WorldWideScience

Sample records for navy fuel production

  1. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  2. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  4. Navy Fuel Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Performs basic and applied research to understand the underlying chemistry that impacts the use, handling, and storage of current and future Navy mobility...

  5. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.M.; Hadder, G.R.; Singh, S.P.N.; Whittle, C.

    1985-07-01

    The Department of the Navy (DON) requires an improved capability to forecast mobility fuel availability and quality. The changing patterns in fuel availability and quality are important in planning the Navy's Mobility Fuels R and D Program. These changes come about primarily because of the decline in the quality of crude oil entering world markets as well as the shifts in refinery capabilities domestically and worldwide. The DON requested ORNL's assistance in assembling and testing a methodology for forecasting mobility fuel trends. ORNL reviewed and analyzed domestic and world oil reserve estimates, production and price trends, and recent refinery trends. Three publicly available models developed by the Department of Energy were selected as the basis of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. The system was used to analyze the availability and quality of jet fuel (JP-5) that could be produced on the West Coast of the United States under an illustrative business-as-usual and a world oil disruption scenario in 1990. Various strategies were investigated for replacing the lost JP-5 production. This exercise, which was strictly a test case for the forecasting system, suggested that full recovery of lost fuel production could be achieved by relaxing the smoke point specifications or by increasing the refiners' gate price for the jet fuel. A more complete analysis of military mobility fuel trends is currently under way.

  6. Microbial Fuel Cells for Powering Navy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-20

    specific MFC being analyzed. Figure 3 depicts simulated voltage vs. current plots (black curves) and corresponding power vs. current...Powering Navy Devices 7     Fig. 3 – Simulated voltage vs current and power vs current polarization plots for a two- chamber MFC in which membrane...the anode is generated by fermentation of glucose by other microorganisms in the sediment represented by clostridium in Fig. 4. The products of the

  7. Fuel property effects on Navy aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of ensuring compatibility of Navy aircraft with fuels that may be different than the fuels for which the equipment was designed and qualified are discussed. To avoid expensive requalification of all the engines and airframe fuel systems, methodologies to qualify future fuels by using bench-scale and component testing are being sought. Fuel blends with increasing JP5-type aromatic concentration were seen to produce less volume swell than an equivalent aromatic concentration in the reference fuel. Futhermore, blends with naphthenes, decalin, tetralin, and naphthalenes do not deviate significantly from the correlation line of aromatic blends, Similar results are found with tensile strenth and elongation. Other elastomers, sealants, and adhesives are also being tested.

  8. Russian Navy Fresh Fuel MPC and A Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forehand, Harry M.; O'Shell, Parker; Opanassiouk, Yuri R.; Rexroth, Paul E.; Shmelev, Vladimir; Sukhoruchkin, Vladimir K.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the Russian Navy Fuels Program is to incorporate nuclear fuel that is in the custody of the Russian Navy into a materials protection, control and accounting program. In addition to applying MPC and A upgrades to existing facilities, a program is underway to train site personnel in MPC and A activities. The goal is to assure that the upgraded facilities are managed, operated and maintained in an effective, sustainable manner. Training includes both the conceptual and necessary operational aspects of the systems and equipment. The project began with a Needs Assessment to identify priorities and objectives of required training. This led to the creation of a series of classes developed by Kurchatov Institute. One course was developed to allow attendees to get a general understanding of goals and objectives of nuclear MPC and A systems in the context of the Russian Navy. A follow-on course provided the detailed skills necessary for the performance of specialized duties. Parallel sessions with hands-on exercises provided the specific training needed for different personnel requirements. The courses were presented at KI facilities in Moscow. This paper reviews the work to date and future plans for this program

  9. Diesel fuel to dc power: Navy & Marine Corps Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past year Analytic Power has tested fuel cell stacks and diesel fuel processors for US Navy and Marine Corps applications. The units are 10 kW demonstration power plants. The USN power plant was built to demonstrate the feasibility of diesel fueled PEM fuel cell power plants for 250 kW and 2.5 MW shipboard power systems. We designed and tested a ten cell, 1 kW USMC substack and fuel processor. The complete 10 kW prototype power plant, which has application to both power and hydrogen generation, is now under construction. The USN and USMC fuel cell stacks have been tested on both actual and simulated reformate. Analytic Power has accumulated operating experience with autothermal reforming based fuel processors operating on sulfur bearing diesel fuel, jet fuel, propane and natural gas. We have also completed the design and fabrication of an advanced regenerative ATR for the USMC. One of the significant problems with small fuel processors is heat loss which limits its ability to operate with the high steam to carbon ratios required for coke free high efficiency operation. The new USMC unit specifically addresses these heat transfer issues. The advances in the mill programs have been incorporated into Analytic Power`s commercial units which are now under test.

