to their lower modulus, superior biocompatibility and enhanced corrosion resistance when compared to more conventional stainless steels and cobalt-based alloys. These attractive properties were a driving force for the early introduction of alpha (cpTi) and alpha + beta (Ti-6A1-4V) alloys as well as for the more recent development of new Ti-alloy compositions and orthopaedic metastable beta titanium alloys. The later possess enhanced biocompatibility, reduced elastic modulus, and superior strain-controlled and notch fatigue resistance. However, the poor shear strength and wear resistance of titanium alloys have nevertheless limited their biomedical use. Although the wear resistance of beta-Ti alloys has shown some improvement when compared to alpha + beta alloys, the ultimate utility of orthopaedic titanium alloys as wear components will require a more complete fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms involved. This review examines current information on the physical and mechanical characteristics of titanium alloys used in artifical joint replacement prostheses, with a special focus on those issues associated with the long-term prosthetic requirements, e.g., fatigue and wear.

  1. Tensile properties and mechanical heterogeneity of friction stir welded joints of 2014 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-hua; LIN San-bao; WU Lin; QU Fu-xing

    2005-01-01

    2014 Al alloy of 8mm in thickness was successfully welded by friction stir welding method. The experimental results show that the tensile properties of the joints are significantly affected by the welding parameters. When the weld pitch is 0.25mm/r corresponding to the rotation speed of 400r/min and the welding speed of 100mm/min, the maximum ultimate strength of the joints is 78% that of the base material. For a certain weld joint, different parts possess different mechanical properties. In the three parts of the joint, the upper part is strongest and the middle part is poorest in mechanical properties. The mechanical properties and fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the microstructure variation and micro-hardness distributions of the joints, which attributes to the different thermo-mechanical actions on the different parts of the joints.

  2. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Zhai, Guofu; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jianqi; Ren, Gang

    2008-09-01

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  3. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwei [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)], E-mail: jingweiwu.hit@gmail.com; Zhai Guofu [Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Chen Qing; Wang Jianqi; Ren Gang [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  4. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.

    2004-02-01

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  5. Characteristics of dissimilar laser-brazed joints of isotropic graphite to WC-Co alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatsuka, Kimiaki, E-mail: nagatuka@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Sechi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: sechi@kagoshima-it.go.jp [Kagoshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Technology, 1445-1 Oda, Hayato-cho, Kirishima, Kagoshima 899-5105 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoshinari, E-mail: y_miyamoto@toyotanso.co.jp [Toyo Tanso Co., Ltd., 5-7-12 Takeshima, Nishiyodgawa-ku, Osaka 555-0011 (Japan); Nakata, Kazuhiro, E-mail: nakata@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti was required in the filler metal for brazing graphite to WC-Co alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shear strength of the joint increased with Ti content up to 1.7 mass%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti concentrated at the interface of graphite/filler metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiC was formed at the interface of graphite/filler metal. - Abstract: The effect of Ti serving as an activator in a eutectic Ag-Cu alloy filler metal in dissimilar laser-brazed joints of isotropic graphite and a WC-Co alloy on the joint strength and the interface structure of the joint is investigated in this study. To evaluate the joint characteristics, the Ti content in the filler metal was increased from 0 to 2.8 mass%. The laser brazing was carried out by irradiating a laser beam selectively on the WC-Co alloy plate in Ar atmosphere. The threshold content of Ti required to join isotropic graphite to WC-Co alloy was 0.4 mass%. The shear strength at the brazed joint increased rapidly with increasing Ti content up to 1.7 mass%, and a higher Ti content was found to be likely to saturate the shear strength to a constant value of about 14 MPa. The isotropic graphite blocks also fractured at this content. The concentration of Ti observed at the interface between isotropic graphite and the filler metal indicates the formation of an intermetallic layer of TiC.

  6. Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittima Sillapasa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1 = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit. It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints.

  7. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  8. High-cycle Fatigue Properties of Alloy718 Base Metal and Electron Beam Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Nagashima, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Hideshi; Ogata, Toshio; Nagao, Naoki

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Alloy 718 plate and its electron beam (EB) welded joint were investigated at 293 K and 77 K under uniaxial loading. At 293 K, the high-cycle fatigue strength of the EB welded joint with the post heat treatment exhibited somewhat lower values than that of the base metal. The fatigue strengths of both samples basically increased at 77 K. However, in longer life region, the EB welded joint fractured from a blow hole formed in the welded zone, resulting in almost the same fatigue strength at 107 cycles as that at 293 K.

  9. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9132

  10. Dissimilar joint characteristics of SiC and WC-Co alloy by laser brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuka, K.; Sechi, Y.; Nakata, K.

    2012-08-01

    SiC and WC-Co alloys were joined by laser brazing with an active braze metal. The braze metal based on eutectic Ag-Cu alloy with additional Ti as an active element ranging from 0 to 2.8 mass% was sandwiched by the SiC block and WC-Co alloy plate. The brazing was carried out by selective laser beam irradiation on the WC-Co alloy plate. The content of Ti in the braze metal was required to exceed 0.6 mass% in order to form a brazed joint with a measurable shear strength. The shear strength increased with increasing Ti content up to 2.3 mass%Ti and decreased with a higher content.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of carbide precipitates in a niobium-zirconium-carbon alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D.M.; Groza, J.R.; Mukherjee, A.K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation-strengthened niobium alloys have shown promise as high-temperature structural materials for aerospace applications. The achievement of suitable properties and superior creep resistance at service conditions requires that the second phase particles remain relatively small, stable, and evenly dispersed in the matrix. The key to this development lies in the thermodynamic evolution of the precipitate phase. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic driving force for formation of carbides in a precipitation-strengthened refractory metal alloy of niobium; Nb-1%Zr-0.1%C commercially known as PWC-11. An examination of the free energies of formation of the different carbide phases, their evolution and stability at the high temperatures, and a comparison with experimental analysis was made.

  12. Fretting corrosion behaviour of ball-and-socket joint on dental implants with different prosthodontic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, F J; Canedo, R; Padrós, A; Bañeres, M V; Arano, J M

    2003-01-01

    The fretting corrosion of five materials for implant suprastructures (cast-titanium, machined-titanium, gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy and chromium-nickel alloy), was investigated in vitro, the materials being galvanically coupled to a titanium ball-and-socket-joint with tetrafluoroethylene under mechanical load. Various electrochemical parameters (E(corr), i(corr), Evans diagrams, polarization resistance and Tafel slopes) were analyzed. The microstructure of the different dental materials was observed before and after corrosion processes by optical and electron microscopy. It can be observed that the mechanical load produces an important decrease of the corrosion resistance. The cast and machined titanium had the most passive current density at a given potential and chromium-nickel alloy had the most active critical current density values. The high gold content alloys have excellent resistance corrosion, although this decreases when the gold content is lower in the alloy. The palladium alloy had a low critical current density due to the presence of gallium in this composition but a selective dissolution of copper-rich phases was observed through energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  14. Optimizing friction stir welding parameters to maximize tensile strength of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S.; Elangovan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2009-04-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Mn alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of lightweight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. In contrast to the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural aluminium alloys, the friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force etc., and the tool pin profile play a major role in determining the joint strength. An attempt has been made here to develop a mathematical model to predict the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. A central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. The response surface method (RSM) has been used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model has been optimized using the Hooke and Jeeves search technique to maximize the tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  15. Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for improved corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rambabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium alloy AA2219 (Al–Cu–Mg alloy is widely used in the fabrication of lightweight structures with high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Welding is main fabrication method of AA2219 alloy for manufacturing various engineering components. Friction stir welding (FSW is a recently developed solid state welding process to overcome the problems encountered in fusion welding. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat on the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters, such as tool pin profile, rotational speed, welding speed and axial force, play major role in determining the microstructure and corrosion resistance of welded joint. The main objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model to predict the corrosion resistance of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. In this work a central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the experimental conditions. Dynamic polarization testing was carried out to determine critical pitting potential in millivolt, which is a criteria for measuring corrosion resistance and the data was used in model. Further the response surface method (RSM was used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model was optimized using the simulated annealing algorithm optimizing technique to maximize the corrosion resistance of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  16. Multi-Response Optimization of Friction-Stir-Welded AA1100 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2012-06-01

    AA1100 aluminum alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures. Friction stir welding process (FSW) is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. The process and tool parameters of FSW play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics. In this research, the relationships between the FSW parameters (rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, shoulder diameter, pin diameter, and tool hardness) and the responses (tensile strength, hardness, and corrosion rate) were established. The optimal welding conditions to maximize the tensile strength and minimize the corrosion rate were identified for AA1100 aluminum alloy and reported here.

  17. Mechanical properties of a dissimilar aluminum alloy joint welded by hybrid laser-MIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Zongtao; Cui, Yunlong

    2017-07-01

    Two dissimilar Al alloys, 5083-H111 and 6005A-T6, were joined by hybrid laser-MIG welding method. Mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated and compared. The results show that the tensile strength of the dissimilar joint is 219.8 MPa, 11.7% higher than that of 6005A-T5 joint. After statistical analysis of the fatigue data, the P-S-N curves of the dissimilar joint were obtained. The mean fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint is 112.5 MPa. The fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint for a given 10% probability of failure, at a confidence level of 95%, is 101.4 MPa. The fatigue strength at Nf = 107 of the dissimilar joint is almost same as that of the 6005A-T6 joint. In welded structure designing, different P-S-N curves should be chosen according to the different service conditions and reliability requirements.

  18. Strengthening mechanisms, creep, and fatigue processes in dispersion-hardened niobium alloy. Final scientific report, 1 Feb 89-31 Jan 92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A.K.; Gibeling, J.C.

    1992-04-20

    The creep and fatigue properties of pure Nb and Nb-l%Zr alloy were investigated. A model was developed based on the migration of subgrain boundary that can explain the anomalous primary creep transients found in Nb-l%Zr alloy, due to coarsening of subgrain structure. TEM investigations confirmed that such subgrain coarsening occurs during primary creep of Nb-l%Zr. Baseline low cycle fatigue studies of Nb and Nb-l%Zr were completed. Cyclic hardening is observed and there is a microplastic plateau in Nb. The Nb-1%Zr is stronger in cyclic deformation than Nb, with little influence of strain rate. The deformation in the alloy at both high and low strain rates is controlled by the interaction between gliding edge dislocation and solute atoms.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6321 alloy welded joint by GTAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Jinhui, E-mail: xiongjinhui@126.com; Li, Shikai; Gao, Fuyang; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-07-29

    Titanium and its alloys have excellent combination of properties, such as low density, high specific strength and corrosion resistance, and they are extensively used in many industrial fields. This work is aiming at investigation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–3Nb–2Zr–1Mo (Ti6321) alloy joints by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) with filler materials. The results indicated that the microstructure of the fusion zone (FZ) is composed of acicular α, massive α, and Widmanstatten α+β. The heat affected zone (HAZ) near FZ consists of coarse and acicular α structures of grain boundary α, Widmanstatten α+β. The heat affected zone (HAZ) near base metal consists of primary α phase and transformed β containing acicular α. Microhardness values for HAZ are higher than that of FZ and base metal, and there are the peak values for the HAZ near the weld metal. The tensile strength of joint is almost equal to that of base metal, and the fracture locations of all the tensile specimens are in base metal, and it is well in accordance with the relationship between the content of strengthening and interstitial elements and microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints. The tensile fracture morphology of joint presents obviously the characteristic of ductile fracture, which is related to the bigger and deeper dimples distributed on the surface of joint. The HAZ impact toughness is lower than that of the BM and FZ.

  20. Review of cast-on-strap joints and strap alloys for lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, C.S. [Pasminco, Boolaroo, NSW (Australia)

    2000-05-01

    This review examines the influence of the various parameters involved in the cast-on-strap (COS) process on the quality of the resulting lug-strap joints. In addition, it provides the findings of an investigation on the macroscopic and microscopic features of COS joints in commercial lead-acid batteries. Some examples of the most common defects that can affect the performance and life of batteries are presented. The nature of the fusion at the lug-strap interface for the various lugs and strap alloy compositions used in conventional, hybrid and valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. The effects of dynamic load on behaviour of welded joint A-387 Gr. 11 alloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-service behaviour of alloyed steel A-387 Gr. 11 Class 1, for pressure vessels, used for high temperature applications, depends on the properties of its welded joint, with parent metal (BM, heat-affected-zone (HAZ and weld metal (WM, as constituents. Charpy testing of BM, WM and HAZ, together with, determination of the parameters of fatigue-crack growth and fatigue threshold ΔKth was used, in order to understand, how heterogeneity of structure and different mechanical properties of welded joint constituents affect on crack initiation and propagation.

  2. Effect of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded Joint for Similar Aluminium Alloys H30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita S. Thete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of process parameters of friction stir welded joint for similar aluminium alloys H30 was studied. Taper cylindrical with three flutes all made of High speed steel was used for the friction stir welding (FSW aluminium alloy H30 and the tensile test of the welded joint were tested by universal testing method. The optimization done using detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab17. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. Experiments were conducted on varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. The present study aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.

  3. XRD and TEM analysis of the microstructure in the brazing joint of 3003 cladding aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng; Songnian Lou; Luhai Wu; Yajiang Li

    2005-01-01

    The material used in this experiment was 3003 cladding aluminum alloy, the cladding metal was 4004 aluminum alloy.The aluminum plate was brazed by means of vacuum brazing. The microstructure in the brazing joint was studied by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The test result indicates that the suitable brazing technique parameters are brazing temperature, 628℃; keeping time, 10 min; vacuum degree, 6.5×10-4 Pa. XRD test indicates that there are new intermetallic compounds different from the base metal. TEM analysis indicates that Cu2Mg and Cu3Mn2Mg are formed in the brazing joint. The shape of Cu2Mg is irregular and the shape of Cu3Mn2Mg is circle, and there are tiny particles in it.

  4. Bending Properties and Fracture Behavior of Ti-23Al-17Nb Alloy Laser Beam Welding Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoqing; WU Aiping; ZOU Guisheng; ZHAO Yue; CHEN Qiang; REN Jialie

    2009-01-01

    Ti-23Al-17Nb alloy is an important high temperature structural material used in the space and aerospace fields. Welding of this alloy is an indispensable processing method, so the microstructures and mechanical properties of these welded joints must be studied to improve the welds. Longitudinal three-point bending tests were conducted to measure the bending ductility of laser beam welded joints. The crack dis-tribution and fracture surface were investigated to further analyze the fracture behavior. The results indicate that the bending ductility decreases as the heat input by the laser beam welding increases. The crack in-ducing strain reaches 4.24%, while the fracturing strain exceeds 5% when the heat input is below 316 J/cm. If the columnar crystal grain of the weld metal exhibits a uniform orientation, the bending ductility is worse. The fractography analysis shows that the cracking propagates transgranularly and the fracture surface has a cleavage mode.

  5. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Kanchanbag (P.O), Hyderabad 560 058 (India)

    2008-07-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit.

  6. Nickel-coated Steel Stud to Aluminum Alloy Joints Made by High Frequency Induction Brazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jiaqi; WANG Kehong; ZHANG Deku; WANG Jian

    2015-01-01

    Nickel-coated 45 steel studs and 6061 aluminum alloy with 4047 Al alloy foil asfi ller metal were joined by using high frequency induction brazing. The microstructure of Fe/Al brazed joint was studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that 45 steel stud and 6061 aluminum alloy could be successfully joined by high frequency induction brazing with proper processing parameters. The bonding strength of the joint was of the order of 88 MPa. Ni coating on steel stud successfully avoided the generation of Fe-Al intermetallic compound which is brittle by blocking the contact between Al and Fe. Intermetallic compounds, i e,Al3Ni2, Al1.1Ni0.9 and Al0.3Fe3Si0.7 presented in Al side, FeNi and Fe-Al-Ni ternary eutectic structure were formed in Fe side. The micro-hardness in intermetallic compound layer was 313 HV. The joint was brittle fractured in the intermetallic compounds layer of Al side, where plenty of Al3Ni2 intermetallic compounds were distributed continuously.

  7. Interface structure and formation mechanism of diffusion-bonded joints of TiAl-based alloy to titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum diffusion bonding of a TiAl-based alloy (TAD) to a titanium alloy (TC2) was carried out at 1 273 K for 15~120 min under a pressure of 25 MPa. The kinds of the reaction products and the interface structures of the joints were investigated by SEM, EPMA and XRD. Based on this, a formation mechanism of the interface structure was elucidated. Experimental and analytical results show that two reaction layers have formed during the diffusion bonding of TAD to TC2. One is Al-rich α(Ti)layer adjacent to TC2,and the other is (Ti3Al+TiAl)layer adjacent to TAD,thus the interface structure of the TAD/TC2 joints is TAD/(Ti3Al+TiAl)/α(Ti)/TC2.This interface structure forms according to a three-stage mechanism,namely(a)the occurrence of a single-phase α(Ti)layer;(b)the occurrence of a duplex-phase(Ti3Al+TiAl)layer;and(c)the growth of the α(Ti)and (Ti3Al+TiAl)layers.

  8. Morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints in GH909 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunming; Cai, Yuanzheng; Hu, Chongjing; Zhang, Xiong; Yan, Fei; Hu, Xiyuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2017-05-15

    The experimental laser welding of GH909 alloy was conducted in this study. The morphology, microstructure, and mechanical properties of laser-welded joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy diffraction spectroscopy, and other techniques. Results revealed that the microstructure of the welded joints mainly consisted of tiny cellular structures, dendritic structures, and equiaxed crystals. Pores appeared in the interdendritic regions because of the insufficient local feeding of molten metal during solidification. Nb segregation in the heat-affected zone caused liquation cracking, whereas C segregation further induced the formation of carbide precipitates along the grain boundaries during the welding thermal cycle. The instability of the keyhole significantly promoted the escape of the metal vapor/plasma from the hole; as a result, porosity defects formed in the weld. The average tensile strength of the test joints was 756 MPa, which is 93.1 % of that of the base metal. The average microhardness of the weld zone (250 HV) was higher than that of the GH909 alloy substrate (208 HV), peaking at 267 HV. Microcracks appeared along the grain boundaries, proving that the grain boundaries were the weakest areas in the joint.

  9. Tensile strength and corrosion resistance of brazed and laser-welded cobalt-chromium alloy joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Rok; Legat, Andraz; Funduk, Nenad

    2006-10-01

    The longevity of prosthodontic restorations is often limited due to the mechanical or corrosive failure occurring at the sites where segments of a metal framework are joined together. The purpose of this study was to determine which joining method offers the best properties to cobalt-chromium alloy frameworks. Brazed and 2 types of laser-welded joints were compared for their mechanical and corrosion characteristics. Sixty-eight cylindrical cobalt-chromium dental alloy specimens, 35 mm long and 2 mm in diameter, were cast. Sixteen specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in an artificial saliva solution and divided into 4 groups (n=4). In the intact group, the specimens were left as cast. The specimens of the remaining 3 groups were sectioned at the center, perpendicular to the long-axis, and were subsequently rejoined by brazing (brazing group) or laser welding using an X- or I-shaped joint design (X laser and I laser groups, respectively). Another 16 specimens were selected for electrochemical measurements in a more acidic artificial saliva solution. These specimens were also divided into 4 groups (n=4) as described above. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization were used to assess corrosion potentials, breakdown potentials, corrosion current densities, total impedances at lowest frequency, and polarization charge-transfer resistances. The remaining 36 specimens were used for tensile testing. They were divided into 3 groups in which specimen pairs (n=6) were joined by brazing or laser welding to form 70-mm-long cylindrical rods. The tensile strength (MPa) was measured using a universal testing machine. Differences between groups were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance (alpha=.05). The fracture surfaces and corrosion defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. The average tensile strength of brazed joints was 792 MPa and was significantly greater (P<.05) than the tensile strength of both types of

  10. Strength and microstructure of 2091 Al-Li alloy TIG welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of TIG welding joints of 2091 Al-Li alloy were investigated both in as-welded and different postweld heat treatment condition. The results show that solution strengthening played an important role in the as-welded condition, though the precipitation strengthening δ' phase formed already in the as-welded weld metal, but its effect was not apparent due to the lower volume fraction of δ' phase. So the strength coefficient (φ) of the welded joint/base metal was 64%. After artificially aging heat treatment, the precipitation strengthening effect increased much due to the formation of more δ' phase and s' phase. Its φ value was increased up to 89%. The highest strength of the welded joints was obtained after solid solution and then artificially aged heat treatment. Due to the proper size of precipitation strengthening phases and their well distribution, the φ value was increased up to 98%.

  11. Process of friction-stir welding high-strength aluminum alloy and mechanical properties of joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大勇; 冯吉才; 郭德伦; 孙成彬; 栾国红; 郭和平

    2004-01-01

    The process of friction-stir welding 2A12CZ alloy has been studied. And strength and elongation tests have been performed, which demonstrated that the opportunity existed to manipulate friction-stir welding parameters in order to improve a range of material properties. The results showed that the joint strength and elongation arrived at their parameters changing, joint tensile strength and elongation had similar development. Hardness measurement indicated that the weld was softened. However, there was considerable difference in softening degree for different joint zone. The weld top had lower hardness and wider softening zone than other zone of the weld. And softening zone at advancing side was wider than that at retreating side.

  12. Microstructure of friction stir welded joints of 2017A aluminium alloy sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczka, K; Dutkiewicz, J; Pietras, A

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines a friction stir welded 2017A aluminium alloy. Transmission electron microscope investigations of the weld nugget revealed the average grain size of 5 microm, moderate density of dislocations as well as the presence of nanometric precipitates located mostly in grains interiors. Scanning electron microscope observations of fractures showed the presence of ductile fracture in the region of the weld nugget with brittle precipitates in the lower part. The microhardness analysis performed on the cross-section of the joints showed fairly small changes; however, after the artificial ageing process an increase in hardness was observed. The change of the joint hardness subject to the ageing process indicates partial supersaturation in the material during friction stir welding and higher precipitation hardening of the joint.

  13. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari, S. Sree; Balasubramanian, V.; Malarvizhi, S.; Reddy, G. Madusudhan

    2015-12-01

    AA 2519-T87 is an aluminium alloy that principally contains Cu as an alloying element and is a new grade of Al-Cu alloy system. This material is a potential candidate for light combat military vehicles. Fusion welding of this alloy leads to hot cracking, porosity and alloy segregation in the weld metal region. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which can overcome the above mentioned problems. However, the FSW of age hardenable aluminium alloys results in poor tensile properties in the as-welded condition (AW). Hence, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is used to enhance deteriorated tensile properties of FSW joints. In this work, the effect of PWHT, namely artificial ageing (AA) and solution treatment (ST) followed by ageing (STA) on the microstructure, tensile properties and microhardness were systematically investigated. The microstructural features of the weld joints were characterised using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tensile strength and microhardness of the joints were correlated with the grain size, precipitate size, shape and its distribution. From the investigation, it was found that STA treatment is beneficial in enhancing the tensile strength of the FSW joints of AA2519-T87 alloy and this is mainly due to the presence of fine and densely distributed precipitates in the stir zone.

  14. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  15. Microstructure of Si3 N4/Si3 N4 joint brazed using Cu-Pd-Ti alloy filler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie(张杰); N. Massaki; ZHOU Yu(周玉)

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure of the Si3 N4/Si3 N4 joint brazed using an active filler of Cu-Pd-Ti alloy was analyzed by means of EPMA and XRD. The results indicate that a perfect Si3 N4/Si3 N4 joint is obtained by using an active filler of Cu76.5Pd8.5Ti15 alloy with brazing temperature, pressure and holding time of 1 373 - 1 473 K, 2× 10-3 MPa and 1.8 ks, respectively. The filler alloy in the joint is a Cu-Pd solution containing reactant of TiN, PdTiSi and Pd2Si.The interface between the filler alloy and Si3 N4 ceramic is composed of TiN reactant.

  16. In Situ Synthesis of Al-Si-Cu Alloy During Brazing Process and Mechanical Property of Brazing Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LONG Wei-min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Si-Cu alloy system is considered to be a promising choice of filler metal for aluminium alloys brazing due to its high strength and low melting point. The greatest obstacle is its lack of plastic forming ability and being difficult to be processed by conventional methods. This disadvantage is ascribed to the considerable amount of brittle CuAl2 intermetallic compound which forms when alloy composition is around the ternary eutectic point. In order to overcome this deficiency, authors of this article proposed to synthesize Al-Si-Cu filler metal by using in situ synthesis method, and the structure and properties of brazing joints were studied. The results show that AlSi alloy is used as the wrap layer, and CuAl alloy is used as the powder core in the composite brazing wire, the two alloys have similar melting points. The machinability of the composite brazing wire is much superior to the traditional Al-Si-Cu filler metal. During the induction brazing of 3A21 alloy, when using AlSi-CuAl composite filler wire, AlSi and CuAl alloys melt almost simultaneously, then after short time holding, Al-Si-Cu braze filler is obtained, the brazing seam has uniform composition and good bonding interface, also, the shearing strength of the brazing joints is higher than the joint brazed by conventional Al-Si-Cu filler metal.

  17. Microstructure and Properties of Lap Joint Between Aluminum Alloy and Galvanized Steel by CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Song; Chen, Su; Dong, Honggang; Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Guo, Xin; Wang, Guoqiang

    2016-05-01

    Lap joining of 1-mm-thick Novelist AC 170 PX aluminum alloy to 1.2-mm-thick ST06 Z galvanized steel sheets for automotive applications was conducted by cold metal transfer advanced welding process with ER4043 and ER4047 filler wires. Under the optimized welding parameters with ER4043 filler wire, the tensile shear strength of joint was 189 MPa, reaching 89% of the aluminum alloy base metal. Microstructure and elemental distribution were characterized by optical metalloscope and electron probe microanalysis. The lap joints with ER4043 filler wire had smaller wetting angle and longer bonded line length with better wettability than with ER4047 filler wire during welding with same parameters. The needle-like Al-Fe-Si intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were spalled into the weld and brought negative effect to the tensile strength of joints. With increasing welding current, the needle-like IMCs grew longer and spread further into the weld, which would deteriorate the tensile shear strength.

  18. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  19. Rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; FENG Ji-cai; H. Fujii; M. Maeda; K. Nogi

    2005-01-01

    The tensile rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined. The experiments show that the rupture locations of the joints are different for the two aluminum alloys, which are influenced by the welding parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld nugget adjacent to the thermo-mechanically affected zone on the advancing side and the rupture surfaces appear as oval contours of the weld nugget, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured in the heat affected zone on the retreating side and the rupture surfaces are inclined at a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When welding defects are present in the joints, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld center, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured on the retreating side near the weld center. The rupture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained through them.

  20. Development of a persistent superconducting joint between Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilamentary round wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Davis, Daniel S.; Bosque, Ernesto S.; Hilton, David K.; Kim, Youngjae; Abraimov, Dmytro V.; Starch, William L.; Jiang, Jianyi; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2017-02-01

    Superconducting joints are one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high-field, high-homogeneity magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance magnets in which persistent current mode operation is highly desired. In this study, a procedure for fabricating superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RWs during coil reaction was developed. Melting temperatures of Bi-2212 powder with different amounts of Ag addition were investigated by differential thermal analysis so as to provide information for selecting the proper joint matrix. Test joints of 1.3 mm dia. wires heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen using the typical partial melt Bi-2212 heat treatment (HT) had transport critical currents I c of ˜900 A at 4.2 K and self-field, decreasing to ˜480 A at 14 T evaluated at 0.1 μV cm-1 at 4.2 K. Compared to the I c of the open-ended short conductor samples with identical 1 bar HT, the I c values of the superconducting joint are ˜20% smaller than that of conductor samples measured in parallel field but ˜20% larger than conductor samples measured in perpendicular field. Microstructures examined by scanning electron microscopy clearly showed the formation of a superconducting Bi-2212 interface between the two Bi-2212 RWs. Furthermore, a Bi-2212 RW closed-loop solenoid with a superconducting joint heat treated in 1 bar flowing oxygen showed an estimated joint resistance below 5 × 10-12 Ω based on its field decay rate. This value is sufficiently low to demonstrate the potential for persistent operation of large inductance Bi-2212 coils.

  1. Effect of heat input on microstructure and properties of welded joint in magnesium alloy AZ31B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 苗玉刚; 宋刚; 梁国俐

    2004-01-01

    Using the optical microscope, tensile test machine and micro-hardness meter, the effect of heat input on the microstructure and mechanical properties in fusion welding joints of AZ31B wrought alloys was investigated systematically, the mechanism on joint properties losing was analyzed, and a valid method to improve joint properties of the magnesium alloy fusion welding was explored. The results show that the heat input has an obvious effect on the microstructure and properties. Under the condition of penetration, with the heat input decreasing, the crystal grain in the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) becomes fine, the width of HAZ becomes obviously narrow, and the molding of the weld is improved, so the tensile strength and elongation are increased and the hardness of joints is improved. When the heat input reaches 60 J/mm, the high quality joints can be gained.

  2. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of TIG and FSW Joints of a New Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guofu; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Dan; Deng, Ying; Lu, Liying; Yin, Zhimin

    2016-04-01

    A new Al-5.8%Mg-0.4%Mn-0.25%Sc-0.10%Zr (wt.%) alloy was successfully welded by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and friction stir welding (FSW) techniques, respectively. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and microscopy methods. The results show that the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to failure are 358, 234 MPa, and 27.6% for TIG welded joint, and 376, 245 MPa and 31.9% for FSW joint, respectively, showing high strength and superior ductility. The TIG welded joint fails in the heat-affected zone and the fracture of FSW joint is located in stirred zone. Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy is characterized by lots of dislocation tangles and secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) particles. The superior mechanical properties of the TIG and FSW joints are mainly derived from the Orowan strengthening and grain boundary strengthening caused by secondary coherent Al3(Sc,Zr) nano-particles (20-40 nm). For new Al-Mg-Mn-Sc-Zr alloy, the positive effect from secondary Al3(Sc, Zr) particles in the base metal can be better preserved in FSW joint than in TIG welded joint.

  3. X-ray online detection for laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Bu, Xing; Qin, Tao; Yu, Haisong; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-05-01

    In order to detect weld defects in laser welding T-joint of Al-Li alloy, a real-time X-ray image system is set up for quality inspection. Experiments on real-time radiography procedure of the weldment are conducted by using this system. Twin fillet welding seam radiographic arrangement is designed according to the structural characteristics of the weldment. The critical parameters including magnification times, focal length, tube current and tube voltage are studied to acquire high quality weld images. Through the theoretical and data analysis, optimum parameters are settled and expected digital images are captured, which is conductive to automatic defect detection.

  4. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  5. Optimisation of the rivet joints of the CFRP composite material and aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czulak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The project included analysis of strain, cracking, and failure of riveted joints of plate elements madefrom the carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP and from the 6061 aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The modelled static tensile strength test carried out for the plates from CFRPand from the 6061 aluminium alloy joined with the steel rivet. Computer simulation was carried out with IDEASsoftware package employing the FEM.Findings: Simulations using the mesh with a bigger number of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy ofcalculations and do not improve convergence with the results of laboratory experiments. Only the calculationtime gets longer. Computer simulation has also show that the type of contacts employed between elementsaffects the results significantly.Research limitations/implications: For the composite materials, joints between materials and computersimulation examinations are planed.Practical implications: Results obtained for the mesh with 4 and 5 FEM elements are the closest to the resultsof laboratory experiments, which is confirmed by the strain plot. Simulations using the mesh with a biggernumber of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy of calculations and do not improve convergence with theresults of laboratory experiments. Only the calculation time gets longer. Computer simulation has show that thetype of contacts employed between elements affects the results significantly.Originality/value: The paper presents influence of fibre mesh closeness on convergence of the results with laboratorytests. Simulation results were collected and compared with the laboratory static tensile strength tests results.

  6. The relationship between the super plasticity of laser welding joint of titanium alloy and hydrogen treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zean; Cheng, Donghai; Jiang, Xunyan; Hu, Dean; Chen, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    The superplastic deformation uniformity of laser welded joint of TC4 titanium alloy is improved by hydrogen treatment. The non-uniform deformation coefficient K was introduced to quantification ally characterize the non-uniform deformation. The results show when the content of hydrogen exceeds 0.29%, the super plasticity of the titanium alloy welded plate decreases with the increase of the hydrogen content. The decrease of the shrinkage of the base material is larger than that of the weld section with the increase of hydrogen content. The K can be used to describe the non-uniform deformation of the weld and the base material during the superplastic deformation of laser welded joint of the TC4. The K value increases with increaseing hydrogen content, increaseing deformation temperature and decreaseing strain rate. The K value reaches the maximum of 0.84 with hydrogen content of 1.299%, deformation temperature of 920 °C, strain rate of 10-4S-1.

  7. Fatigue crack initiation for Al-Zn-Mg alloy welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHANG; Xuesong LIU; Linsen WANG; Ping WANG; Hongyuan FANG

    2012-01-01

    To investigate fatigue crack initiation characteristics of A1-Zn-Mg alloy welded joint,notched specimens were used in fatigue test for the base metal,welding bead and heat affected zone (HAZ).The fatigue fracture surface near the fatigue crack initiation site was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The results show that the differences of fatigue crack initiation life among base metal,welding bead and HAZ are not obvious.Inhomogeneity in microstructure and mechanical performance of HAZ influences the fatigue crack initiation life.The ratio of fatigue crack initiation life (Ni) to fatigue failure life (Nf) for the base metal,welding bead and HAZ of A7N01 aluminium alloy welded joint are 26.32%,40.21% and 60.67%,respectively.Fatigue crack initiation life can be predicted using a uniform model.Observation of fatigue fracture surfaces shows that for the welding bead a fatigue crack initiates from the smooth surface due to the welding process,the blowhole in HAZ causes fatigue crack and the crushed second phase particles play an important role in fatigue crack initiation for the base metal.

  8. Towards the problem of forming full strength welded joints on aluminum alloy sheets. Part II: AA7475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Tatiana; Tarasov, Sergey; Eliseev, Alexander; Fortuna, Anastasiya

    2016-11-01

    The microstructural evolution in welded joint zones obtained both by friction stir welding and ultrasonic- assisted friction stir welding on dispersion hardened 7475 aluminum alloy has been examined together with the analysis of mechanical strength and microhardness. It was established that ultrasonic-assisted friction stir provided leveled microhardness profiles across the weld zones as well as higher joint strength as compared to those of standard friction stir welding.

  9. Effect of Stress Relief Annealing on Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Between Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivas, R.; Das, G.; Das, S. K.; Mahato, B.; Kumar, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Singh, P. K.; Ghosh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of welded joints were prepared using low alloy carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel as base materials. In one variety, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 82. In another type, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 182. In case of Inconel 82, method of welding was GTAW. For Inconel 182, welding was done by SMAW technique. For one set of each joints after buttering, stress relief annealing was done at 923 K (650 °C) for 90 minutes before further joining with weld metal. Microstructural investigation and sub-size in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscope were carried out for buttered-welded and buttered-stress relieved-welded specimens. Adjacent to fusion boundary, heat-affected zone of low alloy steel consisted of ferrite-pearlite phase combination. Immediately after fusion boundary in low alloy steel side, there was increase in matrix grain size. Same trend was observed in the region of austenitic stainless steel that was close to fusion boundary between weld metal-stainless steel. Close to interface between low alloy steel-buttering material, the region contained martensite, Type-I boundary and Type-II boundary. Peak hardness was obtained close to fusion boundary between low alloy steel and buttering material. In this respect, a minimum hardness was observed within buttering material. The peak hardness was shifted toward buttering material after stress relief annealing. During tensile testing no deformation occurred within low alloy steel and failure was completely through buttering material. Crack initiated near fusion boundary between low alloy steel-buttering material for welded specimens and the same shifted away from fusion boundary for stress relieved annealed specimens. This observation was at par with the characteristics of microhardness profile. In as welded condition, joints fabricated with Inconel 82 exhibited superior bond strength than the weld produced with Inconel 182. Stress relief annealing

  10. Al and Si Alloying Effect on Solder Joint Reliability in Sn-0.5Cu for Automotive Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won Sik; Oh, Chulmin; Kim, Mi-Song; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Hui Joong; Hong, Sung Jae; Moon, Jeong Tak

    2016-08-01

    To suppress the bonding strength degradation of solder joints in automotive electronics, we proposed a mid-temperature quaternary Pb-free Sn-0.5Cu solder alloy with minor Pd, Al, Si and Ge alloying elements. We manufactured powders and solder pastes of Sn-0.5Cu-(0.01,0.03)Al-0.005Si-(0.006-0.007)Ge alloys (T m = 230°C), and vehicle electronic control units used for a flame-retardant-4 printed circuit board with an organic solderability preservative finish were assembled by a reflow soldering process. To investigate the degradation properties of solder joints used in engine compartments, thermal cycling tests were conducted from -40°C to 125°C (10 min dwell) for 1500 cycles. We also measured the shear strength of the solder joints in various components and observed the microstructural evolution of the solder joints. Based on these results, intermetallic compound (IMC) growth at the solder joints was suppressed by minor Pd, Al and Si additions to the Sn-0.5Cu alloy. After 1500 thermal cycles, IMC layers thicknesses for 100 parts per million (ppm) and 300 ppm Al alloy additions were 6.7 μm and 10 μm, compared to the as-reflowed bonding thicknesses of 6 μm and 7 μm, respectively. Furthermore, shear strength degradation rates for 100 ppm and 300 ppm Al(Si) alloy additions were at least 19.5%-26.2%. The cause of the improvement in thermal cycling reliability was analyzed using the (Al,Cu)-Sn, Si-Sn and Al-Sn phases dispersed around the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic at the solder matrix and bonding interfaces. From these results, we propose the possibility of a mid-temperature Sn-0.5Cu(Pd)-Al(Si)-Ge Pb-free solder for automotive engine compartment electronics.

  11. Intermediate layer, microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy/stainless steel butt joint using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongtao; Wan, Zhandong; Li, Yuanxing; Xue, Junyu; Hui, Chen

    2017-07-01

    Butt joining of AA6061 aluminum (Al) alloy and 304 stainless steel of 2-mm thickness was conducted using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method with ER4043 filler metal. To promote the mechanical properties of the welding-brazing joints, two kinds of intermediate layers (Al-Si-Mg alloy and Ag-based alloy) are used to adjust the microstructures of the joints. The brazing interface and the tensile strength of the joints were characterized. The results showed that the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel consisted of double layers of Fe2Al5 (near stainless steel) and Fe4Al13 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a total thickness of 3.7 μm, when using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The brazing interface of the joints using Ag-based alloy as intermediate layer also consists of double IMC layers, but the first layer near stainless steel was FeAl2 and the total thickness of these two IMC layers decreased to 3.1 μm. The tensile strength of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer was promoted to 149 MPa, which was 63 MPa higher than that of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The fractures occurred in the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel.

  12. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2011-09-28

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55 C/+125 C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  13. Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of 7050-T7451 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Wang, T.; Zhou, W. L.; Li, Z. Y.; Huang, Y. X.; Feng, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    The ultra-high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, 7050-T7451, was friction stir welded at a constant tool rotation speed of 600 rpm. Defect-free welds were successfully obtained at a welding speed of 100 mm/min, but lack-of-penetration defect was formed at a welding speed of 400 mm/min. The as-received material was mainly composed of coarse-deformed grains with some fine recrystallized grains. Fine equiaxed, dynamic, recrystallized grains were developed in the stir zone, and elongated grains were formed in the thermomechanically affected zone with dynamic recovered subgrains. Grain sizes in different regions of friction stir-welded joints varied depending on the welding speed. The sizes and distributions of precipitates changed in different regions of the joint, and wider precipitation free zone was developed in the heat-affected zone compared to that in the base material. Hardness of the heat-affected zone was obviously lower than that of the base material, and the softening region width was related to the welding speed. The tensile strength of the defect-free joints increased with the increasing welding speed, while the lack-of-penetration defect greatly reduced the tensile strength. The tensile fracture path was significantly influenced by the position and orientation of lack-of-penetration defect.

  14. Comparison of brazed joints made with BNi-1 and BNi-7 nickel-base brazing alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorc, Borut

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of the processes are different with different types of brazing alloys. Precipitation processes in the parent metal close to the brazing gap are of great importance. They control the mechanical properties of the joint area when the brittle eutectic has disappeared from the gap. A comparative study of brazed joints on austenitic stainless alloys made with BNi-7 (Ni-P type and BNi-1 (Ni-Si-B type brazing alloys was made. Brazing alloys containing phosphorus behave in a different manner to those containing boron.

    Las aleaciones de níquel se producen mediante tres sistemas de aleación: Ni-P, Ni-Si y Ni-B. Durante las reacciones metalúrgicas con el metal de base, la eutéctica frágil en la separación soldada puede transformarse en la solución dúctil-sólida con todas aleaciones. La cinética del proceso varía según el tipo de aleación. Los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la separación soldada son de mucha importancia, ya que controlan las propiedades mecánicas de la área de unión después de desaparecer la eutéctica frágil de la separación. Se ha hecho un análisis comparativo de uniones soldadas en aleaciones austeníticas inoxidables realizadas con aleaciones BNi-7 (tipo Ni-P y BNi-1 (tipo Ni-Si-B. Las aleaciones que contienen fósforo se comportan de una manera diferente, tanto con el cambio de la eutéctica a la solución sólida, como con los procesos de precipitación en el metal de base cerca de la unión soldada.

  15. Identifying Combination of Friction Stir Welding Parameters to Maximize Strength of Lap Joints of AA2014-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrana C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA2014 aluminum alloy (Al-Cu alloy has been widely utilized in fabrication of lightweight structures like aircraft structures, demanding high strength to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. The fusion welding of these alloys will lead to solidification problems such as hot cracking. Friction stir welding is a new solid state welding process, in which the material being welded does not melt and recast. Lot of research works have been carried out by many researchers to optimize process parameters and establish empirical relationships to predict tensile strength of friction stir welded butt joints of aluminum alloys. However, very few investigations have been carried out on friction stir welded lap joints of aluminum alloys. Hence, in this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize friction stir lap welding (FSLW parameters to attain maximum tensile strength using statistical tools such as design of experiment (DoE, analysis of variance (ANOVA, response graph and contour plots. By this method, it is found that maximum tensile shear fracture load of 12.76 kN can be achieved if a joint is made using tool rotational speed of 900 rpm, welding speed of 110 mm/min, tool shoulder diameter of 12 mm and tool tilt angle of 1.5°.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Tension Properties for Al-Cu Alloy Friction Stir-Welded Joints with GTN Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Qin; Sun, Feng-Yang; Cao, Fang-Li; Chen, Shu-Jun; Barkey, Mark E.

    2015-11-01

    The numerical simulation of tensile fracture behavior on Al-Cu alloy friction stir-welded joint was performed with the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage model. The parameters of the GTN model were studied in each region of the friction stir-welded joint by means of inverse identification. Based on the obtained parameters, the finite element model of the welded joint was built to predict the fracture behavior and tension properties. Good agreement can be found between the numerical and experimental results in the location of the tensile fracture and the mechanical properties.

  17. The environmentally-assisted cracking behaviour in the transition region of nickel-base alloy/low-alloy steel dissimilar weld joints under simulated BWR conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S.; Seifert, H.P.; Leber, H.J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Lab for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour perpendicular to the fusion line in the transition region between the Alloy 182 nickel-base weld metal and the adjacent low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel of simulated dissimilar metal weld joints was investigated under boiling water reactor normal water chemistry conditions at different stress intensities and chloride concentrations. A special emphasis was placed to the question whether a fast growing inter-dendritic SCC crack in the highly susceptible Alloy 182 weld metal can easily cross the fusion line and significantly propagate into the adjacent low-alloy RPV steel. Cessation of inter-dendritic stress corrosion crack growth was observed in high-purity or sulphate-containing oxygenated water under periodical partial unloading or constant loading conditions with stress intensity factors below 60 MPa-m{sup 1/2} for those parts of the crack front, which reached the fusion line. In chloride containing water, on the other hand, the inter-dendritic stress corrosion crack in the Alloy 182 weld metal very easily crossed the fusion line and further propagated with a very high growth rate as a transgranular crack into the heat-affected zone and base material of the adjacent low-alloy steel. (authors)

  18. Optimization of parameters and study of joint microstructure of resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yarong; Zhang Zhongdian; Li Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the DC spot welding of Mg alloy AZ31B are presented. Experiments are carried out to study the influence of spot welding parameters (electrode force, welding heat input and welding time) on the tensile shear load and the diameter of nugget, based on an orthogonal test and analysis method. The optimum parameters are as follows:electrode force is 2 000 N, welding heat input is 80% and welding time is 6 cycles. The microstructure of spot weld is single fine equiaxed crystals in the nugget, of which the structure is β-Mg17Al12 precipitated on α-Mg boundaries induced by nonequilibrium freezing. And the surface condition of the workpiece has great influence on the joint quality.

  19. Special Features of Fracture of a Solid-State Titanium Alloy - Nickel - Stainless Steel Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazgaliev, R. G.; Mukhametrakhimov, M. Kh.; Imaev, M. F.; Shayakhmetov, R. U.; Mulyukov, R. R.

    2015-10-01

    Microstructure, nanohardness, and special features of fracture of three-phase titanium alloy and stainless steel joint through a nanostructural nickel foil are investigated. Uniformly distributed microcracks are observed in Ti2Ni and TiN3 layers joined at temperatures above T = 700°C, whereas no microcracks are observed in the TiNi layer. This suggests that the reason for microcracking is an anomalously large change in the linear expansion coefficient of the TiNi layer during austenitic-martensitic transformation. Specimens subjected to mechanical tests at T = 20°C are fractured along different layers of the material, namely, in the central part of the specimen they are fractured along the Ti2Тi/TiNi interface, whereas at the edge they are fractured along the TiNi/TiNi3 interface.

  20. Joint performance of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-bin; MIAO Yu-gang; LI Li-qun; WU Lin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy was investigated. The results show that the weld cross-sectional shape has an intimate relation with the mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds. The symmetrical "X" cross-section possesses a relatively higher tensile strength and elongation than the others, about 91% and 58% of those of base metal, respectively. The good weld profiles and free defects are responsible for the improvement of tensile properties. Due to low hardness of the fusion zone, this region is the weakest area in the tensile test and much easier to fracture. The loss of Mg element is responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of the joints. The microstructure of "X" cross-section has an obvious difference along the direction of weld depth, and that of the "H" cross-section is consistent and coarse.

  1. Equalization of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy welded joint by scanning electron beam welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The equalization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded joint with base metal on corrosion resistance, strength and ductility was studied. The solidification microstructure is transformed from 650 μm columnar grains to 100 μm equiaxed grains by scanning electron beam welding. The anodic polarization curve of 150 μm equiaxed grains coincides with that of base metal. Equal corrosion resistance between weld metal and base metal was ob tained. Uniform microstructure and solutedistribution are the basis of equalization. Corrosion rate of weld with 150 μm equiaxed grains is the lowest, 2.45 times lower than that of 650 μm columnar grains. Weld strength is 98% as much as that of base metal, yield-strength ratio is 99.5%, which is 3.6% higher than that of base metal.

  2. Joint performance of CO2 laser beam welding 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Junfeng; Zhang Dongyun; Xiao Rongshi; Chen Kai; Zuo Tiechuan

    2007-01-01

    Laser beam welding of aluminum alloys is expected to offer good mechanical properties of welded joints. In this experimental work reported, CO2 laser beam autogenous welding and wire feed welding are conducted on 4mm thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy sheets at different welding variables. The mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics of the welds are evaluated through tensile tests, micro-hardness tests, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that both the tensile strength and hardness of laser beam welds are affected by the constitution of filler material, except the yield strength. The soften region of laser beam welds is not in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The tensile fracture of laser beam welded specimens takes place in the weld zone and close to the weld boundary because of different filler materials. Some pores are found on the fracture face, including hydrogen porosities and blow holes, but these pores have no influence on the tensile strength of laser beam welds. Tensile strength values of laser beam welds with filler wire are up to 345.57MPa, 93% of base material values, and yield strengths of laser beam welds are equivalent to those of base metal (264.50MPa).

  3. Comparative analysis of the friction stir welded aluminum-magnesium alloy joint grain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Sizova, O. V.; Novitskaya, O. S.

    2015-10-01

    A comparative test of the friction stir welded aluminum-magnesium alloy joint microstructure for plates of a different thickness was carried out. Finding out the structuring regularities in the weld nugget zone, that is the strongest zone of the weld, the effects of temperature-deformational conditions on the promotion of a metal structure refinement mechanism under friction stir welding can be determined. In this research friction stir welded rolled plates of an AMg5M alloy; 5 and 8 mm thick were investigated. Material fine structure pictures of the nugget zone were used to identify and measure subgrain and to define a second phase location. By means of optical microscopy it was shown that the fine-grained structure developed in the nugget zone. The grain size was 5 flm despite the thickness of the plates. In the sample 5.0 mm thick grains were coaxial, while in the sample 8.0 mm thick grains were elongate at a certain angle to the tool travel direction.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints of AA6105 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Dorta-Almenara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW is one of the most used methods to weld aluminum. This work investigates the influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA6105 aluminum alloy joints. AA6105 alloy plates with different percent values of cold work were joined by GTAW, using various combinations of welding current and speed. The fusion zone, in which the effects of cold work have disappeared, and the heat affected zone of the welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes, additionally, mechanical tests and measures of Vickers microhardness were performed. Results showed dendritic morphology with solute micro- and macrosegregation in the fusion zone, which is favored by the constitutional supercooling when heat input increases. When heat input increased and welding speed increased or remained constant, greater segregation was obtained, whereas welding speed decrease produced a coarser microstructure. In the heat affected zone recrystallization, dissolution, and coarsening of precipitates occurred, which led to variations in hardness and strength.

  5. Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir Welded Cast LM6 Aluminium Alloy Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Jayaraman; R.Sivasubramanian; V. Balasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of friction stir welding (FSW) process parameters on tensile strength of cast LM6 aluminium alloy. Joints were made by using different combinations of tool rotation speed, welding speed and axial force each at four levels. The quality of weld zone was investigated using macrostructure and microstructure analysis. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure. The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 900 r/min, a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 3 kN showed superior tensile strength compared with other joints. The tensile strength and microhardness of the welded joints for the optimum conditions were 166 MPa and 64.8 Hv respectively.

  6. Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded Joint Of Two Similar &Dissimilar Al-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Das,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is an advance joining process for different similar and dissimilar materials. It is commonly used for joining of Aluminum alloys. However it is necessary to overcome some challenges for its wide-spread uses. Tool design and the selection of process parameters are critical issues in the usage of this process. This study focuses on the process parameters that is required for producing effective friction stir welding of two similar aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 to AA6101T6 and dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 alloy to AA6351T6 . Three different tool diameters such as 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm with three different tool rotational speeds such as 600 rpm, 800 rpm and 1200 rpm have been used to weld the joints. The welded samples were tested for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. It was observed that 30 mm tool gives better weld quality for friction stir welding of similar aluminum alloy but 25 mm tool with 1200 rpm rotational speed gave satisfactory weld quality for friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. It is one of the important welding process that can adopted for welding of aluminum alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  7. Characteristics of AZ31 Mg alloy joint using automatic TIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-tao; Zhou, Ji-xue; Zhao, Dong-qing; Liu, Yun-teng; Wu, Jian-hua; Yang, Yuan-sheng; Ma, Bai-chang; Zhuang, Hai-hua

    2017-01-01

    The automatic tungsten-inert gas welding (ATIGW) of AZ31 Mg alloys was performed using a six-axis robot. The evolution of the microstructure and texture of the AZ31 auto-welded joints was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. The ATIGW process resulted in coarse recrystallized grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and epitaxial growth of columnar grains in the fusion zone (FZ). Substantial changes of texture between the base material (BM) and the FZ were detected. The {0002} basal plane in the BM was largely parallel to the sheet rolling plane, whereas the c-axis of the crystal lattice in the FZ inclined approximately 25° with respect to the welding direction. The maximum pole density increased from 9.45 in the BM to 12.9 in the FZ. The microhardness distribution, tensile properties, and fracture features of the AZ31 auto-welded joints were also investigated.

  8. Analysis on the joint tensile strength and fractography of TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵熹华; 韩立军; 赵蕾

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies mechanical property and fractography of the welded joints obtained in different welding parameters such as welding heat and welding press with/without gas shield in TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding using tensile strength test, XRD, SEM and TEM measures. The optimum welding parameters obtaining high tensile strength welded joint are got. On the condition of welding press magneting current 2 A and welding heat 75%, the joint strength is the highest. This is important for to study other properties of TiNi shape memory alloy further. The experimental results state that argon gas shield have different effects on different welding parameters, less on welding press, but great on welding heat. But excessive welding press and welding heat have great effects on joint tensile strength. Too high welding heat can produce the new intermetallic compound, this intermetallic compound lead to dislocation density to increase and form the potential crack initiation, which can easily make the joint fracture under stress effect and decrease the shape memory ratio of joint for high density dislocation groups existing in the twinned martensite.

  9. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical property of aluminum alloy/stainless steel lap joints fabricated by MIG welding-brazing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongtao, E-mail: hitzht@yahoo.com.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Liu Jiakun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2011-07-25

    Highlights: {yields} Wrought aluminum and stainless steel was joined with welding-brazing process. {yields} Effect of different layers on spreadability of molten filler metal was examined. {yields} Mechanical property of the joints with different heat inputs was investigated. {yields} Microstructure of the joints were also studied by OM, SEM and TEM. {yields} Phase composition was ascertained by diffraction spot and XRD analysis. - Abstract: Lap joints of aluminum alloy 2B50 and stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were welded by MIG welding-brazing method with 4043 Al-Si filler metal. The effect of aluminizing coating and galvanized zinc coating on fusion metal spreadability were studied. The aluminized coating had limited effect to promote weld surface appearance and obvious micro-cracks were found between the compound layer and the steel side. The fracture in tensile tests occurred at the interfacial layer of the weld with a low tensile strength about 60 MPa. Joints between aluminum alloy and galvanized steel had good surface appearances and the intermetallic compound in fusion zone region close to joint interface was Al{sub 4.5}FeSi. The thickness of the intermetallic compound layer varied from about 5 {mu}m to 15 {mu}m depending on the heat input and the highest tensile strength of lap joint could reached 193.6 MPa when the heat input is 0.846 KJ/cm.

  10. Cost Estimate for Molybdenum and Tantalum Refractory Metal Alloy Flow Circuit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert R.; Martin, James J.; Schmidt, George R.; Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bryhan, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission-Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been tasked by the Naval Reactors Prime Contract Team (NRPCT) to provide a cost and delivery rough order of magnitude estimate for a refractory metal-based lithium (Li) flow circuit. The design is based on the stainless steel Li flow circuit that is currently being assembled for an NRPCT task underway at the EFF-TF. While geometrically the flow circuit is not representative of a final flight prototype, knowledge has been gained to quantify (time and cost) the materials, manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, and operations to produce a testable configuration. This Technical Memorandum (TM) also identifies the following key issues that need to be addressed by the fabrication process: Alloy selection and forming, cost and availability, welding, bending, machining, assembly, and instrumentation. Several candidate materials were identified by NRPCT including molybdenum (Mo) alloy (Mo-47.5 %Re), tantalum (Ta) alloys (T-111, ASTAR-811C), and niobium (Nb) alloy (Nb-1 %Zr). This TM is focused only on the Mo and Ta alloys, since they are of higher concern to the ongoing effort. The initial estimate to complete a Mo-47%Re system ready for testing is =$9,000k over a period of 30 mo. The initial estimate to complete a T-111 or ASTAR-811C system ready for testing is =$12,000k over a period of 36 mo.

  11. Effect of filler wire on the joint properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys using CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding with filler wire of AZ31 magnesium alloys is investigated using a CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of three different filler wires on the joint properties is researched. The results show that the weld appearance can be effectively improved when using laser welding with filler wire. The microhardness and tensile strength of joints are almost the same as those of the base metal when ER AZ31 or ER AZ61 wire is adopted. However, when the filler wire of ER 5356 aluminum alloy is used, the mechanical properties of joints become worse. For ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 filler wires, the microstructure of weld zone shows small dendrite grains. In comparison, for ER 5356 filler wire, the weld shows a structure of snowy dendrites and many intermetallic compounds and eutectic phases distribute in the dendrites. These intermetallic constituents with low melting point increase the tendency of hot crack and result in fragile joint properties. Therefore, ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 wire are more suitable filler material than ER 5356 for CO2 laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys.

  12. Brazing technology of Ti alloy/stainless steel dissimilar metal joint at system integrated modular advanced reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sang Chul; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Yong Wan; Kim, Jong In

    2001-02-01

    For the technoldogy development of brazing Ti alloy to stainless steel joints used at SMART, the status of brazing technology development, brazing processes, and the brazing technology of Ti alloy and stainless steel are reviewed. Because fusion welding process cannot be applied due to the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, brazing joint was selected at the design. The joint part is assembled with a thread composed with male part of Ti alloy tube and female part of stainless tube. The gap in the thread will be filled with brazing filler metal. However, brittle Ti-Fe intermetallic compounds are formed at the surface of stainless steel through the diffusion of Ti at the melt. Brazing conditions should be set-up to reduce the formation of intermetallic compounds. For that, 3 kinds of Ag filler metals were selected as the candidates and heating will be done with induction and electric furnaces. Through measuring of joint strength according to the control of pre- and post-braze treatment, heating rate and heating time, optimal brazing method will be fixed. To qualify the brazing procedure and performance and to check defects in final product, the inspection plan will be established according to the req2wuirements of AWS and ASME.

  13. Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Microstructural Evolution and Joint Efficiency of a WE43 Alloy During Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A FEI Nova NanoSEM 230 (20 kV, 3.1 mA, tilting 70o, 0.3 μm step size) was used to record the EBSD patterns for stir zone. The Vickers microhardness ... Microhardness data for as processed and PWHT samples. 4. Conclusions The effect of processing conditions on the joint efficiency of a T5 temper WE43 alloy...texture on fracture location in friction stir weld of Mg alloy AZ61 during tensile test ,” Scripta Materialia 49 (2003), 161–166. 8. Z.Y. Ma, A.L

  14. Corrosion resistance of the soldering joint of post-soldering of palladium-based metal-ceramic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, E; Sakurai, Y; Oda, Y

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the corrosion resistance of post soldering of metal-ceramic alloys, four commercially available palladium-system metal-ceramic alloys (Pd-Cu, Pd-Ni, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Sb systems) and two types of solder (12 k gold solder and 16 k gold solder) with different compositions and melting points were used. The corrosion resistance of the soldered joint was evaluated by anodic polarization. The electrochemical characteristics of soldered surface were measured using electrochemical equipment. Declines in corrosion resistance were not detectable with Pd-Cu, Pd-Ag and Pd-Sb types, but break down at low potential occurred with Pd-Ni type.

  15. Microstructure and fracture behavior of SiO_2 glass ceramic and TC4 alloy joint brazed with TiZrNiCu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Duo; ZHANG Li-xia; FENG Ji-cai; LIU Hong-bin; HE Peng

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum brazing of SiO_2 glass ceramic and TC4 alloy using a commercially available TiZrNiCu foil was investigated. The interfaciai microstructure and the fractures were examined with an optical microscope (OM) and an S-4700 scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and an electron probe X-ray microanalyzer (EPMA). The structure of joint interface was identified by XRD (JDX-3530M). Meanwhile, the fracture paths of the joints were comprehensively studied. The results show that processing parameters, especially the brazing temperature, have a significant effect on the microstructurc and mechanical properties of joints. The typical interface structure is SiO_2/Ti_2O+Zr_3Si_2+Ti_5Si_3/(Ti,Zr)+Ti_2O+ TiZrNiCu/Ti(s.s)/TiZrNiCu+Ti(s.s)+Ti_2(Cu,Ni)/TC4 from SiO_2 glass ceramic to TC4 alloy side. Based on the mechanical property tests, the joints brazed at 880℃ for 5 min has the maximum shear strength of 23 MPa.

  16. Microstructure and Strength of Brazed Joints of Ti3Al Base Alloy with Cu-P Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng HE; Jicai FENG; Heng ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Brazing of Ti3Al alloys with the filler metal Cu-P was carried out at 1173~1273 K for 60~1800 s. When products are brazed, the optimum brazing parameters are as follows: brazing temperature is 1215~1225 K; brazing time is 250~300 s. Four kinds of reaction products were observed during the brazing of Ti3Al alloys with the filler metal Cu-P, i.e., Ti3Al phase with a small quantity of Cu (Ti3Al(Cu)) formed close to the Ti3Al alloy; the TiCu intermetallic compounds layer and the Cu3P intermetallic compounds layer formed between Ti3Al(Cu) and the filler metal, and a Cu-base solid solution formed with the dispersed Cu3P in the middle of the joint. The interfacial structure of brazed Ti3Al alloys joints with the filler metal Cu-P is Ti3Al/Ti3Al(Cu)/TiCu/Cu3P/Cu solid solution (Cu3P)/Cu3P/TiCu/Ti3Al(Cu)/Ti3Al, and this structure will not change with brazing time once it forms. The thickness of TiCu+Cu3P intermetallic compounds increases with brazing time according to a parabolic law. The activation energy Q and the growth velocity K0 of reaction layer TiCu+Cu3P in the brazed joints of Ti3Al alloys with the filler metal Cu-P are 286 k J/mol and 0.0821 m2/s, respectively, and growth formula was y2=0.0821exp(-34421.59/T)t.Careful control of the growth for the reaction layer TiCu+Cu3P can influence the final joint strength. The formation of the intermetallic compounds TiCu+Cu3P results in embrittlement of the joint and poor joint properties. The Cu-P filler metal is not fit for obtaining a high-quality joint of Ti3Al brazed.

  17. Effect of adding powder on joint properties of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D. W.; Liu, J. S.; Lu, Y. Z.; Xu, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    The experiments of laser penetration welding for dual phase steel and aluminum alloy were carried out, and the effect of adding Mn or Si powder on mechanical properties and microstructure of the weld was investigated. Some defects, such as spatter, inclusion, cracks and softening in heat affected zone (HAZ), can be avoided in welding joints, and the increased penetration depth is obtained by adding Mn or Si powder. The average tensile-shear strength of Si-added joint is 3.84% higher than that of Mn-added joint, and the strength of both joints exceeds that of no-added joint. In the case of adding Mn powder, small amount of liquid Al is mixed into steel molten pool, and the Al content increases in both sides of the weld, which leads to the increased weld width in aluminum molten pool. Thus, transverse area increases in jointing steel to aluminum, which is significant for the improved tensile-shear strength of joints. As far as adding Si powder is concerned, it is not the case, the enhancement of the joint properties benefits from improvement of metallurgical reaction.

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 6063 Aluminum Alloy Brazed Joints with Al-Si-Cu-Ni-RE Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Bao, Yefeng; Jiang, Yongfeng; Zhu, Hong

    2011-11-01

    A new low melting point filler metal, Al-Si-Cu-Ni-RE, was developed for the furnace brazing of aluminum alloy 6063. Flux-assisted brazing was conducted at 560 °C using the new filler metal and AlF3-CsF-KF flux. Microstructure of the brazed joints were studied by means of SEM, TEM, and EDS. Shear strength and micro-Vickers hardness of joints had been tested. Results show that sound joints could be obtained with the filler metal and the flux. Microstructure characterization of the brazed joint shows dendritic CuAl2 phase was distributed evenly and Si-phase was spheroidized and refined, which was embedded in CuAl2 dendrites with modification of rare-earth element. Shear strength test results show that the joints with Al-Si-Cu-Ni-RE filler metal achieved average shear strength of 62.5 MPa, 14.5% more than the shear strength of brazed joints with Chinese HL401 filler metal. The micro-Vickers hardness of joint after T6 treatment is about 83 HV. The hardness of the joints after just brazing and after solution treatment was higher than the hardness of the base metal.

  19. Effects of arc-ultrasonic on pores distribution and tensile property in TIG welding joints of MGH956 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qiang, E-mail: zhuqiang@ujs.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Lei, Yu-cheng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Bo; Ye, Yi-min [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-12-15

    MGH956, a kind of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, which is considered as candidate structural material for advanced nuclear systems because of its excellent radiation resistance and high-temperature capability. However, pores in fusion welding joints seriously reduced the quality and performance of the joint and structure. Arc-ultrasonic technology was applied in this research in order to prevent pores and improve tensile strength. The results showed that the excitation current of arc-ultrasonic has great effect on the pores distribution and tensile property. When it is increased to 20 A or 30 A, few pores are in the joint and the tensile strength (about 550 MPa) is also improved. When the arc-ultrasonic frequency decreased from 60 kHz to 30 kHz, bubbles floated outside more easily, the tensile strength is increased to about 543 MPa. But arc-ultrasonic has little influence on weld joints microhardness change.

  20. Influences of size and position of defects on the fatigue life of electron beam welded-aluminum alloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li; ZHAO Haiyan; CAI Zhipeng; CUI Xiaofang

    2007-01-01

    Defects such as pores influence the fatigue life of electron beam-welded aluminum alloy joints. In this paper,the influences of pore size and position on the fatigue life of aluminum overlap joint are studied. A finite element model (FEM), combined with experimental data, is established to evaluate the fatigue life of overlap joints. By employing this FE model, the effects of pore size and position on fatigue lives of overlap joints are investigated and discussed. From the present study, when pore position is closer to the weld bead tip or the faying surface, the fatigue life decreases. Also, there is a critical size for the pore; when the pore size is larger than the critical value, the fatigue strength decreases sharply.

  1. Microstructure and strength of brazed joints of TiB2 cermet to TiAl-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 曹健

    2003-01-01

    In this study, TiB2 cermet and TiAl-based alloy are vacuum brazed successfully by using Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal. The microstructural analyses indicate that two reaction products, Ti(Cu, Al)2 and Ag based solid solution (Ag(s.s)), are present in the brazing seam, and the interface structure of the brazed joint is TiB2/TiB2+ Ag(s.s) /Ag(s.s)+Ti(Cu, Al)2/Ti(Cu, Al)2/TiAl. The experimental results show that the shear strength of the brazed TiB2/TiAl joints decreases as the brazing time increases at a definite brazing temperature. When the joint is brazed at 1 223 K for 5 min, a joint strength up to 173 MPa is achieved.

  2. Comparison of Extensive Thermal Cycling Effects on Microstructure Development in Micro-alloyed Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iver E.; Boesenberg, Adam; Harringa, Joel; Riegner, David; Steinmetz, Andrew; Hillman, David

    2012-02-01

    Pb-free solder alloys based on the Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) ternary eutectic have promise for widespread adoption across assembly conditions and operating environments, but enhanced microstructural control is needed. Micro-alloying with elements such as Zn was demonstrated for promoting a preferred solidification path and joint microstructure earlier in simple (Cu/Cu) solder joints studies for different cooling rates. This beneficial behavior now has been verified in reworked ball grid array (BGA) joints, using dissimilar SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, wt.%) solder paste. After industrial assembly, BGA components joined with Sn-3.5Ag-0.74Cu-0.21Zn solder were tested in thermal cycling (-55°C/+125°C) along with baseline SAC305 BGA joints beyond 3000 cycles with continuous failure monitoring. Weibull analysis of the results demonstrated that BGA components joined with SAC + Zn/SAC305 have less joint integrity than SAC305 joints, but their lifetime is sufficient for severe applications in consumer, defense, and avionics electronic product field environments. Failure analysis of the BGA joints revealed that cracking did not deviate from the typical top area (BGA component side) of each joint, in spite of different Ag3Sn blade content. Thus, SAC + Zn solder has not shown any advantage over SAC305 solder in these thermal cycling trials, but other characteristics of SAC + Zn solder may make it more attractive for use across the full range of harsh conditions of avionics or defense applications.

  3. Effects of post-weld heat treatment on dissimilar metal joint between aluminum alloy and stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Honggang, E-mail: donghg@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Liao Chuanqing; Yang Liqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116085 (China); Dong Chuang [Key Lab of Materials Modification, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116085 (China)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al alloy was joined to stainless steel with Zn-15Al flux-cored filler wire. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of post-weld heat treatment on joint performance were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of Zn-rich phases in the weld changed with PWHT conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fine Zn-rich phases uniformly distributed in the weld enhanced the joint strength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fractured surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were examined. - Abstract: Lap joining of 5A02 aluminum alloy to 304 stainless steel sheets was conducted by gas tungsten arc welding with Zn-15%Al flux-cored filler wire, and the effects of the temperature and duration time during post-weld heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the resultant joints were investigated. The experimental results show that the concentration and size of the Zn-rich phases in the weld, especially along the weld/steel interface, changed with different temperature and duration time, and consequently affected the joint strength. The fine Zn-rich phases uniformly distributed in the weld could enhance the joint strength; however, the coarse Zn-rich phases along the interfacial layer would degrade the bonding strength of the interfacial layer. The fractured surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were also examined.

  4. T-joints of Ti alloys with hybrid laser-MIG welding: macro-graphic and micro-hardness analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, R.; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.; Scintilla, L. D.; Brandizzi, M.; Satriano, A. A.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-03-01

    Titanium alloys are characterized by high mechanical properties and elevated corrosion resistance. The combination of laser welding with MIG/GMAW has proven to improve beneficial effects of both processes (keyhole, gap-bridging ability) while limiting their drawbacks (high thermal gradient, low mechanical resistance) In this paper, the hybrid Laser-GMAW welding of Ti-6Al-4V 3-mm thick sheets is investigated using a specific designed trailing shield. The joint geometry was the double fillet welded T-joint. Bead morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties (micro-hardness) of welds were evaluated and compared to those achieved for the base metals.

  5. Identification of mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kopas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of selected mechanical properties of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy. We will focus on the influence of the test bar neck shape on the tensile strength characteristics and the course of hardness in the weld joint cross-section. For the welding process using TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas technology we considered AlSi5 as the additive material. This paper also includes a short study of numerical modelling of the test bar welding.

  6. Microstructures and properties analysis of dissimilar metal joint in the friction stir welded copper to aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xijing; Zhang Zhongke; Da Chaobing; Li Jing

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly concentrated on the feasibility of friction stir welding of dissimilar metal of aluminum alloy to copper (T2) and a preliminary analysis of welding parameters influencing on the microstructures and properties of joint was carried out. The results indicated that the thickness of workpiece played an important role in the welding parameters which could succeed in the friction stir welding of dissimilar metal of copper to aluminum alloy, and the parameters were proved to be a narrow choice. The interfacial region between copper and aluminum in the dissimilar joint was not uniformly mixed, constituted with part of incomplete mixing zone, complete mixing zone, dispersion zone and the most region's boundary was obvious. Meantime a kind banded structure with inhomogeneous width was formed. The intermetallic compounds generated during friction stir welding in the interfacial region were mainly Cu9Al4 , Al2Cu etc, and their hardness was higher than others.

  7. Evaluation of the Properties of Si3N4/Si3N4 Joint Brazed Using a Filler Alloy Containing Pd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Naka; Jie ZHANG; Yu ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    Si3N4 ceramic was jointed to itself using a filler alloy of Cu76.5Pd8.5Ti15, and the mechanical properties of the jointwere measured and analyzed. By using a filler alloy of Cu76.5Pd8.5Ti15, the SisN4/SisN4 joints were obtained bybrazing at 1373~1473 K f

  8. SRμCT study of crack propagation within laser-welded aluminum-alloy T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Riekehr, S.; Bayraktar, F. S.; Haibel, A.; Staron, P.; Donath, T.; Utcke, S.; Kocak, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2008-08-01

    Using laser welding in fabrication of metallic airframes reduces the weight and hence fuel consumption. Currently only limited parts of the airframes are welded. To increase laser beam welded parts, there is the need for a better understanding of crack propagation and crack-pore interaction within the welds. Laser beam welded Al-alloys may contain isolated small process pores and their role and interaction with growing crack need to be investigated. The present paper presents the first results of a crack propagation study in laser beam welded (LBW) Al-alloy T-joints using synchrotron radiation based micro computed tomography (SRμCT). A region-of-interest technique was used, since the specimens exceeded the field of view of the X-ray detector. As imaging with high density resolution at high photon energies is very challenging, a feasibility measurement on a small laser weld, cut cylindrically from the welded region of a T-joint, was done before starting the crack-propagation study. This measurement was performed at the beamline HARWI-II at DESY to demonstrate the potential of the SRμCT as non-destructive testing method. The result has shown a high density resolution, hence, the different Al alloys used in the T-joint and the weld itself were clearly separated. The quantitative image analysis of the 3D data sets allows visualizing non-destructively and calculating the pore size distribution.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of 3003 Aluminum Alloy Joint Brazed with Al-Si-Cu-Zn Filler Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiao-qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si-Cu-Zn filler metal was developed to braze 3003 aluminum alloy. The microstructure and fracture surface of the joint were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDS, and the effects of brazing temperature on microstructure and property of the joint were investigated. The results show that good joints are obtained at brazing temperature of 540-580℃ for 10min. The brazed joint consists of α(Al solid solution, θ(Al2Cu intermetallic compound, fine silicon phase and AlCuFeMn+Si phase in the central zone of brazed seam, and α(Al solid solution and element diffusion layers at both the sides of brazed seam, and the base metal. The room temperature (RT shear fracture of the joint occurs at the interface between the teeth shape α(Al in the diffusion layer and the center zone of brazed seam, which is mainly characterized as brittle cleavage. As the brazing temperature increases, α(Al solid solution crystals in the diffusion zone grow up, and the interfacial bonding of the joint is in the form of interdigitation. Brazing at 560℃ for 10min, the RT shear strength of the joint reaches the maximum value of 92.3MPa, which is about 62.7% of the base material.

  10. Effects of Gap Width and Groove on the Mechanical Properties of Butt Joint Between Aluminum Alloy and Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honggang DONG; Chuanqing LIAO

    2013-01-01

    Butt joining of 5A02 aluminum alloy to 304 stainless steel sheets was conducted using gas tungsten arc welding process with Al-12%Si (wt.%,the same below) and Zn-15%Al flux-cored filler wires.The effects of gap width and groove in steel side on the microstructure and tensile strength of the resultant joints were investigated.For the joint made with 0 mm-wide gap and without groove in steel side,severe incomplete brazing zone occurred along the steel side and bottom surfaces,and consequently seriously deteriorated the joint strength.However,presetting 1.5 mm-wide gap or with groove in steel side could promote the wetting of molten filler metal on the faying surfaces,and then significantly enhance the resultant joint strength.Moreover,post-weld heat treatment could further improve the tensile strength of the joints.During tensile testing,the specimens from the joints made with Al-12%Si flux-cored filler wire fractured through the weld or interfacial layer,but those from the heat-treated joints made with Zn-15%Al flux-cored filler wire fractured in the aluminum base metal.

  11. The effect of postprocessing on tensile property and microstructure evolution of friction stir welding aluminum alloy joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Z.L., E-mail: zhilihuhit@163.com [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China); Wang, X.S. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Pang, Q. [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Donghu University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, F.; Qin, X.P.; Hua, L. [Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Automobile Parts, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining aluminum alloy and can dramatically reduce grain size conferring excellent plastic deformation properties. Consequently, friction stir welding is used to manufacture tailor welded blanks to optimize weight or performance in the final component. In the study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welding joint during plastic forming and subsequent heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural characteristics of the friction stir welding joints were studied by Electron Backscattered Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile and microhardness tests. It is found that the tensile and yield strengths of friction stir welding joints are significantly improved after severe plastic deformation due to the grain refinement. Following heat treatment, the strength of the friction stir welding joints significantly decrease due to the obvious abnormal grain growth. Careful attention must be given to the processing route of any friction stir welding joint intended for plastic forming, especially the annealing between forming passes. Severe plastic deforming of the friction stir welding joint leads to a high level of stored energy/dislocation density, which causes the abnormal grain growth during subsequent heat treatment, and consequently reduce the mechanical properties of the friction stir welding joint. - Highlights: • Great changes are observed in the microstructure of FSW joint after postprocessing. • Postprocessing shows great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • The weld shows more significant decrease in strength than the BM due to the AGG. • Attention must be given to the processing route of FSW joint for plastic forming.

  12. Laser-assisted friction stir welding of aluminum alloy lap joints: microstructural and microhardness characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Giuseppe; Campanelli, Sabina L.; Contuzzi, Nicola; Angelastro, Andrea; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    2014-02-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. The laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) combines a Friction Stir Welding machine and a laser system. Laser power is used to preheat and to plasticize the volume of the workpiece ahead of the rotating tool; the workpiece is then joined in the same way as in the conventional FSW process. In this work an Ytterbium fiber laser with maximum power of 4 kW and a commercial FSW machine were coupled. Both FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 3 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in lap joint configuration with a constant tool rotation rate and with different feed rates. The two processes were compared and evaluated in terms of differences in the microstructure and in the micro-hardness profile.

  13. Brazing development and interfacial metallurgy study of tungsten and copper joints with eutectic gold copper brazing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, David, E-mail: david.easton@strath.ac.uk [University of Strathclyde, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Yuxuan; Wood, James; Galloway, Alexander; Robbie, Mikael Olsson [University of Strathclyde, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Hardie, Christopher [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A eutectic gold–copper brazing alloy has been successfully used to produce a highly wetted brazed joint between tungsten and copper. • Relevant materials for fusion applications. • Mechanical testing of W–AuCu–Cu soon to be performed. - Abstract: Current proposals for the divertor component of a thermonuclear fusion reactor include tungsten and copper as potentially suitable materials. This paper presents the procedures developed for the successful brazing of tungsten to oxygen free high conductivity (OFHC) copper using a fusion appropriate gold based brazing alloy, Orobraze 890 (Au80Cu20). The objectives were to develop preparation techniques and brazing procedures in order to produce a repeatable, defect free butt joint for tungsten to copper. Multiple brazing methods were utilised and brazing parameters altered to achieve the best joint possible. Successful and unsuccessful brazed specimens were sectioned and analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis and ultrasonic evaluation. It has been determined that brazing with Au80Cu20 has the potential to be a suitable joining method for a tungsten to copper joint.

  14. Effect of Welding Speed on Joint Features and Lap Shear Properties of Stationary Shoulder FSLWed Alclad 2024 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Lv, Zan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-03-01

    Using alclad 2024-T4 aluminum alloy as the research object, stationary shoulder technology was used in friction stir lap welding process to investigate its performance in this study. Joint features and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly investigated. Results show that lap joint with smooth surface, without shoulder marks and inner defects can be obtained using the stationary shoulder technology. With increasing the welding speed from 40 to 130 mm/min, effective sheet thickness (EST) at the advancing side (AS) shows rather stable values (from 1.17 to 1.31 mm), EST at the retreating side (RS) increases from 0.57 to 1.13 mm, and stir zone width decreases from 4.95 to 4.44 mm. Lap shear failure load of the SSFSLW joints firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the welding speed. Using 100 mm/min, the maximum failure loads of 15.85 and 9.01 kN were obtained when the RS and AS of the joint bear the main load during the lap shear test. Shear fracture mode and tensile fracture mode can be obtained during the lap shear test. All joints present ductile fracture mode.

  15. Effect of Welding Speed on Joint Features and Lap Shear Properties of Stationary Shoulder FSLWed Alclad 2024 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwu; Li, Zhengwei; Lv, Zan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-02-01

    Using alclad 2024-T4 aluminum alloy as the research object, stationary shoulder technology was used in friction stir lap welding process to investigate its performance in this study. Joint features and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly investigated. Results show that lap joint with smooth surface, without shoulder marks and inner defects can be obtained using the stationary shoulder technology. With increasing the welding speed from 40 to 130 mm/min, effective sheet thickness (EST) at the advancing side (AS) shows rather stable values (from 1.17 to 1.31 mm), EST at the retreating side (RS) increases from 0.57 to 1.13 mm, and stir zone width decreases from 4.95 to 4.44 mm. Lap shear failure load of the SSFSLW joints firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the welding speed. Using 100 mm/min, the maximum failure loads of 15.85 and 9.01 kN were obtained when the RS and AS of the joint bear the main load during the lap shear test. Shear fracture mode and tensile fracture mode can be obtained during the lap shear test. All joints present ductile fracture mode.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminium alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloy (AlA and pure copper (Cu were evaluated at variable tool rotational speeds from 150 to 900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 60 mm/min travel speed and constant tilt angle 2°. The interfacial microstructures of the joints were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu and Al2Cu3 intermetallic compounds have been observed at the interface and stir zone region of dissimilar Al/Cu FSWed joints. Variation in the grain size was observed in the stir zone depending upon the heat input value. Axial force, traverse force and torque value were analysed with variation in tool rotational speed. Residual stresses were measured at the stir zone by X-ray diffraction technique. Maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼75% of AlA strength for AlA–AlA joints has been obtained at 750 rpm and for Cu–Cu joint tensile strength of ∼100% of tensile strength of Cu was obtained at 300 rpm. However, for Cu–AlA joint when processed at 600 rpm tool rotational speed achieved maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼77% of AlA.

  17. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti3Al/Ni-based superalloy joints arc welded with Ti–Nb and Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar joining of Ti3Al-based alloy to Ni-based superalloy has been carried out using gas tungsten arc (GTA welding technology with Ti–Nb and Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloys. The joint welded with the Ti–Nb filler alloy contained much less interfacial brittle phases than the one using the Ti–Ni–Nb filler alloy. The average room-temperature tensile strength of the joint welded with Ti–Nb was 202 MPa and the strength value of the one welded with Ti–Ni–Nb was 128 MPa. For both fillers, the weak links of the dissimilar joints were the weld/In718 interfaces. The presence of TiNi, TiNi3 and Ni3Nb intermetallic compounds in the joint welded with Ti–Ni–Nb induced microcracks at the weld/In718 interface and deteriorated the mechanical properties of the joint. And the adoption of the Ti–Nb filler alloy decreased the formation tendency of interfacial brittle phases to some extent and thus enhanced the tensile strength of the joint.

  18. Investigation of welding crack in micro laser welded NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy dissimilar metals joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhua, Chen; Yuqing, Mao; Weiwei, Lu; Peng, He

    2017-06-01

    Dissimilar metals of NiTiNb shape memory alloy and Ti6Al4V alloy with a same thickness of 0.2 mm were joined by micro laser welding. The effect of laser power on crack sensitivity of the weld was investigated. The results show that full penetrated welds are obtained when the laser power of 7.2 W is used, many cracks are observed in the weld. With increasing the laser power to 12 W, the number of all cracks and cracking width first increase and then decrease. By XRD analysis, three different kinds of Ti2Ni, NbNi3 and AlNbTi2 intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. According to the formation enthalpy and binary phase diagram, brittle Ti2Ni phase with more contents is existed in the weld due to final solidification, and which is the main reason of crack formation along with large stress concentration. Moreover, the welding cracks like the weld center longitudinal solidification cracks, weld metal toe transversal liquid cracks, heat-affected-zone hot cracks and crater cracks are classified in the laser welded joints. A brittle cleavage fracture with cleavage planes and river patterns in the joints is presented from the fracture surface.

  19. Effect of post weld heat treatment on the mechanical and corrosion behaviour of welded Al-Fe-Si alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isiaka Oluwole OLADELE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-Fe-Si alloy was joined by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW process and the effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on the mechanical (tensile and hardness properties, corrosion behaviour and microstructure of the welded joints were investigated. The welded samples were divided into as-weld (AW, PWHT, base metal (BM and heat treated base metal (HT BM samples. Artificial aging was carried out on part of the welded sample at 177 °C with holding time of 8 hours to obtain the PWHT samples. The various samples were subjected to tensile, hardness and corrosion tests while microstructures of the fractured surfaces were viewed under optical microscope. From the results, it was observed that corrosion susceptibility of the alloy in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution was highly reduced after PWHT. The hardness was reduced after PWHT while the yield strength and joint efficiency was improved compared to the AW sample. The improvement in corrosion resistance, yield strength and joint efficiency are 78, 8.4 and 8.7 %, respectively.

  20. Exemplification of Tomographic Method to Evaluate the Quality of Welded Joints Made from EN 5754-H22 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błachnio Józef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of welded joints depends on many factors. The relevant standards stipulate technical conditions of welds quality assessment, which provides the basis for stating whether the given joint is compatible with the requirements or whether it is defective. In practice, making welded joints that are totally devoid of defects is extremely difficult. To conduct the control of inner structure of the given joint a non-destructive method with the application of industrial CT scanner might be applied. This modern diagnosing method combines the x-ray examination with advanced computer technology. The basic advantage of computer-assisted tomography consists in examining objects in three dimensions and the possibility to carry out three-dimensional reconstructions. The aim of this article is to discuss the use of this method to evaluate the quality of welded joints made of aluminium alloys. Capabilities of computer-assisted tomography were depicted by the case of weld probes constructed with TIG (ang. Tungsten Inert Gas welding by different process variables. One has made the analysis of the quality of probes showing the smallest and the biggest internal and external welding defects.

  1. Design of a knee and leg muscle exerciser for paraplegics using a shape memory alloy rotary joint actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoping; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a design of an active knee and leg muscle exerciser using a shape memory alloy (SMA) rotary joint actuator. This active exerciser is designed for a paraplegic to exercise his or her knee and leg muscles. The exerciser is composed of a lower extremity orthosis or a knee brace, an SMA rotary joint actuator, and an electronic control unit. The lower extremity orthosis and knee brace are commercially available. The analysis model of the SMA rotary joint actuator is introduced and the design formulas are derived. A quasi-static analysis of the SMA rotary joint actuator is assumed in this design. The actuating component of the SMA rotary joint actuator is a bundle of lengthy SMA wires which are wrapped on several wrapping pulleys. A constant force spring is incorporated in this actuator to provide the SMA wires with a bias force to maintain a recoverable initial position of the actuator. A prototype of the active knee and leg muscle exerciser is designed, and an electronic control unit in the prototype provides users with a means of adjusting forward rotation speed and cycle time of the exerciser.

  2. Microstructure characterization in the weld joint of a high nickel austenitic alloy and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Na; Li, Yajiang; Wang, Juan [Shandong Univ., Jinan (CN). Key Lab. for Liquid - Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education)

    2012-06-15

    High nickel austenitic alloy, 6 mm thick, and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel with a thickness of 0.6 mm were joined by pulsed current tungsten inert gas arc welding without filler metal in this work. Metallographic examination, microhardness measurement and electron microprobe analysis were used to reveal microstructural characteristics in the joint. The results indicated that the weld metal consisted of {gamma}-austenite, {delta}-ferrite and carbides without the appearance of martensite. There were dendrite crystals at the edge of the weld metal near the high nickel austenitic alloy and isometric crystals in the center of the weld metal. The microhardness of the weld metal was the highest due to the existence of carbides and its finer structure. Graphite flakes were still embedded in the austenite matrix of the heat-affected zone without the formation of martensite. (orig.)

  3. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  4. Interstitial atoms enable joint twinning and transformation induced plasticity in strong and ductile high-entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiming; Tasan, Cemal Cem; Springer, Hauke; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-01-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) consisting of multiple principle elements provide an avenue for realizing exceptional mechanical, physical and chemical properties. We report a novel strategy for designing a new class of HEAs incorporating the additional interstitial element carbon. This results in joint activation of twinning- and transformation-induced plasticity (TWIP and TRIP) by tuning the matrix phase’s instability in a metastable TRIP-assisted dual-phase HEA. Besides TWIP and TRIP, such alloys benefit from massive substitutional and interstitial solid solution strengthening as well as from the composite effect associated with its dual-phase structure. Nanosize particle formation and grain size reduction are also utilized. The new interstitial TWIP-TRIP-HEA thus unifies all metallic strengthening mechanisms in one material, leading to twice the tensile strength compared to a single-phase HEA with similar composition, yet, at identical ductility.

  5. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Claudia A.; Alvarez, Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A., E-mail: mmele@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 1 esq. 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. - Highlights: • A metal disk setup is better in simulating in vivo situations than extracts and salts. • The biodegradation process and cell metabolism were interdependent. • Zn (100 μM) and Mg (8.2 × 10{sup 3} μM) mixtures are more toxic than single Zn or Mg. • Insoluble degradation products of Mg showed high negative effect on cell viability.

  6. Autogeneous Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of T-joint Low Alloy Steel with Fiber Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, A.; Lappalainen, E.; Salminen, A.

    This paper is focused on the welding of low alloy steels S355 and AH36 in thicknesses 6, 8 and 10 mm in T-joint configuration using either autogeneous laser welding or laser-arc hybrid welding (HLAW) with high power fiber lasers. The aim was to obtain understanding of the factors influencing the size of the fillet and weld geometry through methodologically studying effects of laser power, welding speed, beam alignment relative to surface, air gap, focal point position and order of processes (in case of HLAW) and to get a B quality class welds in all thicknesses after parameter optimization.

  7. The effect of variable loading onintegrity of a welded joint of high alloy-steel X20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Burzić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present paper, experimental investigations have included the effect of exploitation conditions (exploitation time and temperature on properties of high-cycle fatigue and parameters of fatigue-crack growth of a welded joint of steel X20 CrMoV 12-1 (X20. The effect of exploitation conditions was analysed by testing new pipe and the pipe having been exploited for 116 000 hours. The results obtained by testing and their analysis provide a practical contribution to assessment of quality of a welded joint of steel X20, the aim of which is revitalisation and extension of exploitation life of vital components of thermal power plants manufactured from high-alloy steel for operation at elevated temperatures.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Laser+GMAW Hybrid Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxiang XU; Chuansong WU; Xuezhou MA; Xuyou WANG

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model is developed to predict the temperature field and thermally induced residual stress and distortion in laser+GMAW hybrid welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy T-joint.And the characteristics of residual stress distribution and deformation are numerically investigated.In the simulation,the heat source model takes into account the effect of joint geometric shape and welding torch slant on the heat flux distribution and a sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical method is used.The calculated results show that higher residual stress is distributed in and surround the weld zone.Its peak value is very close to the yield strength of base metal.Besides,a large deformation appears in the middle and rear part of the weldment.

  9. Effect of welding processes on mechanical and microstructural characteristics of high strength low alloy naval grade steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ragu Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Naval grade high strength low alloy (HSLA steels can be easily welded by all types of fusion welding processes. However, fusion welding of these steels leads to the problems such as cold cracking, residual stress, distortion and fatigue damage. These problems can be eliminated by solid state welding process such as friction stir welding (FSW. In this investigation, a comparative evaluation of mechanical (tensile, impact, hardness properties and microstructural features of shielded metal arc (SMA, gas metal arc (GMA and friction stir welded (FSW naval grade HSLA steel joints was carried out. It was found that the use of FSW process eliminated the problems related to fusion welding processes and also resulted in the superior mechanical properties compared to GMA and SMA welded joints.

  10. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile strength and microstructure characteristics of friction stir welded butt joints of AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Srinivasan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balaji, H.; Selvaraj, P.

    2016-08-01

    Friction stir welded (FSWed) joints of aluminum alloys exhibited a hardness drop in both the advancing side (AS) and retreating side (RS) of the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) due to the thermal cycle involved in the FSW process. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome this problem by post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methods. FSW butt (FSWB) joints of Al-Cu (AA2014-T6) alloy were PWHT by two methods such as simple artificial aging (AA) and solution treatment followed by artificial aging (STA). Of these two treatments, STA was found to be more beneficial than the simple aging treatment to improve the tensile properties of the FSW joints of AA2014 aluminum alloy.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigations of hybrid laser arc welding of aluminum alloys in the thick T-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Nikodinovski, M.; Chenier, P.; Ma, J.; Liu, W.; Kovacevic, R.

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, a numerical finite element model was developed to simulate the hybrid laser arc welding of different aluminum alloys, namely 5××× to 6××× series. The numerical simulation has been considered two double-ellipsoidal heat sources for the gas metal arc welding and laser welding. The offset distance of the metal arc welding and laser showed a significant effect on the molten pool geometry, the heat distribution and penetration depth during the welding process. It was confirmed that when the offset distance is within the critical distance the laser and arc share the molten pool and specific amount of penetration and dilution can be achieved. The models and experiments show that the off-distance between the two heat sources and shoulder width have considerable influence on the penetration depth and appearance of the weld beads. The experiments also indicate that the laser power, arc voltage and type of the filler metal can effectively determine the final properties of the bonds, specifically the bead appearance and microhardness of the joints. The experiments verified the numerical simulation as the thermocouples assist to comprehend the amount of heat distribution on the T-joint coupons. The role of the welding parameters on the mechanism of the hybrid laser welding of the aluminum alloys was also discussed.

  12. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welded joints between AA1100-B{sub 4}C MMC and AA6063 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada); Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Gougeon, P. [Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Chen, X.-G., E-mail: xgrant_chen@uqac.ca [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW between AA1100-B{sub 4}C and AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural evolution of dissimilar joints revealed by the electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good material mixing and seamless bonding around the interfaces between Al-B{sub 4}C and the AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 100% joint efficiencies (UTS) achieved by all dissimilar joints. - Abstract: The feasibility of dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) between the AA1100-16 vol.% B{sub 4}C metal matrix composite and the AA6063 alloy has been evaluated. The effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. The results revealed that all dissimilar joints produced under welding conditions investigated were stronger than the base materials of the Al-B{sub 4}C composite. Analysis of the Mg concentration and the B{sub 4}C particle distribution indicates that good material mixing and seamless bonding was achieved around the interface between the Al-B{sub 4}C composite and the Al 6063 alloy during FSW. The electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) shows that during dissimilar FSW, there was a gradual microstructural evolution on both material sides, resulting in a variety of grain structures in the different weld zones. In the weld zones of FSW joints, the materials underwent dynamic recovery and recrystallization to different extents depending on their thermal mechanical history. The grain refinement of both materials in the nugget zone was observed. It is recommended that the 6063 aluminum alloy should be fixed on the advancing side and the use of an appropriate offset to the 6063 aluminum side is preferred.

  13. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  14. Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg Butt Joints Made by MIG Welding Process with Zn-Cd Alloy as Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hongtao; DAI Xiangyu; FENG Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Butt joints between Mg alloy AZ31B and pure Al 1 060 sheets were produced via metal inert gas welding process with Zn-Cd alloy foil. Crack-free Al/Mg butt joints between AZ31B Mg alloy and pure Al 1060 sheets were obtained. Intermetallic compound layer 1 and layer 2 had formed in fusion zone/Mg alloy and the average thickness of the layer 1 was about 50μm. The intermetallic compound layer 1 consisted of Al12Mg17 and Mg2Si phases while layer 2 consisted of Al12Mg17, Mg2Si and MgZn2 phases. The crack started from the IMC layer at the bottom of the joint and propagated along the brittle IMC layer, then expanded into weld metal during the SEM in situ tensile test. The highest tensile strength of the dissimilar metal butt joints could reach 46.8 MPa and the effect of interfacial IMC layer on mechanical property of the joint was discussed in detail in the present study.

  15. Effect of bonding parameters on microstructure and properties of Si3N4/Si3N4 joint brazed by Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; Naka Massaki; ZHOU Yu

    2005-01-01

    Si3N4 ceramic was jointed to Si3N4 ceramic using a filler alloy of Cu-Zn-Ti at 1 123-1 323 K for 0.3 -2.7 ks. Ti content in the Cu-Zn-Ti filler alloy was 15% (molar fraction). The effect of bonding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Si3N4/Si3N4 joint were investigated. The results indicate that with increasing brazing temperature from 1 123K to 1 323 K and brazing time from 0.3 ks to 2.7 ks, the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer between the filler alloy and the Si3 N4 ceramic and the size and amount of the reactant products in the filler alloy increase, leading to an increase in shear strength of the joint from 163 MPa to 276 MPa. It is also found that the fracture behavior of the Si3 N4/Si3 N4 joint greatly depends on the microstructure of the joint.

  16. Microstructure and stress corrosion cracking of the fusion boundary region in an alloy 182-A533B low alloy steel dissimilar weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Juan [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 62 Wencui Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Peng, Qunjia, E-mail: qpeng@rift.mech.tohoku.ac.j [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan); Takeda, Yoichi; Kuniya, Jiro; Shoji, Tetsuo [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai City 980-8579 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High-angle misorientation at FB, type-II and type-I boundaries. {yields} Highest residual strain and hardness in the zone between FB and type-II boundary. {yields} Type-II and type-I boundaries had lower resistance to SCC growth than the FB. {yields} Crack growth blunted by pitting at the FB. {yields} Reactivation of crack growth from the pitting by oxidation along the grain boundary. - Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the fusion boundary (FB) region of an Alloy 182-A533B low alloy steel (LAS) dissimilar weld joint in high temperature water doped with sulfate was studied following a microstructure characterization of the FB region. The microstructure characterization suggested the type-II and type-I boundaries in the dilution zone (DZ) adjacent to the FB had lower resistance to SCC growth than the FB. Crack propagating perpendicular to the FB in the DZ was observed to be blunted by pitting at the FB, followed by the reactivation from the pitting by localized oxidation along the grain boundary in LAS.

  17. Improvement in Joint Strength of Spray-Deposited Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy in Underwater Friction Stir Welding by Altered Temperature of Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haimei; Yan, Keng; Wang, Qingzhao; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    We improved the joint properties of spray-deposited Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy during underwater friction stir welding at cooling media temperatures of 8.6, 24.8 and 58.6 °C, respectively. The joint welded at high temperature (58.6 °C) showed a high tensile strength (467.18 MPa) and improved elongation. Its thermal cycle indicates preheating and slow cooling, which created a mild and uniform temperature gradient on both sides of the joint. DSC, SEM and EDS, and XRD analyses indicate that high-temperature cooling medium facilitated re-dissolution of the strengthening phases in the matrix, to strengthen the joint. Al32(Mg,Zn)49 exhibited a semi-coherent structure with matrix detected in the joint welded in a high-temperature medium. The high-temperature cooling medium is most efficient for joint optimization.

  18. Effect of welding process on the microstructure and properties of dissimilar weld joints between low alloy steel and duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Min-xu; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Wei; Xu, Li-ning; Hu, Li-hua

    2012-06-01

    To obtain high-quality dissimilar weld joints, the processes of metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding for duplex stainless steel (DSS) and low alloy steel were compared in this paper. The microstructure and corrosion morphology of dissimilar weld joints were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the chemical compositions in different zones were detected by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); the mechanical properties were measured by microhardness test, tensile test, and impact test; the corrosion behavior was evaluated by polarization curves. Obvious concentration gradients of Ni and Cr exist between the fusion boundary and the type II boundary, where the hardness is much higher. The impact toughness of weld metal by MIG welding is higher than that by TIG welding. The corrosion current density of TIG weld metal is higher than that of MIG weld metal in a 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Galvanic corrosion happens between low alloy steel and weld metal, revealing the weakness of low alloy steel in industrial service. The quality of joints produced by MIG welding is better than that by TIG welding in mechanical performance and corrosion resistance. MIG welding with the filler metal ER2009 is the suitable welding process for dissimilar metals jointing between UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel and low alloy steel in practical application.

  19. Strength properties of preceramic brazed joints of a gold-palladium alloy with a microwave-assisted oven and gas/oxygen torch technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongil; Prasad, Soni; Dunford, Robert; Monaco, Edward A

    2014-09-01

    The effect of microwave brazing on the strength properties of dental casting alloys is not yet known. The purpose of this study was to compare the strength properties of preceramic brazed joints obtained by using a microwave oven and a conventional torch flame for a high noble alloy (Au-Pd). A total of 18 tensile bars made of an Au-Pd ceramic alloy were fabricated. Six specimens were cut and joined with a high-fusing preceramic solder in a specially designed microwave oven, and 6 specimens were joined with a conventional natural gas/oxygen torch. The remaining 6 uncut specimens were tested as a control. All the specimens were subjected to testing with a universal testing machine. A 1-way ANOVA was performed for each strength property tested. The tensile strength of the uncut group was the highest (745 ±19 MPa), followed by the microwave group (420 ±68 MPa) and the conventional torch group (348 ±103 MPa) (Pmicrowave group and gas torch group. The tensile strength of the microwave group exceeded ANSI/ADA Standard No. 88, Dental Brazing Alloys (a joint standard of the American National Standards Institute and the American Dental Association). The microwave heating preceramic solder method demonstrated the excellent tensile strength of an Au-Pd alloy and may be an alternative way of joining alloys when a torch flame is contraindicated. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation between microstructural features and tensile strength for friction welded joints of AA-7005 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Mostafa Tahsini; Ayyub Halvaee; Hamed Khosravi

    2016-01-01

    Similar friction welded joints of AA-7005 aluminum rods were fabricated using different combinations of process parameters such as friction pressure (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 MPa) and friction time (10, 15 and 20 s). Interfacial microstructure and formation of intermetallic compounds at the joint interface were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), and optical microscopy (OM). Microstructural observations reveal the formation of intermetallic phases during the welding process which cannot be extruded from the interface. Theses phases influence the tensile strength of the resultant joints. From the tensile characteristics viewpoint, the greatest tensile strength value of 365 MPa is obtained at 1.5 MPa and 15 s. Finally, the role of microstructural features on tensile strength of resultant joints is discussed.

  1. Design of splints based on the NiTi alloy for the correction of joint deformities in the fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puértolas Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proximal interphalange joint (PIP is fundamental for the functional nature of the hand. The contracture in flexion of the PIP, secondary to traumatisms or illnesses leads to an important functional loss. The use of correcting splints is the common procedure for treating this problem. Its functioning is based on the application of a small load and a prolonged stress which can be dynamic, static progressive or static serial. It is important that the therapist has a splint available which can release a constant and sufficient force to correct the contracture in flexion. Nowadays NiTi is commonly used in bio-engineering, due to its superelastical characteristics. The experience of the authors in the design of other devices based on the NiTi alloy, makes it possible to carry out a new design in this work - the production of a finger splint for the treatment of the contracture in flexion of the PIP joint. Methods Commercial orthosis have been characterized using a universal INSTRON 5565 machine. A computational simulation of the proposed design has been conducted, reproducing its performance and using a model "ad hoc" for the NiTi material. Once the parameters have been adjusted, the design is validated using the same type of test as those carried out on commercial orthosis. Results and Discussion For commercial splint the recovering force falls to excessively low values as the angle increases. Angle curves for different lengths and thicknesses of the proposed design have been obtained, with a practically constant recovering force value over a wide range of angles that vary between 30° and 150° in every case. Then the whole treatment is possible with only one splint, and without the need of progressive replacements as the joint recovers. Conclusions A new model of splint based on NiTi alloy has been designed, simulated and tested comparing its behaviour with two of the most regularly used splints. Its uses is recommended

  2. Experimental Investigation on Friction Stir Welding of Cryorolled AA2219 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. Kamal; Panneerselvam, K.; Sathiya, P.; Haq, A. Noorul; Sundarrajan, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Murthy, C. V. Srinivasa

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, experimental investigation on cryorolled aluminum AA2219-T87 plate by using friction stir welding (FSW) process is carried out. AA2219-T87 plates with a size of 200×100×22.4 mm were rolled and reduced to 12.2mm thickness (more than 45% of reduction in total thickness of the base material) at cryogenic temperature (operating temperature range -90--30∘C). The cryorolled (CR) plates have reduced grain size, improved hardness and increased corrosion resistance property compared with the uncryorolled AA2219-T87 plates. FSW joints of cryorolled AA2219-T87 plates were prepared using cylindrical threaded FSW tool pin profile. Mechanical and metallurgical behaviors of friction stir welded joints were analyzed and the effects of the FSW process parameters are discussed in this paper. The variation of microhardness in the FSW joint regions were correlated with the microstructure of FSW joints. Cryorolled plate and FSW joints were tested for corrosion resistance using potentiodynamic polarization test. FSW joints shows better result during the corrosion resistance analysis compared to base AA2219-T87. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results showed that fine α-Al grains with eutectic phase (Al2Cu) were present in the weld nugget (WN). The large clusters of strengthening precipitates were reduced in size and merged with the weld nugget portion.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser-arc hybrid welding joint of GH909 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Yan, Fei; Liu, Sang; Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Chunming; Hu, Xiyuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, laser-arc hybrid welding of 10 mm thick low-thermal-expansion superalloy GH909 components was carried out to obtain a joint with good performance. This investigation was conducted using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy diffraction spectrum and other methodologies. The results showed that weld joints with a desirable wineglass-shaped weld profile can be obtained employing appropriate process parameters. The different grains in between the upper central seam and the bottom seam were associated with the temperature gradient, the pool's flow and the welding thermal cycle. MC-type carbides and eutectic phases (γ+Laves) were produced at grain boundaries due to the component segregation during the welding process. In addition, γ‧ strengthening phase presented in the interior of grains, which kept a coherent relationship with the matrix. The lowest hardness value occurred in the weld center, which indicated that it was the weakest section in the whole joint. The average tensile strength of the joints reached to 632.90 MPa, nearly 76.84% of the base metal. The fracture analysis revealed that the fracture mode of the joint was ductile fracture and the main reason for joint failure was as a result of the occurrence of porosities produced in the weld during the welding process.

  4. Pseudo-Dynamic Response Tests on Self-Returning Joint Mechanism Using Ni-Ti-Co Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hyouk; Ohi, Kenichi

    This paper deals with a beam-to-column connection using mechanical fasteners made of shape memory alloy, abbreviated as 'SMA bolt' hereafter. A flush-type endplate connection at beam-ends is arranged by use of SMA bolts, and the connection works as a super-elastic joint mechanism. This paper describes sub-structure pseudo-dynamic response tests on a super-elastic frame system with fictitious tension-bar diagonal braces. For the comparison, a similar structural system bolted by ordinary mild-steel bolts is also tested pseudo-dynamically. It was observed that the SMA bolt system returned to its original position, while the ordinary bolt system showed some permanent set after earthquakes. Additionally, response analysis based on a nonlinear-elastic model and a slip model is performed and compared with the test results.

  5. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded joints of new Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Le [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Peng, Yongyi, E-mail: pengyongyi@126.com [Key Laboratory of Super-Microstructure and Ultrafast Process in Advanced Materials of Hunan Province, School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Huang, Jiwu; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-01-03

    The effect of microalloy element Sc and Er on Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) joints of Al–Mg alloy was studied by comparative method. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Al–Mg–Sc and Al–Mg–Er alloy welded joint were examined by microhardness measurement, tensile test, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The strength of Al–Mg–Sc welded joint is higher than that of Al–Mg–Er welded joint. The differences of the two welded joints can be attributed to the different thermal stability and the effect of Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles. Al{sub 3}(Sc{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles, which have higher thermal stability, are still coherent with Al matrix in the HAZ, can strongly pin dislocations and subgrain boundaries of the HAZ. There are strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Sc welded joints. Notable coarsening of Al{sub 3}(Er{sub 1−x},Zr{sub x}) particles and recrystallization in the HAZ of Al–Mg–Er welded joint lead to the reduction and disappearance of strain strengthening and precipitation strengthening.

  6. Effects of the heterogeneity in the electron beam welded joint on fatigue crack growth in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xingzhi [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu Shubing, E-mail: hushubing@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xiao Jianzhong; Ji Longbo [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} The heterogeneity in electron beam welded joint was defined and described. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rates (FCGR) in different zones. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rate in different thicknesses of the welded joint. {yields} The effect of heterogeneity on the FCGR was discussed from the microstructure by SEM and TEM. {yields} The fatigue crack growth rate was closely related to the heterogeneity. - Abstract: The heterogeneity of electron beam (EB)-welded joints in thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy plates is defined and described. The microstructure, hardness, and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) in the fuse zone (FZ) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of thick Ti-6Al-4V alloy EB-welded joint are studied using a new testing and interception method. The fatigue fractographs, crack growth paths and the microscopic deformation are observed through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effect mechanism of heterogeneity in the electron beam weld joint to FCGRs is discussed. The results reveal that FCGR is higher in the HAZ than in the FZ, mainly because of the effect of heterogeneity I of the welded joint. Heterogeneity II increases from the top to the root of the welding seam while the size of the {alpha}' phase decreases. Consequently, FCGR is higher at the root of the welding seam. Heterogeneity in the joint is found to greatly influence the FCGR.

  7. Enhanced magnetoelastic effect in Laves (Tb,Dy)Fe2 alloys with the joint introduction of Pr and Nd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. H.; Liu, J. J.; Wei, S. H.; Zhu, X. Y.; Li, F.; Zhang, Z. R.; Si, P. Z.; Ren, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    The structural and magnetoelastic properties of (Tb0.3Dy0.7)1-x(Pr0.5Nd0.5)xFe1.93 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) polycrystalline alloys have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer and a standard strain gauge technique. A single (Tb,Dy,Pr,Nd)Fe2 Laves phase with a cubic MgCu2-type structure is formed when x ≤ 0.12, while a small amount of impurities appear when x ≥ 0.15. The easy magnetization direction at room temperature is detected toward axis. The analysis of XRD, magnetization and magnetostriction shows that the Pr and Nd elements joint introduction into (Tb,Dy)Fe2 system can reduce the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and improve the magnetoelastic properties. The (Tb0.3Dy0.7)0.88(Pr0.5Nd0.5)0.12Fe1.93 alloy exhibits a high low-field magnetostriction λ a (~314 ppm/1 kOe), a large spontaneous magnetostriction coefficient λ 111 (~1710 ppm), a giant saturation magnetostriction λ S (~1060 ppm) and the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy at room temperature, and may make it a promising candidate for magnetostriction applications.

  8. Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, Sandra; Garcés, Gerardo; Pérez, Pablo; Adeva, Paloma

    2014-07-01

    The Mg98.5Gd1Zn0.5 alloy produced by a powder metallurgy route was studied and compared with the same alloy produced by extrusion of ingots. Atomized powders were cold compacted and extruded at 623 K and 673 K (350 °C and 400 °C). The microstructure of extruded materials was characterized by α-Mg grains, and Mg3Gd and 14H-LPSO particles located at grain boundaries. Grain size decreased from 6.8 μm in the extruded ingot, down to 1.6 μm for powders extruded at 623 K (350 °C). Grain refinement resulted in an increase in mechanical properties at room and high temperatures. Moreover, at high temperatures the PM alloy showed superplasticity at high strain rates, with elongations to failure up to 700 pct.

  9. The investigation of material removal in bonnet polishing of CoCr alloy artificial joints

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Shengye; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In the process of form control using bonnet polishing an influence function is of vital importance for establishing material removal rates. However, the effects of polishing cloth, workpiece hardness and polishing parameters (such as precess angle, head speed, tool pressure and tool offset) on influence function when polishing CoCr alloys are not yet established and these factors affect the deterministic polishing process. In order to obtain a controlled polishing process, this study has furt...

  10. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  11. Experimental and simulation study on the microstructure of TA15 titanium alloy laser beam welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Peng, Qingyu; Wei, Yanhong; Ou, Wenmin

    2017-09-01

    Laser beam welding technique offers obvious advantages over other fusion welding processes in terms of joining titanium alloy. The microstructure of welded seam and heat affected zone resulted from diverse welding speeds and laser powers were investigated after simulating welding heat treatment. The analysis of the thermal transport properties successfully explained the morphology. Optimal process parameters were obtained. The simulation results were consistent with the corresponding experimental observations.

  12. Numerical and experimental evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding efficiency in AZ31 magnesium alloy butt joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, energy aspects related to the efficiency of laser welding process using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser were investigated and reported. AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets 3.3 mm thick were butt-welded without filler using Helium and Argon as shielding gases. A three-dimensional and semi-stationary finite element model was developed to evaluate the effect of laser power and welding speed on the absorption coefficient, the melting and welding efficiencies. The modeled volumetric heat source took into account a scale factor, and the shape factors given by the attenuation of the beam within the workpiece and the beam intensity distribution. The numerical model was calibrated using experimental data on the basis of morphological parameters of the weld bead. Results revealed a good correspondence between experiment and simulation analysis of the energy aspects of welding. Considering results of mechanical characterization of butt joints previously obtained, the optimization of welding condition in terms of mechanical properties and energy parameters was performed. The best condition is represented by the lower laser power and higher welding speed that corresponds to the lower heat input given to the joint.

  13. Reliability Study of Solder Paste Alloy for the Improvement of Solder Joint at Surface Mount Fine-Pitch Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in metal costs has forced the electronics industry to provide new materials and methods to reduce costs, while maintaining customers’ high-quality expectations. This paper considers the problem of most electronic industries in reducing costly materials, by introducing a solder paste with alloy composition tin 98.3%, silver 0.3%, and copper 0.7%, used for the construction of the surface mount fine-pitch component on a Printing Wiring Board (PWB. The reliability of the solder joint between electronic components and PWB is evaluated through the dynamic characteristic test, thermal shock test, and Taguchi method after the printing process. After experimenting with the dynamic characteristic test and thermal shock test with 20 boards, the solder paste was still able to provide a high-quality solder joint. In particular, the Taguchi method is used to determine the optimal control parameters and noise factors of the Solder Printer (SP machine, that affects solder volume and solder height. The control parameters include table separation distance, squeegee speed, squeegee pressure, and table speed of the SP machine. The result shows that the most significant parameter for the solder volume is squeegee pressure (2.0 mm, and the solder height is the table speed of the SP machine (2.5 mm/s.

  14. Investigation of residual stresses in welded joints of heat-resistant magnesium alloy ML10 after electrodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Lobanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In repair of aircraft structures of magnesium alloy ML10, the argon arc non-consumable electrode welding is used. In this case, the residual welding stresses occur in repair welds, being one of the causes for reducing the service characteristics of the restored products. Residual stresses arise as a result of welding. Post-weld heat treatment is used to reduce the residual stresses. The heat treatment, which occurs after welding, increases the cost of repair. This leads to the search for alternative methods to control the stressed state of welded joints, one of which is electrodynamic treatment, which reduces the level of residual stresses in repair welds, and as a consequence, the cost of the welding repair in restoring aircraft structures. It was found from the results of experiments carried out, that the electrodynamic treatment allows reduces the initial level of stresses in welded joints, reaching 120 MPa, to 30 MPa, and at definite geometric characteristics of the specimens forming the field of compressive stresses, the values of which are equal to –50 MPa. It is shown that the optimum distance between the zones of treatment, being 5 mm, provides the guaranteed covering the zones of electrodynamic effect and, as a consequence, the maximum efficiency of the electric dynamic treatment.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Top and Bottom Surfaces for Single-Side and Double-Side Friction Stir Welded 7085-T7651 Aluminum Alloy Thick Plate Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Thick plate joints of 7085-T7451 aluminum alloy were obtained through both single-side and double-side friction stir welding (SS or DS-FSW). The chloride ions effects on the corrosion behavior of the top and bottom surfaces of the joints were examined by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the corrosion susceptibility was suppressed significantly in the weld nugget zone, while the base material and heat-affected zone were prone to be corrosion attacked. For the SS-FSWed joint, the top surface showed a higher corrosion resistance than that of the bottom surface, but the larger corrosive heterogeneity was observed between the top and bottom surfaces compared with the two welds of DS-FSWed joint, which was confirmed by the morphology of corrosion attack. A deep insight on the microstructure of the joints indicates that the intermetallic particles played a key role in the corrosion behavior of the FSWed AA7085 aluminum alloy joints in chloride solution.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of Friction Stir-Welded Aluminum Alloy to Coated Steel Sheet Lap Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, H.; Kumar, A.; Rajkumar, K. V.; Saravanan, T.; Jayakumar, T.; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilar lap joints of aluminum sheet (AA 6061) of 2 mm thickness and zinc-coated steel sheet of 1 mm thickness were produced by friction stir welding with different combinations of rotational speed and travel speed. Ultrasonic C- and B-scanning, and radiography have been used in a complementary manner for detection of volumetric (cavity and flash) and planar (de bond) defects as the defects are in micron level. Advanced ultrasonic C-scanning did not provide any idea about the defects, whereas B-scanning cross-sectional image showed an exclusive overview of the micron-level defects. A digital x-ray radiography methodology is proposed for quality assessment of the dissimilar welds which provide three-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio with improved defect detection sensitivity. The present study clearly shows that the weld tool rotational speed and travel speed have a decisive role on the quality of the joints obtained by the friction stir welding process. The suitability of the proposed NDE techniques to evaluate the joint integrity of dissimilar FSW joints is thus established.

  18. An Assessment of the Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Analysis of Dissimilar Material Welded Joint between Alloy 617 and 12Cr Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Waqar Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most effective method to reduce CO2 gas emission from the steam power plant is to improve its performance by elevating the steam temperature to more than 700 °C. For this, it is necessary to develop applicable materials at high temperatures. Ni-based Alloy 617 and 12Cr steel are used in steam power plants, due to their remarkable mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance, and creep strength. However, since Alloy 617 and 12Cr steel have different chemical compositions and thermal and mechanical properties, it is necessary to develop dissimilar material welding technologies. Moreover, in order to guarantee the reliability of dissimilar material welded structures, the assessment of mechanical and metallurgical properties, fatigue strength, fracture mechanical analysis, and welding residual stress analysis should be conducted on dissimilar material welded joints. In this study, first, multi-pass dissimilar material welding between Alloy 617 and 12Cr steel was performed under optimum welding conditions. Next, mechanical properties were assessed, including the static tensile strength, hardness distribution, and microstructural analysis of a dissimilar material welded joint. The results indicated that the yield strength and tensile strength of the dissimilar metal welded joint were higher than those of the Alloy 617 base metal, and lower than those of the 12Cr steel base metal. The hardness distribution of the 12Cr steel side was higher than that of Alloy 617 and the dissimilar material weld metal zone. It was observed that the microstructure of Alloy 617 HAZ was irregular austenite grain, while that of 12Cr steel HAZ was collapsed martensite grain, due to repeatable heat input during multi-pass welding.

  19. Research of weld joint fatigue life of the AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy under bending-torsion cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaško

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with a research into the fatigue life of weld joints of AlMgSi07.F25 aluminium alloy. The paper will present unique biaxial testing equipment, process of preparation of specimen rods for fatigue tests, and the results of fatigue life assessment for the aluminium alloy during cyclic bending-torsion loading. Fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading were performed on a special electromechanical machine with a suitable clamping system. The obtained fatigue curves were compared with the most widely-known fatigue criteria such as LIU, F-S and B-M.

  20. Environmentally-assisted cracking behaviour in the transition region of alloy 182/low-alloy reactor pressure vessel steel dissimilar metal weld joints in simulated boiling water reactor normal water chemistry environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P.; Ritter, S.; Leber, H.J. [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). Lab. for Nuclear Materials

    2010-07-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour perpendicular to the fusion line in the transition region between the Alloy 182 nickel-base weld metal and the adjacent low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel of simulated dissimilar metal weld joints was investigated under boiling water reactor normal water chemistry conditions at different stress intensities and chloride concentrations. A special emphasis was placed to the question whether a fast growing interdendritic SCC crack in the highly susceptible Alloy 182 weld metal can easily cross the fusion line and significantly propagate into the adjacent low-alloy RPV steel. Cessation of interdendritic stress corrosion crack growth was observed in high-purity or sulphate-containing oxygenated water under periodical partial unloading or constant loading conditions with stress intensity factors below 60 MPa.m{sup 1/2} for those parts of the crack front, which reached the fusion line. In chloride containing water, on the other hand, the interdendritic stress corrosion crack in the Alloy 182 weld metal very easily crossed the fusion line and further propagated with a very high growth rate as a transgranular crack into the heat-affected zone and base material of the adjacent low-alloy steel. (orig.)

  1. Numerical simulation of temperature fields for T-joint during TIG welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Dong Zhibo; Yu Lan; Wei Yanhong

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element model was established to simulate temperature fields of T-joint titanium sheets during TIG welding with finite element method (FEM) software. Temperature dependent material properties and the effect of latent heat were considered. A technique of element birth and death was used to simulate the process of welded metal filling. Dynamic variation process of temperature fields during TIG welding was achieved. The simulated results agreed well with the measured results.

  2. Effect of Plate Thickness on Tensile Property of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joint Friction Stir Welded Below β-Transus Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Wang, Yue; Li, Zhengwei; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Liguo; Yue, Yumei

    2017-07-01

    Defect-free joint of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was successfully friction stir welded below β-transus temperature and then tensile tests were performed. Microstructure, macrostructure, tensile properties and fracture position are mainly discussed in order to investigate how surface indentation and plate thickness influence the tensile property. Weld zone (WZ) attained below β-transus temperature that owns better tensile strength limit than base metal (BM). During the tensile test, the elongation is decided by whether BM yields. Compared with friction stir welding joint using 2.5 mm thick plate, it is very difficult for joint using 2 mm thick plates to get bigger elongation due to surface indentation. Due to the higher tensile property of the WZ, the joint without surface indentation fractures at BM, reaching the 58.46 % elongation of BM.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of joints in sintered SiC fiber-bonded ceramics brazed with Ag Cu Ti alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mrityunjay [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland; Asthana, Rajiv [University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie; Ishikawa, Toshihiro [Ube Industries, Ltd.; Matsunaga, Tadashi [Ube Industries, Ltd.; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Active metal brazing of a new high thermal conductivity sintered SiC-polycrystalline fiber-bonded ceramic (SA-Tyrannohexs) has been carried out using a Ti-containing Ag Cu active braze alloy (Cusil-ABAs). The brazed composite joints were characterized using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM EDS). The results show that this material can be successfully joined using judiciously selected off-the shelf active braze alloys to yield metallurgically sound joints possessing high integrity. Uniform and continuous joints were obtained irrespective of differences in the fiber orientation in the substrate material. Detailed interfacial microanalysis showed that the titanium reacts with C and Si to form TiC layer and a Ti Si compound, respectively. Furthermore, the evaluation of shear strength of the joints was also conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures in air using the single-lap offset (SLO) shear test. The perpendicular-type SA-Tyrannohex joints exhibited apparent shear strengths of about 42 MPa and 25 MPa at 650 1C and 750 1C, respectively. The fracture at the higher temperature occurred at the interface between the reactionformed TiC layer and braze. This might be caused by generation of stress intensity when a shear stress was applied, according to m-FEA simulation results.

  4. Impact of M2-Hss Tool Pin Profile in Fsw Welded Joints On Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir, “welding is a solid state joining process and is widely being considered for aluminium alloys. The main advantage of FSW is the material that is being welded undergoes only localized changes. The welding parameter and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this work an effort has been made to analyze microstructure of aluminium AA 7075-T6 alloy. Three different tool profiles (Taper Threaded, cylindrical and square have been used to construct the joints in particular rotational speed. Tensile, Impact, micro hardness of mechanical properties of the joints have been evaluated and the formation of FSP zone has been analyzed microscopically. From the investigation it is found that the threaded cylindrical profile produces highly (defined Strength in welds.

  5. Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints (Case of L T Orientation Specimen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study aims to investigate the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate for the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints. Our previous fatigue crack growth test data are adopted in this investigation. To clearly understand the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control testing. The experimental data were analyzed for two different materials-base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM)-to investigate the effects of spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate and material properties, the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). The results showed that the variability, as evaluated by Wobble statistical analysis, of the WM is higher than that of the BM.

  6. Investigations on tunneling and kissing bond defects in FSW joints for dissimilar aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Noor Zaman, E-mail: noor_0315@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi (India); Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi (India); Shihab, Suha K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering College, Diyala University, Diyala (Iraq)

    2015-11-05

    In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of two Friction Stir Welding (FSW) parameters i.e. tool pin offset and tool plunge depth on the formation of defects such as tunnel (tunneling defect) and kissing bond (KB) during welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. 4.75 mm thick plates of AA5083-H116 and AA6063-T6 were welded using a novel work-fixture developed in-house which, apart from clamping the plated also imparted continuous variation of offset on both side of the faying line. The tunneling defect was modeled as a function of offset and plunge depth. The welds were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The causes of such defects have been analyzed and discussed and recommendations have been made to prevent their occurrence. The findings of the study have revealed that the tunneling defects are formed at all offset (including zero offset) values towards stronger material (advancing side). And the cross-section of the tunnel varied with the amount of offset. Further, KBs are formed at the interface for all pin offset values except 0.5 mm towards weaker material and high plunge depth resulting in the poor mechanical properties. - Highlights: • Two dissimilar aluminum alloys are welded using FSW. • Formation of kissing bond and tunneling defects are investigated. • Defects are formed at pin offsets towards stronger material and also without offset. • The size of tunnel reduces significantly by increasing the plunge depth. • Tool pin offset towards weaker material prevent tunneling defects.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking in the fusion boundary region of an alloy 182 - A533B low alloy steel dissimilar weld joint in high temperature oxygenated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Q.; Xue, H.; Hou, J.; Takeda, Y.; Kuniya, J.; Shoji, T. [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, following a microstructural characterization of the fusion boundary (FB) region in an Alloy 182 - A533B LAS dissimilar weld joint, the SCC growth behaviour in the FB region of the dissimilar weld joint in 288 C degrees water was investigated by employing crevice bent beam (CBB) and crack growth rate (CGR) testing, in conjunction with a simulation by finite element method (FEM). The microstructure characterization showed that there is a narrow high hardness zone (HHZ) in the dilution zone (DZ) of the weld metal adjacent to the FB. Further, a sharp increase of the hardness was observed immediately adjacent to the FB, suggesting the existence of a hardness gradient in the HHZ. FEM simulation of the growth of a crack perpendicular to the FB in the DZ showed that there is a drop in crack tip strain rate as the crack entered the HHZ, suggesting a decreased crack growth rate can be expected for a crack propagating perpendicular to the FB in the high hardness zone where a continuous increase of the hardness with crack growth may exist. Cracking path observation on the cross-section of the CBB specimen suggested that a SCC propagating perpendicular to the FB in the DZ was blunted by pitting after it reached the FB, indicating that the FB is a barrier to SCC growth. However, reactivation of crack growth from the pitting in LAS by preferential oxidation along the grain boundary was observed as well, suggesting a combined effect of microstructure and the high sulphate concentration in the water used for the test. The effects of sulphate doping and DO on CGR in the DZ and FB region were further clarified by the results of the SCC-CGR test. At a DO of 0.25 ppm, the SCC growth rate was low in the FB region even with a sulphate addition of up to 50 ppb in water. The crack growth, however, was reactivated by increasing the DO to 2 ppm at both sulphate concentrations of 50 ppb and 20 ppb, indicating an important role of DO in SCC growth in the DZ. The existence of a

  8. Assessment of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy welded joint using small punch test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jisen; Tang Xueqin; Chen Jianhong; Zhu Liang

    2007-01-01

    The small punch test technique (SPT) was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of various materials and the basic method to test material tensile mechanics performance from an inverse finite element (FE) arithmetic with SPT was put forward. The research shows that specific tensile mechanical behavior and strain-stress distribution of each district of weld seam can be accurately determined by small punch test. Therefore, mechanical behavior of the inhomogeneous joint can be predicted by a numerical model. The simulation comes to good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Analysing the strength of friction stir spot welded joints of aluminium alloy by fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaira Vignesh, R.; Padmanaban, R.; Arivarasu, M.; Karthick, K. P.; Abirama Sundar, A.; Gokulachandran, J.

    2016-09-01

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is a recent joining technique developed for spot welding of thin metal sheets. This process currently finds application in automotive, aerospace, marine and sheet metal industry. In this work, the effect of FSSW process parameters namely tool rotation speed, shoulder diameter and dwell time on Tensile shear failure load (TSFL) is investigated. Box-Behnken design is selected for conducting experiments. Fuzzy based soft computing is used to develop a model for TSFL of AA6061 joints fabricated by FSSW. The interaction of the process parameters on TSFL is also presented.

  10. Study of Simulated Temperature of Butt Joint during Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminium Alloy by Using Hyperworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anees Siddiqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is one of the latest welding technology that utilizes a special tool for generation of frictional heat in the work piece by its rotation due to which joining occurs without melting of metal. For this reason friction stir welding lies under the category of solid state joining. A part from experimental work, there is large space to work on simulation of FSW by using simulation tools. In the present paper, simulation of friction stir welding of aluminium alloy AA-6061 is done by using HyperWeld module of Altair HyperWorks. The virtual experiment of friction stir welding is conducted for variable tool rotational speeds with constant travelling speed and study of simulation results of variation in temperature distribution along the weld line of butt joint is done. The results of simulation shows that the temperature is symmetrically distributed along the weld line. It is observed that the maximum temperature along the weld line increases with the increase in rotational speed. It is also observed that the temperature at advancing side is greater that retreating side.

  11. Comparative study on fatigue properties of friction stir and MIG-pulse welded joints in 5083 Al-Mg alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cai-zhi; YANG Xin-qi; LUAN Guo-hong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the fatigue properties of friction stir welds with those of MIG-pulse welds. The 5083 Al-Mg alloy was welded by single pass friction stir welding(FSW) and double-sided MIG-pulse welding. The results show that friction stir(FS) welds have a better appearance than MIG-pulse welds for the lack of voids, cracks and distortions. Compared with the parent plate, FSW welds exhibit similar fine grains, while MIG-pulse welds display a different cast microstructure due to the high heat input and the addition of welding wire. The S-N curves of FSW and MIG-pulse joints show that the fatigue life of FS welds is 18 - 26 times longer than that of MIG-pulse welds under the stress ratio of 0.1 and the calculated fatigue characteristic values of each weld increase from 38.67 MPa for MIG-pulse welds to 53.59 MPa for FSW welds.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Welded Ti3Al/Ni-Based Superalloy Joint Using a Ni-Cu Filler Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Qing; Xiong, Hua-Ping; Guo, Shao-Qing; Sun, Bing-Bing; Chen, Bo; Tang, Si-Yi

    2015-02-01

    Dissimilar welding of a Ti3Al-based alloy and a Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 718) was successfully carried out using gas tungsten arc welding technology in this study. With a Ni-Cu alloy as filler material, sound joints have been obtained. The microstructure evolution along the cross section of the dissimilar joint has been revealed based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffractometer. It is found that the weld/Ti3Al interface is composed of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu, Al(Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Cu, Ni)2Ti, (Nb, Ti) solid solution, and so on. The weld and In718/weld interface mainly consist of (Cu, Ni) solid solutions. The weld exhibits higher microhardness than the two base materials. The average room-temperature tensile strength of the joints reaches 242 MPa and up to 73.6 pct of the value can be maintained at 873 K (600 °C). The brittle intermetallic phase of Ti2AlNb matrix dissolved with Ni and Cu at the weld/Ti3Al interface is the weak link of the joint.

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Welded Joints of Ti-22Al-25Nb/TA15 Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalong; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi; Zhang, Hao; Bu, Xianzheng

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam welding (LBW) was applied to join 1-mm-thick dissimilar titanium alloys, Ti-22Al-25Nb (at.%) and TA15, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were systematically analyzed. Defect-free joints were obtained, and the fusion zone mainly consisted of B2 and martensitic α' phases because of the uneven distribution of the β phase stabilizer and rapid cooling rate of LBW. The phase compositions of the heat-affected zone varied with the different thermal cycles during the welding process. The different microstructures of the dissimilar titanium alloys led to an unsymmetrical hardness profile, with the welded seam exhibiting the lowest value of 271 HV. In room-temperature tensile tests, the fractures all occurred preferentially in the fusion zone. The strengths of the joints were close to those of the base metal but with prominently decreasing ductility. In tensile tests performed at 550 °C, all the joints fractured in the TA15 base metal, and the strength and plasticity of the welds were equivalent to those of the TA15 base metal.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy joints brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti+TiH2+BN composite filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ag–Cu–Ti + TiH2+BN composite filler was prepared to braze SiO2-BN ceramic and Invar alloy. The interfacial microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stress distribution of the brazed joints were investigated. The results show that a wave-like Fe2Ti–Ni3Ti structure appears in the Invar substrate and a thin TiN–TiB2 reaction layer forms adjacent to the SiO2-BN ceramic. The added BN particles react with Ti to form TiN–TiB fine-particles, which is beneficial to refine the microstructure of the brazing seam and to greatly inhibit the brittle compounds formation. The interfacial microstructure at various brazing temperatures was analyzed, and the mechanism for the interfacial reactions responsible for the bonding was proposed. The maximum shear strength of the joints brazed with the composite filler at 880 °C for 10 min is 39 MPa, which is 30% greater than that brazed with Ag–Cu–Ti alloy. The improvement of the joint strength is attributed to the variation of joint microstructure and the reduction of tensile stresses induced in the SiO2-BN ceramic. The finite element analysis indicates that the peak tensile stress decreases from 230 to 142 MPa due to the addition of BN particles in the ceramic.

  15. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure of electron beam welded joints of two-phase TiAl-based alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Guoqing; Zhang Binggang; He Jingshan; Feng Jicai

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the microstructural characterization and phase composition of electron beam welded joint zones of Ti-43Al-9V-0.3Y alloy has been done in this study. The welded seam is mainly composed of B2 phase, the partial γ+α2 two-phase lamellar structure and granular γm phase. And the lanthanon Y existed as YAl2 phase and served as grain refined. The impact of different cooling rates on joint microstructure, fracture characteristic and tensile strength were investigated. The high cooling rate restrained the structural transformation and resulted in the ordering structure. The fracture of the joint was brittle cleavage fracture because the ordering structure went against restraining the crack propagation. With the decrease of cooling rate, the transformation amounts of lamellar structure increased, and the fracture presented the layered and cross-layered characteristic.

  16. Phase-dependent corrosion of titanium-to-stainless steel joints brazed by Ag-Cu eutectic alloy filler and Ag interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. K.; Park, J. J.; Lee, J. G.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-08-01

    The electrochemical corrosion properties of Ti-STS dissimilar joints brazed by a 72Ag-28Cu alloy filler and an Ag interlayer were studied in a 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. For a joint with a layered structure of Ti(base)/TiAg/Ag solid solution/Ag-Cu eutectic/STS(base), galvanic corrosion mostly occurred in the TiAg phase with a severe material loss, indicating that the TiAg layer acted as an anode in the galvanic couple in the layered joint. The Ag-rich solid solution layer was also corroded to a certain extent, but the corrosion in this layer was dominated by the selective pitting corrosion of the eutectic Cu-rich phase. With an increase in the brazing temperature, the Cu-rich phases disappeared owing to the enhanced isothermal solidification effect, leading to an improvement of the corrosion resistance.

  17. Effect of Welding Parameters on Microstructure, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Friction-Stir Welded Joints of AA7075-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Nourouzi, Salman

    2014-06-01

    A high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy AA7075-T6 was friction-stir welded with various process parameter combinations incorporating the design of the experiment to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties. A three-factors, five-level central composition design (CCD) has been used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. The friction-stir welding parameters have significant influence on the heat input and temperature profile, which in turn regulates the microstructural and mechanical properties of the joints. The weld thermal cycles and transverse distribution of microhardness of the weld joints were measured, and the tensile properties were tested. The fracture surfaces of tensile specimens were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the formation of friction-stir processing zone has been analyzed macroscopically. Also, an equation was derived to predict the final microhardness and tensile properties of the joints, and statistical tools are used to develop the relationships. The results show that the peak temperature during welding of all the joints was up to 713 K (440 °C), which indicates the key role of the tool shoulder diameter in deciding the maximum temperature. From this investigation, it was found that the joint fabricated at a rotational speed of 1050 rpm, welding speed of 100 mm/min, and shoulder diameter of 14 mm exhibited higher mechanical properties compared to the other fabricated joints.

  18. Effect of tool pin profile on microstructure and tensile properties of friction stir welded dissimilar AA 6061–AA 5086 aluminium alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilangovan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Joints between two different grades of aluminium alloys are need of the hour in many light weight military structures. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to join the heat treatable (AA 6061 and non-heat treatable (AA 5086 aluminium alloys by friction stir welding (FSW process using three different tool pin profiles like straight cylindrical, taper cylindrical and threaded cylindrical. The microstructures of various regions were observed and analyzed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. The tensile properties and microhardness were evaluated for the welded joint. From this investigation it is founded that the use of threaded pin profile of tool contributes to better flow of materials between two alloys and the generation of defect free stir zone. It also resulted in higher hardness values of 83 HV in the stir zone and higher tensile strength of 169 MPa compared to other two profiles. The increase in hardness is attributed to the formation of fine grains and intermetallics in the stir zone, and in addition, the reduced size of weaker regions, such as TMAZ and HAZ regions, results in higher tensile properties.

  19. Influence of Laser Power on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Laser Welded-Brazed Mg Alloy/Ni-Coated Steel Dissimilar Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Caiwang; Xiao, Liyuan; Liu, Fuyun; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we describe a method to improve the bonding of an immiscible Mg/steel system using Ni as an interlayer by coating it on the steel surface. Laser welding-brazing of AZ31B Mg alloy to Ni-coated Q235 steel using Mg-based filler was performed in a lap configuration. The influence of laser power on the weld characteristics, including joint appearance, formation of interfacial reaction layers and mechanical properties was investigated. The results indicated that the presence of the Ni-coating promoted the wetting of the liquid filler metal on the steel surface. A thermal gradient along the interface led to the formation of heterogeneous interfacial reaction layers. When using a low laser power of 1600 W, the reaction products were an FeAl phase in the direct laser irradiation zone, an AlNi phase close to the intermediate zone and mixtures of AlNi phase and an (α-Mg + Mg2Ni) eutectic structure near the interface at the seam head zone. For high powers of more than 2000 W, the FeAl phase grew thicker in the direct laser irradiation zone and a new Fe(Ni) transition layer formed at the interface of the intermediate zone and the seam head zone. However, the AlNi phase and (α-Mg + Mg2Ni) eutectic structure were scattered at the Mg seam. All the joints fractured at the fusion zone, indicating that the improved interface was not the weakest joint region. The maximum tensile-shear strength of the Mg/Ni-coated steel joint reached 190 N/mm, and the joint efficiency was 70% with respect to the Mg alloy base metal.

  20. The Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Diffusion-Bonded Joints of 316L Stainless Steel and the 4J29 Kovar Alloy Using Nickel as an Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfeng Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel (Fe–18Cr–11Ni and a Kovar (Fe–29Ni–17Co or 4J29 alloy were diffusion-bonded via vacuum hot-pressing in a temperature range of 850–950 °C with an interval of 50 °C for 120 min and at 900 °C for 180 and 240 min, under a pressure of 34.66 MPa. Interfacial microstructures of diffusion-bonded joints were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The inter-diffusion of the elements across the diffusion interface was revealed via electron probe microanalysis (EPMA. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated via micro Vickers hardness and tensile strength. The results show that an Ni interlayer can serve as an effective diffusion barrier for the bonding of 316L stainless steel and the 4J29 Kovar alloy. The composition of the joints was 316L/Ni s.s (Fe–Cr–Ni/remnant Ni/Ni s.s (Fe–Co–Ni/4J29. The highest tensile strength of 504.91 MPa with an elongation of 38.75% was obtained at 900 °C for 240 min. After the width of nickel solid solution (Fe–Co–Ni sufficiently increased, failure located at the 4J29 side and the fracture surface indicated a ductile nature.

  1. Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Joints of Aluminium Alloys AA6082-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Hiralal Subhash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is a solid state innovative joining technique, widely being used for joining aluminium alloys in aerospace, marine automotive and many other applications of commercial importance. The welding parameters and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this paper, an attempt has been made to understand the influences of welding speed and pin profile of the tool on friction stir welded joints of AA6082-T6 alloy. Three different tool pin profiles (tapered cylindrical four flutes, triangular and hexagonal have been used to fabricate the joints at different welding speeds in the range of 30 to 74 mm/min. Microhardness (HV and tensile tests performed at room temperature were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the joints. In order to analyse the microstructural evolution of the material, the weld’s cross-sections were observed optically and SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces. From this investigation it is found that the hexagonal tool pin profile produces mechanically sound and metallurgically defect free welds compared to other tool pin profiles.

  2. Fatigue properties for FSW and MIG welded joints of thickness plate aluminum alloy%厚板铝合金FSW和MIG焊接接头疲劳性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新岐; 吴铁; 张家龙; 秦红珊

    2012-01-01

    对厚度10 mm的6082-T6铝合金搅拌摩擦焊(FSW)和MIG焊接接头的疲劳强度进行了试验研究,并与6082-T6母材疲劳性能进行了对比分析.结果表明,6082-T6母材的疲劳S-N曲线最高、MIG焊接接头S-N曲线度最低,而FSW接头的疲劳S-N曲线近似位于两者之间;在高应力区FSW疲劳强度低于MIG焊接接头、而在低应力区高于MIG焊接接头.大部分FSW试样疲劳裂纹启始于焊缝根部的"弱连接"缺陷,采用机械加工去掉1.4 mm厚度焊缝根部材料后,FSW疲劳强度明显提高并接近母材数据.厚板6082-T6铝合金FSW焊缝根部质量控制是影响疲劳性能的关键因素.%The fatigue properties of FSW and MIG welded joints for AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy of 10 mm thickness were investigated by the fatigue S-N curves testing method,and these prperties were also compared to that of AA6082-T6 base material.It was shown that the fatigue S-N curve of AA6082-T6 base material was the highest,the S-N curve of MIG welded joints was the lowest,and the S-N curve of FSW joint was between the two curves.In high stress range,the fatigue strength of FSW was lower than that of MIG welded joints,while in low stress range,it was higher than the MIG welded joints.It indicated that most of the FSW specimens were initially fractured at the weld,caused by the "weak-bonding" defects and the fatigue strength of FSW joint increased apparently,which is close to the values of base material after removing one layer of weld root material with thickness of 1.4 mm.Thus it can be verified that the quality of the weld root sites for the single-side FSW welded joints of AA6082-T6 aluminum alloys thick plate should be the key factor to influence the fatigue properties of FSW joint.

  3. Comparison of warm laser shock peening and laser shock peening techniques in lengthening the fatigue life of welded joints made of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun; Zhou, Jianzhong; Meng, Xiankai; Sheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Welded joints made of 6061-T6 Al alloy were studied to evaluate warm laser shock peening (WLSP) and laser shock peening (LSP) processes. The estimation model of laser-induced surface residual stress was examined by means of experiments and numerical analysis. The high-cycle fatigue lives of welded joint specimens treated with WLSP and LSP were estimated by conducting tensile fatigue tests. The fatigue fracture mechanisms of these specimens are studied by surface integrity and fracture surface tests. Experimental results and analysis indicated that the fatigue life of the specimens processed by WLSP was higher than that with LSP. The large increase in fatigue life appeared to be the result of the larger residual stress, more uniform microstructure refinement and the lower surface roughness of the WLSP specimens.

  4. Monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of MIG-CMT welded and heat-treated joints of aluminum cast and wrought alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantehm, Matthias; Soeker, Marcus; Krupp, Ulrich; Michels, Wilhelm [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, Institute of Materials Design and Structural Integrity, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrueck, 49009 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    While the fatigue behavior of die cast aluminum as well as welded aluminum wrought alloys have been subject of several studies, no systematic work has been carried out on hybrid structures made as a combination of welded sand castings and wrought alloys. Aim of the present study is to correlate the monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of thin sheet welded joints with the microstructure in the heat affected zone of the material combination sand cast EN AC-Al Si7Mg0.3 and wrought alloy EN AW-Al Si1MgMn (EN AW-6082). The metal sheets were welded using a metal inert gas cold metal transfer process under variation of the welding gap, the heat treatment parameters, as well as the surface finishes. It was demonstrated by Woehler diagrams based on bending fatigue tests that the fatigue life could be increased for the welded and heat treated specimens as compared to the as-received cast specimens. By means of optical microscopy this effect was attributed to microstructural changes due to the optimized welding and heat treatment process. A detailed analysis of the mechanical tests was possible by the application of an optical 3D strain analysis. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Distribution of mechanical properties in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.3 nozzle and F316L safe-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the distribution of tensile properties and fracture toughness in Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.3 nozzle and F316L SS safe-end at ambient temperature. Tensile and J-R tests were conducted using the specimens extracted form both base metals, Heat Affected Zones (HAZs), buttering, and various regions of weld metal. It showed that root region of weld exhibits higher strengths than upper region. The yield and tensile strengths considerably varied within root region of weld, the lowest strengths appeared at buttering region and gradually increased with approaching boundary with F316L stainless steel, whereas the variation of strengths within the weld was insignificant at upper region of weld. It was also indicated that fracture toughness of Alloy 82/182 weld metal was lower than that of both base metals and both HAZs. Within the Alloy 82/182 weld, the center of weld showed slightly lower fracture toughness than weld boundary and buttering, and the root region showed higher toughness than upper region of weld.

  6. Environmentally-assisted cracking behaviour in the transition region of an Alloy182/SA 508 Cl.2 dissimilar metal weld joint in simulated boiling water reactor normal water chemistry environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, H. P.; Ritter, S.; Shoji, T.; Peng, Q. J.; Takeda, Y.; Lu, Z. P.

    2008-08-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue behaviour perpendicular and parallel to the fusion line in the transition region between the Alloy 182 Nickel-base weld metal and the adjacent SA 508 Cl.2 low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel of a simulated dissimilar metal weld joint was investigated under boiling water reactor normal water chemistry conditions. A special emphasis was placed to the question whether a fast growing interdendritic SCC crack in the highly susceptible Alloy 182 weld metal can easily cross the fusion line and significantly propagate into the adjacent low-alloy RPV steel. Cessation of interdendritic SCC crack growth was observed in high-purity or sulphate-containing oxygenated water under constant or periodical partial unloading conditions for those parts of the crack front, which reached the fusion line. In chloride containing water, on the other hand, the interdendritic SCC crack in the Alloy 182 weld metal very easily crossed the fusion line and further propagated with a very high rate as a transgranular crack into the heat-affected zone and base metal of the adjacent low-alloy steel. The observed SCC cracking behaviour at the interface correlates excellently with the field experience of such dissimilar metal weld joints, where SCC cracking was usually confined to the Alloy 182 weld metal.

  7. Environmentally-assisted cracking behaviour in the transition region of an Alloy182/SA 508 Cl.2 dissimilar metal weld joint in simulated boiling water reactor normal water chemistry environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H.P. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: hans-peter.seifert@psi.ch; Ritter, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Laboratory for Nuclear Materials, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Shoji, T.; Peng, Q.J.; Takeda, Y.; Lu, Z.P. [Fracture and Reliability Research Institute (FRI), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2008-08-31

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue behaviour perpendicular and parallel to the fusion line in the transition region between the Alloy 182 Nickel-base weld metal and the adjacent SA 508 Cl.2 low-alloy reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel of a simulated dissimilar metal weld joint was investigated under boiling water reactor normal water chemistry conditions. A special emphasis was placed to the question whether a fast growing interdendritic SCC crack in the highly susceptible Alloy 182 weld metal can easily cross the fusion line and significantly propagate into the adjacent low-alloy RPV steel. Cessation of interdendritic SCC crack growth was observed in high-purity or sulphate-containing oxygenated water under constant or periodical partial unloading conditions for those parts of the crack front, which reached the fusion line. In chloride containing water, on the other hand, the interdendritic SCC crack in the Alloy 182 weld metal very easily crossed the fusion line and further propagated with a very high rate as a transgranular crack into the heat-affected zone and base metal of the adjacent low-alloy steel. The observed SCC cracking behaviour at the interface correlates excellently with the field experience of such dissimilar metal weld joints, where SCC cracking was usually confined to the Alloy 182 weld metal.

  8. Non-destructive Residual Stress Analysis Around The Weld-Joint of Fuel Cladding Materials of ZrNbMoGe Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The residual stress measurements around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy have been carried out by using X-ray diffraction technique in PTBIN-BATAN. The research was performed to investigate the structure of a cladding material with high temperature corrosion resistance and good weldability. The equivalent composition of the specimens (in %wt. was 97.5%Zr1%Nb1%Mo½%Ge. Welding was carried out by using TIG (tungsten inert gas technique that completed butt-joint with a current 20 amperes. Three region tests were taken in specimen while diffraction scanning, While diffraction scanning, tests were performed on three regions, i.e., the weldcore, the heat-affected zone (HAZ and the base metal. The reference region was determined at the base metal to be compared with other regions of the specimen, in obtaining refinement structure parameters. Base metal, HAZ and weldcore were diffracted by X-ray, and lattice strain changes were calculated by using Rietveld analysis program. The results show that while the quantity of minor phases tend to increase in the direction from the base metal to the HAZ and to the weldcore, the quantity of the ZrGe phase in the HAZ is less than the quantity of the ZrMo2 phase due to tGe element evaporation. The residual stress behavior in the material shows that minor phases, i.e., Zr3Ge and ZrMo2, are more dominant than the Zr matrix. The Zr3Ge and ZrMo2 experienced sharp straining, while the Zr phase was weak-lined from HAZ to weldcore. The hydrostatic residual stress ( in around weld-joint of ZrNbMoGe alloy is compressive stress which has minimum value at about -2.73 GPa in weldcore region

  9. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Kim, Jin Weon [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the variations of local mechanical and microstructural properties in dissimilar metal weld joints consisting of the SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel, Alloy 82/182 filler metal, and F316 austenitic stainless steel. Flat or round tensile specimens and transmission electron microscopy disks were taken from the base metals, welds, and heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the joints and tested at room temperature (RT) and/or at 320 C. The tensile test results indicated that the mechanical property was relatively uniform within each material zone, but varied considerably between different zones. Further, significant variations were observed both in the austenitic HAZ of F316 SS and in the ferritic HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a. The yield stress (YS) of the weld metal was under-matched with respect to the HAZs of SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS by 0.78 to 0.92, although the YS was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1 at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably in the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 C, suggesting that the probability of ductile failure caused by a unstable deformation at the Alloy 82/182 buttering layer is low. Within the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a, the gradient of the YS and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) was significant, primarily because of the different microstructures produced by the phase transformation during the welding process. The increment of YS was unexpectedly high in the HAZ of F316 SS, which was explained by the strain hardening induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal. This was confirmed by the transmission electron micrographs showing high dislocation density in the HAZ.

  10. Friction stir welding joint of dissimilar materials between AZ31B magnesium and 6061 aluminum alloys: Microstructure studies and mechanical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 141554933 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behnamian, Y. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Mostafaei, A., E-mail: amir.mostafaei@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Izadi, H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Saeid, T. [Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 513351996 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokabi, A.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 113659466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gerlich, A.P., E-mail: adrian.gerlich@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Friction stir welding is an efficient manufacturing method for joining dissimilar alloys, which can dramatically reduce grain sizes and offer high mechanical joint efficiency. Lap FSW joints between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloy sheets were made at various tool rotation and travel speeds. Rotation and travel speeds varied between 560–1400 r/min and 16–40 mm/min respectively, where the ratio between these parameters was such that nearly constant pitch distances were applied during welding. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures of the joints welded. Intermetallic phases including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β) were detected in the weld zone (WZ). For different tool rotation speeds, the morphology of the microstructure in the stir zone changed significantly with travel speed. Lap shear tensile test results indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds to 1400 r/min and 40 mm/min, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum. Microhardness measurements and tensile stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW parameters and mainly depended on the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. In addition, a debonding failure mode in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld nugget was investigated by SEM and surface fracture studies indicated that the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone controlled the failure mode. XRD analysis of the fracture surface indicated the presence of brittle intermetallic compounds including Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} (γ) and Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2} (β). - Highlights: • Dissimilar Al/Mg joint was obtained by lap friction stir welding technique. • Effect of rotation and travel speeds on the formation of intermetallic

  11. Comparison of fatigue crack growth of riveted and bonded aircraft lap joints made of Aluminium alloy 2024-T3 substrates - A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, S.; Rojas, J. I.; Crespo, D.

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft lap joints play an important role in minimizing the operational cost of airlines. Hence, airlines pay more attention to these technologies to improve efficiency. Namely, a major time consuming and costly process is maintenance of aircraft between the flights, for instance, to detect early formation of cracks, monitoring crack growth, and fixing the corresponding parts with joints, if necessary. This work is focused on the study of repairs of cracked aluminium alloy (AA) 2024-T3 plates to regain their original strength; particularly, cracked AA 2024-T3 substrate plates repaired with doublers of AA 2024-T3 with two configurations (riveted and with adhesive bonding) are analysed. The fatigue life of the substrate plates with cracks of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 12.7mm is computed using Fracture Analysis 3D (FRANC3D) tool. The stress intensity factors for the repaired AA 2024-T3 plates are computed for different crack lengths and compared using commercial FEA tool ABAQUS. The results for the bonded repairs showed significantly lower stress intensity factors compared with the riveted repairs. This improves the overall fatigue life of the bonded joint.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Joints under Constant Stress Intensity Factor Range Control Testing (For L T Orientation Specimen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, as a series of studies aimed at investigating the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth for friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, the fatigue crack growth behavior of FSWed 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints was investigated for L T orientation specimens. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control for 5 specimens of the FSWed 7075-T111 aluminum alloy, including base metal (B M), heat affected zone (Haz), and weld metal (W M) specimens. The mean fatigue crack growth rate of W M specimens was found to be the highest, whereas that of Haz and W M specimens was the lowest. Furthermore, the variability of fatigue crack growth rate was found to be the highest in W M specimens and lowest in B M specimens.

  13. Development of a Nano-Satellite Micro-Coupling Mechanism with Characterization of a Shape Memory Alloy Interference Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    3 Endothermic for martensite to austenite transformation. Exothermic for austenite to martensite transformation. 4 Note that the...original work by definition . Unique contributions to the related art of coupling devices and shape memory alloys are as follows: 1) A zero impact

  14. Study of the structure and properties of laser-welded joints of the Al-Mg-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, N. B.; Antenorova, N. P.; Senaeva, E. I.

    2015-12-01

    The macro- and microstructures, the distribution of chemical elements and of the values of the microhardness over the width of the zones of remelting and heat-affected zone have been studied after the laser welding of sheets of an Al-Mg-Li alloy. It has been shown that the material of the zone of remelting (1.2 mm thick) represents in itself finely dispersed misoriented dendrites, in the primary branches of which particles of the strengthening δ' phase (Al3Li) with dimensions of no more than 10 nm and in the interdendrite spaces, dispersed particles of the S phase (Al2MgLi and FeAl2) have been revealed. The hardness of the material of the zone of remelting was 108-123 HV 0.05; the hardness of the basic alloy, 150-162 HV 0.05. In the heat-affected zones of thickness 2 mm, the primary recrystallization occurred only in a narrow zone directly at the boundary with the weld. The strength of the welded junction was 470-490 MPa, which corresponds to the regulated degree of strength of the aluminum alloys of this class. The relative elongation of the material of the weld proved to be considerably less than that in the alloy matrix because of the microporosity of the weld material. It is shown that the convective stirring of the melt in the welding pool upon the laser welding made it possible to avoid the appearance of macroscopic defects, but on the microlevel there are observed micropores in the form of spheres with dimensions of 5-50 μm. The solidification of the alloy occurred in such a way that the dendrites had time to grow around the gas bubbles prior to their collapse, forming a sufficiently strong carcass. Inside the dendritic carcass, there have been revealed coarse inclusions (to 200 μm) that consist of oxides (Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, CaO), of an iron-based alloy, and of the host aluminum alloy.

  15. Influence of joint line remnant on crack paths under static and fatigue loadings in friction stir welded Al-Mg-Sc alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Besel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the joint line remnant (JLR on tensile and fatigue fracture behaviour has been investigated in a friction stir welded Al-Mg-Sc alloy. JLR is one of the microstructural features formed in friction stir welds depending on welding conditions and alloy systems. It is attributed to initial oxide layer on butting surfaces to be welded. In this study, two different tool travel speeds were used. JLR was formed in both welds but its spatial distribution was different depending on the tool travel speeds. Under the tensile test, the weld with the higher heat input fractured partially along JLR, since strong microstructural inhomogeneity existed in the vicinity of JLR in this weld and JLR had weak bonding. Resultantly, the mechanical properties of this weld were deteriorated compared with the other weld. Fatigue crack initiation was not affected by the existence of JLR in all welds. But the crack propagated preferentially along JLR in the weld of the higher heat input, when it initiated on the retreating side. Consequently, such crack propagation behaviour along JLR could bring about shorter fatigue lives in larger components in which crack growth phase is dominant.

  16. Characterization of the tensile properties of friction stir welded aluminum alloy joints based on axial force, traverse speed, and rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Biranchi; Garg, A.; Jian, Zhang; Heidarzadeh, Akbar; Gao, Liang

    2016-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) process has gained attention in recent years because of its advantages over the conventional fusion welding process. These advantages include the absence of heat formation in the affected zone and the absence of large distortion, porosity, oxidation, and cracking. Experimental investigations are necessary to understand the physical behavior that causes the high tensile strength of welded joints of different metals and alloys. Existing literature indicates that tensile properties exhibit strong dependence on the rotational speed, traverse speed, and axial force of the tool that was used. Therefore, this study introduces the experimental procedure for measuring tensile properties, namely, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation of the welded AA 7020 Al alloy. Experimental findings suggest that a welded part with high UTS can be achieved at a lower heat input compared with the high heat input condition. A numerical approach based on genetic programming is employed to produce the functional relationships between tensile properties and the three inputs (rotational speed, traverse speed, and axial force) of the FSW process. The formulated models were validated based on the experimental data, using the statistical metrics. The effect of the three inputs on the tensile properties was investigated using 2D and 3D analyses. A high UTS was achieved, including a rotational speed of 1050 r/min and traverse speed of 95 mm/min. The results also indicate that 8 kN axial force should be set prior to the FSW process.

  17. Temperature-dependent transformation from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite interface in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ag-based alloy system and mechanical properties of the joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Cao, Jian, E-mail: cao_jian@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Zhijie; Chen, Zhe; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2015-11-15

    Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}-whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. The microstructure of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. A continuous (Cu,Al){sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O layer formed against the alloy at lower bonding temperatures, and a complex transition zone bordering the whiskers was observed, which consisted of Ag nanoparticles, titanium oxides, TiB{sub 2}, (Cu,Al){sub 3}Ti{sub 3}O nanoparticles and possible Ag{sub 3}Al. As the bonding temperature increased, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AgCuTi interface was found to transform from whisker- to nanoparticle-strengthened composite region. Bend test results revealed that both the whiskers grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the dispersive nanoscale products in the alloy played positive roles in improving the joint properties. The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was 313 MPa at the bonding temperature of 820 °C. - Highlights: • Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9}-whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics were bonded by AgCu–4.5 wt.%Ti alloy in vacuum. • Microstructures of whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints were investigated in detail. • Both whiskers and the dispersive nanoscale products can improve the joint properties. • The maximum bend strength of the whisker-coated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} joints was 313 MPa.

  18. Improvement in Fatigue Performance of Aluminium Alloy Welded Joints by Laser Shock Peening in a Dynamic Strain Aging Temperature Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Su

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new treatment process after welding, the process parameters of laser shock peening (LSP in dynamic strain aging (DSA temperature regimes can be precisely controlled, and the process is a non-contact one. The effects of LSP at elevated temperatures on the distribution of the surface residual stress of AA6061-T6 welded joints were investigated by using X-ray diffraction technology with the sin2ϕ method and Abaqus software. The fatigue life of the welded joints was estimated by performing tensile fatigue tests. The microstructural evolution in surface and fatigue fractures of the welded joints was presented by means of surface integrity and fracture surface testing. In the DSA temperature regime of AA6061-T6 welded joints, the residual compressive stress was distributed more stably than that of LSP at room temperature. The thermal corrosion resistance and fatigue properties of the welded joints were also improved. The experimental results and numerical analysis were in mutual agreement.

  19. Ion-irradiation effects on dissimilar friction stir welded joints between ODS alloy and ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-L., E-mail: chunliang@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Richter, A. [Department of Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Bahnhofstrasse 1, 15745 Wildau (Germany); Kögler, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Center Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Griepentrog, M.; Reinstädt, P. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • FSSW has successfully been used in the welding of dissimilar materials. • The irradiation causes different degrees of hardening in the welding zones. • The formation of He bubbles at precipitates was found in the dissimilar joints. • The hardening effect is due to formation of He-filled vacancies. - Abstract: Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is an advanced technique for the joining of materials to prevent agglomeration of fine oxide particles, grain coarsening, and stress corrosion cracking etc. In this study, the dissimilar FSSW joint of stainless steel 430/ODS was irradiated with a Fe{sup +}/He{sup +} dual ion beam. Irradiation damage can cause deterioration in the mechanical properties especially in the welding zones. The joint quality therefore plays a decisive role in the life expectancy of nuclear reactors. The effect of irradiation on different zones in the joint (the thermo-mechanically affected zone, the heat affected zone and the base material) was investigated by TEM and nanoindentation. Irradiation causes a hardness increase in all welding zones with a characteristic hardness maximum. The relative hardness increase and the related microstructure are discussed. The formation of He bubbles at chromium carbide precipitates and the homogeneous distribution of He filled vacancies in the mixture region of the 430/ODS FSSW joints was observed.

  20. Comparison of RSM with ANN in predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA7039 aluminium alloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. K. LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding(FSW) is an innovative solid state joining technique and has been employed in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries for joining aluminium, magnesium, zinc and copper alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, play a major role in deciding the weld quality. Two methods, response surface methodology and artificial neural network were used to predict the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA7039 aluminium alloy. The experiments were conducted based on three factors, three-level, and central composite face centered design with full replications technique, and mathematical model was developed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify critical parameters. The results obtained through response surface methodology were compared with those through artificial neural networks.

  1. Development of heat resistant Pb-free joints by TLPS process of Ag and Sn-Bi-Ag alloy powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TLPS (Transient Liquid Phase Sintering process is a candidate method of heat-resistant bonding, which makes use of the reaction between low-melting temperature powder of Sn-Bi base alloys and reactive powder of Ag. During heat treatment above the melting temperature of a Sn-Bi base alloy, the molten Sn-Bi reacts rapidly with solid Ag particles, which results in the formation of heat-resistant intermetallic compound (IMC. In this study, the TLPS properties between Sn-17Bi-1Ag (at.% powder with its liquidus temperature of 200°C and pure Ag powder were investigated. During differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurement, an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction occurred, which correspond to the formation of the e-Ag3Sn IMC phase and the melting of the Sn-17Bi-1Ag alloy, respectively. After the overall measurement, the obtained reactant consists of the Ag3Sn-IMC and Bi-rich phases, both of which start melting above 250°C, with a small amount of the residual Sn-Bi eutectic phase. These results suggest that the TLPS process can be applied for Pb-free heatresistant bonding.

  2. Surface Characterizations of Fretting Fatigue Damage in Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6 Clamped Joints: The Beneficial Role of Ni–P Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza H. Oskouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to characterize the surface damage as a consequence of fretting fatigue in aluminum alloy 7075-T6 plates in double-lap bolted joints through XRD, surface profilometry, and SEM analyses. The main focus was on the surface roughness and chemical phase composition of the damaged zone along with the identification of fretting fatigue crack initiations over the surface of the material. The surface roughness of the fretted zone was found to increase when the joint was clamped with a higher tightening torque and tested under the same cyclic loading. Additionally, MgZn2 (η/ή precipitates and ZnO phase were found to form onto the surface of uncoated aluminum plate in the fretted and worn zones. The formation of the ZnO phase was understood to be a result of frictional heat induced between the surface of contacting uncoated Al 7075-T6 plates during cyclic loading and exposure to the air. The beneficial role of electroless nickel-phosphorous (Ni–P coatings in minimizing the fretting damage and thus improving the fretting fatigue life of the aluminum plates was also studied. The results showed that the surface roughness decreased by approximately 40% after applying Ni–P coatings to the Al 7075-T6 plates.

  3. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Lee, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Jong Sung; Byun, Thak Sang

    2009-02-01

    The distributions of mechanical and microstructural properties were investigated for the dissimilar metal weld joints between SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel and F316 austenitic stainless steel with Alloy 82/182 filler metal using small-size tensile specimens. The material properties varied significantly in different zones while those were relatively uniform within each material. In particular, significant gradient of the mechanical properties were observed near the both heat-affected zones (HAZs) of F316 SS and SA508 Gr.1a. Thus, the yield stress (YS) was under-matched with respect to the both HAZs, although, the YS of the weld metal was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably across the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 °C. The transmission electron micrographs showed that the strengthening in the HAZ of F316 SS was attributed to the strain hardening, induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal, which was evidenced by high dislocation density in the HAZ of F316 SS.

  4. Local mechanical properties of Alloy 82/182 dissimilar weld joint between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 SS at RT and 320 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkim@chosun.ac.kr; Lee, Kyoungsoo [Nuclear Power Laboratory, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, 103-16 Munji-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejon 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, 413 Jungangno, Sunchon, Jeonnam 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Thak Sang [Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Material Science and Technology Division, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6151, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2009-02-28

    The distributions of mechanical and microstructural properties were investigated for the dissimilar metal weld joints between SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel and F316 austenitic stainless steel with Alloy 82/182 filler metal using small-size tensile specimens. The material properties varied significantly in different zones while those were relatively uniform within each material. In particular, significant gradient of the mechanical properties were observed near the both heat-affected zones (HAZs) of F316 SS and SA508 Gr.1a. Thus, the yield stress (YS) was under-matched with respect to the both HAZs, although, the YS of the weld metal was over-matched with respect to both base metals. The minimum ductility occurred in the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a at both test temperatures. The plastic instability stress also varied considerably across the weld joints, with minimum values occurring in the SA508 Gr.1a base metal at RT and in the HAZ of F316 SS at 320 deg. C. The transmission electron micrographs showed that the strengthening in the HAZ of F316 SS was attributed to the strain hardening, induced by a strain mismatch between the weldment and the base metal, which was evidenced by high dislocation density in the HAZ of F316 SS.

  5. Experimental and numerical studies on the issues in laser welding of light-weight alloys in a zero-gap lap joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harooni, Masoud

    current study a non-destructive evaluation method based on spectroscopy is proposed to detect the presence of pores in the lap joint of laser welded AZ31B magnesium alloy. The electron temperature that is calculated by the Boltzmann plot method is correlated to the presence of pores in the weld bead. A separate series of experiments was performed to evaluate the effect of an oxide coating layer on the dynamic behavior of the molten pool in the laser welding of an AZ31B magnesium alloy in a zero-gap lap joint configuration. A high speed CCD camera assisted with a green laser as an illumination source was selected to record the weld pool dynamics. Another technique used in this study was two-pass laser welding process to join AZ31B magnesium sheet in a zero-gap, lap-shear configuration. Two groups of samples including one pass laser welding (OPLW) and two pass laser welding (TPLW) were studied. In the two pass laser welding procedure, the first pass is performed by a defocused laser beam on the top of the two overlapped sheets in order to preheat the faying surface prior to laser welding, while the second pass is applied to melt and eventually weld the samples. Tensile and microhardness tests were used to measure the mechanical properties of the laser welded samples. A spectrometer was also used in real-time to correlate pore formation with calculated electron temperature using the Boltzmann plot method. The results of calculated electron temperature confirmed the previous results in earlier chapter. Magnesium and aluminum are two alloys which are used in different industries mainly due to their light weight. The main use of these two alloys is in automotive industry. Since different parts of the automobiles can be manufactured with each of these two alloys, it is essential to evaluate the joining feasibility of dissimilar metals such as aluminum to magnesium. A 4 kW fiber laser is used to join AZ31B magnesium alloy to AA 6014 using an overlap joint configuration. Two

  6. Cryogenic Fracture Toughness of 2219 Aluminum Alloy VPTIG Welded Joint%2219铝合金VPTIG焊接头的低温断裂韧性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林一桐; 王东坡; 王颖

    2015-01-01

    采用裂纹尖端张开位移(crack tip opening displacement,CTOD)试验研究了高强2219铝合金变极性钨极氩弧焊(variable polarity tungsten inert gas welding,VPTIG)接头各部位的低温断裂韧性,利用扫描电镜对各部位的CTOD 试验断口特征进行分析,并结合金相组织进一步阐明组织与断裂韧性的关联。研究结果表明,2219铝合金VPTIG 焊接头各部位表现出不同的低温断裂韧性,熔合线最低,热影响区高于焊缝,但均低于母材。扫描电镜断口观察结果表明,母材、焊缝及热影响区的断裂机制为剪切断裂,熔合线的断裂机制为准解理断裂。金相组织分析较好地解释了焊接接头不同部位断裂韧性的差异。%Cryogenic fracture toughness of high strength 2219 aluminum alloy variable polarity tungsten inert gas welding(VPTIG) welded joint was studied in terms of tests of crack tip opening displacement(CTOD). The fracture characters of CTOD tests of different parts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and the rela-tionship between microstructure and fracture toughness was further clarified according to microstructure. Results showed that the distribution of cryogenic fracture toughness of 2219 aluminum alloy VPTIG welded joint was of no uniformity. The cryogenic fracture toughness of fusion line was the lowest,while in the weld it was lower than that in the heat affected zone. In all the three cases,the cryogenic fracture toughness was lower than that of parent metal. The result of fracture observation of SEM showed that the fracture mechanism of parent metal,weld and heat af-fected zone was shear fracture,while that of fusion line was quasi-cleavage fracture. Microstructure analysis well explained the difference in fracture toughness among various parts of the joint.

  7. TC4钛合金真空钎焊接头显微组织分析%Analysis of TC4 Titanium Alloy Vacuum Brazing Joint Microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙勇

    2013-01-01

      采用Ag-Cu-Ti钎料对TC4钛合金进行真空钎焊;采用金相分析、扫描电镜对钎缝的组织结构、元素分布情况进行分析,并对焊件的整体力学性能进行拉伸测试。结果表明,TC4合金板真空钎焊搭接接头处抗剪强度在200MPa以上,钎焊接头处总体的力学性能优于母材;钎缝与基体相临的部位析出了弥散相,钎缝处有Cu的固溶体析出;焊接接头中的主要元素Ti、Al、V、Ag、Cu呈规律性分布,钎缝及扩散区域得到以细小笋状的方式生长的Cu基固溶体,是为Ag-Cu共晶组织。%Vacuum brazing of TC4 was carried out with Ag-Cu-Ti filler metal. Organizational structure, element distribution of brazed joints were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and metallographic microscope, and the joint whole mechanical property was determined by tensile testing method. The results show that shear strength for the brazing joint of TC4 titanium alloy is above 200MPa and whole mechanical property of the brazing joint are better than base metal. Dispersed network phase form between base metal and brazing seam, and Cu-based solid solution separate out in the brazing seam. Ti, Al, V, Ag and Cu of the brazing joint were regular distribution. Ag-Cu eutectic structure of brazing seam and diffuse region were grown by slender and small bamboo shoots mode.

  8. Progress report on the behavior and modeling of copper alloy to stainless steel joints for ITER first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, J.; Stubbins, J.; Collins, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The stress states that lead to failure of joints between GlidCop{trademark} CuAl25 and 316L SS were examined using finite element modeling techniques to explain experimental observations of behavior of those joints. The joints were formed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and bend bar specimens were fabricated with the joint inclined 45{degree} to the major axis of the specimen. The lower surface of the bend bar was notched in order to help induce a precrack for subsequent loading in bending. The precrack was intended to localize a high stress concentration in close proximity to the interface so that its behavior could be examined without complicating factors from the bulk materials and the specimen configuration. Preparatory work to grow acceptable precracks caused the specimen to fail prematurely while the precrack was still progressing into the specimen toward the interface. This prompted the finite element model calculations to help understand the reasons for this behavior from examination of the stress states throughout the specimen. An additional benefit sought from the finite element modeling effort was to understand if the stress states in this non-conventional specimen were representative of those that might be experienced during operation in ITER.

  9. Butt-joint integration of active optical components based on InP/AlInGaAsP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kuznetsova, Nadezda; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface was determi......We demonstrate all-active planar high quality butt-joint (BJ) integration of a QW Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and MQW Electro-Absorption Modulator (EAM) based on an InP/AlInGaAsP platform. The degradation of the optical properties in the vicinity of ~1 μm to the BJ interface...

  10. Influence of bonding temperature on interfacial phases in diffusion-bonded joints of 6063, 5005, and 7NO1 alloys. Report 3. Diffusion-bonding mechanism of aluminum alloys by transmission electron microscopy; 6063, 5005 oyobi 7NO1 gokin no setsugo kaimen no keiseiso ni oyobosu setsugo ondo no eikyo. 3. Toka denshi kenbikyo kansatsu ni yoru Al gokin no kakusan setsugo kiko no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, K. [Industrial Research Inst. of Aichi Prefecture, Aichi (Japan); Ikeuchi, K.; Matsuda, F. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.

    1996-05-05

    The authors of the paper have observed oxide films and oxide grains formed at joint interfaces of practical alloys with a transmission electron microscopy up to now. In this paper, among the practical alloys reported in the former report, 3 kinds of alloys with different Mg contents, Al-Mg-Si 6063 alloy, Al-Mg 5005 alloy and Al-Zn-Mg 7N01 alloy are selected, the joint interfaces of the alloys at different bonding temperatures are observed with TEM and the formed phases in the joint interfaces are identified by electron ray diffraction. Then, by comparing the TEM observation results with the bonding strength as well as the tensile fracture, the influences of the formed phase on the bondability are investigated. As the results of the study, the followings are clarified. The oxides formed at the joint interfaces alter from uncrystallized oxide films to crystallized grains with the increasing of the bonding temperature. The uncrystallized oxide films disappear at lower bonding temperature as the Mg content is higher. 7 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Effect of external applied steady magnetic field on the morphology of laser welding joint of 4-mm 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Junjie; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    Additional external steady magnetic fields were applied to investigate the influence of a steady magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the welding direction during laser beam welding of 2024 aluminum alloy. The flow pattern in the molten pool and the weld seam geometry were significantly changed by the induced Lorentz force distribution in the liquid metal. It revealed that the application of a steady magnetic field to laser beam welding was helpful to the suppression of the characteristic wineglass-shape and the depth-to-width ratio because of the Marangoni convection. The microstructures and component distributions at various laser power and magnetic field intensity were analyzed too. It was indicated that the suppression of the Marangoni convection by Lorentz force was beneficial to accumulation of component and grain coarsening near the fusion line.

  12. Characterization of mechanical properties in the heat affected zones of alloy 82/182 dissimilar metal weld joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Sunchon National Univ., Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of mechanical properties within the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of dissimilar metal weld between SA508 Gr.1a and F316 Stainless Steel (SS) with Alloy 82/182 filler metal. Tensile tests were performed using small-size specimens taken from the HAZ regions close to both fusion lines of weld, and the micro-structures were examined using Optical Microscope (OM) and Transmission Microscope (TEM). The results showed that significant gradients of the Yield Stress (YS), Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS), and elongations were observed within the HAZ of SA508 Gr.1a. This was attributed to the different microstructures within the HAZ. In the HAZ of F316 SS, however, the welding effect dominated the YS and elongation rather than UTS, and TEM micrographs conformed the strengthening in the HAZ of F316 SS was associated with a dislocation-induced strain hardening.

  13. Corrosion behavior of the friction-stir-welded joints of 2A14-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hai-long; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Da-tong; Zhuang, Qian-yu

    2015-06-01

    The corrosion behavior of friction-stir-welded 2A14-T6 aluminum alloy was investigated by immersion testing in immersion exfoliation corrosion (EXCO) solution. Electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed for analyzing the corrosion mechanism. The results show that, compared to the base material, the corrosion resistance of the friction-stir welds is greatly improved, and the weld nugget has the highest corrosion resistance. The pitting susceptibility originates from the edge of Al-Cu-Fe-Mn-Si phase particles as the cathode compared to the matrix due to their high self-corrosion potential. No corrosion activity is observed around the θ phase (Al2Cu) after 2 h of immersion in EXCO solution.

  14. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar joint between semi-solid metal 356-T6 and aluminum alloys 6061-T651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Tehyo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanicalproperties of friction stir (FS welded butt joints of dissimilar aluminum alloy sheets between Semi-Solid Metal (SSM 356-T6and AA6061-T651 by a computerized numerical control (CNC machine. The base materials of SSM356-T6 and AA6061-T651were located on the advancing side (AS and on the retreating side (RS, respectively. For this experiment, the FS weldedmaterials were joined under two different tool rotation speeds (1,750 and 2,000 rpm and six welding speeds (20, 50, 80, 120, 160,and 200 mm/min, which are the two prime joining parameters in FSW. From the investigation, the higher tool rotation speedaffected the weaker material’s (SSM maximum tensile strength less than that under the lower rotation speed. As for weldingspeed associated with various tool rotation speeds, an increase in the welding speed affected lesser the base material’s tensilestrength up to an optimum value; after which its effect increased. Tensile elongation was generally greater at greater toolrotation speed. An averaged maximum tensile strength of 206.3 MPa was derived from a welded specimen produced at the toolrotation speed of 2,000 rpm associated with the welding speed of 80 mm/min. In the weld nugget, higher hardness was observedin the stir zone than that in the thermo-mechanically affected zone. Away from the weld nugget, hardness levels increased backto the levels of the base materials. The microstructures of the welding zone in the FS welded dissimilar joint can be characterizedboth by the recrystallization of SSM356-T6 grains and AA6061-T651 grain layers.

  15. Double-sided laser beam welded T-joints for aluminum-lithium alloy aircraft fuselage panels: Effects of filler elements on microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Tao, Wang; Chen, Yanbin; Li, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In the current work, T-joints consisting of 2.0 mm thick 2060-T8/2099-T83 aluminum-lithium alloys for aircraft fuselage panels have been fabricated by double-sided fiber laser beam welding with different filler wires. A new type wire CW3 (Al-6.2Cu-5.4Si) was studied and compared with conventional wire AA4047 (Al-12Si) mainly on microstructure and mechanical properties. It was found that the main combined function of Al-6.2%Cu-5.4%Si in CW3 resulted in considerable improvements especially on intergranular strength, hot cracking susceptibility and hoop tensile properties. Typical non-dendritic equiaxed zone (EQZ) was observed along welds' fusion boundary. Hot cracks and fractures during the load were always located within the EQZ, however, this typical zone could be restrained by CW3, effectively. Furthermore, changing of the main intergranular precipitated phase within the EQZ from T phase by AA4047 to T2 phase by CW3 also resulted in developments on microscopic intergranular reinforcement and macroscopic hoop tensile properties. In addition, bridging caused by richer substructure dendrites within CW3 weld's columnar zone resulted in much lower hot cracking susceptibility of the whole weld than AA4047.

  16. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of 316L steel weld joint in liquid Pb-Bi eutectic alloy at 550°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yucheng; Chang, Hongxia; Guo, Xiaokai; Li, Tianqing; Xiao, Longren

    2017-11-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) is applied in the Accelerator Driven transmutation System (ADS) as the high-power spallation neutron targets and coolant. A 19.2kHz ultrasonic device was deployed in liquid LBE at 550°C to induce short and long period cavitation erosion damage on the surface of weld joint, SEM and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to map out the surface properties, and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) was applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in the micro region of the surface. The erosion mechanism for how the cavitation erosion evolved by studying the element changes, their morphology evolution, the surface hardness and the roughness evolution, was proposed. The results showed that the pits, caters and cracks appeared gradually on the erode surface after a period of cavitation. The surface roughness increased along with exposure time. Work hardening by the bubbles impact in the incubation stage strengthened the cavitation resistance efficiently. The dissolution and oxidation corrosion and cavitation erosion that simultaneously happened in liquid LBE accelerated corrosion-erosion process, and these two processes combined to cause more serious damage on the material surface. Contrast to the performance of weld metal, base metal exhibited a much better cavitation resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  18. Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties of (FS and MIG Welded Joint in (AA7020-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Waheed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive practical study of typical mechanical properties of welded Aluminum alloy AA7020-T6 (Al-Mg-Zn, adopting friction stir welding (FSW technique and conventional metal inert gas (MIG technique, is well achieved in this work for real comparison purposes. The essences of present output findings were concentrated upon the FSW samples in respect to that MIG ones which can be summarized in the increase of the ultimate tensile strength for FSW was 340 MPa while it was 232 MPa for MIG welding, where it was for base metal 400 MPa. The minimum microhardness value for FSW was recorded at HAZ and it was 133 HV0.05 while it was 70 HV0.05 for MIG weld at the welding metal. The FSW produce 2470 N higher than MIG welding in the bending test and a decrease in the localized grain size for FSW in the stirred zone 12 µm and it was 37 µm for MIG while it was 32 µm for the base metal

  19. Mechanical Properties of WE43 Magnesium Alloy Joint at Elevated Temperature / Właściwości Mechaniczne Złączy Ze Stopu Magnezu WE43 W Podwyższonej Temperaturze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turowska A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The WE43 cast magnesium alloy, containing yttrium and rare earth elements, remains stable at temperatures up to 300°C, according to the manufacturer, and therefore it is considered for a possible application in the aerospace and automotive. Usually, it is cast gravitationally into sand moulds and used for large-size castings that find application in the aerospace industry. After the casting process any possible defects that might appear in the casting are repaired with the application of welding techniques. These techniques also find application in renovation of the used cast elements and in the process of joining the cast parts into complex structures. An important factor determining the validity of the application of welding techniques for repairing or joining cast magnesium alloys is the structural stability and the stability of the properties of the joint in operating conditions. In the literature of the subject are information on the properties of the WE43 alloy or an impact of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the alloy, however, there is a lack of information concerning the welded joints produced from this alloy. This paper has been focused on the analysis the microstructure of the welded joints and their mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. To do this, tensile tests at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 300°C were performed. The tests showed, that up to the temperature of 150°C the crack occurred in the base material, whereas above this temperature level the rapture occurred within the weld. The loss of cohesion resulted from the nucleation of voids on grain boundaries and their formation into the main crack. The strength of the joints ranged from 150 MPa to 235 MPa, i.e. around 90 % of strength of the WE43 alloy after heat treatment (T6. Also performed a profilometric examination was to establish the shape of the fracture and to analyze how the temperature affected a contribution of phases in the process of

  20. Microstructure and Properties of Welded Joint of Extruded 6005A Aluminium Alloy%6005A铝合金型材焊接接头组织与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志民; 张爱琼; 王炎金

    2001-01-01

    采用国产6005A铝合金进行焊接试验,并对焊接接头进行了力学性能检测及金相显微组织观察。结果表明,6005A铝合金的焊接接头焊缝两侧离焊缝中心约10~15mm的地方存在一对对称分布的软化区,其原因是由于焊接热的影响使该部位发生了过时效.对进口的6005A大型多孔铝型材焊接接头进行分析,发现焊接接头上软化区硬度降低的程度明显较小,这是由于实际的多孔型材在该部位设置有加强筋,加强筋有显著的散热作用,降低了焊接过程中该部位的温升.另一方面,加强筋增大了软化区的承载面积,有机械补强作用。%Welding test of extruded 6005A Aluminium alloy was performed and mechanical properties and optical microstructures were studied. The results show that there is a pair of symmetric soft zone which was located on both sides of the weld about 10~15 mm apart from the weld center. The occurrence of soft zone is due to overaging caused by heat input during welding. In the condition of big practical extruded 6005A alloy welded joint, the softing degree of mentioned above soft zone obviously decreases, attributed to that there is a reinforce rib which have obvious heat scatting action, and then decreases the temperature increasing during welding. On another hand, this reinforce rib increase the loading area and have a strength compensating.

  1. Optimization of the welding process of high alloyed steels and improvement of corrosion behaviour of welded joints; Optimierung des Schweissprozesses hochlegierter Staehle und Verbesserung der Korrosionsbestaendigkeit der Schweissverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, K.; Goellner, J. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, IWW, PF 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Ryspaev, T.; Reiter, R.; Wesling, V. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Agricolastrasse 2, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The optimization of welding processes is necessary to obtain a good durability of the welded joints connected with a minimization of the corrosion performance. Welding processes represent a considerable influence of the material. The formation of precipitations, strong structure changes, increasing of the residual stress and not at all undefined surface layers are possible. All these changes have a great influence on the corrosion behaviour. Particularly tempering tarnish changes the passive layer which is decisive for the corrosion resistance. But also surface treatment methods can influence the corrosion behaviour. Therefore both the welding process and an ''after-care'' coordinated with the respective welding process had to be optimized. The optimization of the welding process was carried out by variation of the energy per unit length and the use of different protective gases. For a selection of a surface treatment method it has to be taken into account that an obvious remove of the tempering tarnish doesn't lead to an improvement in the corrosion behaviour. Traces of the working tool which can have a negative effect on the corrosion behaviour often remain on the surface. The influence of these different parameters on the corrosion property could be proved by electrochemical and surface analytical examinations. The investigations were carried out at specimens of two typical representatives of high alloyed austenitic steels and at welded joints, which had different surface treatments. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Optimierung von Schweissprozessen ist erforderlich, um eine gute Haltbarkeit der Schweissverbindungen und eine Minimierung der Korrosionsneigung zu erzielen. Schweissprozesse stellen eine erhebliche Beeinflussung fuer den Werkstoff dar. Es kann dabei zu Ausscheidungen bzw. zu starken Gefuegeveraenderungen, zur Erhoehung der Eigenspannungen und nicht zuletzt zu Schichtbildungen kommen. All

  2. 焊接修复汽轮发电机转子铝合金叶片接头强度校核%Strength Checking for Welded Joint of Aluminium Alloy Blade Used in Turbo Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乔斌; 熊征

    2011-01-01

    为了评估焊接修复汽轮发电机转子铝合金叶片接头强度的可靠性,基于空气动力学理论,分析和计算了由离心力与空气升力在旋转运动叶片TIG焊接接头上产生的拉伸应力,并进行强度校核.强度校核表明,用SalSi-1铝合金焊丝形成的焊接接头安全许用应力大于接头受到的拉伸应力,焊接接头安全可靠.本分析方法为旋转体焊接接头强度校核提供了一定理论基础.%For assessing the safety of welded joint of aluminium alloy blade used in turbo generator, the tensile stress of welded joint caused by centrifugal force and air lift acting rotation blade was calculated according to the basic theories of the aerodynamicist. Based on the results, the tensile strength of the welded joint by TIG is conducted by strength checking. The permissible stress of TIG joint welded with SAISi-1 aluminium alloy wire is larger than the bearable stress in the welded zone. The repaired blade is safe. The analysis method provides some theories foundation for the safe assessment on welded joint strength in rotation blade.

  3. Finishing touch to joint venture

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A new process for polishing titanium and its alloys has been announced following an agreement between Bripol (an Anopol/Delmet joint venture) of Birmingham and the European Organisation for Nuclear Reseach (CERN) in Geneva" (1 paragraph).

  4. Nanocrystalline diamond thin films on titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy temporomandibular joint prosthesis simulants by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc Douglas

    A course of research has been performed to assess the suitability of nanocrystal-line diamond (NCD) films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy as wear-resistant coatings in biomedical implant use. A series of temporomandibular (TMJ) joint condyle simulants were polished and acid-passivated as per ASTM F86 standard for surface preparation of implants. A 3-mum-thick coating of NCD film was deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) over the hemispherical articulation surfaces of the simulants. Plasma chemistry conditions were measured and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), using hydrogen as a relative standard. The films consist of diamond grains around 20 nm in diameter embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix, free of any detectable film stress gradient. Hardness averages 65 GPa and modulus measures 600 GPa at a depth of 250 nm into the film surface. A diffuse film/substrate boundary produces a minimal film adhesion toughness (GammaC) of 158 J/m2. The mean RMS roughness is 14.6 +/- 4.2 nm, with an average peak roughness of 82.6 +/- 65.9 nm. Examination of the surface morphology reveals a porous, dendritic surface. Wear testing resulted in two failed condylar coatings out of three tests. No macroscopic delamination was found on any sample, but micron-scale film pieces broke away, exposing the substrate. Electrochemical corrosion testing shows a seven-fold reduction in corrosion rate with the application of an NCD coating as opposed to polished, passivated Ti-6Al-4V, producing a corrosion rate comparable to wrought Co-Cr-Mo. In vivo biocompatibility testing indicates that implanted NCD films did not elicit an immune response in the rabbit model, and osteointegration was apparent for both compact and trabecular bone on both NCD film and bare Ti-6Al-4V. Overall, NCD thin film material is reasonably smooth, biocompatible, and very well adhered. Wear testing indicates that this material is unacceptable for use in demanding TMJ applications without

  5. Failure Mode Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024-T3 in Double-Lap Bolted Joints with Single and Double Fasteners; A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Fallahnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Al 2024-T3 in double-lap bolted joints. To accomplish this, the effect of geometric parameters was investigated in both configurations of single and double fasteners. Using ABAQUS/Standard, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed and verified against the experimental results of the joints loaded in tension. In general, double bolt joints were found to have greater load carrying capacities than single bolt joints (by 40%–49%. In single bolt joints, the plate width had insignificant effect on the behaviour of the joint under tensile loading; whereas, increasing the distance of the hole from the edge, considerably enhanced the strength of the joint. In double bolt joints, changing the edge distance had almost no effect on the behaviour of the joint. However, increasing the plate width from 25.4 to 30 mm increased the load carrying capacity by 28%. This study showed that in single bolt connections, with increasing the edge distance, the failure mode can favourably shift from shear-out to bearing. Also, double bolt joints with wider plates (increased width can beneficially shift the failure mode from net-tension to bearing. The geometric parameters were found to play an important role in controlling the failure mode so that catastrophic failure modes of net-tension and shear-out can be prevented in bolted joint.

  6. In Situ Synthesis of Al-Si-Cu Alloy During Brazing Process and Mechanical Property of Brazing Joint

    OpenAIRE

    LONG Wei-min; LU Quan-bin; He, Peng; XUE Song-bai; Wu, Ming-Fang; Xue, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The Al-Si-Cu alloy system is considered to be a promising choice of filler metal for aluminium alloys brazing due to its high strength and low melting point. The greatest obstacle is its lack of plastic forming ability and being difficult to be processed by conventional methods. This disadvantage is ascribed to the considerable amount of brittle CuAl2 intermetallic compound which forms when alloy composition is around the ternary eutectic point. In order to overcome this deficiency, authors o...

  7. Explosive Cladding of Titanium and Aluminium Alloys on the Example of Ti6Al4V-AA2519 Joints / Wybuchowe Platerowanie Stopów Tytanu I Aluminium Na Przykładzie Połączenia Ti6Al4V-AA2519

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałka A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Explosive cladding is currently one of the basic technologies of joining metals and their alloys. It enables manufacturing of the widest range of joints and in many cases there is no alternative solution. An example of such materials are clads that include light metals such as titanium and aluminum. ach new material combination requires an appropriate adaptation of the technology by choosing adequate explosives and tuning other cladding parameters. Technology enabling explosive cladding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy and aluminum AA2519 was developed. The clads were tested by means of destructive and nondestructive testing, analyzing integrity, strength and quality of the obtained joint.

  8. Friction stir welding process of 6061-T4 aluminum alloy T-joints%6061-T4铝合金T型接头搅拌摩擦焊工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓鹏; 杨新岐; 崔雷; 周光

    2013-01-01

    采用搅拌摩擦焊方法成功获得3种不同组合形式(搭接/对搭接/对接)的6061-T4铝合金T型接头。对接头的焊接缺陷、微观组织、硬度分布及抗拉强度分别进行观察和测试。结果表明:在前进侧圆角过渡区或筋板焊核区,3种接头均容易出现隧道缺陷;弱结合缺陷由于塑性变形偏离原始连接界面而向筋板或者壁板前进侧偏移;与常规搅拌摩擦焊对接搭接接头不同,T型接头沿筋板方向出现热机影响区和两个圆角过渡区;软化区域和弱结合是导致沿壁板拉伸强度降低的主要原因,而弱结合和隧道缺陷是引起这3种T型接头沿筋板方向断裂的重要原因。%Three combination modes (T-lap/T-butt-lap/T-butt) of AA6061-T4 aluminum alloy T-joints were successfully jointed by friction stir welding. Welding defects, microstructure, hardness profiles and tensile strength of the obtained T-joints were observed and measured, respectively. The results show that tunnel defects are easily formed in the fillet zone of the advancing side or in stringer nugget zone for all the three modes of T-joints. Defects of kissing bond are extruded downward to the stringer or sideward from the original joining surfaces to the advancing side of the skin under severe plastic deformation. T-joints exhibit the thermo-mechanical affected zone and two fillet zones in the stringer, which are different from the conventional butt and lap joints of friction stir welding. Softening zones and kissing bond are the main reasons to reduce the tensile strength of T-joints along skin direction, and kissing bond and tunnel defects are the main reasons for the fractures of T-joints along stringer direction.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Mechanical Behaviors of the TiNi Shape Memory Alloy Welded Joints in the Precise Pulse Resistance Butt-Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun HAN; Junjie ZHU; Lihong HAN

    2003-01-01

    The hysteresis unit system was introduced to mechanical structure behavior of the TiNi SMA joint based on the structure characteristics of the martensite variants in the joints, and some functions reflecting its inner structure characteristics and micro-behavior such as density function, phase transformation function were set up from micropoints. Finally, the structure behavior relationship and corresponding mathematic model reflecting the relationship among hysteresis strain, stress and phase transformation strain were provided, which could predict the stress-strain behavior of the TiNi SMA joint to large extent.

  10. Investigation of 2024 A-Alloy Welding Joint of Different Welding Technology%国产2024铝合金不同连接工艺下组织和性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞文军; 陈静

    2012-01-01

    With the aid of laser welding, thin-wall 2024 A-alloy structure was welded; moreover, the welding joint of different welding technology was contrast and investigated. During the welding process, the 2024 A-alloy was leaning to form the gas porosity and crack, yet after laser welding, the crack was vanished. In the mechanical properties test, the tensile properties and fatigue of riveting structure and dot welding joint was deteriorative compared with base metal while bending properties was accepted; TIG welding joint has comparable tensile strength but poor ductility and fatigue properties; laser welding joint has the best combination properties and fatigue properties, whose fatigue properties was close to that of base metal, whether at high or low stress level.%以先进的柔性激光焊接工艺为手段,在局部保护条件下实现了铝合金薄壁结构的焊接,并针对铆接、点焊、TIG焊、激光焊(不填料)三种传统焊接方法开展工艺研究,发现2024铝合金焊接工艺过程易于形成的冶金缺陷主要有气孔和裂纹,而高能量输入的激光焊可解决裂纹这一问题;性能试验结果表明:铆接和电阻点焊拉伸性能较母材相比降低幅度大,弯曲性能损失幅度小,但疲劳性能很差;TIG焊试件的拉伸性能尚可,但塑性损失较大,并且疲劳性能较母材相比有较大幅度的降低;激光焊试件的综合力学性能有较大幅度的改善,并且疲劳性能最好,无论是在高应力水平还是低应力水平均略低于母材.

  11. Improvement on microstructure and properties of friction stir welded joint of Fe-36%Ni alloy%Fe-36%Ni合金搅拌摩擦焊接头组织与性能的改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玥; 吴爱萍; 任家烈; Yutaka S.Sato; Hiroyuki Kokawa

    2012-01-01

    随着能源业的发展,Fe-36%Ni合金作为结构材料的应用需求越来越广,而电弧焊时存在严重的热裂纹和再热裂纹问题.采用搅拌摩擦焊方法焊接Fe-36%Ni合金可以有效地避免电弧焊带来的裂纹问题,获得成形良好的接头.但已有研究获得的焊缝组织均有晶粒粗化的特点,导致其接头力学性能低于母材.因此,需要解决晶粒粗化问题,寻找组织与性能获得改善的方法.采用控制焊接工艺的方法改善Fe-36%Ni合金搅拌摩擦焊接头的组织和性能.结果表明,在较低的焊接速度下,调整搅拌头转速更适合于控制Fe-36%Ni合金搅拌摩擦焊接头的晶粒尺寸.搅拌头低转速带来较低的焊接热输入,使焊缝具有晶粒尺寸与母材相当或较母材晶粒细化的组织.晶粒尺寸是接头力学性能的主导因素.在400 r/min和2 mm/s的焊接工艺下可获得与母材晶粒尺寸相近、强度和硬度相当、断后伸长率也较高的接头.%With the development of the energy industry, Fe-36wt%Ni alloy,as a construction material,has great potential in manufacturing liquefied natural gas storage and transportation equipment. However, it has very high hot cracking susceptibility during the conventional arc welding process. Friction stir welding of Fe-36wt% Ni can effectively avoid cracking problems occurred in fusion welding. However, due to the coarse grain in stir zone,the mechanical properties of Fe-36wt%Ni joint are lower than that of the base metal. Therefore,it i3 necessary to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joint of Fe-36wt% Ni alloy. The effect of welding parameters on micro-structures and the mechanical properties were investigated. It reveals that the grain size in stir zone of Fe-36wt% Ni alloy joint mainly affect by the rotational speed when the welding speed is relatively low. Lower rotational speeds produce the lower heat input and results in the finer grain size

  12. 热碾压对AZ31镁合金焊接接头组织和性能影响%Effect of hot rolling on microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初雅杰; 李晓泉; 吴申庆

    2011-01-01

    The conventional welded joint and hot rolled tests were carried out for AZ31 magnesium alloy on TIG welding and hot rolling equipment, and the microstructure, the element distribution, the appearance of fracture, hardness and strength of the welded joint were studied by OM, SEM, micro-hardness tester, tensile testing machine. The results show that the tensile strength of the hot rolled welded joint is 225 Mpa, which is over 90% of that of the base metal, and the tensile strength of the conventional welded joint is just about 60% of that of the base metal. The elongation of the hot rolled welded specimen (9%-ll%) is higher than that of the conventional welded specimen (6%-8%). The hot rolled joint fracture shows some characteristics of the quasi-cleavage fracture, and the plastic deformation flow lines can be observed. The conventional welded joint shows the cleavage fracture mechanism, accompanied by a very small amount of dimple fracture.%采用交流钨极氩弧焊和热碾压装置对AZ31变形镁合金进行焊接试验和热碾压试验;利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜(SEM)、显微硬度计、电子拉伸试验等手段对焊接接头的显微组织、元素分布、断口形貌、接头硬度和强度等进行分析.结果表明:热碾压熔焊接头的抗拉强度可达225 MPa,为母材金属的90%以上,而焊态下熔焊接头的抗拉强度仅为母材金属的60%左右;热碾压焊接试样的伸长率(9%~11%)均高于焊态试样的(6%~8%):热碾压接头断口呈现一定的准解理断裂特征,且可以观察到热碾压塑性变形流变线,而焊态断口呈现以解理断裂为主的断裂机制,同时伴随有极少量的韧窝断裂特征.

  13. Growth and microstructure formation of isothermally-solidified Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni amorphous alloy ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, J. G.; Lee, M. K.; Rhee, C. K.

    2013-10-01

    The microstructure and growth characteristics of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr48Ti16Cu17Ni19 (at.%) amorphous filler metal have been investigated with regard to the controlled isothermal solidification and intermetallic formation. Two typical joints were produced depending on the isothermal brazing temperature: (1) a dendritic growth structure including bulky segregation in the central zone (at 850 °C), and (2) a homogeneous dendritic structure throughout the joint without segregation (at 890 °C). The primary α-Zr phase was solidified isothermally, nucleating to grow into a joint with a cellular or dendritic structure. Also, the continuous Zr2Ni and particulate Zr2Cu phases were formed in the segregated center zone and at the intercellular region, respectively, owing to the different solubility and atomic mobility of the solute elements (Ti, Cu, and Ni) in the α-Zr matrix. A disappearance of the central Zr2Ni phase was also rate-controlled by the outward diffusion of the Cu and Ni elements. When the detrimental Zr2Ni intermetallic phase was eliminated by a complete isothermal solidification at 890 °C, the strengths of the joints were high enough to cause yielding and fracture in the base metal, exceeding those of the bulk Zircaloy-4, at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures (up to 400 °C).

  14. Growth and microstructure formation of isothermally-solidified Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr–Ti–Cu–Ni amorphous alloy ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.H. [University of Science and Technology, Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, C.H. [Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.G., E-mail: jglee88@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.K.; Rhee, C.K. [Nuclear Materials Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The microstructure and growth characteristics of Zircaloy-4 joints brazed by a Zr{sub 48}Ti{sub 16}Cu{sub 17}Ni{sub 19} (at.%) amorphous filler metal have been investigated with regard to the controlled isothermal solidification and intermetallic formation. Two typical joints were produced depending on the isothermal brazing temperature: (1) a dendritic growth structure including bulky segregation in the central zone (at 850 °C), and (2) a homogeneous dendritic structure throughout the joint without segregation (at 890 °C). The primary α-Zr phase was solidified isothermally, nucleating to grow into a joint with a cellular or dendritic structure. Also, the continuous Zr{sub 2}Ni and particulate Zr{sub 2}Cu phases were formed in the segregated center zone and at the intercellular region, respectively, owing to the different solubility and atomic mobility of the solute elements (Ti, Cu, and Ni) in the α-Zr matrix. A disappearance of the central Zr{sub 2}Ni phase was also rate-controlled by the outward diffusion of the Cu and Ni elements. When the detrimental Zr{sub 2}Ni intermetallic phase was eliminated by a complete isothermal solidification at 890 °C, the strengths of the joints were high enough to cause yielding and fracture in the base metal, exceeding those of the bulk Zircaloy-4, at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures (up to 400 °C)

  15. 缓蚀剂对LY12铝合金搭接件疲劳寿命的影响%Influence of Corrosion Inhibitors on Fatigue Life of LY12 Aluminium Alloy Lap Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 卞贵学; 陈跃良; 张泰峰

    2013-01-01

    模拟飞机服役环境,对未涂抹及涂抹缓蚀剂的航空LY12铝合金搭接试验件进行了腐蚀试验和疲劳试验.通过对试验件分解检查,分析了腐蚀环境对涂抹缓蚀剂航空LY12铝合金典型螺栓搭接件的影响.对缓蚀剂对搭接件的疲劳性能的影响进行了统计和分析.结果表明,相同腐蚀时间,未涂抹缓蚀剂试验件的螺栓孔附近和搭接面腐蚀程度较涂抹缓蚀剂试验件严重,缓蚀剂可有效减缓腐蚀,且不同的缓蚀剂类型对腐蚀的减缓程度不同.一般环境下,涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件比未涂抹缓蚀剂试验件的疲劳寿命有所减少,应力水平越小影响程度越明显;腐蚀40 d后,涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件较未涂抹缓蚀剂的试验件寿命育所增加,且不同应力水平和缓蚀剂类型对疲劳寿命的影响程度不同.%Corrosion test and fatigue test were carried out for LYl2 aluminium alloy lap joints with and without corrosion inhibitors.Influence of corrosion environment on LY12 aluminium alloy typical bolt lap joints daubed with corrosion inhibitors was analysed by overhauling specimens.Influence of corrosion inhibitors on fatigue property of lap joints was collected and analysed.The results show that faying surface of specimens without corrosion inhibitors corroded more severely during the same time,corrosion inhibitors can inhibite corrosion,and the effectiveness of various corrosion inhibitors is different In general environment,the fatigue life of specimens daubed with corrosion inhibitors reduced,influence extent is increasing obviously with the decrease of stess level.After 40 d corrosion,the fatigue life of specimens daubed with corrosion inhibitors increased,and influence extent is different with various stress level and corrosion inhibitors.

  16. 7050铝合金搅拌摩擦焊接头微观组织及力学性能分析%Microstructure and mechanical properties analysis of welding joint 7050 Aluminum alloy in friction stir welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉恒; 刘金合; 周卫涛

    2012-01-01

    采用搅拌摩擦焊焊接厚12 mm的7050铝合金,分析接头的微观组织和力学性能.研究结果表明,焊核区由于热循环作用形成细小的等轴再结晶组织;热机影响区受机械和热的双重作用组织发生了较大程度的变形,在热循环的作用下发生回复反应;热影响区仅受热循环的作用,组织稍微有粗化现象.力学试验表明:旋转速度400 r/min、焊接速度180 mm/min时,接头的抗拉强度可以达到391 MPa,为母材的77%;焊接速度200 mm/min,旋转速度450 r/min时,接头的抗拉强度可以达到376 MPa,为母材的74%.断口形貌分析显示,接头断裂模式为穿晶和沿晶混合型断裂.%The butt joints of 7050 aluminum alloy plates with thickness of 12 mm were obtained by friction stir welding with optimizal parameters,and the microstructure and Mechanical properties of the joints were analyzed.The results indicate that weld nugget zone is the formation of small equiaxial recrystallization organization.Thermo-mechanically affected zone with machine and hot dual role organization has undergone great degree of distortion,under the action of thermal cycle,happened reply response.Heat affected zone only the function of the heat cycle,coarse grains were found in heat affected zone.Meehanics test shows that the rotation speed is 400 r/min,welding speed is 180 nrWmin,joint tensile strength can reach 391 MPa,the 77% of mother material and the Welding speed is 200 mm/min,rotation speed is 450 r/min Joint tensile strength can reach 376 MPa,the 74% of the mother materials.The fracture morphology analysis show joint fracture mode is wear crystal and the intergranular mixed fiacture.

  17. Effect of Welding Speed on Mechanical Properties and the Strain-Hardening Behavior of Friction Stir Welded 7075 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Li, Zhaoxi; Sun, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    The effect of welding speed on the microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and strain-hardening behavior of friction stir welded (FSWed) high-strength AA7075-T651 was investigated. Large intermetallic particles and grains, whose sizes increased at lower welding speeds, were present in the heat-affected zone. FSWed joints fabricated at the higher welding speed or lower strain rates exhibited higher strength, joint efficiency and ductility than those fabricated at lower welding speeds or higher strain rates. A maximum joint efficiency of 97.5% and an elongation to failure of 15.9% were obtained using a welding speed of 400 mm/min at a strain rate of 10-5 s-1. The hardening capacity, strain-hardening exponent and strain-hardening rate of the FSWed joints were significantly higher than those of the base material, but materials exhibited stage III and stage IV hardening characteristics. The results morphology of the fracture surfaces is consistent with the above results.

  18. GH 99镍基合金薄板电子束焊接头疲劳性能研究%Study on Fatigue Property of Electron Beam Welded Joint of GH9 9 Nickel-based Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张航; 孙通伯; 于明玄

    2014-01-01

    电子束焊作为一种先进的连接技术,具有能量集中、焊接速度快、热影响区小等特点,被广泛应用于工业工程、航空航天等国民经济的重要领域。随着航天飞行器发动机设计寿命的不断提高,主要结构部件的电子束焊接头疲劳性能越来越受到设计工作者的关注,研究电子束焊接头的疲劳性能已经成为焊接工作者一个重要的课题。本文采用电子束焊接工艺,制备了 GH99镍基高温合金薄板对接接头。针对电子束焊接头,进行了显微硬度测试、疲劳性能的研究及疲劳失效机理分析。研究表明,电子束焊接头焊缝中心及热影响区的维氏硬度与 GH99镍基高温合金母材金属基本相同,接头并未出现性能的不均匀性。对两种工艺下的电子束焊接头的疲劳 S-N 曲线分析表明,适当加大电子束焊焊接电流,有利于减少焊缝焊根部位的焊接缺陷,有利于提高电子束焊接头的疲劳性能,从而提高了焊接接头疲劳寿命。%Electron beam welding is an advanced welding technology,which has the characteristics of high energy density,fast welding speed and small heat-affected zone.The electron beam weld-ing is widely used in industrial engineering,aerospace and other areas of the national economy. With the continuous improvement of design life of the spacecraft engine,the designers pay more and more attentions to the fatigue properties of electron beam welded joints of the main structural components.Research on the fatigue properties of electron beam welded joints has become an im-portant issue for welding workers.Square butt joints of GH99 nickel-base alloy sheet are fabrica-ted using electron beam welding.The micro-hardness,fatigue properties and fatigue failure mechanism of the electron beam welded joints are tested and analyzed.It is found that the vickers hardness of weld center and heat affected zone of electron beam welded joints are

  19. Corrosion evaluation of friction stir welded lap joints of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy%AA6061-T6合金搅拌摩擦焊搭接接头的腐蚀性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhad GHARAVI; Khamirul A. MATORI; Robiah YUNUS; Norinsan K. OTHMAN; Firouz FADAEIFARD

    2016-01-01

    采用氯化钠+过氧化氢溶液浸泡试验研究AA6061-T6铝合金搅拌摩擦焊搭接接头的腐蚀行为。采用循环动电位极化测试、扫描电子显微镜和能谱仪表征腐蚀形貌,揭示焊接区与基体合金的腐蚀机理。研究了焊接接头的显微组织和剪切强度。结果表明,与基体合金相比,焊接区在腐蚀溶液中会发生晶间腐蚀和点蚀。搭接剪切测试结果表明,所得焊接接头的拉伸剪切强度为128 MPa,超过基体合金强度的60%。电化学测试结果表明,焊核区和热影响区的保护电位比点蚀电位更负,说明焊核区与热影响区点蚀的趋势不强。基体合金抗腐蚀性比焊缝区的强,而热影响区的抗腐蚀性最差。点蚀主要源于金属间化合物边缘,因为与铝基体相比,金属间化合物的自腐蚀电位更高而成为阴极。由于焊缝区的金属间化合物增加,腐蚀电偶增加,焊缝的抗腐蚀性降低。%Corrosion behavior of friction stir lap welded AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was investigated by immersion tests in sodium chloride + hydrogen peroxide solution. Electrochemical measurement by cyclic potentiodynamic polarization, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize corrosion morphology and to realize corrosion mechanism of weld regions as opposed to the parent alloy. The microstructure and shear strength of welded joint were fully investigated. The results indicate that, compared with the parent alloy, the weld regions are susceptible to intergranular and pitting attacks in the test solution during immersion time. The obtained results of lap shear testing disclose that tensile shear strength of the welds is 128 MPa which is more than 60% of the strength of parent alloy in lap shear testing. Electrochemical results show that the protection potentials of the WNZ and HAZ regions are more negative than the pitting potential. This means that the WNZ and

  20. About Alloying of Aluminum Alloys with Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    An attempt is made to advance Elagin's principles of alloying of aluminum alloys with transition metals (TM) such as Mn, Cr, Zr, Ti, V with allowance for the ternary equilibrium and metastable Al - TM - TM phase diagrams. The key moments in the analysis of the phase diagrams are the curves (surfaces) of joint solubility of TM in aluminum, which bound the range of the aluminum solid solution. It is recommended to use combinations of such TM (two and more), the introduction of which into aluminum alloys widens the phase range of the aluminum solid solution.

  1. Properties of thick welded joints on superheater collectors made from new generation high alloy martensitic creep-resisting steels for supercritical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The continuously developing power generation sector, including boilers with supercritical parameters, requires applications of new creep-resistant steel grades for construction of boilers steam superheater components. This paper presents selected information, experience within the field of research and implementation of a new group of creep-resistant as X10CrMoVNb9-1(P91), X10CrWMoVNb9-2(P92) and X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2(VM12) grades, containing 9-12%Cr. During welding and examination process the results of mechanical properties, requested level for base material and welded joints, as well as: tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties have been evaluated. Additional destructive examinations, with evaluation of structure stability, hardness distribution, for base material and welded joints after welding, heat treatment, again process have been determined. Recommendations due to the implementation influence of operating parameters of the main boiler components are part of this paper. (orig.)

  2. Microstructural Characterization of Internal Welding Defects and Their Effect on the Tensile Behavior of FSW Joints of AA2198 Al-Cu-Li Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jolu, Thomas; Morgeneyer, Thilo F.; Denquin, Anne; Sennour, Mohamed; Laurent, Anne; Besson, Jacques; Gourgues-Lorenzon, Anne-Françoise

    2014-11-01

    Internal features and defects such as joint line remnant, kissing bond, and those induced by an initial gap between the two parent sheets were investigated in AA2198-T851 friction stir welded joints. They were compared with the parent material and to defect-free welds obtained using a seamless sheet. The cross-weld tensile strength was reduced by the defects by less than 6 pct. The fracture elongation was not significantly affected in view of experimental scatter. Fracture location, however, changed from the thermomechanically affected zone (retreating side) to the defect in the weld nugget for the welds bearing a kissing bond and for some of the gap welds. The kissing bond was shown by EBSD to be an intergranular feature; it fractured under a normal engineering stress close to 260 MPa during an in situ SEM tensile test. Synchrotron tomography after interrupted tensile testing confirmed opening of the kissing bond. For an initial gap of 23 pct of the sheet thickness, intergranular fracture of copper-enriched or oxide-bearing grain boundaries close to the nugget root was evidenced. The stress and strain state of cross-weld specimens loaded under uniaxial tension was assessed using a 3D finite element, multi-material model, determined on the basis of experimental data obtained on the same specimens using digital image correlation.

  3. AZ31B镁合金焊接接头的疲劳裂纹扩展行为%Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of as-Extruded AZ31B Mg Alloy Welded Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红霞; 裴飞飞; 闫志峰; 王文先; 梁培阳; 李娟; 卫英慧

    2012-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of as-extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy welded joint and heat affected zone have been studied.Compact tensions [C(T)] of welded joint [L-T(W)] and heat affected zone(welded joint is parallel [T-L(H)]and vertical [L-T(H)] to the extruded direction) were researched.Results indicate that the crack propagation direction is parallel to the extrusion direction for L-T(W); fatigue crack propagation rate is a rapid-slow process.T-L(H) is parallel to the notch direction and L-T(H) can be divided into two states (i.e.,parallel to or angularly deflected towards the notch direction);crack propagation rate initially goes through a rapid course before it slows down.The fracture modes of crack tip remain a mixed-mode of transgranular and intergranular fractures.The fatigue fracture consists of quasi-cleavage and is a brittle fracture.%对AZ31B镁合金焊接接头和热影响区的疲劳裂纹扩展行为进行研究,分析了焊接接头[L-T(W)]和热影响区的紧凑拉伸试验[C(T)],其中热影响区的C(T)试验包括焊缝平行于挤压方向[T-L(H)]和垂直于挤压方向[L-T(H)]两种.结果表明:对于L-T(W)试样,裂纹沿挤压方向扩展,裂纹扩展经历先快后慢的扩展过程;T-L(H)试样裂纹平行于缺口方向扩展,L-T(H)试样裂纹为平行于缺口方向和与缺口成一定角度两种扩展方向,裂纹扩展经历先慢后快的扩展过程.裂纹尖端扩展为穿晶和沿晶的混合模式,疲劳断口为准解理特征的脆性断口.

  4. AZ31B镁合金薄板的钨极氩弧焊组织与性能研究%Microstructure and Properties of Argon Tungsten Arc Welding Joints of AZ31 B Magnesium Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜双明; 杨亮

    2011-01-01

    The technical characteristics of argon tungsten arc welding for AZ31B magnesium alloy plates with 2 mm thickness were discussed. The microstructure, phase composition, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of welding joints were investigated using metalloscope, X-ray diffractometer, universal tensile testing machine and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that, at 50 A welding currents, the welded joint can get good weld formation and high welding quality, with no pore and crack inside. The tensile strength of the welded joint gets to 210 Mpa, which is about 87% of the base materials. Fractures occurring in weld zones are ductile-brittle fractures. The microstnicture is fine equiaxed grain in welded zone, which mainly consists of ct-Mg and Mg17Al12. The microstructure of heat affected zones is coarser. The results of hardness test show that the hardness of the weld zone is higher than the base materials.%探讨了2mm厚的AZ31B镁合金钨极交流氩弧焊焊接的工艺特点,利用金相显微镜、X射线衍射仪、万能拉伸试验机、扫描电子显微镜等手段对焊接接头显微组织、焊缝相组成、接头力学性能、断口形貌特征等进行了分析.结果表明:焊接电流为50A时,外观成型良好,焊缝质量高,内部几乎无气孔和裂纹等缺陷,焊接接头的抗拉强度达到210 MPa,约为母材强度的87%,断裂发生在焊缝区,表现为韧-脆混合断裂.焊缝区组织呈细小的等轴晶,主要存在α-Mg和Mg17A112两种相,热影响区组织较粗大.硬度测试结果显示,焊缝区域的硬度高于母材.

  5. Interdiffusion behavior of tungsten or rhenium and group 5 and 6 elements and alloys of the periodic table, part 1. [at dissimilar metal joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    Arc cast W, CVD W, CVD Re, and powder metallurgy Re materials were hot isostatically pressure welded to ten different refractory metals and alloys (Cb, Cb-1Zr, Ta, Ta-10W, T-111, ASTAR-811C, W-25Re, Mo-50Re, W-30Re-20Mo, ect.) and thermally aged at 10 to the minus 8th power torr at 1200, 1500, 1630, 1800, and 2000 C for 100 to 2000 hours. Electron beam microprobe analysis was used to characterize the interdiffusion zone width of each couple system as a function of age time and temperature. Extrapolations of interdiffusion zone thickness to 10,000 hours were made. Classic interdiffusion analysis was performed for several of the systems by Boltzmann-Matano analysis. A method of inhibiting Kirkendall voids from forming during thermal ageing of dissimilar metal junctions was devised and experimentally demonstrated. An electron beam weld study of Cb-1Zr to Re and W-25Re demonstrated the limited acceptability of these welds.

  6. Finite volume modeling of laser assisted friction stir welding of 2017A-T451 aluminum alloy for enhanced sustainability of welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Oussama; Badji, Riad; Hadji, Mohamed; Kouadri-Henni, Afia

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on a new welding modification friction stir welding, using a preheating during the welding phase. This method utilizes laser energy to pre-heat the workpiece to a localized area at the front of the FSW tool, thereby reducing the temperature gradient over a localized area in advance of the tool. The amount of heat generated during welding determines the quality of the weld. Therefore the understanding of the temperature distribution is required to determine the optimal method of welding parameters. In this study, a two-dimensional model of an aluminum alloy plate coupled to a circular laser source is developed, using FLUENT software that is based on the finite volume method, also the geometry of the pin of the FSW tool was modified in several configurations to highlight the effect of the geometry of the tool on the temperature distribution in the welded plate. The model developed can be used to better understand the process, predict process performance and to determine the optimal parameters of the process.

  7. Experimental Research on Hot Rolling to Improve TIG Welding Joint Mechanical Properties for AZ31B Magnesium Alloy%AZ31B镁合金TIG焊接头的热碾压力学改性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓泉; 初雅杰; 杨宗辉

    2012-01-01

    To explore method of improving mechanical properties for magnesium alloy welding joint, TIG welding was applied to butt AZ31B magnesium alloy plates with the same composition filled wire, specimens cut from test piece of butt welding were healed up to 350℃ by a special ceramic electric heater, then experiments have been carried out on high temperature tensile machine. Specimens with as-welded and hot rolled were machined as tensile specimens to test normal atmospheric temperature mechanical properties. Meanwhile welding joint was analyzed using optical metallographic microscope and fracture morphology as well as micro-area chemical composition were researched with the help of scanning electronic microscopy and energy spectrum analyzer appended. The results show that applying hot rolling procedure, the tensile strength of TIG welding joint can be increased up to 90% of that of the base metal and elongation rate also improved obviously. Hot rolling may effectively change network-like distribution of β-Mg17 A112 precipitate on α-Mg grain boundary of weld microstructure and make it solid solve to re-precipilate in way of dispersoidparticle in grain, resulting in dispersion-strengthening effect. In addition, hot rolling may also promote as-cast weld microstructure to produce dynamic re-crystallization and make microstructure reconstructed and refined.%为探索镁合金焊接接头的力学性能改性方法,以母材金属同材质丝材为填充材料,对AZ31B板材进行TIG对接焊,然后在高温拉伸试验机上将对接取样用专门制作的陶瓷电加热装置加热至350℃进行接头区域热碾压试验.将焊态及经热碾压的对接焊取样加工成拉伸试样测试其常温力学性能,同时对焊接接头进行金相分析,借助扫描电镜及其附带能谱仪对拉伸断口作微观形貌和微区成分分析.结果表明,经热碾压后,TIG焊接头的抗拉强度可达到母材金属的90%,伸长率也有明显的改善;

  8. Influence of Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on Fatigue Properties of 2A12 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints%超声冲击处理对2A12铝合金焊接接头疲劳性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占明; 朱有利; 辛毅

    2011-01-01

    采用超声冲击处理方法对2A12铝合金焊接接头进行全覆盖强化处理.通过弯曲疲劳对比试验,建立了未处理与超声冲击强化处理铝合金焊接接头试样的S-N曲线,分析了超声冲击处理对铝合金焊接接头疲劳性能的影响;通过接头组织、残余应力和断口形貌分析了超声冲击处理提高铝合金焊接接头抗疲劳断裂性能的微观机理.结果表明,超声冲击处理使2A12铝合金焊接接头疲劳强度由40.5MPa提高到56.1MPa,提高了38.5%,同时,接头表层晶粒大幅细化、缺陷减少、组织更加致密,而且引入了最大约为-285MPa的残余压应力.%2A12 aluminum alloy welded joint was full coverage strengthened by ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT). The S-N curves of welded joint samples with and without UIT were set up by making bending fatigue test. The effect of UIT on fatigue properties of aluminum alloy welded joint was analyzed. The fatigue fracture mechanisms of these samples with and without UIT were studied by microstructure, residual stress and fracture surface analysis. The results showed that the fatigue limit of 2A12 aluminum alloy butt-welded joints was increased 38.5%. At the same time, the surface defects of welded joints were reduced substantially after ultrasonic impact treatment. The coarse-grained microstructures of top-surface layer of welded joint were refined after the UIT. The metallurgical structure of the near surface material of the joint was thus density. Compressive residual stress was induced at the surface of welded joints by UIT.

  9. Influence of the brazing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of brazed joints of Hastelloy B2 nickel base alloy; Influencia de los parametros de soldeo fuerte en la microestructura y propiedades mecanicas de la union de la aleacion base niquel Hastelloy B2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotelo, J. C.; Gonzalez, M.; Porto, E.

    2014-07-01

    A study of the high vacuum brazing process of solid solution strengthened Hastelloy B2 nickel alloy has been done. A first stage of research has focused on the selection of the most appropriate brazing filler metal to the base material and vacuum furnace brazing process. The influence of welding parameters on joint microstructure constituents, relating the microstructure of the joint to its mechanical properties, has been evaluated. Two gaps of 50 and 200 micrometers, and two dwell times at brazing temperature of 10 and 90 minutes were studied. The braze joint mainly consists of the nickel rich matrix, nickel silicide and ternary compounds. Finally, the results of this study have shown the high bond strength for small gaps and increased dwell times of 90 minutes. (Author)

  10. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE FIELD IN LASER+GMAW HYBRID WELDING FOR T-JOINT OF ALUMINUM ALLOY%铝合金T型接头激光+GMAW复合热源焊温度场的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥国祥; 武传松; 秦国梁; 王旭友

    2012-01-01

    从宏观传热学出发,综合考虑焊缝横断面形状特点及接头形式对焊接热流的影响,建立了适用的T型接头激光+GMAW复合热源焊的组合式热源模型.利用双椭球体热源模型描述电弧热流和熔滴热焓,采用热流峰值指数递增-锥体热源模型表征激光热输入,并通过坐标系转换的方法旋转热源模型,以考虑焊枪倾斜对焊接热流分布的影响,推导出适用于T型接头复合焊的热源模型表达公式,从而简化了T型接头焊接数值模拟中的模型加载过程.将所建立的模型用于不同焊接条件下铝合金T型接头激光+GMAW单侧双面焊接焊缝形状和尺寸的模拟计算,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好,从而证明了模型的准确性和适用性;利用该模型计算了铝合金T型接头复合焊近缝区不同位置的热循环曲线,分析了铝合金T型接头复合焊热循环特征,为其组织和性能的预测奠定了基础.%T-welded structures of aluminum alloy are increasingly used in automotive, railway vehicles, aerospace and bridges. However, compared with the simple joint, the T-joint of aluminum alloy is more difficultly welded due to its complex temperature distribution and fluid flow mode in the weld pool. Whether using laser welding or the conventional arc welding process, aluminum alloy T-wleded joint is more prone to welding defects such as crack, pore, undercutting, joint softening, and so on. As a promising joining technology, laser+gas metal arc welding (laser+GMAW) hybrid welding not only combines the advantages of laser welding with those of GMAW, but also overcomes their shortcomings, thus having great potential to achieve high efficiency and high quality welding of aluminum alloy T-joint. So far, however, there is a lack of fundamental investigations involving mathematical modelling and understanding of the hybrid welding process of aluminum alloy T-joint. As key factors determining the weld quality, thermal field has

  11. Factor Analysis of Fatigue Damage of Aluminium Alloy Riveted Joint%铝合金铆接件疲劳损伤的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍敏; 陈福玉

    2014-01-01

    铆接在航空等结构中的应用非常广泛,而疲劳损伤是影响其使用寿命的主要因素。在铆接件疲劳试验基础上,以有限元软件ANSYS Workbench为平台,分析了铆接件模型的应力状态,研究了铆钉排列位置、接触面摩擦系数、过盈量对构件应力场分布的影响,预测了疲劳裂纹可能萌生的位置;其研究结果为铆接件的抗疲劳设计提供参考。%Riveting is extensively used in aviation structures. But fatigue damage induces a dramatic reduction of service life. Based on the fatigue test and the finite element software ANSYS Workbench, the stress state of the riveted model is calculated, the influ-ence factors of stress distribution of the components, such as array location, friction coefficient, interference fit are analyzed and the probable position of the initation of fatigue crack is predicted in this paper. The results provide the theoretical basis for the design a-gainst the fatigue damage of the riveted joint.

  12. Interfacial Phenomena in Al/Al, Al/Cu, and Cu/Cu Joints Soldered Using an Al-Zn Alloy with Ag or Cu Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pstruś, Janusz; Gancarz, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    The studies of soldered joints were carried out in systems: Al/solder/Al, Al/solder/Cu, Cu/solder/Cu, where the solder was (Al-Zn)EUT, (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Ag and (Al-Zn)EUT with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 at.% of Cu addition. Brazing was performed at 500 °C for 3 min. The EDS analysis indicated that the composition of the layers starting from the Cu pad was CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4, respectively. Wetting tests were performed at 500 °C for 3, 8, 15, and 30 min, respectively. Thickness of the layers and their kinetics of growth were measured based on the SEM micrographs. The formation of interlayers was not observed from the side of Al pads. On the contrary, dissolution of the Al substrate and migration of Al-rich particles into the bulk of the solder were observed.

  13. Welding of Aluminum Alloys to Steels: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    alloy /Ag interlayer/steel non-centered electron beam welded joints, Transaction of non- Ferrous Metals Society of China 21 (2011) 2592-2596. [53] K.-J...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. 1 UNCLASSIFIED Welding of aluminum alloys to steels: an overview M. Mazar...different materials, iron-based alloys and aluminum-based alloys are among the most significant materials that are finding applications on the various

  14. TC4钛合金厚板潜弧焊接头的显微组织%Microstructure of Submerged Arc Welded Joint of TC4 Titanium Alloy Thick Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑赟; 邢丽; 黄春平; 柯黎明

    2011-01-01

    The TC4 titanium alloy plates with 45 mm thickness was welded by using double-sided submerged arc welding method, and then obtained the defect-free butt joint. The microstructure of welded joint was observed by optical microscopy. The results show that the microstructure of weld seam was β columnar grains, which consisted of basket-like α'martensite. The lath α' martensite was formed because the effect of the later weld seam on prior weld seam. The acicular aI martensite was formed for a short residence time for lacter weld seam at high temperature; HAZ comprised part recrystal zone, transition zone, fine grain zone and coarse grain zone, the grains in HAZ were equiaxed but with different sizes and forms. The part recrystal zone consisted of equiaxed structure of α and β, transition zone consisted of equiaxed α and acicular α' martensite and remained β grain; fine grain zone consisted of acicular α' martensite and remain β grain, coarse-grain zone consisted of basket-like α' and remained grain.%采用双面潜弧焊焊接了45mm厚的TC4钛合金,得到了内部无缺陷的对接接头,采用光学显微镜分析了接头的显微组织。结果表明:焊缝为β柱状晶,柱状晶内为α’马氏体组成的网篮组织,先焊焊缝受后一道焊缝影响,α’马氏体呈条状,后焊焊缝高温停留时间较短,冷却后α’马氏体为针状;热影响区分为部分重结晶区、过渡区、细晶区与粗晶区,且皆为等轴晶,但尺寸及形态不同;部分重结晶区为等轴α、β组织;过渡区为等轴Ct、针状α’马氏体和残留β晶粒组织;细晶区则为针状α’马氏体和残留β晶粒;粗晶区组织为网篮状α‘氏体和残留β晶粒。

  15. Fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy sheet joints%AZ31镁合金板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗天骄; 史宝良; 段启强; 付俊伟; 杨院生

    2013-01-01

      利用拉压疲劳实验研究 AZ31板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳行为。结果表明:AZ31镁合金板材搅拌摩擦点焊连接件的疲劳失效均发生在搅拌区,疲劳裂纹均起源于搅拌区外侧边缘,位于上下板之间。当循环加载等于1 kN 时,疲劳裂纹沿着热影响区和热机械区界面且垂直载荷的方向扩展;而当循环载荷等于3 kN时,疲劳裂纹则沿着搅拌区直径方向扩展,并最终发生剪切断裂。另外,断口横截面显微分析显示,在AZ31板间搅拌区外侧存在一个“舌状区”,“舌状区”的方向是沿搅拌区向外,疲劳裂纹均起源于“舌状区”。%The fatigue behavior of friction stir spot welded (FSSW) AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet joints was investigated by tension−compression of fatigue test. The results suggest that all the fatigue failures occur at the stir zone of the FSSW AZ31 sheet joints, and all cracks initiate at the stir zone outer edge between the upper and lower sheet. When the cycle force equals 1 kN, the crack propagates along the interface of heat-affected zone and thermo-mechanical zone, simultaneously across the direction of force;while the cycle force equals 3 kN, the crack propagates along the diameter of stir zone and shear failure occurs finally. Moreover, the transverse microsections indicate that there is a tongue-like region at the outer edge of stir zone between the two AZ31 sheets, and the direction of tongue-like region is toward outside of the stirred zone and all fatigue cracks initiate at the tongue-like region.

  16. Microstructure and Properties of 6061 Aluminium Alloy Welded Joint by Ultrasonic Welding%6061铝合金超声波焊接接头组织与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊志林; 朱政强; 吴宗辉; 王小龙

    2011-01-01

    采用超声波焊接方法对0.3mm厚的6061铝合金进行焊接,焊后利用光学显微镜和扫描电镜对焊接接头组织和表面形貌进行分析,重点研究了试样表面处理、焊接时间及焊接压力对焊后铝合金剥离强度和硬度的影响.结果表明:在焊接时间120ms,焊接压力17.5 MPa下,表面加乙醇处理的试样剥离力最高达到136.478N,硬度53.9HV;同时,焊缝平整规则,界面结合良好.%6061 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 0.3 mm was welded by ultrasonic welding. The microstructure and surface morphology of the ultrasonic welded joint were analyzed. The variation of the peeling loads and hardness of welding specimens under the state of aluminum surface treatment,welding time and welding pressure were studied. The experimental results indicate that the peeling loads is up to 136.478 N and hardness is up to S3.9 HV under the welding time 120 ms,welding pressure 17.S Mpa and the surface of specimen in ethanol. Meanwhile, the weld is flat, the interface bonding is good.

  17. MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF INTERFACIAL LAYER WITH TUNGSTEN INERT GAS WELDING-BRAZING JOINT OF ALUMINUM ALLOY/STAINLESS STEEL%铝合金/不锈钢钨极氩弧熔-钎焊接头界面层的微观结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林三宝; 宋建岭; 杨春利; 马广超

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of the required weight reduction in transportation through lightweight construction, the application of hybrid structures, where aluminum alloy and steel are jointed together, has a high technical and economical potential. But jointing of material combinations of aluminum alloy and steel is problematic by fusion welding since brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed between aluminum alloy and steel. Nowadays, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding-brazing offers a great potential for aluminum alloy and steel jointing. In this process, the sheet and filler metal are heated or melted by TIG heat, and the joint has a dual characteristic: in aluminum alloy side it is a welding joint, while in steel side it is a brazing joint. However, in the dynamic heating process, the heating temperature changes so quickly and the reaction time between the liquid filler metal and solid steel is so short that it is more difficult to control the IMC layer's growth, predominantly its thickness and microstructures. Most of past reports about the brazing of aluminum alloy and steel indicate Al-Fe binary IMC layers, e.g., Fe_2Al_5 and FeAl_3, formed in the brazing joint, which are detrimental to the mechanical properties of the joint. Si additions are used to limit the growth of the brittle Al-Fe IMC layer between aluminum alloy and steel by replacing Al-Fe phases with less detrimental Al-Fe-Si phases in aluminizing and furnace brazing of aluminum alloy and steel. By now, there have been few reports of investigating the interfacial layer of TIG welding-brazing joint of aluminum alloy and stainless steel. In this paper, a butt TIG welding-brazing joint of aluminum alloy/stainless steel was formed using Al-Si eutectic filler wire with modified Noclock flux precoated on a steel surface. The microstructure characteristics of the welded seam-steel interfacial layer were analyzed by OM, SEM and EDS and its mechanical properties were measured by dynamic ultra

  18. Joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret......Afhandlingen analysere de konkurrenceretlige og selskabsretlige regler som er bestemmende for hvordan et joint venture samarbejde er struktureret...

  19. Joint swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 275. Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK. Joint disorders. In: Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Hoogendoorn (Martin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEen veel voorkomende wijze van samenwerking tussen ondernemingen is het uitvoeren van activiteiten in de vorm van een joint venture. Een joint venture is bijna altijd een afzonderlijke juridische entiteit. De partners in de joint venture voeren gezamenlijk de zeggenschap uit. In internat

  1. Joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.N. Hoogendoorn (Martin)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractEen veel voorkomende wijze van samenwerking tussen ondernemingen is het uitvoeren van activiteiten in de vorm van een joint venture. Een joint venture is bijna altijd een afzonderlijke juridische entiteit. De partners in de joint venture voeren gezamenlijk de zeggenschap uit. In internat

  2. 钛合金人工关节柄烧结复合生物活性玻璃陶瓷涂层的研究%STUDY OF COMPOSITE BIOACTIVE GLASS-CERAMIC COATING ON STEM OF ARTIFICIAL HIP JOINT MADE OF TITANIUM ALLOY BY SINTERING METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 李志刚; 闫玉华; 李世普; 贺建华; 王燕

    2001-01-01

    By a two-step sintering method, a composite glass-ceramic coating was made on the surface of titanium alloy which resisted penetration of tissue fluid and showed high bonding strength and good biocompatibility. The coating might be used to improve the bonding character of the stem of artificial hip joint made of titanium alloy with bone tissue.%采用两步涂烧法在钛合金表面制备出防组织液渗透,结合强度高,生物相容性好的复合生物活性陶瓷涂层,适合于改善人工髋关节柄部的骨结合特性。

  3. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  4. 搅拌摩擦焊工艺参数对铸态A356铝合金抗拉强度的影响%Effect of process parameters on tensile strength of friction stir welded cast A356 aluminium alloy joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.JAYARAMAN; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2013-01-01

    A356是一种高强度铝硅铸造态合金,广泛用于食品、化工、船舶、电器和汽车行业.熔焊这种铸造合金时存在许多问题,如孔隙、微裂隙、热裂等.然而,用搅拌摩擦焊(FSW)来焊接这种铸造态合金可以避免上述缺陷发生.研究了搅拌摩擦焊工艺参数对铸造态A356铝合金抗拉强度的影响;对旋转速度、焊接速度和轴向力等工艺参数进行优化;从宏观和微观组织分析角度对焊接区的质量进行分析;对焊接接头的抗拉强度进行了测定,并对抗拉强度与焊缝区硬度和显微组织的相关性进行了研究.在旋转速度1000 r/min、焊接速度75 mm/min和轴向力5kN的条件下得到的焊接接头具有最高的抗拉强度.%A356 is a high strength aluminium-silicon cast alloy used in food,chemical,marine,electrical and automotive industries.Fusion welding of this cast alloy will lead to many problems such as porosity,micro-fissuring,and hot cracking.However,friction stir welding (FSW) can be used to weld this cast alloy without above mentioned defects.An attempt was made to study the effect of FSW process parameters on the tensile strength of cast A356 aluminium alloy.Joints were made using different combinations of tool rotation speed,welding speed and axial force.The quality of weld zone was analyzed by macrostructure and microstructure analyses.Tensile strengths of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the weld zone hardness and microstructure.The joint fabricated using a rotational speed of 1000 r/min,a welding speed of 75 mm/min and an axial force of 5 kN showed a higher tensile strength compared to the other joints.

  5. Optimization of GMAW process of AA 6063-T5 aluminum alloy butt joints based on the response surface methodology and on the bead geometry; Optimizacion del proceso de soldadura GMAW de uniones a tope de la aleacion AA 6063-T5 basada en la metodologia de superficie de respuesta y en la geometria del cordon de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, V.; Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Segura, F.; Manjabacas, M. C.; Abellan, E.

    2012-11-01

    The geometry of the weld beads is characterized by the overhead, the width and the penetration. These values are indices of the behavior of the welded joint and therefore, they can be considered as factors that control the process. This work is performed to optimize the GMAW process of the aluminum alloy AA 6063-T5 by means of the response surface methodology (RSM). The variables herein considered are the arc voltage, the welding speed, the wire feed speed and the separation between surfaces in butt joints. The response functions that are herein studied are the overhead, the width, the penetration and the angle of the bead. The obtained results by RSM show high grade of agreement with the experimental values. The procedure is experimentally validated by welding for the theoretically obtained optimized technological conditions and a wide agreement between theoretical and experimental values is found. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. TC4钛合金激光焊接接头力学行为的原位研究%In-situ investigation on mechanical behavior of laser-welded joint for TC4 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锡龙; 宋旭; 张建勋

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜(SEM)原位拉伸法观察TC4钛合金激光焊接接头各微区孔洞形核与成长、损伤与断裂行为,研究接头微观组织对其损伤和断裂行为的影响.结果表明:焊缝区裂纹形核于晶内孪晶、滑移线与晶界交汇处,主裂纹形成直至最终断裂;热影响区多裂纹起裂,单一裂纹扩展至最终断裂;母材区孔洞优先形核于相界面及晶界区域,缺口前端孔洞群相互贯穿直至最终断裂.当应变超过0.023时,母材区及热影响区靠近母材一侧从协调变形向以界面微孔洞的行核与聚合为主转化;焊缝区粗大晶粒内部网篮状马氏体存在且晶界面积较小,导致变形机制未发生改变,促使其力学性能低于焊缝的.%In order to investigate the effects of microstructures on damage evolution and fracture behavior in laser welded joint for Ti-6A1-4V alloy, the microvoids nucleation, growth, coalescence and crack were observed by in-situ tensile test. The results show that the crack in the weld metal grows rapidly when it nucleates at the twin boundary of the inner grain , and the intersection of slip line and grain boundary. The multi-cracks in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) occur in front of the notch, one crack propagation leads to the final fracture. When the strain exceeds 0.023, the deformation mechanism in the base metal and HAZ near the base metal changes from compatible deformation to bluntness and expansion alternately when the microvoid is nucleated firstly along the grain boundary. The deformation mechanism in the welded metal does not change due to its coarse martensite and small grain boundary. Therefore, the tensile stress in the welded metal is higher than that in the other areas.

  7. Contact reactive brazing of Al alloy/Cu/stainless steel joints and dissolution behaviors of interlayer%铝合金/Cu/不锈钢接触反应钎焊及中间层溶解行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铭方; 司乃潮; 陈健

    2011-01-01

    以Cu作为接触反应材料连接6063铝合金与1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢,探讨焊接工艺参数对接头组织的影响规律,分析中间反应层Cu的溶解特性.结果表明:在1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢一侧界面反应层由Fe2Al5、FeAl3金属间化合物和Cu-Al金属间化合物构成,与之相邻区域主要含Cu-Al金属间化合物,焊缝组织由Al-Cu共晶及大块状的Al固溶体组成;随着保温时间的延长,焊缝组织最为显著的变化是在1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢一侧界面的金属间化合物层厚度增加,共晶组织宽度逐渐减小;中间反应层Cu的溶解速度非常迅速,是以秒为计量单位的快速过程,厚度为10 μm的Cu溶解时间仅为0.47 s.%Contact reactive brazing of 6063 Al alloy and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was researched by using Cu as interlayer. Effect of brazing time on microstructure of the joints, as well as the dissolution behaviors of Cu interlayer was analyzed. The results show that the product of reaction zone near 1Cr18Ni9Ti is composed of Fe2Al5, FeAl3 intermetallic compound (IMC), and Cu-Al IMC; the near by area is composed of Al-Cu eutectic structure with Al (Cu) solid solution. With increasing the brazing time, the thickness of EMC layer at the interface increases, while the width of Al-Cu eutectic structure with Al(Cu) solution decreases. Calculation shows the dissolution rate of Cu interlayer is very fast. The complete dissolution time is about 0.47 s for Cu interlayer with 10 μm in thickness used in this study.

  8. 个体化钛合金掌指关节假体设计及快速成型制造的研究%The design and fabrication study of custom-made metacarpophalangeal joint prosthesis made of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 宣昭鹏; 路来金; 张志新; 刘灿

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨运用计算机辅助设计及快速成型技术制造出个体化钛合金人工掌指关节假体的方法,为掌指关节的假体置换提供一种新的假体.方法 应用3DMSR软件对掌指关节二维CT轮廓数据进行三维重建,然后在图像处理软件Surface9.0上进行个体化人工假体及其髓内假体柄的计算机辅助设计.输出的数据模型在FS-320QZ激光快速成型机上制造出快速成型树脂模型,经硅胶翻模、制作蜡模、成壳、浇铸,抛光后获得钛合金个体化人工掌指关节假体.结果 经过对螺旋CT扫描的掌指关节的二维图像进行三位重建和CAD得到的个体化掌指关节假体模型,假体模型关节面表面光滑,设计的假体柄体现了原始髓腔的基本形态及大小,转换成快速成型机通用的STL格式数据,输入快速成型机便获得树脂模型,经过一系列铸造过程完成个体化钛合金假体的制造.结论 利用CT数据获得掌指关节三维轮廓信息,利用快速成型技术、熔模制造,可获得满意的个体化钛合金人工掌指关节假体.%Objective To explore the method of design and fabrication of custom-made joint prosthesis using computer assisted design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) technique and provide a new prosthesis for metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint replacement.Methods3D contour image was reconstructed from 2D CT scans of the MP joint using 3DMSR software.Custom-made joint prosthesis and intramedullary stem were designed with Surface 9.0 image processing software.After being convened into STL data format,the computer-assisted design was imported into the FS-320QZ rapid prototyping machine,and the resin prototype was made.The RP model was used as a positive mould to build a silicon negative mould,and the negative mould was sent to the factory to manufacture Ti-6A1-4V alloy MP joint prosthesis through ordinary mould-melted founding process.Results Individualized prototype of MP joint prosthesis was

  9. Ceramic joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley J.; Patten, Jr., Donald O.

    1991-01-01

    Butt joints between materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion are prepared having a reduced probability of failure of stress facture. This is accomplished by narrowing/tapering the material having the lower coefficient of thermal expansion in a direction away from the joint interface and not joining the narrow-tapered surface to the material having the higher coefficient of thermal expansion.

  10. Temporomandibular Joint, Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery > Oral Health > The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Main Content Title: The Temporomandibular Joint, Closed Description: The temporomandibular joint connects the lower ...

  11. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  12. Aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  13. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. C. Crepeau; J. L. Rempe; J. E. Daw; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; S. C. Wilkins

    2008-03-01

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped lybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 °C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them

  14. Enhancements to High Temperature In-Pile Thermocouple Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Crepeau; J.L. Rempe; J.E. Daw; D.L. Knudson: K.G. Condie; S.C. Wilkins

    2008-03-31

    A joint University of Idaho (UI) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) University Nuclear Research Initiative (UNERI) was to initiated to extend initial INL efforts to develop doped molybdenum/niobium alloy High Temperature Irradiation Resistant Thermocouples (HTIR-TCs). The overall objective of this UNERI was to develop recommendations for an optimized thermocouple design for high temperature, long duration, in-pile testing by expanding upon results from initial INL efforts. Tasks to quantify the impact of candidate enhancements, such as alternate alloys, alternate geometries, and alternate thermocouple fabrication techniques, on thermocouple performance were completed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL), a state of the art facility equipped with specialized equipment and trained staff in the area of high temperature instrumentation development and evaluation. Key results of these evaluations, which are documented in this report, are as follows. The doped molybdenum and Nb-1%Zr, which were proposed in the initial INL HTIR-TC design, were found to retain ductility better than the developmental molybdenum-low niobium alloys and the niobium-low molybdenum alloys evaluated. Hence, the performance and lower cost of the commercially available KW-Mo makes a thermocouple containing KW-Mo and Nb-1%Zr the best option at this time. HTIR-TCs containing larger diameter wires offer the potential to increase HTIR-TC stability and reliability at higher temperatures. HTIR-TC heat treatment temperatures and times should be limited to not more than 100 C above the proposed operating temperatures and to durations of at least 4 to 5 hours. Preliminary investigations suggest that the performance of swaged and loose assembly HTIR-TC designs is similar. However, the swaged designs are less expensive and easier to construct. In addition to optimizing HTIR-TC performance, This UNERI project provided unique opportunities to several University of Idaho students, allowing them

  15. Mo-Cu合金与1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢真空钎焊接头的组织性能%Microstructure characteristics of vacuum brazed joint for Mo-Cu alloy with lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 郑德双; 李亚江

    2013-01-01

    Mo-Cu alloy and lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel were joined by vacuum brazing with Ag-Cu-Ti active filler metal at 910 ℃ for 20 min and a Mo-Cu/lCrl8Ni9Ti joint with a shear strength of 75 MPa was obtained. The microstructure and performance of Mo-Cu/lCrl8Ni9Ti joint were investigated by scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) , energy dispersive spectrometer ( EDS) and microhardness test. The results indicated that Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu-rich phase were produced in the brazed joint. There were few of TiC phases near the side of lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel in the joint. The microhardness of brazed seam was lower than that of Mo-Cu alloy and lCrl8Ni9Ti stainless steel. There are no brittle compounds formed in the Mo-Cu/lCrl8Ni9Ti joint. The shear fracture appearance shows shear dimple feature.%采用Ag-Cu-Ti钎料,控制钎焊温度为910℃,保温时间为20 min,可以实现Mo-Cu合金与1Cr1 8Ni9Ti不锈钢的真空钎焊,接头抗剪强度为75 MPa.采用扫描电镜、能谱分析仪和显微硬度计对Mo-Cu/1 Cr18 Ni9Ti接头组织特征及性能进行分析.结果表明,钎焊接头靠近1Cr18Ni9Ti钢一侧,主要形成Ag-Cu共晶组织和少量的TiC相;靠近Mo-Cu合金一侧,Ag,Cu元素在合金与钎缝间相向扩散,共晶组织消失,以富铜相为主.钎缝的显微硬度明显低于Mo-Cu合金和1Cr18Ni9Ti不锈钢母材,无脆性化合物生成,剪切断口呈现剪切韧窝的形貌特征.

  16. Joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or conditions. It may be linked to arthritis , bursitis , and muscle pain . No matter what causes it, ... Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus Bursitis Chondromalacia patellae Crystals in the joint: Gout (especially ...

  17. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects o high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    In the previous paper, fatigue tests of fillet welded T-joints of JIS A 5083P-O Al-Mg alloy for structural members of ship body were conducted under superimposed random load waves in which the secondary fluctuating waveform superimposes on the primary one, to verify the effectiveness of various fatigue life estimation methods. The T-joints used as specimens had welded toes finished by grinder. In this study, boxing welded joints were used. The residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analysis, and fatigue tests were conducted under both constant amplitude and random loads. These tests were conducted under more common conditions. As a result, conclusions obtained are as follows. A reference stress, which was determined as the stress at a distance of 5 mm from a boxing weld toe, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results, and in improving the accuracy of fatigue life estimation. With regard to the high frequency components, it was required to express the fatigue life using a representative frequency for each stress. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Diffusion bonding of Al7075 alloy to titanium aluminum vanadate alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhazaa, Abdulaziz Nasser

    The aluminum alloy (Al7075) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) are used in a variety of applications in the aerospace industry. However, the high cost of Ti-6Al-4V alloy has been a major factor which has limited its use and therefore, the ability to join Al7075 alloy to Ti-6Al-4V alloy can provide a product that is less costly, but retains the high strength and light weight properties necessary for the transport industry. However, the large difference in the physical properties between these two alloys prevents the use of conventional joining techniques such as fusion welding to join these dissimilar alloys. Therefore, the diffusion bonding technique was used to join Al7075 alloy to Ti-6Al-4V alloy with the objective of minimizing microstructural changes of the two alloys during the bonding process. In this thesis, solid state and liquid phase bonding processes were undertaken. Solid state bonding was employed without interlayers and was successful at 510°C and 7 MPa. The bond interface showed an absence of the oxides due to the dissolution of oxygen into the titanium solution. Bonds made using copper interlayers at a temperature sufficient enough to form eutectic liquid formation between copper and aluminum were produced. The intermetallics theta(Al2Cu), S(Al2CuMg) and T(Al2Mg3Zn3) were identified at the aluminum interface while Cu3Ti2 intermetallic was identified at the titanium interface. Bonds made using tin based alloys interlayers and copper coatings were successful and gave the highest shear strength. The eutectic formation on the Al7075 alloy was responsible for joint formation at the aluminum interface while the formation of Sn3Ti5 intermetallic was responsible for the joint formation at titanium interface. The corrosion rate of the bonds decreased with increasing bonding time for joints made using the tin based interlayer in 3% NaCl solution. However, the presence of copper within the joint increased the corrosion rate of the bonds and this was attributed to

  19. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...

  20. Making Space Travel to Jupiter Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Samuel P.

    2004-01-01

    into the Nb1Zr causing imbrittlement and possibly major failure. I will be testing the effects of Hast-X on Nb1Zr in a high temperature for 10, 50, 100, and 500 hours. After the samples are run through the heat treatment, strength and chemistry will be tested and reported. My appreciation for the research that goes behind every project has and will continue to grow. By digging through old documents written in the 50's and 60's, scouring through forgotten closets, and learning from those with experience in the refractory metals, I am bound to have an incredible learning experience here at NASA.

  1. Adaptive Control of Robotic arm with Hysteretic Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Somasundar; Bezzaoucha, Souad; Quintanar Guzman, Serket; Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of control of robotic arm with a hysteretic joint behavior. The mechanical design of the one-degree of freedom robotic arm is presented where the joint is actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) wire. The SMA wire based actuation of the joint makes the robotic arm lightweight but at the same time introduces hysteresis type nonlinearities. The nonlinear dynamic model of the robotic arm is introduced and an Adaptive control solution is pres...

  2. Corrosion wear fracture of new {beta} biomedical titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinomi, M.; Fukunaga, K.-I. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technol. (Japan). Dept. of Production Syst. Eng.; Kuroda, D.; Morinaga, M.; Kato, Y.; Yashiro, T.; Suzuki, A.

    1999-05-15

    Metallic materials such as stainless steel, Co-Cr alloy, pure titanium and titanium alloys have been used for surgical implant materials. The {alpha} + {beta} type titanium alloy such as Ti-6Al-4V ELI has been most widely used as an implant material for artificial hip joint and dental implant because of its high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Toxicity of alloying elements in conventional biomedical titanium alloys like Al and V, and the high modulus of elasticity of these alloy as compared to that of bone have been, however, pointed out [1,2]. New {beta} type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic elements like Nb, Ta, Zr, Mo and Sn with lower moduli of elasticity, greater strength and greater corrosion resistance were, therefore, designed in this study. The friction wear properties of titanium alloys are, however, low as compared to those of other conventional metallic implant materials such as stainless steels and Co-Cr alloy. Tensile tests and friction wear tests in Ringer`s solution were conducted in order to investigate the mechanical properties of designed alloys. The friction wear characteristics of designed alloys and typical conventional biomedical titanium alloys were evaluated using a pin-on-disk type friction wear testing system and measuring the weight loss and width of groove of the specimen. (orig.) 8 refs.

  3. Diffusion Bonding between TiAl Based Alloys and Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The joint of 40Cr steel and TiAl based alloy has been studied by means of a high frequency induction diffusion welder. The experimental results show that, the higher the temperature and pressure, the higher the strength of the joints. The optimum parameters are: T=1123~1323 K,t=10~30 min, P=5~20 MPa.

  4. Effects of Post-weld Heat Treatment on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 6061 Welded Joints%焊后热处理对6061铝合金焊接接头微观组织与力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢业东; 农琪

    2011-01-01

    The effect of solid solution and artificial ageing treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 6061 welded joint was researched by metallographic, mechanical test and SEM technology. The results show that there is a pair of soft zone located symmetrically on both heat-affected zones (HAZs) of welded joint without post-weld heat treatment. The occurrence of soft zone is due to over-aging caused by heat input during welding. More strengthen precipitates (Mg2Si) emerged in both metal and soft HAZs of welded joint with solid solution and artificial aging treatment, which can obviously increase the hardness and tensile properties of the welded joints.%通过金相技术、力学性能试验和SEM技术,研究了固溶+时效热处理对6061铝合金焊接接头微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明,热处理前焊接接头两侧热影响区内有一对对称分布的软化区,其原因是由于焊接热输入的影响使该部位发生了过时效.固溶处理+人工时效热处理后,焊缝和热影响软化区析出较多的强化相(Mg2Si),焊接接头硬度和拉伸性能明显提高.

  5. A Novel Multiscale Design of Interfaces for Polymeric Composites and Bonded Joints using Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Conventional materials such as steel or aluminum are joined using fasteners and/or bolted joints, which is not favorable for FRPCs as drilling or cutting of...adhesively bonded joints. Composites, 13(1):2937, 1982. [53] A. Baldan. Adhesively-bonded joints and repairs in metallic alloys, polymers and

  6. Effect of Welding Wire Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Welded Joint of Dissimilar Armour Al Alloy%焊丝成分对异种装甲铝合金焊接接头组织与性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文辉; 黄浩; 周凡; 胡忠举; 欧璇

    2013-01-01

    The 2519A and 7A52 aluminum alloy plates were welded using ER5356 and ER2319 welding wire by MIG welding,and the mechanical properties and microstructure of the welded joints were studied.The results show that the weldability of the 2519A/7A52 aluminum alloy plates with ER2319 welding wire is better than that with ER5356 welding wire,and the microstructure of the weld metal are more fine with ER2319 welding wire than that with ER5356.ER2319 contains a little Ti and Zr which formed Al3Ti and Al3Zr that provide the heterogeneous nucleation sites for α (Al) in the welding pool,which can result in refining grains of the weld metal.Then,the tensile strength and the elongation of the welded joint increase.%采用ER5356及ER2319焊丝对2519A和7A52铝合金异型板进行脉冲MIG焊,并对焊接接头的力学性能和焊缝组织进行了分析.结果表明:用ER2319焊丝焊接的接头力学性能高于ER5356,ER2319焊丝细化了焊缝区的组织,其强度比采用ER5356焊丝焊接的提高了13.3%,伸长率提高了39.3%.ER2319焊丝中的微量元素Ti和Zr在焊缝中形成Al3Ti和Al3Zr,促进α(Al)非均匀形核是提高接头强度和塑性的重要原因.

  7. Research on the diffusion bonding of superplastic magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于彦东; 张凯锋; 蒋大鸣; 郑海荣; 王刚

    2002-01-01

    The elevated temperature tensile experiments have been carried out on the magnesium alloy and results indicate that the magnesium alloy has excellent superplastic property. Gleebe-1500 testing machine was used in the diffusion bonding experiment on the superplastic magnesium alloy. Then, the shear strength of the joints under different conditions is obtained through shear testing and the optimum processing parameters for the diffusion bonding are achieved. By metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM), it is revealed that the micromechanism of diffusion bonding is the slide of grain boundaries caused by the growth of grains and atom diffusion of the superplastic magnesium alloy.

  8. Laser Welding of TC-1 Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanbin DU; Lunji HU; Xiyuan HU; Jianhua LIU

    2003-01-01

    The technology of CO2 laser welding and joint properties of titanium alloy were investigated. The problem of moltenpool protection was resolved by designing a shielding trailer and a special clamp. Joints with silvery appearance wereobtained, which have no pore and crack. In addition, the welding speed could reach 3 m/min for the plate of 1.5 mmthickness being penetrated. The reason of the porosity formation in partial penetration joints is that the keyholescan be easily cut apart in the radial direction, which makes the gas enclosed in the molten pool. The surface oxideof specimens can not affect the porosity formation in welds directly.

  9. Effect of Surface Pretreatment on Adhesive Properties of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsheng ZHANG; Xuhui ZHAO; Yu ZUO; Jinping XIONG; Xiaofeng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The lap-shear strength and durability of adhesive bonded AI alloy joints with different pretreatments were studied by the lap-shear test and wedge test. The results indicate that the maximum lap-shear strength and durability of the bonding joints pretreated by different processes are influenced by the grade of abrasive papers and can be obviously improved by phosphoric acid anodizing. Alkali etching can obviously improve the durability of bonding joints although it slightly influences the maximum lap-shear strength. The process which is composed of grit-finishing, acetone degreasing, alkali etching and phosphoric acid anodizing, provides a better adhesive bonding property of AI alloy.

  10. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose of...

  11. /SiC Composite to Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, X.; Jiménez, C.; Mergia, K.; Yialouris, P.; Messoloras, S.; Liedtke, V.; Wilhelmi, C.; Barcena, J.

    2014-08-01

    In view of aerospace applications, an innovative structure for joining a Ti alloy to carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide has been developed. This is based on the perforation of the CMC material, and this procedure results in six-fold increase of the shear strength of the joint compared to the unprocessed CMC. The joint is manufactured using the active brazing technique and TiCuAg as filler metal. Sound joints without defects are produced and excellent wetting of both the composite ceramic and the metal is observed. The mechanical shear tests show that failure occurs always within the ceramic material and not at the joint. At the CMC/filler, Ti from the filler metal interacts with the SiC matrix to form carbides and silicides. In the middle of the filler region depletion of Ti and formation of Ag and Cu rich regions are observed. At the filler/Ti alloy interface, a layered structure of the filler and Ti alloy metallic elements is formed. For the perforation to have a significant effect on the improvement of the shear strength of the joint appropriate geometry is required.

  12. Novel approach of LY12 alloy brazing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛松柏; 钱乙余; 董健; 吕晓春

    2003-01-01

    The LY12 Al alloy was brazed with the adoption of the improved KF-CsF-AlF3 flux matching Ag-Al-Cu-Zn filler metal. The shear strength of brazed joint could reach 80% of that of the substrate and the tensile strength of butt brazed joint will be 70% of that of the substrate. This was the great progress against the traditional claim that Al alloy reinforced by heat treatment could not be brazed. The experimental results and theoretical analysis had proved that it was the key issue to remove the MgO oxide film below 503℃. The addition of rare earth La was the effective way to obtain better mechanical properties of the filler metal as well as brazed joints.

  13. Microstructural characteristics of joint region during diffusion-brazing of magnesium alloy and stainless steel using pure copper interlayer%纯铜作中间层的镁合金与不锈钢扩散-钎焊接头区的微观结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁新建; 盛光敏; 罗军; 李佳

    2013-01-01

    A novel joining method,double-stage diffusion-brazing of an AZ31 magnesium alloy and a 304L austenitic stainless steel,was carried out using a pure copper interlayer.The solid-state diffusion bonding of 304L to copper was conducted at 850 ℃ for 20 min followed by brazing to AZ31 at 520 ℃ and 495 ℃ for various time.Microstructural characteristics of the diffusion-brazed joints were investigated in detail.A defect flee interface of Fe-Cu diffusion area appeared between the Cu alloy and the 304L steel.Cu-Mg reaction products were formed between AZ31 and Cu alloys.A layered structure including AZ31/Cu-Mg compounds/Cu/Fe-Cu diffusion layer/304L was present in the joint.With time prolonging,the reduction in the width of Cu layer was balanced by the increase in the width of Cu-Mg compounds zone.Microhardness peaks in the zone between AZ31 and Cu layer were attributed to the formation of Mg-Cu compounds in this zone.%以纯铜作中间层采用一种新型的两步式扩散-钎焊方法对AZ31镁合金和304L奥氏体不锈钢进行连接.304L与铜的固态扩散连接在850℃下进行20 min,随后与镁合金在520℃和495℃进行不同时间的钎焊.对扩散-钎焊接头区的微观结构特征进行研究.在铜与304L钢之间形成没有缺陷存在的Fe-Cu扩散界面.在AZ31和铜之间形成Cu-Mg反应物.在接头处出现包含AZ31/Cu-Mg化合物/Cu/Fe-Cu扩散层/304L的层状结构.随着时间的延长,铜层的宽度降低,而Cu-Mg化合物层的宽度增加.形成的Mg-Cu化合物使AZ31和铜层之间的区域出现显微硬度的峰值.

  14. Fatigue Property and Microstructure of FSW Joint of 7A09-T6 Aluminum Alloy%T6态7A09铝合金搅拌摩擦焊接接头的疲劳性能及组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周曙君; 郭训忠; 邢丽

    2011-01-01

    The 7A09-T6 aluminum alloy was welded by the FSW. The fatigue property of joints prepared by different processes was tested by high frequency fatigue testing machine and the S-N curves were obtained. In addition, the fatigue fracture of welding joints were studied by OM and SEM. The results show that fatigue life was shorter with the increase of the stress amplitude, and the fatigue life of welded joints was the longest when welding speed was 37. 5 mm ? Min-1. The fracture of the joints was located in the juncture of the heat affected zone and the nugget, the obvious plastic deformation was not found in this area. Moreover, the joints fatigue fracture existed at the bottom of the welding sample and the fatigue striations were found in expansion area, the instantaneous break area showed a dimple morphology. All of the above were the typical tear characteristics of static load.%用搅拌摩擦焊工艺对T6态7A09铝合金进行了焊接,用程控高频万能疲劳试验机测试了不同工艺焊接接头的疲劳性能,并得出S-N曲线,用光学显微镜及扫描电镜对焊接接头的疲劳断口进行了研究。结果表明:应力幅值越大,焊接接头的疲劳寿命越短;焊接速度为37.5 mm·min-1时的接头疲劳寿命最高;接头断裂位置在前进边的热力影响区与焊核交界处,未发生明显的塑性变形;接头疲劳断口起裂于接头底部,在扩展区出现疲劳辉纹,瞬断区呈韧窝状,具有典型的静载撕裂特征。

  15. 钛合金T-型结构单面焊背面双侧成形焊接接头组织与性能%Microstructure and Properties of T-structure Joints by Single Pass Welding and Double Backside Shaping on Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 杨磊; 于瑛; 吴林

    2012-01-01

    应用TIG焊、激光-TIG电弧复合焊工艺,采用单面焊背面双侧成形焊接技术对钛合金T-型结构进行焊接.对两种工艺进行金相组织、拉伸、弯曲、疲劳性能对比试验.研究结果表明,激光-TIG电弧复合焊工艺焊接钛合金T-型结构,近缝区及热影响区晶粒长大倾向明显要小于TIG焊接头,激光-TIG电弧复合焊工艺的明显高于TIG焊工艺,复合焊接的疲劳强度相比TIG焊提高约50%.因此,激光-TIG电弧复合焊工艺焊接钛合金T-型结构综合力学性能优于TIG焊接头.%T-structure parts of titanium alloy are single pass welded and double backside shaped, respectively by TIC welding and la-ser-TIG hybrid welding. The microstructure, tensile, bending and fatigue performance of the two methods have been tested comparably. The results show that the tendency of grain growing in the weld vicinity and HAZ is much lesser. The bending strength of laser-TIG hybrid welding is obviously higher than that of TIC welding. The fatigue life of laser-TIG hybrid welding joint is 50% more than that of TIG welding joint. So, the general performance of laser-TIG hybrid welding joint is better than that of TIG welding.

  16. Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag钎料高频感应钎焊2Cr13不锈钢接头的显微组织与性能%Microstructure andperformance of 2Cr13stainless steel joint by high frequency induction brazing usingCu-Mn-Ni-Agfiller alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑义; 颜家振; 李宁; 曹永同; 帅帆

    2016-01-01

    The characteristic of Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag filler alloy and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the 2Cr13 stainless steel joint brazed by high frequency induction brazing using Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag filler alloywerestudied. The results show that the melting point of the Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag filler alloy is 880℃and it is composed of Ag-rich phase, Cu-Mn-Ni solid solution and a little Ni-Mn-Si compound; a layer of Fe-Mn-Ni-Cr-Cu solid solution forms at the interface between the filler alloy and base metal, and the brazing seam zone is composed of Ag-rich phase, Cu-Mn-Ni solid solution and a little Ni-Mn-Si compound. The brazing jointsfailsin the inside Cu-Mn-Ni solid solution and Ag-rich phase, and the fracture mode of the joints is mainly ductile dimple fracture, the best shear strength of the brazing joint at room temperature is 369 MPa, the high temperature shear strength of the brazing joints at 400℃, 500℃and 600℃are 251 MPa, 208 MPa and 84 MPa,respectively.%采用新型的Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag中温铜基钎料高频感应钎焊2Cr13不锈钢,并对钎料的工艺特性、钎焊接头的显微组织以及测试温度对钎焊接头力学性能的影响进行研究。结果表明:Cu-Mn-Ni-Ag钎料的熔点约为880℃,由富Ag相、Cu-Mn-Ni固溶体以及少量的Ni-Mn-Si化合物组成;钎料与2Cr13不锈钢产生良好的冶金结合,且钎焊接头组织致密;界面反应区的组织为Fe-Mn-Ni-Cr-Cu固溶体,钎缝区组织由富Ag相、Cu-Mn-Ni固溶体和少量的Ni-Mn-Si化合物组成;钎焊接头断裂于钎缝中间的富Ag相和CuMnNi固溶体上,为以剪切韧窝为主的韧性断裂,室温剪切强度最大可达369 MPa,在400℃、500℃和600℃下接头的剪切强度分别为251 MPa、208 MPa和84 MPa。

  17. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  18. 铸造铝合金镦粗挤压铆接接头失效形式和强度的分析%Analysis on failure modes and strength for upset protrusion riveted joints of casting aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李渭佳; 杨连发

    2016-01-01

    Upset protrusion riveting method was used to join castings. The performance of joint obtained by the method upsetting-extrusion was analyzed based on the failure modes and strength. The various testing schemes were obtained through orthogonal test method by chan-ging diameters and depths of the punch. Furthermore, based on the principle of constant volume, rivet heights under different test schemes were calculated, and the upset protrusion riveting tests were carried out. Then, it was conducted the shearing and tensile tests of parts. According to the results, the failure modes were analyzed and the failure limit diagram of joints was obtained. At last, the effects of the geometrical dimensions of the punch on the shear strength and tensile strength of joints were studied. The results show that the tensile strength of joints is lower than the shear strength;joints occur to shearing failure on tail under the shear loading. However, joints occur to head peeling, head shearing and joint pulling failure on tail under the tensile loading.%镦粗挤压铆接是针对铸造件的连接提出的一种铆接技术,从失效形式和强度两个方面对镦粗挤压铆接得到的接头性能进行分析,通过改变冲头直径和深度,采用正交试验,得到不同的试验组合。基于体积不变原理,计算出各个试验组合下需要的铆钉高度,进行镦粗挤压铆接试验,对铆接得到的试件进行剪切和拉伸试验。根据试验结果,分析接头的失效形式,并且绘制出接头的失效极限图,最后分析了冲头尺寸对接头抗剪强度和抗拉强度的影响。研究结果表明:采用镦粗挤压铆接方法得到的接头,其抗剪强度高于抗拉强度;剪切载荷下,接头只发生根部剪断失效;拉伸载荷下,接头发生头部剥离、头部剪断和铆钉根部拉断失效。

  19. Influence of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Properties of Aw-7020M Alloy in Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzik K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW, provides an alternative to MIG and TIG welding methods for joining aluminium alloys. The article presents the results of electrochemical corrosion resistance test of alloy AW- 7020M and its joints welded by FSW. The study was performed using the method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Impedance spectroscopy studies showed that both, the FSW welded joint and base material AW-7020M has a good resistance to electrochemical corrosion in sea water environment, wherein the welded joint has a higher susceptibility to this type of corrosion. Research has indicated the desirability of applying the FSW method for joining AW-7020M alloy in shipbuilding industry.

  20. Influence of the gas shielding method upon the properties of the weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinakhov, D. A.; Sapozhkov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The authors consider the influence of the gas shielding method under consumable electrode welding and double-jet gas shielding together with its influence upon the processes in the arc zone and the properties of weld joints from high-strength alloyed 30HGSA steel. The authors provide the results of recent experimental research on weld joints properties improvement through changing the gas dynamics of the active shielding gas. It was established that the jet of active shielding gas has a considerable gas-dynamic influence upon weld joints formation, chemical composition, structure and properties of the weld joints from high-strength alloyed steels.

  1. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    of anti-discrimination in Europe today? And what empirical evidence may be found for such a joint approach? The paper discusses how the contemporary EU context differs from the American context which prompted Crenshaw to raise the point about intersectionality, and it analyses documents and interviews...... from each of the two European umbrella organisations the European Women´s Lobby and the European Network against Racism, as well as a number of their national member organisations from across Europe, both within EU and non-EU member states....

  2. High-Reliability Low-Ag-Content Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints for Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnawah, Dhafer Abdulameer; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Che, Fa Xing

    2012-09-01

    Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloy is currently recognized as the standard lead-free solder alloy for packaging of interconnects in the electronics industry, and high- Ag-content SAC alloys are the most popular choice. However, this choice has been encumbered by the fragility of the solder joints that has been observed in drop testing as well as the high cost of the Ag itself. Therefore, low-Ag-content SAC alloy was considered as a solution for both issues. However, this approach may compromise the thermal-cycling performance of the solders. Therefore, to enhance the thermal-cycling reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys without sacrificing their drop-impact performance, alloying elements such as Mn, Ce, Ti, Bi, In, Sb, Ni, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co were selected as additions to these alloys. However, research reports related to these modified SAC alloys are limited. To address this paucity, the present study reviews the effect of these minor alloying elements on the solder joint reliability of low-Ag-content SAC alloys in terms of thermal cycling and drop impact. Addition of Mn, Ce, Bi, and Ni to low-Ag-content SAC solder effectively improves the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Taking into consideration the improvement in the bulk alloy microstructure and mechanical properties, wetting properties, and growth suppression of the interface intermetallic compound (IMC) layers, addition of Ti, In, Sb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Co to low-Ag-content SAC solder has the potential to improve the thermal-cycling reliability of joints without sacrificing the drop-impact performance. Consequently, further investigations of both thermal-cycling and drop reliability of these modified solder joints must be carried out in future work.

  3. Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr合金搅拌摩擦焊接接头的显微组织、力学性能及局部腐蚀性能%Microstructure, mechanical properties and localized corrosion property of friction stir welded joint of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶锐; 杨继东; 彭小燕; 徐国富; 尹志民

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties and localized corrosion of Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr alloy friction stir welded joint were investigated by hardness testing, polarization curve testing, corrosion immersion testing and slow strain rate tensile testing. Moreover, the microstructure of the welded joint was characterized by optical microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the hardness curve of the welded joint exhibits “W” shape, and the lowest hardness appears in the transition zone between heat affected zone(HAZ) and thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ). Compared with the base material, the localized corrosion resistance of the welded joint decreases, and the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility increases. The TMAZ exhibits the lowest corrosion potential, the highest current density, the largest intergranular corrosion depth and the lowest corrosion resistance. During welding, mostη′phase dissolves and a number ofη phase is located at grain boundaries in the grains of TMAZ, which leads to the decrease of hardness and corrosion resistance.%通过硬度测试、极化曲线测试、腐蚀浸泡和慢应变速率拉伸方法研究Al-Zn-Mg-Sc-Zr合金板材搅拌摩擦焊接接头的力学性能和局部腐蚀性能,并利用金相显微镜和透射电镜对焊接接头的显微组织进行分析。结果表明:焊接接头的硬度曲线呈现 W 型,硬度最低值出现在热影响区与热机影响区的交界处;和母材相比,焊接接头的局部抗腐蚀性能降低,应力腐蚀敏感性增大。热机影响区的腐蚀电位最低,腐蚀电流密度最高,晶间腐蚀深度最大,抗腐蚀性能最差。热机影响区的硬度和腐蚀性能的降低,主要是由于该区的晶粒发生变形,大部分η′沉淀强化相溶解,晶界上分布着大量的η相。

  4. 焊后时效对6061-T6铝合金搅拌摩擦焊接头的影响%Influences of Post-Weld Aging Treatment on Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋东福; 戚文军; 梁涛; 王海艳; 周楠

    2012-01-01

    对4组6061 -T6铝合金搅拌摩擦焊接头进行焊后人工时效处理,采用OM,SEM等分析了时效处理工艺对接头的组织和力学性能的影响规律和机制.研究表明:焊缝截面形貌呈现典型的3个区,时效处理后,焊缝区晶粒形貌无显著变化,晶界较自然时效清晰,晶内析出相也明显增多;接头强度和显微硬度随人工时效处理时间的延长而提高,提高幅度随保温时间逐渐减小;时效处理为8h时接头力学性能优良,接头抗拉强度均达到265 MPa以上,约为母材的93.0%;焊核区硬度达到90 HV,约为母材的90%.时效处理中,焊接过程中固溶在基体中的第二相粒子析出,形成弥散强化效应,大幅提高接头的强度和硬度.随着时效时间的延长,析出粒子逐渐较少,强化效应逐渐减弱;接头最薄弱的区均位于后退侧的热机械影响区,其最低硬度值约为母材的75%.拉伸断口均与拉伸方向成约45°角,断口平整,呈典型的切断断口形貌,与自然时效接头的断口形貌相比,时效处理后接头的断口韧窝大而浅,塑性稍有降低.%Four groups of friction stir welded 6061-T6 aluminum alloy were artificial aged, and the microstructure and mechanical properties influence law and mechanism of joint with different aging process were investigated by OM and SEM. The results showed the morphology of the weld cross-section constituted of three typical areas. The grain morphology of the weld zone had no significant change by aging treatment, but grain boundaries were more clear and intragramuar precipitates increased significantly than the natural aging joint. The joint strength and microhardness improved with the time of artificial aging treatment increased, and the range of improvement gradually decreased with the holding time. The joint exhibited excellent mechanical properties when holding time was 8 h. The tensile strength passed 265 MPa, about 93.0% of the base metal, and nugget zone

  5. Thin-film diffusion brazing of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A thin film diffusion brazing technique for joining titanium alloys by use of a Cu intermediate is described. The method has been characterized in terms of static and dynamic mechanical properties on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These include tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, shear, corrosion fatigue, mechanical fatigue and acoustic fatigue. Most of the properties of titanium joints formed by thin film diffusion brazing are equal or exceed base metal properties. The advantages of thin film diffusion brazing over solid state diffusion bonding and brazing with conventional braze alloys are discussed. The producibility advantages of this process over others provide the potential for producing high efficiency joints in structural components of titanium alloys for the minimum cost.

  6. Junta de soldadura disímil de la aleación hk – 40 y del hierro fundido 24//Dissimilar welding joints of the alloy hk - 40 and of the cast iron 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Fernández‐Columbié

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es establecer el comportamiento microestructural de una unión soldada disímil en una aleación HK 40 y el hierro fundido 24, la cual se realiza en equipo que prestan servicios en la industria del níquel y que por las características de la unión, surgen en el mismo problema de agrietamiento. Se realizó una caracterización química de ambas aleaciones, luego por el proceso demecanizado se prepararon un total de nueve muestras, las que fueron soldada por proceso manual por arco eléctrico, los electrodos revestidos empleados fueron el E 312–16, el UTP 65 y el Castell Xiron 244, demostrándose en el análisis microestructural y en el diagrama de Schaeffler, que la disposición de la unión con el electrodo E 312–16 provoca la aparición de estructura interdendritica con origen a la fundición blanca, siendo más favorable la unión con el electrodo UTP 65. Se le realizó el análisis de microdureza en cada unión.Palabras claves: disímil, aleación, agrietamiento, soldadura, electrodos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIt is paper have the objective to establish the behaviour microstructure of an union welded dissimilar in an alloy HK 40 and the cast iron 24, which is carried out in team that you lend services in the industry of the nickel and that for the characteristics of the union, they arise in the same cracking problem. He was carried out a chemical characterization of both alloys, then for the process ofautomated got ready a total of nine samples, those that were welding for process shield for electric arch (SMAW, the electrodes lined employees were the E 312 - 16, the UTP 65 and the Castell Xiron 244, being demonstrated in the analysis microstructure and in the diagram of Schaeffler that the disposition of the union with the electrode E 312 - 16 cause the appearance of structure inter dendritewith origin to the white foundry, being more available the union

  7. Diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 刘会杰

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze has been studied and the feasibility and appropriate processing parameters have been investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints is bonded joint has been observed by SEM, X-ray and EPMA, and the main factors affecting diffusion bonding have been analyzed. The intermetallic compounds Ti2Cu and TiCu were formed near the interface. The width and quantity of the intermetallic compound increases with the increase of the bonding time. The formation of the intermetallic compounds results in embrittlement of the joint and the poor joint properties.

  8. Summary of Prior Work on Joining of Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Ian G [ORNL; Tatlock, Gordon J [ORNL; Badairy, H. [University of Liverpool; Chen, C-L. [University of Liverpool

    2009-08-01

    There is a range of joining techniques available for use with ODS alloys, but care should be exercised in matching the technique to the final duty requirements of the joint. The goal for joining ODS alloys is a joint with no local disruption of the distribution of the oxide dispersion, and no significant change in the size and orientation of the alloy microstructure. Not surprisingly, the fusion welding processes typically employed with wrought alloys produce the least satisfactory results with ODS alloys, but some versions, such as fusion spot welding, and the laser and electron-beam welding technologies, have demonstrated potential for producing sound joints. Welds made using solid-state spot welding reportedly have exhibited parent metal properties. Thus, it is possible to employ processes that result in significant disruption of the alloy microstructure, as long as the processing parameters are adjustment to minimize the extent of or influence of the changes in the alloy microstructure. Selection among these joining approaches largely depends on the particular application and component configuration, and an understanding of the relationships among processing, alloy microstructure, and final properties is key. Recent developments have resulted in friction welding evolving to be a prime method for joining ODS sheet products, and variants of brazing/diffusion bonding have shown excellent promise for use with tubes and pipes. The techniques that come closest to the goal defined above involve solid-state diffusion bonding and, in particular, it has been found that secondary recrystallization of joints made by pulsed plasma-assisted diffusion can produce the desired, continuous, large alloy grain structure through the joint. Such joints have exhibited creep rupture failure at >82% of the load needed to fail the monolithic parent alloy at 1000 C.

  9. Research on Microstructure and Weld Penetration of LY12 Duralumin Alloy Welded Joint under TIG Welding and A-TIG Welding%LY12硬铝合金TIG与A-TIG焊接接头组织和熔深的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 魏晓红; 胡宗智

    2011-01-01

    针对Al-Cu-Mg系共晶型高强度LY12硬铝合金,进行了TIG与A-TIG焊接接头组织特征和熔深变化规律的研究.结果表明,在相同焊接规范下,TIG与A-TIG焊接接头焊缝区金相组织均为树枝状晶,热影响区金相组织均为等轴晶,差别在于A-TIG焊接接头组织晶粒较粗大.高倍显微镜下的金相组织显示,A-TIG焊缝区和热影响区中强化相数量比TIG焊多,且比TIG焊粗大.另外由于活性剂的加入,电弧产生收缩,热量集中,使得A-TIG焊熔深比TIG焊大.%This paper have researched the microstructure characteristics and weld penetration change law of welded joint of Al-Cu-Mg system eutectic type high strength LY12 duralumin alloy under TIG welding and A-TIG welding. Results showed that the weld zone microstructure of TIG welding and A-TIG welding was dendritic crystal and the heat-affected zone microstructure of TIG welding and A-TIG welding was equiaxed crystal under the same welding specification. The difference was that the microstructure of A-TIG welded joint was coarser. The microstructure under advanced microscope showed that the weld zone and heat-affected zone of A-TIG had more strengthening phase than TIG and the strengthening phase of A-TIG was coarser than that of TIG. The weld penetration of A-TIG was deeper than TIG which had been caused by the addition of surfactant which leaded to arc constriction and heat concentration.

  10. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  11. Bearing alloys with hexagonal crystal structures provide improved friction and wear characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Johnson, R. L.

    1966-01-01

    Bearings of titanium, cobalt, and other hexagonal crystal alloys are used in vacuum and high temperature environments. These temperature-stabilized alloys have reduced friction and wear characteristics and therefore have potential use in aircraft seals, hydraulic equipment, and artificial human joints.

  12. Synthesis of aluminum-based scandium-yttrium master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Kosov, Ya. I.; Lobacheva, O. L.; Dzhevaga, N. V.

    2015-07-01

    The preparation technology for an Al-2% Sc-0.5% Y master alloy using aluminum-manganese alloys has been developed and tested. The microstructure of the prepared master alloy is studied and the compositions of intermetallics is determined. The efficient technological parameters of the synthesis are determined. It is shown that varying the compositions of starting reagents and alloying additions and optimizing the process conditions (temperature, mixing, etc.) allow us to forecast the manufacturing and operating characteristics of aluminum-based master alloys. Joint additions of scandium and yttrium oxides to a charge favor a substantial decrease in the grain size of the formed intermetallics; this effect appears to the utmost in the case of microallying with yttrium up to 0.5 wt %.

  13. Properties and Application of Iron-based Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-chen; Jiang Qing; Dai Jun

    2005-01-01

    The properties of FeMnSiCrNi shape memory alloy were investigated. The results show that the best shape memory effect of Fel4Mn6Si9Cr5Ni alloy is 85%. The transformation amount of the ε→γ transformation is not complete after heating the alloy to 1000 K, As and Af points drop with increased transformation enthalpy ( △Hγ→ε) by thermal cycling and increased prestrain. The alloy shows also good creep and stress relaxation resistance. In addition, the alloy having a tensile force of 20 kN and a sealing pressure of 6 MPa can satisfy requirements for possible industrial application on pipe joints.

  14. Joining Techniques for Ferritic ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.G. Krishnardula; V.G. Krishnardula; D.E. Clark; T.C. Totemeier

    2005-06-01

    This report presents results of research on advanced joining techniques for ferritic oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys MA956 and PM2000. The joining techniques studied were resistance pressure welding (also known as pressure forge welding), transient liquid phase bonding, and diffusion bonding. All techniques were shown to produce sound joints in fine-grained, unrecrystallized alloys. Post-bond heat treatment to produce a coarse-grained, recrystallized microstructure resulted in grain growth across the bondline for transient liquid phase and diffusion bonds, giving microstructures essentially identical to that of the parent alloy in the recrystallized condition. The effects of bond orientation, boron interlayer thickness, and bonding parameters are discussed for transient liquid phase and diffusion bonding. The report concludes with a brief discussion of ODS joining techniques and their applicability to GEN IV reactor systems.

  15. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artificial joint Damage to vessels, nerves or other structures in the region of the surgery Alternatives Some alternate procedures for treating arthritis include: Joint injections Oral medications such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines Hand therapy exercises and ...

  16. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Tensile properties and thermal shock reliability of Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint with indium addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, A-Mi; Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Ki; Kim, Mok-Soon

    2012-04-01

    The thermal shock reliability and tensile properties of a newly developed quaternary Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In (wt%) solder alloy were investigated and compared to those of ternary Sn-Ag-Cu based Pb-free solder alloys. It was revealed that the Sn-1.2Ag-0.5Cu-0.4In solder alloy shows better thermal shock reliability compared to the Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder alloys. The quaternary alloy has higher strength than Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy, and higher elongation than Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy. It was also revealed that the addition of indium promotes the formation of Ag3(Sn, In) phase in the solder joint during reflow process.

  18. Influence of cooling conditions on joint properties of 2519A aluminum alloy by friction stir welding%冷却条件对2519A铝合金搅拌摩擦焊焊缝性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继超; 叶凌英; 张新明; 贺地求; 李红萍

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding was used to weld 2.75 mm thick 2519A aluminum sheets. The sheets were welded in conventional condition (in air) and flowing water condition. The influence of cooling conditions on. the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint was investigated. The results indicate that with the rotation speed of 2 700 r/min and welding speed of 60 mm/min, the water cooling welding results in better joint, and improves the joint strength to 340 MPa. In water cooling condition, the softening region becomes remarkably narrow, and its hardness value is improved. Moreover, the grain size of the nugget zone is much smaller than the grain size in air cooling condition. In water cooling, the distribution of the hardness in the nugget zone is almost a straight line, while in air cooling, the hardness in nugget zone firstly becomes higher and then lower, and it changes significantly. The average hardness in the nugget zone by water cooling is smaller than the average hardness in air cooling condition, because the air cooling can improve the solution degrees and promote the aging process.%采用搅拌摩擦焊焊接厚度为2.75 mm的2519A铝合金板材.分别研究在空气和水流中冷却对焊接性能和焊缝组织的影响.实验结果表明:在旋转速度为2 700 r/min,焊接速度为60 mm/min条件下,水冷焊接得到美观并无明显缺陷的接头,提高了接头强度,抗拉强度达到340MPa;在水冷条件下,热影响区的范围变窄,热影响区平均硬度提高,焊核区晶粒粒度比空冷条件下的更加小,硬度几乎呈直线分布;而在空冷条件下,焊核区硬度呈先上升后下降趋势,变化明显,水冷焊核区平均硬度低于空冷条件下平均硬度,这是因为空冷焊接能够提高固溶度并促进随后的时效发生.

  19. CORROSION MECHANISM ON TOP SURFACE OF FRICTION STIR WELDED JOINT OF 2024 ALUMINUM ALLOY%2024铝合金搅拌摩擦焊焊缝表面腐蚀机理探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康举; 董春林; 栾国红; 何淼; 付瑞东

    2011-01-01

    在分析2024铝合金FSW焊缝表面组织及析出相种类的基础上,采用腐蚀类原位观察揭示了焊缝表面的腐蚀演变行为,结合透射电镜、示差扫描量热分析及电化学分析对焊缝接头的腐蚀机理进行了探索。结果表明:FSW后,焊缝区的耐蚀性能下降,SAZ腐蚀最严重,点蚀的起源为S相。焊缝区晶体缺陷增加,导致晶粒和晶界在电化学性能上的不均匀性增大。在FSW过程中SAZ的S相粒子被打碎,并发生部分回溶。当腐蚀发生时,被打碎的S相加大了SAZ的点蚀密度;溶入基体的Mg元素,提高了轴肩作用区的活性。%In this paper, based on the analysis to surface microstructure of FSW AA2024 joint, the corrosion evolution behavior was revealed by a quasi-in-situ observation method. Besides, the corrosion mechanism of the FSW joint was investigated by combining TEM, DSC and electrochemical analysis. The results show that FSW makes the corrosion resistance decrease, which is characterized by the facts that the most corrosion in the SAZ (shoulder active zone) and the pitting corrosion initially originates in dissolving of the S phase (A12CuMg). TEM observations indicate that crystal defects density increases in the welded joints causing the more different electrochemical properties between grains and grain boundaries. The S phase particles are broken and partially redissolved during the FSW process in the SAZ. When the corrosion happens, the broken S phase particles increase the pitting corrosion density of the SAZ. In addition, the activity of the SAZ is enhanced due to the doped Mg.

  20. Alloying influences on low melt temperature SnZn and SnBi solder alloys for electronic interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Guang [Stokes Laboratories, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland); Department of Civil Engineering and Materials Science, University of Limerick (Ireland); Wilding, Ian J. [Henkel Ltd, Hemel Hempstead (United Kingdom); Collins, Maurice N., E-mail: Maurice.collins@ul.ie [Stokes Laboratories, Bernal Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2016-04-25

    Due to its commercial potential and the technological challenges associated with processing, low temperature soldering is a topic gaining widespread interest in both industry and academia in the application space of consumer and “throw away” electronics. This review focuses on the latest metallurgical alloys, tin zinc (Sn–Zn) and tin bismuth (Sn–Bi), for lower temperature processed electronic interconnections. The fundamentals of solder paste production and flux development for these highly surface active metallic powders are introduced. Intermetallic compounds that underpin low temperature solder joint production and reliability are discussed. The influence of alloying on these alloys is described in terms of critical microstructural changes, mechanical properties and reliability. The review concludes with an outlook for next generation electronic interconnect materials. - Highlights: • Review of the latest advances in Sn–Zn and Sn–Bi solder alloys. • Technological developments underpinning low temperature soldering. • Micro alloying influences on next generation interconnect materials.

  1. Three dimensional atom probe study of Ni-base alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Three dimensional atom probe tomography (3D APT) is applied to characterize the dissimilar metal joint which was welded between the Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and the low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B, with Alloy 152 filler metal. While there is some difficulty in preparing the specimen for the analysis, the 3D APT has a truly quantitative analytical capability to characterize nanometer scale particles in metallic materials, thus its application to the microstructural analysis in multicomponent metallic materials provides critical information on the mechanism of nanoscale microstructural evolution. In this study, the procedure for 3D APT specimen preparation was established, and those for dissimilar metal weld interface were prepared near the fusion boundary by a focused ion beam. The result of the analysis in this study showed the precipitation of chromium carbides near the fusion boundary between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152.

  2. INTERFACE STRUCTURE AND BOND STRENGTH OF DIFFUSIONG -BONDED JOINT OF TiAl-BASE ALLOY TO 40Ct STEEL%TiAl基合金与40Cr钢扩散连接的界面结构及接合强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯吉才; 何鹏; 张秉刚; 钱乙余; 郭德伦; 侯金保

    2000-01-01

    TiA1 alloy was diffusion bonded to 40Cr steel in vacuum furnace. Results showed, at the TiA1 -40Cr inter face, the reaction layer of mixture was formed closest to TiA1 base, TiC layer was formed in the middle and obvious decarbonised layer was formed closest to 40Cr steel side. The widths of the three reaction layer increased with the increase of the bond temperature and the bond time. The ambient ultimate tensile strengths of the tested joints were poor, and fractography revealed that all joints fractured in the TiC layer, producing brittle cleavage fracture surface. High bond temperature and short bong time was propitious to decresing metallic compounds resulting in brittleness of the weld joint and obtaining high good properties of bonding.%用真空扩散连接的方法对TiAl/40Cr钢进行了扩散连接。结果表明,在TiAl/40Cr钢接头的界面处中出现了三个扩散层,它们分别是:邻接TiAl侧的金属间化合物混合层,中间的TiC层,靠近40Cr钢侧的脱碳固溶层;并且随着焊接温度的提高,保温时间的延长,三个扩散层的厚度均显著增大。力学性能测试表明,TiAl/40Cr扩散连接接头的拉伸强度很低,断口为脆性断裂,主要断裂在界面层中的TiC处。为了获得结合较好拉的伸强度较高的TiAl/40Cr钢扩散连接接头,宜采用高温短时规范,以达到控制及减少脆性相及金属间化合物的目的。

  3. Fracture behavior of double-pass TIG welded 2219-T8 aluminum alloy joints under transverse tensile test%2219-T8铝合金单面两层焊接头横向拉伸断裂行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李权; 吴爱萍; 赵玥; 王国庆; 鄢东洋; 吴会强

    2015-01-01

    2219-T8 aluminum alloys were butt welded by the double-pass tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding process. The transverse tensile test of the joint showed that the fracture mainly occurred in the partially melted zone (PMZ). Effects of the PMZ on the fracture behavior were systematically studied. Continuous intergranular eutectics were observed in the PMZ close to the fusion line. Away from the fusion line, the intergranular eutectics in the PMZ became discontinuous. The fracture morphology and the microhardness distribution of the joint showed that the PMZ was gradient material with different mechanical properties, which strongly affected the fracture process. It was observed that the crack initiated in the PMZ near the front weld toe, and propagated in the PMZ away from the fusion line. Then, the crack tip was blunt when it propagated into the PMZ with higher plasticity. Finally, the rest part of the joint was shear fractured.%采用单面两层钨极氩弧焊工艺焊接2219-T8铝合金。接头横向拉伸时断裂发生在部分熔化区(PMZ)。针对PMZ组织对接头拉伸断裂行为的影响进行系统研究。PMZ中靠近熔合线的位置晶界共晶较连续,随着距离熔合线距离的增加,晶界共晶的连续程度逐渐降低。断口形貌和接头显微硬度分布表明 PMZ 是一种梯度材料。其梯度变化的力学性能对接头的断裂行为有重要影响。研究发现,裂纹在靠近正面焊趾的 PMZ 启裂,启裂后沿远离熔合线的方向扩展,当裂纹尖端扩展到塑性较好的 PMZ 时,裂纹尖端钝化,随后接头余下部分以剪切形式发生断裂。

  4. Spacesuit mobility knee joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Pressure suit mobility joints are for use in interconnecting adjacent segments of an hermetically sealed spacesuit in which low torques, low leakage and a high degree of reliability are required. Each of the joints is a special purpose joint characterized by substantially constant volume and low torque characteristics and includes linkages which restrain the joint from longitudinal distension and includes a flexible, substantially impermeable diaphragm of tubular configuration spanning the distance between pivotally supported annuli. The diaphragms of selected joints include rolling convolutions for balancing the joints, while various joints include wedge-shaped sections which enhance the range of motion for the joints.

  5. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    . Traditionally, theorem provers are used to prove that specifications are correct but this process is highly dependent on expert users. Alternatively, model finding has proved to be useful for validation of specifications. The Alloy Analyzer is an automated model finder for checking and visualising Alloy...... specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  6. 采用铌中间层的钛合金与不锈钢的真空热轧连接界面的显微组织及性能%Interfacial structure and mechanical properties of hot-roll bonded joints between titanium alloy and stainless steel using niobium interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东升; 闫久春; 刘玉君; 纪卓尚

    2014-01-01

    进行了钛合金与不锈钢采用铌中间层的真空热轧连接实验,分析了连接界面的显微组织及性能。结果表明,采用铌中间层能够明显提高接头的塑性。当压缩率为25%,轧制速度为38 mm/s,热轧温度为800°C和900°C时,不锈钢与铌的连接界面没有明显的金属间化合物层;当热轧温度为1000°C和1050°C时,不锈钢与铌连接界面形成Fe-Nb金属间化合物层,并且当热轧温度为1050°C时在金属间化合物层与不锈钢之间出现开裂。铌与钛合金连接界面的扩散层厚度随着热轧温度的升高而增大。热轧温度为900°C的连接接头的拉伸强度可达~417.5 MPa,拉伸试样断裂于铌中间层,断口呈塑性断裂特征。热轧温度为800°C的热轧过度接头分别与钛合金和不锈钢进行TIG焊接,TIG焊后热轧过度接头的拉伸强度可达~410.3 MPa,拉伸试样断裂于铌中间层,断口呈塑性断裂特征。%The hot-roll bonding was carried out in vacuum between titanium alloy and stainless steel using niobium interlayer. The interfacial structure and mechanical properties were analyzed. The results show that the plasticity of bonded joint is improved significantly. When the bonding temperature is 800 °C or 900 °C, there is not intermetallic layer at the interface between stainless steel and niobium. When the bonding temperature is 1000 °C or 1050 °C, Fe-Nb intermetallic layer forms at the interface. When the bonding temperature is 1050 °C, cracking occurs between stainless steel and intermetallic layer. The maximum strength of~417.5 MPa is obtained at the bonding temperature of 900 °C, the reduction of 25%and the rolling speed of 38 mm/s, and the tensile specimen fractures in the niobium interlayer with plastic fracture characteristics. When the hot-roll bonded transition joints were TIG welded with titanium alloy and stainless steel respectively, the tensile strength of the transition joints after TIG

  7. 21 CFR 888.3690 - Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3690 Section 888.3690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A shoulder joint humeral (hemi-shoulder) metallic uncemented prosthesis is a device made of alloys, such as...

  8. Structure and properties of fixed joints formed by ultrasonic-assisted friction-stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@ispms.ru; Ivanov, K. V., E-mail: ikv@ispms.ru; Eliseev, A. A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Ivanov, A. N., E-mail: ivan@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru; Kolubaev, E. A., E-mail: eak@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials ScienceTomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    This paper deals with structure and properties of aluminum alloy 7475 and its joints obtained by friction stir welding including under ultrasonic action. Microhardness measurements show that ultrasonic action increases strength properties of the joints. Optical and transmission electron microscopy reveals that this effect is related to the precipitation of tertiary coherent S-and T-phase particles.

  9. Microstructure of AA 2024 fixed joints formed by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. E.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    Friction stir welded butt joints on 2024T3 alloy have been obtained using different process parameters. The microstructures of all the weld joint zones have been examined and such structural parameters as grain size, particle size and volume content of particles have been determined in order to find correlations with the microhardness of the corresponding zones of the weld.

  10. Development of Amorphous Filler Alloys for the Joining of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Young; Kim, Dong Myong; Kang, Yoon Sun; Jung, Jae Han; Yu, Ji Sang; Kim, Hae Yeol; Lee, Ho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    In the case of advanced CANDU fuel being useful in future, the fabrication processes for soundness insurance of a improved nuclear fuel bundle must be developed at the same time because it have three times combustibility as existing fuel. In particular, as the improved nuclear fuel bundle in which a coated layer thickness is thinner than existing that, firmity of a joint part is very important. Therefore, we need to develop a joint technique using new solder which can settle a potential problem in current joining method. As the Zr-Be alloy system is composed with the elements having high neutron permeability, they are suitable for joint of nuclear fuel pack. The various compositions Zr-Be binary metallic glass alloys were applicable to the joining the nuclear fuel bundles. The thickness of joint layer using the Zr{sub 1}-{sub x}Be{sub x} amorphous ribbon as a solder is thinner than that using physical vapor deposited Be. Among the Zr{sub 1}-{sub x}Be{sub x} amorphous binary alloys, Zr{sub 0}.7Be-0.3 binary alloy is the most appropriate for joint of nuclear fuel bundle because its joint layer is smooth and thin due to low degree of Be diffusion. In the case of the Zr{sub (}0.7-y)Ti{sub y}Be{sub 0}.3 and Zr{sub (}0.7-y)Nb{sub y}Be{sub 0}3 ternary amorphous alloys, the crystallization temperature(T{sub x}) and activation energy(E{sub x}) increase as the contents of Nb and Ti increase respectively. In the aspect of thermal stability, the ternary amorphous alloys are superior than Zr-Be binary amorphous alloys and Zr-Ti-Be amorphous alloy is superior than Zr-Nb-Be amorphous alloy. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 25 figs. (author)

  11. Application of response surface methodology to maximize tensile strength and minimize interface hardness of friction welded dissimilar joints of austenitic stainless steel and copper alloy%响应面方法在奥氏体不锈钢与铜合金异种材料摩擦焊接头的抗拉强度最大化和界面硬度最小化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.VAIRAMANI; T.SENTHIL KUMAR; S.MALARVIZHI; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2013-01-01

    在奥氏体不锈钢与铜合金异种材料摩擦焊接过程中,采用响应面方法优化摩擦焊接工艺参数,以获得抗拉强度最大和界面硬度最小的焊接接头。采用三因素、五水平中心复合正交矩阵来确定实验条件。得到20个焊接接头,测定了焊接接头的抗拉强度和界面硬度。采用方差分析(ANOVA)方法来确定起显著作用的、主要的及相互作用的参数,使用回归分析得到经验关系模型。用设计专家软件构造响应图和等高线图来优化摩擦焊接工艺参数。用得到的经验关系模型可以有效地预测焊接接头的抗拉强度和界面硬度,其置信水平达95%。从形成的等高线图可以得到所需的摩擦焊接的最佳条件。%An attempt was made to optimize friction welding parameters to attain a minimum hardness at the interface and a maximum tensile strength of the dissimilar joints of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) and copper (Cu) alloy using response surface methodology (RSM). Three-factor, five-level central composite design matrix was used to specify experimental conditions. Twenty joints were fabricated using ASS and Cu alloy. Tensile strength and interface hardness were measured experimentally. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was used to find out significant main and interaction parameters and empirical relationships were developed using regression analysis. The friction welding parameters were optimized by constructing response graphs and contour plots using design expert software. The developed empirical relationships can be effectively used to predict tensile strength and interface hardness of friction welded ASS−Cu joints at 95%confidence level. The developed contour plots can be used to attain required level of optimum conditions to join ASS−Cu alloy by friction welding process.

  12. Several braze filler metals for joining an oxide-dispersion-strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorgak, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation was made of five braze filler metals for joining an aluminum-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy, TD-NiCrAl. All five braze filler metals evaluated are considered suitable for joining TD-NiCrAl in terms of wettability and flow. Also, the braze alloys appear to be tolerant of slight variations in brazing procedures since joints prepared by three sources using three of the braze filler metals exhibited similar brazing characteristics and essentially equivalent 1100 C stress-rupture properties in a brazed butt-joint configuration. Recommendations are provided for brazing the aluminum-containing ODS alloys.

  13. International joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    The article analysis problems connected with corporate joint ventures. Among others the possible conflicts between the joint venture agreement and the statutes of the companies is examined, as well as certain problems connected to the fact that the joint venture partners have created commen control...... over their joint company....

  14. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  15. Turbine Blade Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  16. Development of brazing process for W-EUROFER joints using Cu-based fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prado, J.; Sánchez, M.; Ureña, A.

    2016-02-01

    A successful joint between W and EUROFER using high temperature brazing technique has been achieved for structural application in future fusion power plants. Cu-based powder alloy mixed with a polymeric binder has been used as filler. Microstructural analysis of the joints revealed that the joint consisted mainly of primary phases and acicular structures in a Cu matrix. Interaction between EUROFER and filler took place at the interface giving rise to several Cu-Ti-Fe rich layers. A loss of hardness at the EUROFER substrate close to the joint due to a diffusion phenomenon during brazing cycle was measured; however, the joints had an adequate shear strength value.

  17. Modification of Structure and Strength Properties of Permanent Joints Under Laser Beam Welding with Application of Nanopowder Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Ovcharenko, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper we present the results of experimental study of specially prepared nanosize metal-ceramic compositions impact upon structure, microhardness and mechanical properties of permanent joints produced by laser-beam welding of steel and titanium alloy plates.

  18. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...

  19. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  20. Sn-Ag-Cu Nanosolders: Solder Joints Integrity and Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanghias, Ali; Khatibi, Golta; Yakymovych, Andriy; Bernardi, Johannes; Ipser, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    Although considerable research has been dedicated to the synthesis and characterization of lead-free nanoparticle solder alloys, only very little has been reported on the reliability of the respective joints. In fact, the merit of nanoparticle solders with depressed melting temperatures close to the Sn-Pb eutectic temperature has always been challenged when compared with conventional solder joints, especially in terms of inferior solderability due to the oxide shell commonly present on the nanoparticles, as well as due to compatibility problems with common fluxing agents. Correspondingly, in the current study, Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) nanoparticle alloys were combined with a proper fluxing vehicle to produce prototype nanosolder pastes. The reliability of the solder joints was successively investigated by means of electron microscopy and mechanical tests. As a result, the optimized condition for employing nanoparticles as a competent nanopaste and a novel procedure for surface treatment of the SAC nanoparticles to diminish the oxide shell prior to soldering are being proposed.

  1. Riveted Lap Joints in Aircraft Fuselage Design, Analysis and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Skorupa, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue of the pressurized fuselages of transport aircraft is a significant problem all builders and users of aircraft have to cope with for reasons associated with assuring a sufficient lifetime and safety, and formulating adequate inspection procedures. These aspects are all addressed in various formal protocols for creating and maintaining airworthiness, including damage tolerance considerations. In most transport aircraft, fatigue occurs in lap joints, sometimes leading to circumstances that threaten safety in critical ways. The problem of fatigue of lap joints has been considerably enlarged by the goal of extending aircraft lifetimes. Fatigue of riveted lap joints between aluminium alloy sheets, typical of the pressurized aircraft fuselage, is the major topic of the present book. The richly illustrated and well-structured chapters treat subjects such as: structural design solutions and loading conditions for fuselage skin joints; relevance of laboratory test results for simple lap joint specimens to rive...

  2. Effect of welding current and voltage on the mechanical properties of wrought (6063 aluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Isiaka Oluwole

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to investigate the effect of welded joints on the mechanical properties of wrought (6063 aluminium alloy. The study revealed the influence of current and voltage on the welded joint as well as the mechanical properties of the alloy. The alloy samples were welded together by metal inert gas welding process at varying values of current and voltage after which mechanical tests were performed on the welded samples. The microstructural examination of the various fusion zones obtained was carried out. Appreciable variations in the properties of the welded samples were observed due to changes in the microstructural features of the alloys. It was concluded that variation of current and voltage remarkably affect the mechanical properties of the wrought 6063 Aluminium alloy. As the voltage increases from 25 to 30 V, the ultimate tensile strengths and hardness values increases while the impact strengths decreases but the current did not show such trend.

  3. Elements loss analysis based on spectral diagnosis in laser-arc hybrid welding of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Hui; Zhu, Minhao; Yang, Tao; Shen, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Aluminum alloy has been widely used in automobiles, high-speed trains, aerospace and many other fields. The loss of elements during welding process causes welding defects and affects the microstructure and properties of the joints. This paper discusses the correlation between welding process, spectral intensity and loss of elements in laser-arc hybrid welding of Al alloys. The results show that laser power and arc current have a significant impact on the spectral intensity and loss of elements. Compared with the base metal, the contents of alloying elements in the weld area are lower. The burning losses of alloy elements increase with the welding heat input.

  4. Low temperature bonding of LD31 aluminum alloys by electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenqing; Wang Chunqing; Du Miao

    2005-01-01

    Soldering of LD31 aluminum alloys using Sn-Pb solder paste after electric brush plating Ni and Cu coatings was nvestigated. The technology of electric brush plating Ni and Cu was studied and plating solution was developed. The microstructure of the coatings, soldered joint and fracture face were analyzed using optic microscopy, SEM and EDX. The shear strength of soldered joint could reach as high as 26. 83 MPa. The results showed that reliable soldered joint could be obtained at 230℃, the adhesion of coatings and LD31 aluminum alloy substrate was high enough to bear the thermal process in the soldering.

  5. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  6. High strength alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. Diffusion Bonding of Tungsten to Copper and Its Alloy with Ti Foil and Ti/Ni/Ti Multiple Interlayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guisheng ZOU; Jun YANG; Aaiping WU; Genghua HUANG; Deku ZHANG; Jialie REN; Qing WANG

    2003-01-01

    Ti foil and Ti/Ni/Ti multiple interlayers were selected for the bonding of tungsten to copper and CuCrZr alloy. Theeffects of processing conditions on the microstructures and shear strength of the joints were investigated.

  8. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  9. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  10. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  11. Effect of joint design on mechanical properties of AL7075 weldment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leijun; Orme, Kevin; Yu, Wenbin

    2005-06-01

    The effects of joint design on the mechanical properties of AL7075-T6 aluminum sheet were studied on the latest automated gas-tungsten arc-welding system. Using ER5356 filler metal, full-penetration welds were made on workpieces with various included joint angles. Testing of the mechanical properties of the joints was done in the as-welded, naturally aged, and postweld heat-treated conditions. The results show that by using crack-resistant filler, and by selecting the proper joint design and postweld heat treatment, strong, dependable welds can be produced on thin AL7075 sheet material. An elasticity model of the weld joint was established to help understand the mechanical behavior of the joints. An undermatched joint design is shown to be capable of achieving a joint strength that matches the strength of the base alloy.

  12. Microstructure evolution of Al/Mg butt joints welded by gas tungsten arc with Zn filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Fei; Zhang Zhaodong; Liu Liming, E-mail: liulm@dlut.edu.cn

    2012-07-15

    Based on the idea of alloying welding seam, Gas tungsten arc welding method with pure Zn filler metal was chosen to join Mg alloy and Al alloy. The microstructures, phases, element distribution and fracture morphology of welding seams were examined. The results indicate that there was a transitional zone in the width of 80-100 {mu}m between the Mg alloy substrate and fusion zone. The fusion zone was mainly composed of MgZn{sub 2}, Zn-based solid solution and Al-based solid solution. The welding seam presented distinct morphology in different location owning to the quite high cooling rate of the molten pool. The addition of Zn metal could prevent the formation of Mg-Al intermetallics and form the alloyed welding seam during welding. Therefore, the tensile strengths of joints have been significantly improved compared with those of gas tungsten arc welded joints without Zn metal added. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg alloy AZ31B and Al alloy 6061 are welded successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc wire is employed as a filler metal to form the alloyed welding seam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alloyed welding seam is benefit for improving of the joint tensile strength.

  13. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  14. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  15. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats.

  16. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  17. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林三宝; 张华; 吴林; 冯吉才; 戴鸿滨

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is an new solid-phase joining technology which has more advantages over fusion welding methods in welding of aluminum and other non-ferrous metals. The effects of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure during friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy were studied in this paper. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electric microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness analysis, and tensile test. Experimental results show that the magnesium alloy can be successfully welded by FSW method, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of FSW joint reaches up to 90 percent of base metal. The microstructures of welded joints exhibit the variation from dynamically recrystallized fine grains to greatly deformed grains. Hardness in nugget zone was found lower than the base metal but not too obvious.

  18. Development of Zirconium alloys (for pressure tubes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Choo, Ki Nam; Jung, Chung Hwan; Yim, Kyong Soo; Kim, Sung Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyong Ho; Cho, Hae Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, S. I [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, I. S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the basic technologies for the evaluation of pressure tube integrity and to develop improved zirconium alloys to prevent pressure tube failures due to DHC and hydride blister caused by excessive creep-down of pressure tubes. The experimental procedure and facilities for characterization of pressure tubes were developed. The basic research related to a better understanding of the in-reactor performances of pressure tubes leads to noticeable findings for the first time : the microstructural effect on corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes, texture effect on strength and DHC resistance and enhanced recrystallization by Fe in zirconium alloys and etc. Analytical methodology for the assessment of pressure tubes with surface flaws was set up. A joint research is being under way with AECL to determine the fracture toughness of O-8 at the EOL (End of Life) that had been quadruple melted and was taken out of the Wolsung Unit-1 after 10 year operation. In addition, pressure tube with texture controlled is being made along with VNINM in Russia as a joint project between KAERI and Russia. Finally, we succeeded in developing 4 different kinds of zirconium alloys with better corrosion resistance, low hydrogen pickup fraction and higher creep strength. (author). 121 refs., 65 tabs., 260 figs

  19. Study on arc-ultrasonic TIG welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣林; 郭德伦; 李从卿; 张银根

    2004-01-01

    TC4 alloy was welded by conventional TIG welding and arc-ultrasonic TIG welding respectively. The microstructure of joint was analyzed by means of optical-microscope, scanning electron microscope in order to study the relationship between the macro-properties of joint and the microstructure. The results show that the joints were all welded successfully by conventional TIG welding and arc-ultrasonic TIG welding. With the increment of ultrasonic frequency and activated voltage, the width of joint became narrow step by step. The microstructure became more and more fine and was inclined to equiaxed crystal. Moreover, the dendrite depredation was not observed obviously. The properties of welded joint were improved markedly compared with that of conventional TIG welding.

  20. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... important for both pinching and gripping. MP joint arthritis is most common in the thumb and index ...

  1. Culture - joint fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000610.htm Sacroiliac joint pain - aftercare To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a term used to describe the ...

  3. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  4. Effect of intermetallic compounds on heat resistance of hot roll bonded titanium alloy-stainless steel transition joint%金属间化合物对钛合金与不锈钢的热轧焊过渡接头耐热性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东升; 闫久春; 刘玉君

    2013-01-01

      研究金属间化合物对过渡接头耐热性的影响,采用镍中间层的钛与不锈钢热轧焊接头的焊后热处理方法,研究焊后热处理引起的连接界面微观组织演变。结果表明:当热处理温度为600~800°C,热处理时间为10 min和30 min时,在不锈钢与镍的连接界面处没有发生明显的互扩散。但是,当热处理温度为700°C热处理时间为30 min时,在不锈钢与镍的连接界面出现微裂纹。热处理温度为600°C时,镍与钛合金的连接界面的金属间化合物层的厚度增大,而热处理温度为700和800°C时,界面出现微裂纹。微裂纹产生在金属间化合物层之间或者是金属间化合物层与镍层之间。过渡接头的拉伸强度随着热处理温度的升高或时间的延长而降低。%The effect of intermetallic compounds on the heat resistance of transition joint was investigated. The experiment of post-weld heat treatment for the hot roll bonded titanium alloy−stainless steel joint using nickels interlayer was carried out, and the interface microstructure evolution due to heat treatment was presented. There was not found significant interdiffusion at stainless steel/nickel interface, when the specimens were heat treated in the temperature range of 600−800 °C for 10 and 30 min, while micro-cracks occurred at the stainless steel/nickel interface heat treated at 700 °C for 30 min. The thickness of intermetallic layers at nickel/titanium alloy interface increased at 600 °C, and micro-cracks occurred at 700 and 800 °C. The micro-cracks occurred between intermetallic layers or between intermetallic layer and nickel interlayer as well. The tensile strength of the transition joint decreased with the increase of heat treatment temperature or holding time.

  5. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  6. Infrared Brazing of Ti50Ni50 Shape Memory Alloy and Inconel 600 Alloy with Two Ag-Cu-Ti Active Braze Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ren-Kae; Wu, Shyi-Kaan; Yang, Sheng-Hao

    2017-02-01

    Infrared brazing of Ti50Ni50 SMA and Inconel 600 alloy using Cusil-ABA and Ticusil filler metals has been investigated. The joints were dominated by Ag-Cu eutectic with proeutectic Cu in the Cusil-ABA brazed joint and with proeutectic Ag in the Ticusil one. A continuous curved belt composed of a Ni3Ti layer and a (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti layer formed in the brazed Ti50Ni50/Ticusil/Inconel 600 joint. On the Ti50Ni50 SMA side, an intermetallic layer of (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti formed in all joints, with x values around 0.81 and 0.47. Layers of (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti, Ni3Ti, and mixed Ni3Ti and Ni2Cr intermetallics were observed next to the Inconel 600 substrate in the brazed Ti50Ni50/Cusil-ABA/Inconel 600 joint. The maximum shear strengths of the joints using the Cusil-ABA filler metal and the Ticusil filler metal were 324 and 300 MPa, respectively. In the Cusil-ABA brazed joint, cracks with cleavage-dominated fracture propagated along the (Cu x Ni1- x )2Ti interfacial layer next to the Ti50Ni50 SMA substrate. In the Ticusil brazed joint, ductile dimple fracture occurred in the Ag-rich matrix near the Inconel 600 alloy substrate. The absence of a detrimental Ti-Fe-(Cu) layer on the Inconel 600 substrate side can effectively improve the shear strength of the joint.

  7. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  8. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...

  9. Microstructures of 2219 twin wire welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenli; Li Qingfen; Meng Qingguo; Gao Na; Fang Hongyuan

    2005-01-01

    With thick plates of 2219 high-strength alloy, the microstructures of welded joints with twin wire MIG welding were analyzed. Experimental results show that no hot crack was found in the weld due to discontinuous distribution of cocrystallization with low melting temperature, but porosity is serious in the first weld seam that is mainly composed of equiaxial grains with uneven sizes. As the poor position of the whole welded joint, fusion zone has big and coarse grains,uneven microstructures ; In quenching zone, there exist a lot of soaked microstructures that cocrystallization with low melting temperature solute into matrix, thus strengthening the metal in this zone; In excessive aging zone, much more phases that distribute evenly will be separated from the matrix; Outside this zone, properties and microstructures of the metal are basically similar to matrix due to the relatively low temperature or unaffected heat in the zone during welding.

  10. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  13. Effect of Nd:YAG laser beam welding on weld morphology and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaev, Nikolai; Ventzke, Volker; Fomichev, Vadim; Fomin, Fedor; Riekehr, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    A Nd:YAG single-sided laser beam welding process study for Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints was performed to investigate joining techniques with regard to the process-weld morphology relationship. An alloy compatible filler wire was used to avoid underfills and undercuts. The quality of the butt joints and T-joints was characterized in terms of weld morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties. Joints with regular shapes, without visible cracks, pores, and geometrical defects were achieved. Tensile tests revealed high joint integrity in terms of strength and ductility for both the butt joint and T-joint geometries. Both the butt joints and T-joints showed base material levels of strength. The mechanical performance of T-joints was also investigated using pull-out tests. The performance of the T-joints in such tests was sensitive to the shape and morphology of the welds. Fracture always occurred in the weld without any plastic deformation in the base material outside the weld.

  14. Design of Bridge Expansion Joints with Perforated Dowels Under Impact Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YODA Teruhiko; AYASHI Mamiko

    2008-01-01

    The expansion joints are expected to have movement capacity.bearing capacity for stahc and dynamic loading,water-tightness,low noise emission and traffic safety.In particular.the tailure due to impact loading is the main reason for the observed damaaes.The problem of dynamic behavior of the expansion joints is so complex that we shall focus our attention on the impact factor for vehicle load that is governed by traffic impact.In order to overcome this difficulty. the cantilever-toothed aluminum joint(finger joint)is one of the promising joints under impact load-ing.In this study,from the viewpoint of design methodology.numerical studies for impact be-havior were conducted for aluminum alloy expansion joints with perforated dowels.The design im-pacf factor for the expansion joints with the perforated dowels against traffic impact loading was examined by using numerical simulations.

  15. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding

    OpenAIRE

    Torres López, Edwar A.; Ramirez, Antonio J

    2015-01-01

    Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized u...

  16. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  17. Corrosion Issues in Solder Joint Design and Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VIANCO,PAUL T.

    1999-11-24

    Corrosion is an important consideration in the design of a solder joint. It must be addressed with respect to the service environment or, as in the case of soldered conduit, as the nature of the medium being transported within piping or tubing. Galvanic-assisted corrosion is of particular concern, given the fact that solder joints are comprised of different metals or alloy compositions that are in contact with one-another. The (thermodynamic) potential for corrosion to take place in a particular environment requires the availability of the galvanic series for those conditions and which includes the metals or alloys in question. However, the corrosion kinetics, which actually determine the rate of material loss under the specified service conditions, are only available through laboratory evaluations or field data that are found in the existing literature or must be obtained by in-house testing.

  18. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  19. Joint Program Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is...to review concept formulaton. Systems Engilneertn As with service programs, systems engineering in joint program management is an essential tool . I...MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK On=e wd Umawtaiutt As discussed in Chapter 7, systems analysis of relationships is a usef tool for joint program managers. The joint

  20. Jointly Poisson processes

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, D H

    2009-01-01

    What constitutes jointly Poisson processes remains an unresolved issue. This report reviews the current state of the theory and indicates how the accepted but unproven model equals that resulting from the small time-interval limit of jointly Bernoulli processes. One intriguing consequence of these models is that jointly Poisson processes can only be positively correlated as measured by the correlation coefficient defined by cumulants of the probability generating functional.

  1. Mg based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, S. [Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile). Fac. de Ingenieria; Garcia, G.; Serafini, D.; San Martin, A.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, we studied the production of magnesium alloys, of stoichiometry 2Mg + Ni, by mechanical alloying (MA) and the behavior of the alloys under hydrogen in a Sievert`s type apparatus. The elemental powders were milled under argon atmosphere in a Spex 8000 high energy ball mill. The milled materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Only minimum amounts of the Mg{sub 2}Ni intermetallic compound was obtained after 22 h of milling time. Most of the material was sticked to the inner surface of the container as well as to the milling balls. Powders milled only for 12 hours transforms to the intermetallic at around 433 K. Effects of the MA on the hydrogen absorption kinetics were also studied. (orig.) 10 refs.

  2. Effects of conventional welding and laser welding on the tensile strength, ultimate tensile strength and surface characteristics of two cobalt-chromium alloys: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Kumar, Seenivasan; Sethumadhava, Jayesh Raghavendra; Anand Kumar, Vaidyanathan; Manita, Grover

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser welding and conventional welding on the tensile strength and ultimate tensile strength of the cobalt-chromium alloy. Samples were prepared with two commercially available cobalt-chromium alloys (Wironium plus and Diadur alloy). The samples were sectioned and the broken fragments were joined using Conventional and Laser welding techniques. The welded joints were subjected to tensile and ultimate tensile strength testing; and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the surface characteristics at the welded site. Both on laser welding as well as on conventional welding technique, Diadur alloy samples showed lesser values when tested for tensile and ultimate tensile strength when compared to Wironium alloy samples. Under the scanning electron microscope, the laser welded joints show uniform welding and continuous molt pool all over the surface with less porosity than the conventionally welded joints. Laser welding is an advantageous method of connecting or repairing cast metal prosthetic frameworks.

  3. Bonding of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy using an active cement, Ag-Cu eutectic and Cu interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhao; Xiaohong, Li; Jinbao, Hou; Qiang, Sun; Fuli, Zhang

    2012-10-01

    The interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints formed by active cement added brazing in vacuum of Cf/SiC composite to Invar alloy, using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and pure copper foil as braze alloy and interlayer respectively, were investigated. CuTi, Cu4Ti3, Fe2Ti and the reaction layer of TiC and Si were the predominant components at the joint interface. The maximum shear strength of the joint was 77 MPa for brazing at 850 °C for 15 min. The results show that active cement added brazing in vacuum using Ag-Cu eutectic alloy and Cu interlayer can be used successfully for joining Cf/SiC composites to Invar alloy.

  4. Friction Stir Welding of a Thick Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchibabu, V.; Reddy, G. M.; Kulkarni, D.; De, A.

    2016-03-01

    Al-Zn-Mg alloys are widely used as structural materials due to high strength-to-weight ratio and impact toughness. As fusion welds in these alloys commonly face hot cracking and macro porosity, friction stir welding is increasingly becoming the preferred recourse. We report here a detailed experimental study on friction stir welding of a specific Al-Zn-Mg alloy with its chemical compositions close to AA7039. The effect of tool rotational speed and welding speed on the weld profile, joint microstructure, and mechanical properties is studied extensively. The results show sound weld profiles and joint properties within the selected range of process conditions. Within the selected range of welding conditions, the welds made at a tool rotational speed of 350 rpm and welding speed of 3 mm/s have showed joint structure, tensile, and impact toughness properties fairly close to that of the base material.

  5. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  6. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Subtalar joint arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon; Singh, Tarika; Banga, Samantha; Hasan, Nafisa

    2012-01-01

    Isolated subtalar joint arthrodesis has gained popularity more recently. Research has shown that it preserves rearfoot motion, does not increase the risk of arthritis in adjacent joints, and is not an especially complex operative procedure. It decreases the chance of midtarsal joint nonunion and malunion postoperatively. This article takes an in-depth approach to isolated talocalcaneal fusions. Anatomy and biomechanics of the subtalar joint are reviewed. Clinical presentation and radiologic evaluation are discussed. Conservative treatment, operative technique, and postoperative management are included. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 59, 4th Quarter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    casualties. From 2001 to 2006, numerous seismic shifts occurred in the regional and global strategic environment that moved the balance of power...Act of 1986 sought to meld the DOD tectonic divide between operational and administrative control of military forces. The same kind of studied...and rotor lead plates for 30-kilowatt generators. Another high-strength rare earth magnesium alloy, known as “BM25,” which was jointly devel- oped

  9. Biocompatibility of beta-stabilizing elements of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, E; Velten, D; Müller, M; Thull, R; Breme, J

    2004-11-01

    In comparison to the presently used alpha + beta titanium alloys for biomedical applications, beta-titanium alloys have many advantageous mechanical properties, such as an improved wear resistance, a high elasticity and an excellent cold and hot formability. This will promote their future increased application as materials for orthopaedic joint replacements. Not all elements with beta-stabilizing properties in titanium alloys are suitable for biomaterial applications-corrosion and wear processes cause a release of these alloying elements to the surrounding tissue. In this investigation, the biocompability of alloying elements for beta- and near beta-titanium alloys was tested in order to estimate their suitability for biomaterial components. Titanium (grade 2) and the implant steel X2CrNiMo18153 (AISI 316 L) were tested as reference materials. The investigation included the corrosion properties of the elements, proliferation, mitochondrial activity, cell morphology and the size of MC3T3-E1 cells and GM7373 cells after 7 days incubation in direct contact with polished slices of the metals. The statistical significance was considered by Weir-test and Lord-test (alpha = 0.05). The biocompatibility range of the investigated metals is (decreasing biocompatibility): niobium-tantalum, titanium, zirconium-aluminium-316 L-molybdenum.

  10. Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun; Zhang Yihui

    2006-01-01

    Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium alloys was carried out asing a CO2 laser weldingexperimental system.The welding properties of AZ61 sheets with different thickness were investigated.The effect of processing parameters including laser power, welding speed and protection gas flow was researched.The results show that laser power and welding speed have large effect on the weld width and joint dimensions.Protection gas flow has relatively slight effect on the weld width.The property test of three typical joints indicates that microhardness and tensile strength in weld zone are higher than that of AZ61 base metal.Joints with good appearance and excellent mechanical properties can be produced using CO2 laser welding method.The microstructure with small grains in weld zone is believed to be responsible for the excellent mechanical properties of AZ61 joints.

  11. Mechanics of Sheeting Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Physical breakdown of rock across a broad scale spectrum involves fracturing. In many areas large fractures develop near the topographic surface, with sheeting joints being among the most impressive. Sheeting joints share many geometric, textural, and kinematic features with other joints (opening-mode fractures) but differ in that they are (a) discernibly curved, (b) open near the topographic surface, and (c) form subparallel to the topographic surface. Where sheeting joints are geologically young, the surface-parallel compressive stresses are typically several MPa or greater. Sheeting joints are best developed beneath domes, ridges, and saddles; they also are reported, albeit rarely, beneath valleys or bowls. A mechanism that accounts for all these associations has been sought for more than a century: neither erosion of overburden nor high lateral compressive stresses alone suffices. Sheeting joints are not accounted for by Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criteria. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, together with the mechanical effect of a curved topographic surface, do provide a basis for understanding sheeting joint growth and the pattern sheeting joints form. Compressive stresses parallel to a singly or doubly convex topographic surface induce a tensile stress perpendicular to the surface at shallow depths; in some cases this alone could overcome the weight of overburden to open sheeting joints. If regional horizontal compressive stresses, augmented by thermal stresses, are an order of magnitude or so greater than a characteristic vertical stress that scales with topographic amplitude, then topographic stress perturbations can cause sheeting joints to open near the top of a ridge. This topographic effect can be augmented by pressure within sheeting joints arising from water, ice, or salt. Water pressure could be particularly important in helping drive sheeting joints downslope beneath valleys. Once sheeting joints have formed, the rock sheets between

  12. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bong Ho [National Center for Nanomaterials Technology (NCNT), Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), 77 Cheongam-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bahn, Chi Bum [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kim, Ji Hyun, E-mail: kimjh@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 100 Banyeon-ri, Eonyang-eup, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  13. Effects of thermal aging on microstructures of low alloy steel-Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Jong Jin; Lee, Bong Ho; Bahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the advanced instrumental analysis has been performed to investigate the effect of long-term thermal aging on the microstructural evolution in the fusion boundary region between weld metal and low alloy steel in dissimilar metal welds. A representative dissimilar weld mock-up made of Alloy 690-Alloy 152-A533 Gr. B was fabricated and aged at 450 °C for 2750 h. The micro- and nano-scale characterization were conducted mainly near in a weld root region by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was observed that the weld root was generally divided into several regions including dilution zone in the Ni-base alloy weld metal, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. A steep gradient was shown in the chemical composition profile across the interface between A533 Gr. B and Alloy 152. The precipitation of carbides was also observed along and near the fusion boundary of as-welded and aged dissimilar metal joints. It was also found that the precipitation of Cr carbides was enhanced by the thermal aging near the fusion boundary.

  14. SURFACE MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.

    1987-01-01

    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  15. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  16. MR diagnosis of temporomandibular joint. A study of joint effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Takashi; Yamashiro, Mitsuaki; Ozawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu [Nihon Univ., Matsudo, Chiba (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1998-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the relationship between correlation of MR joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint and disk position, to evaluate the relationship between joint effusion and aging, and to assess the frequency of MR joint effusion of bilateral temporomandibular joints. The temporomandibular joints of 192 patients with clinical symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders were imaged bilaterally using high field, surface-coil MR imaging. Oblique sagittal and coronal proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. Imaging findings of joint effusion were correlated with disk position, aging, and bilateral temporomandibular joints. MR showed effusion in 4% of the joints with normal superior disk position, 36% of the joints with disk displacement with reduction, and 45% of the joints with disk displacement without reduction. There were significant differences in the incidence of joint effusion between normal disk position and anterior disk displacement with or without reduction. Younger patients less than 40 years were significant higher the incidence of joint effusion than those of older patients. A significant association was seen between joint effusion and aging. MR showed effusion in 17% of the unilateral temporomandibular joint, 24% of the bilateral temporomandibular joints. There was no significant difference between unilateral and bilateral case. These results indicated that joint effusion using MR imaging was associated with varied temporomandibular joint pathologic states. (author)

  17. Creep of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2008-01-01

    A creep analysis has been performed on nailed, toothed-plates and split-ring joints in a varying uncontrolled climate. The load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average ultimate short term strength of these joints, tested in accordance with ISO 6891. The climate in which the tests were

  18. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Published online: 16 December 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 Abstract Acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations are common...injuries. The sports most likely to cause AC joint dislocations are football, soccer , hockey, rugby, and skiing, among others [9, 28, 29]. The major cause

  19. Analysis of niobium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, T A

    1968-09-01

    An ion-exchange method was applied to the analysis of synthetic mixtures representing various niobium-base alloys. The alloying elements which were separated and determined include vanadium, zirconium, hafnium, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and tantalum. Mixtures containing zirconium or hafnium, tungsten, tantalum and niobium were separated by means of a single short column. Coupled columns were employed for the resolution of mixtures containing vanadium, zirconium or titanium, molybdenum, tungsten and niobium. The separation procedures and the methods employed for the determination of the alloying elements in their separate fractions are described.

  20. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  1. Strategies for joint appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J; Crooks, D L

    1985-01-01

    The structure and policies governing joint appointments discussed above, are developed primarily through cooperation and collaboration between nursing service and education institutions. The joint appointee participates in the process of negotiation of salary, benefits and role responsibilities and exploration of the implications of the appointment for personal career development. Implementation and maintenance of the appointment requires the collaborative efforts of the joint appointee with both contracting agencies. Factors influencing the functioning of joint appointees have been identified and strategies to facilitate functioning presented. The joint appointee must be independent in thought and action yet adaptable to work within the boundaries of two social systems with differing values and expectations. Nursing management, peers and students can provide the support needed to overcome the frustrations and to achieve the rewards inherent in successful implementation of an exciting and innovative role.

  2. Effect of Al substitution for Ga on the mechanical properties of directional solidified Fe-Ga alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-02-01

    Alloys of Fe82Ga18-xAlx (x=0, 4.5, 6, 9, 12, 13.5) were prepared by directional solidification technique and exhibited a preferred orientation along the axis of alloy rods. The saturation magnetostriction value of the Fe82Ga13.5Al4.5 alloy was 247 ppm under no pre-stress. The tensile properties of alloys of Fe82Ga18-xAlx at room temperature were investigated. The results showed that tensile ductility of binary Fe-Ga alloy was significantly improved with Al addition. The fracture elongation of the Fe82Ga18 alloy was only 1.3%, while that of the Fe82Ga9Al9 alloy increased up to 16.5%. Addition of Al increased the strength of grain boundary and cleavage, resulting in the enhancement of tensile ductility of the Fe-Ga-Al alloys. Analysis of deformation microstructure showed that a great number of deformation twins formed in the Fe-Ga-Al alloys, which were thought to be the source of serrated yielding in the stress-strain curves. The effect of Al content in the Fe-Ga-Al alloys on tensile ductility was also studied by the analysis of deformation twins. It indicated that the joint effect of slip and twinning was beneficial to obtain the best ductility in the Fe82Ga9Al9 alloy.

  3. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  4. Low Temperature Shape Memory Alloys for Adaptive, Autonomous Systems Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Williams, Martha; Benafan, Othmane; Fesmire, James

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this joint activity between Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) is to develop and evaluate the applicability of 2-way SMAs in proof-of-concept, low-temperature adaptive autonomous systems. As part of this low technology readiness (TRL) activity, we will develop and train low-temperature novel, 2-way shape memory alloys (SMAs) with actuation temperatures ranging from 0 C to 150 C. These experimental alloys will also be preliminary tested to evaluate their performance parameters and transformation (actuation) temperatures in low- temperature or cryogenic adaptive proof-of-concept systems. The challenge will be in the development, design, and training of the alloys for 2-way actuation at those temperatures.

  5. EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF FRICTION STIR WELDED DISSIMILAR ALUMINUM JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PADMANABAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding is one of the recent solid state joining processes that has drawn the attention of the metal joining community. In this work the effects of tool rotation speed (TRS and welding speed (WS on the tensile strength of dissimilar friction stir welded AA2024-AA7075 joints are investigated. Response surface methodology is used for developing a mathematical model for the tensile strength of the dissimilar aluminum alloy joints. The model is used to investigate the effect of TRS and WS on the tensile strength of the joints. It is seen that the tensile strength of the joint increases with the increase in TRS up to a limit of 1050 rpm and decreases thereafter. The tensile strength of the joints is also seen increasing with the WS up to 15 mm/min. Further increase in WS results in a reduction of the tensile strength of the joints.

  6. Implement of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators in a Robotic Hand

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper was conceived to present the ideology of utilizing advanced actuators to design and develop innovative, lightweight, powerful, compact, and as much as possible dexterous robotic hands. The key to satisfying these objectives is the use of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) to power the joints of the robotic hand. The mechanical design of a dexterous robotic hand, which utilizes non-classical types of actuation and information obtained from the study of biological systems, is presented in th...

  7. Infrared measurement and simulation of magnesium alloy welding temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liming; CHI Mingsheng; HUANG Ruisheng; SONG Gang; ZHOU Yang

    2005-01-01

    The welding temperature field of magnesium alloy AZ31 welded by TIG was measured with the uncooled infrared (IR) thermal imaging technology. The variables in the mathematic mode of welding temperature fields were revised by IR temperature data. Based on the results of simulation, the loss of temperature fields caused by arc interfered was compensated, and a whole temperature field was achieved, which provided a precise and powerful foundation for the investigation of microstructure of the joints.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical property change of dissimilar metal welds Alloy 600 - Alloy 182 - A508 Gr. 3 according to thermal aging effect at 400 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jun Hyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To prevent such critical matters above mentioned, investigation about degradation mechanism of materials by thermal aging should be conducted. However, there are no sufficient studies on this field. Therefore, the final goal of this study is to investigate microstructure along the DMW undergone thermal aging process. Firstly, in order to get a reference data for further comparison analysis which is expected to show degradation mechanism of the weld joint, un-heated weld joint was investigated with several instruments, Vickers hardness tester, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Detail instrumental analysis in Alloy 600 - Alloy 182 - A508 Gr. 3 DMW joint were performed in order to investigate microstructure and mechanical properties of material. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. Alloy 182 has austenitic dendrite structure which is formed by heat flow during welding process. Type-II boundaries were observed at the interface between Alloy 182 and A508 Gr. 3. Chemical composition shows rapid transition at the interface which makes 3000 µm of chromium dilution zone. Microstructure of A508 Gr. 3 was investigated from the interface between Alloy 182 to base metal.

  9. Alloy Selection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  10. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.

  11. Reactive Commercial Ni/Al Nanolayers for Joining Lightweight Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Sónia; Viana, Filomena; Vieira, Manuel F.

    2014-05-01

    Reactive nanoscale multilayer foils for use in joining techniques have attracted a great deal of attention. A common feature of these nanolayers is the large amount of heat released during the reaction between the layers to form a new phase. In this study, films of alternated Ni and Al nanolayers (NanoFoil® made by the Indium Corporation) with period (bilayer thickness) close to 54 nm and with a thickness of 60 μm were used as local heat sources to bond lightweight alloys. The as-deposited Ni and Al alternated nanolayers evolve into NiAl nanometric grains when the multilayer, ignited by an electrical discharge, reacts. Joining of lightweight alloys was performed at room temperature under pressures of 10-80 MPa. The ability of the nanolayers to join these alloys by high temperature diffusion bonding was also investigated. The microstructural and chemical characterizations of the interfaces were performed on cross-sections of the joints by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Ni/Al nanolayers are an effective means of joining titanium alloys at room temperature. A sound interface, mainly composed by NiAl grains, is obtained in joints of TiAl/TiAl and TiAl/Inconel, produced with NanoFoil® by annealing at 700 ºC, during 60 min under a pressure of 10 MPa. The low shear strength revealed a weak adhesion of the nanofoil to the base materials.

  12. First Everlasting Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲言

    1994-01-01

    There′s new alloy that apparently just won′t give up. When a pin was scraped along it the equivalent of one million times, the alloy-made of zirconium, palladium, and ruthenium—displayed no net loss of surface material. When astonished researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) persevered with a five-million-cycle wear test, they got the same result.

  13. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  14. Joint Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= JOINT ROBOTICS PROGRAM Published: 23 April 2008 by Joel Brown and Paul Varian 5th Annual Acquisition Research...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Robotics Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...ëóåÉêÖó=Ñçê=áåÑçêãÉÇ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=======- 464 - = = Joint Robotics Program Presenter: Joel Brown, Defense Acquisition University Author: Paul Varian

  15. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  16. Joints in steel buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F. Valencia Clement

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Masonry and steel components used in constructing buildings are in a constant state of motion. Volumetric changes are produced by temperature variation and deformation resulting from static or dynamic loading and in some materials, such as masonry, due to moisture content. This article addresses means of determining when expansion and seismic joints are required and how to proportion and design appropriate joints, specifically in steel buildings. It does not cover the study of expansion joints in concrete structures, in masonry construction or in non-structural (architectural elements.

  17. Effects of Rare Earths on Properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni Base Brazing Filler Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Tianjun; Kang Hui; Wu Yongqin; Qu Ping

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the addition of rare earths on the properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni base brazing filler alloys and the mechanical microstructure and properties were studied for the brazed-joints in the vacuum brazing of TC4 by comparing synthetical properties of two kinds of filler metals.The results indicate that the filler metals added with rare earths have lower melting point, better wettability and higher mechanical properties in the brazing joints.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFECTS IN ALLOY 152, 52 AND 52M WELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Seffens, Rob J.; Efsing, Pal G.

    2009-08-27

    , defect characteristics and weld residual strains were examined by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Industry-supplied mock-up welds were characterized including alloy 52 and 152 weldments, alloy 52M overlay and inlay welds, and an alloy 52 overlay. II. WELDMENTS II.A. Alloy 52 and 152 Weld Mockups The alloy 52 and 152 weld mockups were fabricated by MHI for the Kewaunee reactor and were obtained from the EPRI NDE Center. The mockups were U-groove welds joining two plates of 304SS as shown in Figure 1. Alloy 152 butter (heat 307380) was placed on the U-groove surface for both mockups by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). For the alloy 152 weld mockup, the alloy 152 fill (heat 307380) was also applied using SMAW while for the alloy 52 weld mockup, the alloy 52 fill (heat NX2686JK) was applied using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Welding parameters for the fill materials were substantially different with the alloy 152 SMAW having a deposition speed of 4-25 cm/min with a current of 95-145 A and the alloy 52 GTAW having a deposition speed of 4-10 cm/min with a current of 150-300 A. One prominent feature in these mockup welds is the presence of a crack starting at the 304SS butt joint at the bottom of the U-groove and extending up into the weld. It appears that the 304SS plate on either side of the butt joint acted as an anchor for the weld resulting in a stress rise across the slit that drove crack formation and extension up into the fill weld. As will be shown in the next section, the extent of the cracking around this stress riser was much greater in the MHI 52 weld mockup.

  19. Fracture assessment for a dissimilar metal weld of low alloy steel and Ni-base alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Takuya, E-mail: takuya4.ogawa@toshiba.co.jp [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Itatani, Masao; Saito, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Takahiro; Narazaki, Chihiro; Tsuchihashi, Kentaro [Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Recently, instances of SCC in Ni-base alloy weld metal of light water reactor components have been reported. Despite the possibility of propagation of SCC crack to the fusion line between low alloy steel (LAS) of pressure vessel and Ni-base alloy of internal structure, a fracture assessment method of dissimilar metal welded joint has not been established. The objective of this study is to investigate a fracture mode of dissimilar metal weld of LAS and Ni-base alloy for development of a fracture assessment method for dissimilar metal weld. Fracture tests were conducted using two types of dissimilar metal weld test plates with semi-elliptical surface crack. In one of the test plates, the fusion line lies around the surface points of the surface crack and the crack tips at the surface points have intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is Ni-base alloy. In the other, the fusion line lies around the deepest point of the surface crack and the crack tip at the deepest point has intruded into LAS. Material ahead of the crack tip at the deepest point is LAS. The results of fracture tests using the former type of test plate reveal that the collapse load considering the proportion of ligament area of each material gives a good estimation for fracture load. That is, fracture assessment based on plastic collapse mode is applicable to the former type of test plate. It is also understood that a fracture assessment method based on the elastic-plastic fracture mode is suitable for the latter type of test plate.

  20. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  1. Healthy Joints Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my joints more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Although you might think arthritis affects only older ... Discovery Into Health ® Home | Health Information | Research | Funding | News & Events | About Us | Portal en español | Asian-Language ...

  2. Joint Quantum Institute

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) is pursuing that goal through the work of leading quantum scientists from the Department of Physics of the University of Maryland...

  3. Microstructure and anisotropic mechanical behavior of friction stir welded AA2024 alloy sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhihan [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Wenya, E-mail: liwy@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Li, Jinglong [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Chao, Y.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Vairis, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, TEI of Crete, Heraklion, Crete 71004 (Greece)

    2015-09-15

    The anisotropic mechanical properties of friction stir welded (FSW) AA2024-T3 alloy joints were investigated based on the uniaxial tensile tests. The joint microstructure was examined by using electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Results show that the evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in the FSW joints. With the increase of loading angle from 0° to 90° the ultimate tensile strength and elongation of the specimens consistently decrease, or at first decrease and then increase, depending on the FSW process parameters. The specimen cut from the weld direction, i.e. a loading angle of 0°, exhibits the highest strength and elongation. - Highlights: • Microstructure and anisotropy of friction stir welded joints were studied. • The evident anisotropic failure and yielding are present in joints. • The lowest yield stress and UTS are at 45° and 60° loadings, respectively. • Rotation speed heavily impact on the anisotropy of joints.

  4. Dissimilar Al/steel friction stir welding lap joints for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, D.; Spena, P. Russo; Buffa, G.; Fratini, L.

    2016-10-01

    A widespread usage of aluminum alloys for the fabrication of car-body parts is conditional on the employment of appropriate welding methods, especially if dissimilar welding must be performed with automotive steel grades. Dissimilar welding of aluminum alloys and steel grades poses some issues concerning the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds, difference in physical and chemical properties of the parent metals, and poor wetting behavior of aluminum. Friction stir welding is considered to be a reasonable solution to obtain sound aluminum/steel joints. A study on the join quality of dissimilar lap joints of steel and aluminum alloy sheets after friction stir welding is proposed here. A low carbon steel is joined with AA6016 aluminum alloy to study preliminarily the feasibility to assembly car-body parts. The joints, welded with tool rotation and feed rate varying in a wide range, have been studied from a visual examination and microstructural point of view. Optical microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructure of the examined sheets in as-received and welded conditions. Micro-hardness measurements have been carried out to quantitatively analyze the local hardness of the welded joints. Set welding process parameters are identified to assemble without the presence of macroscopic defects the examined steel and aluminum welded parts.

  5. Fatigue and Damage Tolerance of Friction Stir Welded Joints for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, H.J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a young welding process with high potential to replace riveted joints in aerospace structures like the fuselage. Friction stir welding is a robust process and capable of welding high strength aluminum alloys. Therefore it can lead to both costs and weight savings. To substit

  6. Development of Zn50 Brazing Alloy for Joining Mild Steel to Mild Steel (SAE1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has developed new brazing alloys for joining mild steel to mild steel (SAE1018 at a lower temperature. The alloys blends and error analysis were done by experimental design software (Design Expert 8.0.7.1. Design of experiments was done by Scheffe quadratic mixture method. The liquidus temperatures were predicted by calculation of phase diagrams of the alloying metals. The brazing alloys were produced by gravity technique and melted using silicon carbide graphite crucible. The quality of the brazing alloys was analyzed by optical microscopy (OM, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Brazed joints were produced by torch method with a commercial flux. Brazing temperatures (liquidus were tracked by a digital infrared/laser pyrometer. Some mechanical properties studied were tensile strength and hardness. Finally, brazed joints produced from the developed brazing alloys were compared to that produced from muntz brass. Six (6 brazing alloys were successfully developed. Zinc and manganese were the main components, to which were added; 3 to 4 %wt silver and 11 to15 %wt modifying element. The microstructure showed a typical eutectic structure with zinc-rich phase distributed uniformly in the matrix with a combination of different sizes of dendrite, rounded blocks of compounds and hypoeutectic structures. AAS results indicated minimal out-gassing of zinc and FT-IR results indicated very low presence of atmospheric gas. The range of brazing temperature for best results was recorded from 690.90 to 735.10 0C. The joints produced from the developed brazing alloys had acceptable strengths with improved stress-strain behaviour compared to muntz brass.

  7. Correlation between diffusion barriers and alloying energy in binary alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg; Rossmeisl, Jan; Stephens, Ifan;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells.......In this paper, we explore the notion that a negative alloying energy may act as a descriptor for long term stability of Pt-alloys as cathode catalysts in low temperature fuel cells....

  8. Concrete Pavement Joint Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in INDOT specification, pavement materials, designs and construction practices, and current de-icing materials were examined and related to the durability of concrete at the joints of existing pavements. A survey of concrete pavements across the state ...

  9. Joint involvement in Ochronosis

    OpenAIRE

    Biehl, Christoph; Thormann, U.; Madera, N.; Heiß, C

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ochronosis is a metabolic disorder that is usually associated with the typical brown-black colored urine and retention of phenol complexes in sclera and skin. Kidney and heart are also checked, the disease can also cause damage in these organs. The disease is less associated with degenerative changes in the joints of the limbs and the spine. Methods: We report on the progress of a patient with documented family history on alcaptonuria and joint involvement. In the age of 69 ...

  10. High pressure ceramic joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael E.; Harkins, Bruce D.

    1993-01-01

    Many recuperators have components which react to corrosive gases and are used in applications where the donor fluid includes highly corrosive gases. These recuperators have suffered reduced life, increased service or maintenance, and resulted in increased cost. The present joint when used with recuperators increases the use of ceramic components which do not react to highly corrosive gases. Thus, the present joint used with the present recuperator increases the life, reduces the service and maintenance, and reduces the increased cost associated with corrosive action of components used to manufacture recuperators. The present joint is comprised of a first ceramic member, a second ceramic member, a mechanical locking device having a groove defined in one of the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The joint and the mechanical locking device is further comprised of a refractory material disposed in the groove and contacting the first ceramic member and the second ceramic member. The present joint mechanically provides a high strength load bearing joint having good thermal cycling characteristics, good resistance to a corrosive environment and good steady state strength at elevated temperatures.

  11. Wear tests in a hip joint simulator of different CoCrMo counterfaces on UHMWPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Mora, V.A.; Hoffmann, M.; Stroosnijder, R. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Gil, F.J. [CREB, Dept. Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.xavier.gil@upc.edu

    2009-01-01

    The objective in this work was to study the effect of different material counterfaces on the Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear behavior. The materials used as counterfaces were based on CoCrMo: forged with hand polished and mass finished, CoCrMo coating applied on the forged CoCrMo alloy obtained by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). A hip joint simulator was designed and built for these studies. The worn surfaces were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the hand polished CoCrMo alloy caused the higher UHMWPE wear of the acetabular cups. The CoCrMo coating caused the least UHMWPE wear, while the mass finished CoCrMo alloy caused an intermediate UHMWPE wear. It is shown that the wear rates obtained in this work are closer to clinical studies than to similar hip joints simulator studies.

  12. Preparation for femur prosthesis of ceramic-metal combination artificial hip joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣宇; 李世普; 陈晓明; 贺建华

    2002-01-01

    Al2O3 material was synthesized by using high purity alumina micro-powder and Mg-Zr-Y composite additives at temperature of 1600℃, which had good mechanics property of 416MPa bending strength and 5.46MPa*m1/2 fracture toughness. Femur head prosthesis of hip joint was prepared by using this material; Ti alloy femur handle was sprayed bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) by plasma on surface, which improves the chemistry stability and biocompatibility of Ti alloy; ceramic-metal combination artificial hip joint femur prosthesis was made by combining Al2O3 femur head with Ti alloy femur handle, so the manufacturing process is improved and the property and application flexibility are advanced.

  13. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  15. Interfacial and Mechanical Behavior of AA5456 Filling Friction-Stir-Welded Lap Joints Using Similar and Dissimilar Pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmand, Saleh Alaei; Mirsalehi, Seyyed Ehsan; Omidvar, Hamid; Safarkhanian, Mohammad Ali

    2016-10-01

    In this article, filling friction stir welding (FFSW) of the remaining exit holes of AA5456 alloy friction-stir-welded lap joints was studied. For this purpose, the influences of different rotating speeds, holding times, and pin materials, AA5456 and AA2024, on the metallurgical structure and joint strength were investigated. The observations showed that defect-free lap joints are successfully obtainable by this method using similar and dissimilar consumable pins. The results indicated that the higher rotating speed and holding time adversely affect the weld performance. The best result was achieved for 30 seconds holding time, 500 rpm rotating speed, and AA2024 consumable pin. In this condition, a lap shear strength of 10 pct higher than that of the nonfilled joint, equivalent to about 94 pct of the original defect-free FSW joint, was obtained, whereas the GTAW filled joint showed only approximately 87 pct of the continuous FSW joint strength.

  16. Metallurgical bonding development of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for the DIII-D radiative divertor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    General atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D radiative divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid-state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high-strength, vacuum leak-tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid-state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. (orig.) 7 refs.

  17. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  18. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Wang Chan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal tibiofibular joint is a frequently neglected joint which can be a source of lateral knee pain. Open surgery is the current mainstay of surgical management of proximal tibiofibular joint disorders. The proximal tibiofibular arthroscopy allows access to the joint and adjacent important ligamentous structures. This forms the basis of further development of arthroscopic procedures for a variety of pathologies.

  19. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  20. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum alloys 5083 and 5383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of high-strength aluminum alloys is increasing in shipbuilding industry, particularly for the design and construction of war ships, littoral surface craft and combat ships, and fast passenger ships. While various welding methods are used today to fabricate aluminum ship structures, namely gas metallic arc welding (GMAW, laser welding and friction stir welding (FSW, FSW technology has been recognized to have many advantages for the construction of aluminum structures, as it is a low-cost welding process. In the present study, mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum alloys are examined experimentally. Tensile testing is undertaken on dog-bone type test specimen for aluminum alloys 5083 and 5383. The test specimen includes friction stir welded material between identical alloys and also dissimilar alloys, as well as unwelded (base alloys. Mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum alloys are also tested and compared with those of friction stir welded alloys. The insights developed from the present study are documented together with details of the test database. Part of the present study was obtained from the Ship Structure Committee project SR-1454 (Paik, 2009, jointly funded by its member agencies.

  1. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Peter [Houston, TX; Koh, Shirlaine [Houston, TX; Mani, Prasanna [Houston, TX; Ratndeep, Srivastava [Houston, TX

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  2. Hybrid joints manufactured by ultrasound enhanced friction stir welding (USE-FSW) - corrosion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfer, S.; Fürbeth, W.; Thomä, M.; Wagner, G.; Straß, B.; Wolter, B.

    2017-03-01

    To realize lightweight structures of material combinations like aluminum/magnesium and aluminum/steel an Ultrasound Enhanced Friction Stir Welding (USE-FSW) process was used. This process has a beneficial influence on the resulting microstructure (elimination of the brittle intermetallic phase Al3Mg2 as coherent layer) and the mechanical properties (increased tensile strength) of Al/Mg-joints and was now also applied for Al/steel-hybrid joints. Besides the mechanical properties the corrosion properties of the hybrid joints may play a significant role concerning the later use of the hybrid materials. Therefore, the corrosion properties of various hybrid joints have been investigated by different methods. With the Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) Volta potential differences between the base alloys and the welded area were investigated in air. The two-dimensional color-plots illustrate not only the Volta potential differences between the different phases but also their oxidation properties in air during the measurement time. Electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization) have been carried out for the investigation of the corrosion properties of the FSW and USE-FSW hybrid joints in 0.5 molar NaCl solution. A three electrode setup within a mini-cell was used to enable measurements on different areas of the joints. This allows to observe the corrosion activity of the base alloys and the nugget phase separately. Differences between Al/steel-hybrid joints processed with and without ultrasound enhancement are discussed and compared with Al/Mg-hybrids.

  3. Joint ventures in medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rublee, D A

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an overview of joint-venture activity in healthcare, describing trends in joint ventures and raising issues for physicians. The purposes are to discuss the major current facets of joint-venture alliances in healthcare and to identify policy issues that arise from the trend to use joint ventures as an organizational tool. Speculation is made about the future role of joint ventures in the organization of healthcare.

  4. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  5. Neutron absorbing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masayuki

    1998-12-04

    The neutron absorbing alloy of the present invention comprises Ti or an alloy thereof as a mother material, to which from 2 to 40% by weight of Hf and Gd within a range of from 4 to 50% by weight in total are added respectively. Ti is excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability, and produces no noxious intermetallic compound with Hf and Gd. In addition, since the alloy can incorporate a great quantity of Hf and Gd, a neutron absorbing material having excellent neutron absorbing performance than usual and excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability can be manufactured conveniently and economically not by a special manufacturing method. (T.M.)

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded thin sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lian; TONG Jian-hua; WAN Fa-rong; LONG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new and promising welding processing that can produce low-cost and high-quality joints of aluminum alloys. 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloys which are always used as building and decorating materials were welded by FSW. The microstrueture and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy were studied. It was found that the thinner the 2024 aluminum alloy, the larger the FSW technological parameters field. The grains size of weld nugget zone (WNZ) is approximately 10 times smaller than that of the parent material, but the second phase in the material is not refined apparently in the welding. The FS welded joints have about 40% higher yield strength than the parent material,but the elongation of FS welded joints is under about 50% of the parent material. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)results show that there are much more low angle boundaries (LAB) in WNZ than that in parent material, which indicates that FSW causes a number of sub-grain structures in WNZ, and this is also the reason of the increase of yield strength and Vickers hardness of the welded joint.

  7. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  8. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  9. Temporomandibular joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Jennifer J

    2007-11-15

    Temporomandibular joint disorders are common in adults; as many as one third of adults report having one or more symptoms, which include jaw or neck pain, headache, and clicking or grating within the joint. Most symptoms improve without treatment, but various noninvasive therapies may reduce pain for patients who have not experienced relief from self-care therapies. Physical therapy modalities (e.g., iontophoresis, phonophoresis), psychological therapies (e.g., cognitive behavior therapy), relaxation techniques, and complementary therapies (e.g., acupuncture, hypnosis) are all used for the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders; however, no therapies have been shown to be uniformly superior for the treatment of pain or oral dysfunction. Noninvasive therapies should be attempted before pursuing invasive, permanent, or semi-permanent treatments that have the potential to cause irreparable harm. Dental occlusion therapy (e.g., oral splinting) is a common treatment for temporomandibular joint disorders, but a recent systematic review found insufficient evidence for or against its use. Some patients with intractable temporomandibular joint disorders develop chronic pain syndrome and may benefit from treatment, including antidepressants or cognitive behavior therapy.

  10. Temporomandibular joint examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guarda Nardini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ it’s a joint closely related to the skull base, the spine, and the jaws; all these anatomical structures must be taken in consideration when evaluating pain involving the tmj. In order to detect patients affected by pathology or dysfunctions of the tmj, physical examination is of great value in orienting the diagnosis. Inspection must consider the symmetry of the body, the dental status and the type of occlusion. Palpation is a way to assess contractiont involving the muscles of the masticatory system and of the neck. Auscultation, based on articular noise provides means to determine whether we are dealing with degeneration of the joint or a dislocation of the intrarticular disc. In order to confirm the diagnosis obtained with the clinical evaluation, it’s useful to perform imaging techniques as opt, tomography and TC of the tmj and electromyokineosiography – index of the mandibular functionality and of the muscles status. MRI and dynamic MRI are among the non invasive exams which give the greatest amount of information, regarding the disc position and the joint degeneration. Arthroscopy is an invasive technique that allows early diagnosis of degeneration and is helpful to reveal early inflammatory processes of the joint.

  11. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  12. Effect of Lanthanum on Driving Force for Cu6Sn5 Growth and Improvement of Solder Joint Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By means of adding low content of rare earth element La into Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy, the growth of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at the interface of solder joint is hindered, and the thermal fatigue life of solder joint is increased by 2 times. The results of thermodynamic calculation based on diffusion kinetics show that, the driving force for Cu6Sn5 growth is lowered by adding small content of La in Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy. Meanwhile, there is an effective local mole fraction range of La, in which, 0.18% is the limited value and 0.08% is the best value.

  13. Potential use of porous titanium-niobium alloy in orthopedic implants: preparation and experimental study of its biocompatibility in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The improvement of bone ingrowth into prosthesis and enhancement of the combination of the range between the bone and prosthesis are important for long-term stability of artificial joints. They are the focus of research on uncemented artificial joints. Porous materials can be of potential use to solve these problems. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES: This research aims to observe the characteristics of the new porous Ti-25Nb alloy and its biocompatibility in vitro, and to provide basic experimental evidence for the development of new porous prostheses or bone implants for bone tissue regeneration. METHODS: The Ti-25Nb alloys with different porosities were fabricated using powder metallurgy. The alloys were then evaluated based on several characteristics, such as mechanical properties, purity, pore size, and porosity. To evaluate biocompatibility, the specimens were subjected to methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay, cell adhesion and proliferation assay using acridine staining, scanning electron microscopy, and detection of inflammation factor interleukin-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: The porous Ti-25Nb alloy with interconnected pores had a pore size of 200 µm to 500 µm, which was favorable for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the alloy was similar to that of cortical bone, while with the elastic modulus closer to cancellous bone. MTT assay showed that the alloy had no adverse reaction to rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, with a toxicity level of 0 to 1. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments showed excellent cell growth on the surface and inside the pores of the alloy. According to the IL-6 levels, the alloy did not cause any obvious inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: All porous Ti-25Nb alloys showed good biocompatibility regardless of the percentage of porosity. The basic requirement of clinical orthopedic implants was satisfied, which made the alloy a good prospect for biomedical application. The alloy with 70

  14. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  15. Joining of dissimilar metals by diffusion bonding. Titanium alloy with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca, Enes [International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Research and Development Center; International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Gursel, Ali [International Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a novel diffusion bonding process of commercially pure aluminum to Ti-6Al-4V alloy at 520, 560, 600 and 640 C for 30, 45 and 60 minutes under argon gas shielding without the use of interlayer. The approach is to overcome the difficulties in fusion welding of dissimilar alloys. Diffusion bonding is a dissimilar metal welding process which can be applied to the materials without causing any physical deformations. Processed samples were metallographically prepared, optically examined followed by Vickers microhardness test and subjected to tensile test in order to determine joint strength. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used in this work to investigate the compositional changes across the joint region. Elemental composition of the region has been successfully defined between titanium alloy and aluminum. The maximum tensile strength was obtained from the samples bonded at the highest temperatures of 600 and 640 C.

  16. Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE-40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2008-01-01

    Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force on tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy, Taguchi parametric design and optimization approach was used. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined. The results indicate that the rotational speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal value of tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy is 303 MPa. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  17. The Mechanical Behavior of Friction-Stir Spot Welded Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Hande

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum and alloys are widely used in the automotive industry due to the light weight, good formability, and malleability. Spot welding is the most commonly used joining method of these materials, but the high current requirements and the inconsistent quality of the final welds make this process unsuitable. An alternative welding technique, the friction-stir spot welding process, can also be successfully used in joining of aluminum and alloys. In this study, 1-mm-thick AA5754 Al-alloy plates in the H-111 temper conditions were joined by friction-stir spot welding using two different weld parameters such as tool rotational speed and dwell time. Mechanical properties of the joints were obtained with extensive hardness measurements and tensile shear tests. The effect of these parameters on the failure modes of welded joints was also determined.

  18. Behavior and influence of Pb and Bi in Ag-Cu-Zn brazing alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of trace content of Pb and Bi elements on the spreading property and the strength of brazed joints of Ag-Cu-Zn filler metal have been studied. The results show that Pb has little effect on both above properties, and Bi has remarkable influence on the spreading property but little effect on the strength of brazed joint. Pb and Bi dissolve into the Ag-Cu-Zn matrix and will melt and gather at lower temperature when that alloy is being heated. Therefore a liquid forms on the surface of the Ag-Cu-Zn alloy and overlays the melting alloy, then keeps the filler metal away from the materials being joined, and so decreases the spreading property.

  19. Pemilihan Bahan Alloy Untuk Konstruksi Gigitiruan

    OpenAIRE

    Medila Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Pada kedokteran gigi bahan alloy sangat banyak digunakan dalam segala bidang. Dalam pembuatan konstruksi gigitiman biasanya digunakan alloy emas, alloy kobalt kromium, alloy nikei kromium dan alloy stainless steel sebagai komponen gigitiman kerangka logam serta pembuatan mahkota dan jembatan. Pemilihan bahan alloy dapat dilakukan berdasarkan sifat yang dimiiiki oleh masing-masing bahan alloy sehingga akan didapat hasil konstmksi gigitiruan yang memuaskan. Pada pemakaiannya didaiam mulut...

  20. Strip Casting of High Performance Structural Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S S Park; J G Lee; Nack J Kim

    2004-01-01

    There exists a great need for the development of high performance alloys due to increasing demands for energy conservation and environmental protection. Application of strip casting shows a strong potential for the improvement of properties of existing alloys and also for the development of novel alloy systems with superior properties. The present paper reviews our Center's activities in the development of high performance alloys by strip casting. Examples include (1) Al alloys, (2) wrought Mg alloys, and (3) bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys.

  1. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  2. Microstructure and Failure Analysis of Flash Butt Welded HSLA 590CL Steel Joints in Wheel Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Xu, Zhixin; Shu, Yang; Ma, Feng

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the microstructures, mechanical properties and failure behavior of flash butt welded high strength low alloy 590CL steel joints. Acicular ferrite, Widmanstatten ferrite and granular bainite were observed in the weld. The micro-hardness values of the welded joints varied between 250 HV and 310 HV. The tensile strength of the welded joints met the strength standard of the wheel steel. The Charpy V-notch impact absorbing energy of the welded joints was higher than the base metal, and the impact fracture of the welded joints was composed of shearing and equiaxed dimples. The fracture mode of the wheel rim in the flaring and expanding process was brittle fracture and ductile fracture, respectively. A limited deviation was found in the terminal of the crack for the wheel in the flaring process. A transition from the weld to the Heat Affected Zone was observed for the wheel in the expanding process.

  3. Microstructure and fracture behaviour of Ti3Al/TC4 dissimilar materials joints welded by electron beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H T Zhang; H Y Zhao; W X He

    2010-12-01

    Electron beam was used to join TC4 alloy to Ti3Al-based alloy. The composition of the weld was analysed by XRD and TEM and the results showed that the weld mainly composed of ' martensites. The change of heat input had little influence on the composition of the weld but can make the grain size increasing. The fracture path of the joints was mainly decided by the microstructure of the weld and started from coarse grain zone to HAZ and base metal of Ti3Al alloy.

  4. Studies of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Krupa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of a welded joint were described. The joint was made as a result of the reconstruction of a truss and one of the possible means to make a repair. The studies were of a simulation character and were targeted at the detection of welding defects and imperfections thatshould be eliminated in a real structure. A model was designed and on this model the tests and examinations were carried out. The modelwas made under the same conditions as the conditions adopted for repair. It corresponded to the real object in shape and dimensions, and in the proposed technique of welding and welding parameters. The model was composed of five plates joined together with twelve beads.The destructive and non-destructive tests were carried out; the whole structure and the respective welds were also examined visually. Thedefects and imperfections in welds were detected by surface methods of inspection, penetration tests and magnetic particle flaw detection.The model of the welded joint was prepared by destructive methods, a technique that would never be permitted in the case of a realstructure. For the investigations it was necessary to cut out the specimens from the welded joint in direction transverse to the weld run. The specimens were subjected to metallographic examinations and hardness measurements. Additionally, the joint cross-section was examined by destructive testing methods to enable precise determination of the internal defects and imperfections. The surface methods were applied again, this time to determine the severity of welding defects. The analysis has proved that, fabricated under proper conditions and with parameters of the welding process duly observed, the welded joint has good properties and repairs of this type are possible in practice.

  5. Vacuum Brazing TC4 Titanium Alloy to 304 Stainless Steel with Cu-Ti-Ni-Zr-V Amorphous Alloy Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Honggang; Yang, Zhonglin; Wang, Zengrui; Deng, Dewei; Dong, Chuang

    2014-10-01

    Dissimilar metal vacuum brazing between TC4 titanium alloy and 304 stainless steel was conducted with newly designed Cu-Ti-Ni-Zr-V amorphous alloy foils as filler metals. Solid joints were obtained due to excellent compatibility between the filler metal and stainless steel substrate. Partial dissolution of stainless steel substrate occurred during brazing. The shear strength of the joint brazed with Cu43.75Ti37.5Ni6.25Zr6.25V6.25 foil was 105 MPa and that with Cu37.5Ti25Ni12.5Zr12.5V12.5 was 116 MPa. All the joints fractured through the gray layer in the brazed seam, revealing brittle fracture features. Cr4Ti, Cu0.8FeTi, Fe8TiZr3 and Al2NiTi3C compounds were found in the fractured joint brazed with Cu43.75Ti37.5Ni6.25Zr6.25V6.25 foil, and Fe2Ti, TiCu, Fe8TiZr3 and NiTi0.8Zr0.3 compounds were detected in the joint brazed with Cu37.5Ti25Ni12.5Zr12.5V12.5 foil. The existence of Cr-Ti, Fe-Ti, Cu-Fe-Ti, and Fe-Ti-V intermetallic compounds in the brazed seam caused fracture of the resultant joints.

  6. Joint for deployable structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, N. D., II; Preliasco, R. J.; Hult, T. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A joint is described for connecting a pair of beams to pivot them between positions in alignment or beside one another, which is of light weight and which operates in a controlled manner. The joint includes a pair of fittings and at least one center link having opposite ends pivotally connected to opposite fittings and having axes that pass through centerplates of the fittings. A control link having opposite ends pivotally connected to the different fittings controls their relative orientations, and a toggle assemly holds the fittings in the deployed configuration wherein they are aligned. The fittings have stops that lie on one side of the centerplane opposite the toggle assembly.

  7. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  8. Friction Stir Lap Welding: material flow, joint structure and strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.W. Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding has been studied intensively in recent years due to its importance in industrial applications. The majority of these studies have been based on butt joint configuration and friction stir lap welding (FSLW has received considerably less attention. Joining with lap joint configuration is also widely used in automotive and aerospace industries and thus FSLW has increasingly been the focus of FS research effort recently. number of thermomechancal and metallurgical aspects of FSLW have been studied in our laboratory. In this paper, features of hooking formed during FSLW of Al-to-Al and Mg-to-Mg will first be quantified. Not only the size measured in the vertical direction but hook continuity and hooking direction have been found highly FS condition dependent. These features will be explained taking into account the effects of the two material flows which are speed dependent and alloy deformation behaviour dependent. Strength values of the welds will be presented and how strength is affected by hook features and by alloy dependent local deformation behaviours will be explained. In the last part of the paper, experimental results of FSLW of Al-to-steel will be presented to briefly explain how joint interface microstructures affect the fracturing process during mechanical testing and thus the strength. From the results, tool positioning as a mean for achieving maximum weld strength can be suggested.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welded Aluminum Alloy AA2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Babu; G.D. Janaki Ram; P.V. Venkitakrishnan; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Prasad Rao

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir lap welds were produced in 3 mm thick Alclad sheets of Al alloy 2014-T4 using two different tools (with triangular and threaded taper cylindrical pins). The effects of tool geometry on weld microstructure, lap-shear performance and failure mode were investigated. The pin profile was found to significantly influence the hook geometry, which in turn strongly influenced the joint strength and the failure mode. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets by using triangular and threaded taper cylindrical tools exhibited an average lap-shear failure load of 16.5 and 19.5 kN, respectively, while the average failure load for standard riveted joints was only 3.4 kN. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T6 Alclad sheets and in alloy 2014-T4 bare sheets (i.e., no Alclad) were comparatively evaluated with those produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets. While the welds made (with threaded taper cylindrical tool) in T6 and T4 conditions showed very similar lap-shear failure loads, the joint efficiency of the welds made in T6 condition (43%) was considerably lower (because of the higher base material strength) than those made in T4 condition (51%). The Alclad layers were found to present no special problems in friction stir lap welding. Welds made with triangular tool in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad and bare sheets showed very similar lap-shear failure loads. The present work provides some useful insights into the use of friction stir welding for joining Al alloys in lap configuration.

  10. Vertical Compensation Friction Stir Welding of 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Meng, Xiangchen; Xing, Jingwei; Ma, Lin; Gao, Shuangsheng

    2016-09-01

    Vertical compensation friction stir welding (VCFSW) was proposed in order to solve the adverse effect caused by a big gap at the interface between two welded workpieces. VCFSW was successfully applied to weld 6061-T6 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 4 mm, while 2024-T4 aluminum alloy was selected as a rational compensation material. The results show that VCFSW is difficult to get a sound joint when the width of strip is no less than 1.5 mm. Decreasing the welding speed is beneficial to break compensation strip into pieces and then get higher quality joint. When the width of strip is 1 mm, the tensile strength and elongation of joint at the welding speed of 50 mm/min and rotational velocity of 1,800 rpm reach the maximum values of 203 MPa and 5.2%, respectively. Moreover, the addition of 2024-T4 alloy plays a strengthening effect on weld zone (WZ) of VCFSW joint. The fracture surface morphology of joint consisting of amounts of dimples exhibits ductile fracture.

  11. Brazing of zirconia to titanium using Ag-Cu and Au-Ni filler alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean S. Pimenta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced ceramic is usually joined to metal by the well-known direct brazing process, where costly active filler alloys can be considered a limitation. Brazing using active-metal-free filler alloy as insert between the joint components is an attempt to overcome it. The active metal diffusion from the titanium member through the bulk of molten filler to the ceramic was responsible to produce an active filler alloy in loco and promote reduction of the zirconium oxide to improve wetting on the ceramic surface. Unalloyed titanium was joined in a high-vacuum furnace (<3x10-5 mbar to yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycristals (Y-TZP and zirconia partially stabilized with magnesia (Mg-PSZ, where commercial fillers Ag-28Cu and Au-18Ni with respective thermal cycles were evaluated. Helium gas leak detection test was performed at the ceramic/metal interface at room temperature; samples from reliable vacuum tight joints were examined by microstructural analysis techniques and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at the joint cross-section. Tight joints were produced with eutectic Ag-Cu filler, revealing an intermetallic layer and a dark reaction layer near the ceramic surface; titanium diffusion was efficient for superficial chemical interactions between individual components. Brazing joints were also tested using three-point flexure testing.

  12. Pareto-optimal alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bligaard, Thomas; Johannesson, Gisli Holmar; Ruban, Andrei;

    2003-01-01

    and the cost. In this letter we present a database consisting of the lattice parameters, bulk moduli, and heats of formation for over 64 000 ordered metallic alloys, which has been established by direct first-principles density-functional-theory calculations. Furthermore, we use a concept from economic theory...

  13. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  14. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  15. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  16. The softening effect of heat-treated strengthened Al-Zn-Mg alloy in welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Chen, Jingqing; Zhang, Kang; Chen, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Weld joint softening occurs during the welding process of heat-treatable aluminum alloys and strongly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the softening of heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy was studied in the multipass welding process. By Gleeble-3500 thermal-mechanical simulator, the heat treatment and tensile test with welding thermal cycles were carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution and mechanical softening during multipass welding. After that, the softening mechanism of the HAZ was analyzed by microstructure analysis. The results indicate that the heat-treated Al-Zn-Mg alloy exhibited obvious softening after several thermal cycles with peak temperature higher than 200∘C, and this phenomenon is worse with increasing peak temperature. Based on the microstructure analysis, it was found that the reinforcement phase changes according to the applied thermal cycles, which strongly affects the strength of Al-Zn-Mg alloys.

  17. Methods to Predict Stresses in Cutting Inserts Brazed Using Iron-Carbon Brazing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovodov, V. V.; Valentov, A. V.; Retuynskiy, O. Yu; Esekuev, Sh B.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes a method for predicting residual and operating stresses in a flat-form tool insert made of tungsten free carbides brazed using iron-carbon alloy. According to the studies’ results it is concluded that the recommendations relating to the limitation of a melting point of tool brazing alloys (950-1100°C according to different data) are connected with a negative impact on tools as a composite made of dissimilar materials rather than on hard alloys as a tool material. Due to the cooling process stresses inevitably occur in the brazed joint of dissimilar materials, and these stresses increase with the higher solidification temperature of the brazing alloy.

  18. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties, The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fine equiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing) is superior to that of the later (tradition), leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  19. The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application in A356 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxia LIU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research has investigated the in-situ Ti alloying of aluminum alloys and its application to A356 alloys and wheels through the evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties. The results showed that stable titanium content can be obtained by adding a small quantity of TiO2 into electrolyte of pure aluminum. Under this approach, a greater than 95% absorptivity of titanium was achieved, and the microstructure of the specimens was changed to fineequiaxed grains from coarse columnar grains in the pure aluminum. In comparison with the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the corresponding microstructure in the testing A356 alloys and wheels was finer. Although the tensile strength was similar between the testing and the tradition A356 alloys and wheels, the ductility of the former (testing is superior to that of the later (tradition, leading to an excellent combination of strength and ductility from the testing alloys and wheels.

  20. Susceptibility testing for welding of AlMg alloys intended for extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Borowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research was to determine the weldability, using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG of extruded sections made of hard-deformable 5xxx series aluminum alloys with differing magnesium content, i.e. AlMg3, AlMg4,5, AlMg5, AlMg7. Welded joints were obtained as a result of a welding process consisting of several steps. Only welds characterized by very good appearance and quality were selected for tests. As a result of conducted research, TIG welding parameters were determined for sections with a thickness of 8 mm. It was observed that alloys of differing Mg content are characterized by high weldability and do not exhibit a significant reduction of the yield point. Moreover, joints exhibit uniform hardness distribution in the welded joint and heat-affected zone. Tensile strength is reduced.

  1. Fretting Behavior of SPR Joining Dissimilar Sheets of Titanium and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocong He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fretting performance of self-piercing riveting joining dissimilar sheets in TA1 titanium alloy and H62 copper alloy was studied in this paper. Load-controlled cyclic fatigue tests were carried out using a sine waveform and in tension-tension mode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray techniques were employed to analyze the fretting failure mechanisms of the joints. The experimental results showed that there was extremely severe fretting at the contact interfaces of rivet and sheet materials for the joints at relatively high loads levels. Moreover, the severe fretting in the region on the locked sheet in contact with the rivet was the major cause of the broken locked sheet for the joints at low load level.

  2. Joint Custody and Coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Kenneth D.

    Results are presented of an intensive search of U.S. newspapers and periodicals on the joint custody of children after divorce, where both parents have continued responsibility for parenting and where the children spend part of each week, month, or year with both of the parents. Areas of concern addressed by these materials include the following:…

  3. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  4. Jointness, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The Services’ Judge Advocates and Lawyers Move Toward the Next Century. Study Project. Car- lisle Barracks: US Army War College, 5 April 1993. 57pp...Shaping America’s Future Mili- tary." Parameters 24 (Winter 1994-1995): 19-29. Barlow, Jason B. "Interservice Rivalry in the Pacific." Joint Force

  5. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  6. Jointness: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Leavenworth: U.S. Army Combined Arms Center, Combat Studies Institute, 2008. 428pp. (UA25 .C55 2008) http://www.cgsc.edu/ carl /download/csipubs...SMARTbook: Guide to Joint, Multinational & Interagency Operations. 2nd ed., rev. Lakeland, FL: Lightning Press, 2009. 302pp. (U260 .W33 2009) Whittaker

  7. Development of CANDU advanced fuel fabrication technology - A development of amorphous alloys for the solder of nuclear reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Young; Lee, Ki Young; Kim, Yoon Kee; Jung, Jae Han; Yu, Ji Sang; Kim, Hae Yeol; Han, Young Su [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    In the case of advanced CANDU fuel being useful in future, the fabrication processes for soundness insurance of a improved nuclear fuel bundle must be developed at the same time because it have three times combustibility as existing fuel. In particular, as the improved nuclear fuel bundle in which a coated layer thickness is thinner than existing that, firmity of a joint part is very important. Therefore, we need to develop a joint technique using new solder which can settle a potential problem in current joining method. As the Zr-Be alloy system and the Ti-Be system are composed with the elements having high neutron permeability, they are suitable for joint of nuclear fuel pack. The various compositions Zr-Be and Ti-Be binary metallic glass alloys were applicable to the joining the nuclear fuel bundles. The thickness of joint layer using the Zr{sub 1-x} Be{sub x} amorphous ribbon as a solder is thinner than that using physical vapor deposited Be. Among the Zr{sub 1-x} Be{sub x} amorphous binary alloys, Zr{sub 0.7} Be{sub 0.3} binary alloy is the most appropriated for joint of nuclear fuel bundle because its joint layer is smooth and thin due to low degree of Be diffusion. The microstructures of brazed layer using Ti{sub 1-y} Be{sub y} alloy, however, a solid-solution layer composed with Zr and Ti is formed toward the Zr cladding sheath and many of Zr is detected in the joint lever. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 23 figs. (author)

  8. Butt-welding Residual Stress of Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.M. Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This study, taking three types of aluminum alloys 2024-T351, 6061-T6 and 7075-T6 as experimental materials, conducted single V-groove GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) butt-welding to analyze and compare the magnitude and differences of residual stress in the three aluminum alloys at different single V-groove angles and in restrained or unrestrained conditions. The results show that the larger the grooving angle of butt joint, the higher the residual tensile stress. Too small grooving angle will lead to dramatic differences due to the amount of welding bead filler metal and pre-set joint geometry. Therefore, only an appropriate grooving angle can reduce residual stress. While welding, weldment in restrained condition will lead to a larger residual stress. Also, a residual stress will arise from the restraint position. The ultimate residual stress of weldment is determined by material yield strength at equilibrium temperature. The higher the yield strength at equilibrium temperature, the higher the material residual stress. Because of its larger thermal conductivity, aluminum alloy test specimens have small temperature differential. Therefore, the residual tensile stress of all materials is lower than their yield strength.

  9. Effect of Ti-Al on microstructures and mechanical properties of plasma arc in-situ welded joint of SiCp/Al MMCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Yu-cheng; ZHANG Zhen; NIE Jia-jun; CHEN Xi-zhang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Ti-Al on microstructures and mechanical properties of SiCp/Al MMC joints produced by plasma arc in-situ weld-alloying was investigated, in which argon-nitrogen mixture was used as plasma gases and Ti-Al alloy as filling composite. The results show that the formation of needle-like harmful phase Al4C3 is effectively prevented in the weld by in-situ weld-alloying/plasma arc welding with Ti-Al alloy sheet filler whose titanium content is more than 20%. The fluidity of molten pool is improved, and stable molten pool is gained for the addition of the Ti-Al alloy. The mechanical properties of welded joint are effectively enhanced by the compact-grain structure and the new reinforced composites such as Al3Ti, TiN, AlN and TiC welded joint. The test results of mechanical property show that the maximum tensile strength of welded joint gained by adding Ti-60Al alloy is up to 235 MPa. The factors influencing the tensile strength were also investigated.

  10. On the effect of β phase on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded commercial brass alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Akbar; Saeid, Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Conventional fusion welding of brass (Cu-Zn) alloys has some difficulties such as evaporation of Zn, toxic behavior of Zn vapor, solidification cracking, distortion, and oxidation [1], [2], [3]. Fortunately, friction stir welding (FSW) has been proved to be a good candidate for joining the brass alloys, which can overcome the fusion welding short comes [4], [5], [6], [7]. The data presented here relates to FSW of the single and double phase brass alloys. The data is the microstructure and mechanical properties of the base metals and joints.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Laser-Friction Stir Welding between AA6061-T6 Al Alloy and AZ31 Mg Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong-Seong Chang; S.R.Rajesh; Chang-Keun Chun; Heung-Ju Kim

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the strength of this dissimilar joint, the present study was carried out to investigate the improvement in intermetallic layer by using a third material foil between the faying edges of the friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 alloy plates. The difference in microstructural and mechanical characteristics of friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 joint was compared. Hybrid buttwelding of aluminum alloy plate to a magnesium alloy plate was successfully achieved with Ni foil as filler material, while defect-free laser-friction stir welding (FSW) hybrid welding was achieved by using a laser power of 2 kW. Transverse tensile strength of the joint reached about 66% of the Mg base metal tensile strength in the case of hybrid welding with Ni foil and showed higher value than that of the friction stir welded joint with and without the third material foil. This may be due to the presence of less brittle Ni-based intermetallic phases instead of Al12Mg17.

  12. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  13. Basic principles of creating a new generation of high- temperature brazing filler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, B. A.; Suchkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The development of new materials is based on the formation of a structural-phase state providing the desired properties by selecting the base and the complex of alloying elements. The development of amorphous filler alloys for a high-temperature brazing has its own features that are due to the limited life cycle and the production method of brazing filler alloys. The work presents a cycle of analytical and experimental materials science investigations including justification of the composition of a new amorphous filler alloy for brazing the products from zirconium alloys at the temperature of no more than 800 °C and at the unbrazing temperature of permanent joints of more than 1200 °C. The experimental alloys have been used for manufacture of amorphous ribbons by rapid quenching, of which the certification has been made by X-ray investigations and a differential-thermal analysis. These ribbons were used to obtain permanent joints from the spacer grid cells (made from the alloy Zr-1% Nb) of fuel assemblies of the thermal nuclear reactor VVER-440. The brazed samples in the form of a pair of cells have been exposed to corrosion tests in autoclaves in superheated water at a temperature of 350 °C, a pressure of 160 MPa and duration of up to 6,000 h. They have been also exposed to destructive tests using a tensile machine. The experimental results obtained have made it possible to propose and patent a brazing filler alloy of the following composition: Zr-5.5Fe-(2.5-3.5)Be-1Nb-(5-8)Cu-2Sn-0.4Cr-(0.5-1.0)Ge. Its melting point is 780 °C and the recommended brazing temperature is 800°C.

  14. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin E.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetallic compounds. Because of the significant influence that intermetallic compound formation has on mechanical and ballistic behavior, the characterization of the specific intermetallic phases and the degree to which they are formed in the weld microstructure is critical to predicting weld performance. This study used electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Vickers micro-hardness indentation to explore and characterize the microstructures of lap friction stir welds between an applique 6061-T6 aluminum armor plate alloy and a RHA homogeneous armor plate steel alloy. Macroscopic defects such as micro-cracks were observed in the cross-sectional samples, and binary intermetallic compound layers were found to exist at the aluminum-steel interfaces of the steel particles stirred into the aluminum weld matrix and across the interfaces of the weld joints. Energy dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis identified the intermetallic layer as monoclinic Al3Fe. Dramatic decreases in grain size in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and weld zones that evidenced grain refinement through plastic deformation and recrystallization. Crystallographic grain orientation and texture were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. Striated regions in the orientations of the aluminum alloy were determined to be the result of the severe deformation induced by the complex weld tool geometry. Many of the textures observed in the weld

  15. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on ... painful. It can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts ...

  16. Assessment of the integrity of ferritic-austenitic dissimilar weld joints of different grades of Cr-Mo ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, K.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Parameswaran, P.; Goyal, Sunil; Mathew, M.D. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    2010-07-01

    Integrity of the 2.25 Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800, 9Cr-1Mo / Alloy 800 and 9Cr-1Mo-VNb / Alloy 800 ferritic-austenitic dissimilar joints, fusion welded employing Inconel 182 electrode, has been assessed under creep conditions at 823 K. The dissimilar weld joints displayed lower creep rupture strength than their respective ferritic steel base metals. The strength reduction was more for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel joint and least for 9Cr-1Mo steel joint. The failure location in the joints was found to shift from the ferritic steel base metal to the intercritical region of heat-affected zone (HAZ) in ferritic steel (type IV cracking) with decrease in stress. At still lower stresses the failure occurred at the ferritic / austenitic weld interface. Localized creep deformation and cavitation in the soft intercritical HAZ induced type IV failure whereas creep cavitation at the weld interface particles induced ferritic / austenitic interface cracking due to high creep strength mismatch across it. Micromechanisms of type IV failure and interface cracking in the ferritic / austenitic joints and different susceptibility to failure for different grades of ferritic steels are discussed based on microstructural investigation, mechanical testing and finite element analysis. (Note from indexer: paper contains many typographical errors.)

  17. Numerical Simulation of Residual Stresses in Linear Friction Welded Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikiforov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermo-mechanical model of linear friction welding has been developed. The temperature distribution during the heating process was determined using a one-dimensional model. The distribution of temperature and stress field during the forging phase was determined by solving the coupled problem in ANSYS. The model allows to predict the effect of welding parameters on the stress field, whereas modeling data are consistent with the residual stresses in welded joints of the Ti6Al4V alloy obtained during the experiment.

  18. Long-term creep rupture strength of weldment of Fe-Ni based alloy as candidate tube and pipe for advanced USC boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Gang; Sato, Takashi [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Research Laboratory; Marumoto, Yoshihide [Babcok-Hitachi K.K., Hiroshima (Japan). Kure Div.

    2010-07-01

    A lot of works have been going to develop 700C USC power plant in Europe and Japan. High strength Ni based alloys such as Alloy 617, Alloy 740 and Alloy 263 were the candidates for boiler tube and pipe in Europe, and Fe-Ni based alloy HR6W (45Ni-24Fe-23Cr-7W-Ti) is also a candidate for tube and pipe in Japan. One of the Key issues to achieve 700 C boilers is the welding process of these alloys. Authors investigated the weldability and the long-term creep rupture strength of HR6W tube. The weldments were investigated metallurgically to find proper welding procedure and creep rupture tests are ongoing exceed 38,000 hours. The long-term creep rupture strengths of the HST weld joints are similar to those of parent metals and integrity of the weldments was confirmed based on with other mechanical testing results. (orig.)

  19. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  20. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.