  10. Russian Navy fresh fuel MPC and A training and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forehand, H.M.; Rexroth, P.; Dove, A.; Shmelev, V.; Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiantsev, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Regulations and Training Projects are part of the US-Russian Federation Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) cooperative program to protect Russian Navy Fuels. This paper describes the general status of the projects, progress achieved to date, and long-term plans for further work in producing regulatory documents and training to support this effort. The regulatory development will result in a document set that will include general requirements and rules for the Russian Navy MPC ampersand A as well as specific instructions for operation and maintenance of each facility. The goals of the training program are to instill in managers a culture of sustainable commitment to MPC ampersand A through the understanding of its principles and philosophies. In addition, the training program will help ensure that upgrades are effectively utilized and maintained by training operators and maintenance personnel in MPC ampersand A principles as well in as the detailed operations of the systems

  11. Ignition Delay Properties of Alternative Fuels with Navy-Relevant Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    nozzle tip. 8 Figure 3 EMD injector cross-sectional view, after [15]. c. Sturman Injector A Sturman research diesel injector was used to validate...PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS WITH NAVY-RELEVANT DIESEL INJECTORS by Andrew J. Rydalch June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy...Navy’s Green Fleet Initiative, this thesis researched the ignition characteristics for diesel replacement fuels used with Navy-relevant fuel injectors

  12. Productivity improvement opportunities at Navy public works activities

    OpenAIRE

    Dieffenbach, Richard Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study identifies six principal opportunities for productivity improvement at Navy Public Works in-house maintenance activities: improving work assignment, increasing shop supervisor effectiveness, reducing long lunches and early quits (through understanding of work impediments as demotivational contributors), improving service order management, improving job quality and miscellaneous opportunities. Activity "productivity opportu...

  13. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  14. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  15. A Cost Estimation Analysis of U.S. Navy Ship Fuel-Savings Techniques and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Horngren , C. T., Datar, S . M., & Foster, G. (2006). Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis. 12th ed. Saddle River, NJ: Pearson...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Cost Estimation Analysis of U.S. Navy Ship Fuel-Savings Techniques and Technologies 6. AUTHOR( S ...FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 N P V   C u m   S a v i n g s   ( $ / y r / S D   s h i p s ) Time

  16. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  17. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  18. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  19. Production of microbiological fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyeris, S

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of programs developed in different countries for increasing production of alcohol by fermenting substrates for use in the pure form or in a mixture with gasoline (gasoline alcohol) as liquid fuel for transportation vehicles. Direct conversion of cellulose into alcohol using bacteria excluding hydrolytic processes for production of sugars (substrates for yeast and bacteria Zymomonas) is important. This conversion is done by thermophilic bacteria Clostridium thermocellum with growth temperature 60-65/sup 0/C. It is established that with joint growth of these bacteria with bacteria Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, there is a considerable acceleration in the process of cellulose conversion to ethanol and decrease in the number of other products of fermentation (acetyl cellulose and hydrogen) formed with the use of the indicated cultures separately. Under corresponding conditions almost any organic compound (sugar, starch, protein) contained in the straw, natural polymers, wastewater, etc. by fermentation can be converted into methane. The methane produced by the method of fermentation can be used for daily needs or be added to natural gas. In the region of London, Tuyknem, anaerobic units generate a quantity of biogas sufficient to generate electricity needed to guarantee operation of the unit for purifying wastewater and pumping stations supplying the wastewater. Under conditions of sanitary dumps (United States) spontaneous formation of methane occurs. The methane is lifted through drilled wells upwards and can be transmitted on pipes. In recent years extensive study and modeling have begun of the process of fermentation of solid wastes.

  20. Navy-After-Next Contingency Producible Corvette (CPC): Emergency Production Historical Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarton, Matthew; Garzke, Bill

    2004-01-01

    ...?" Two approaches were tried by the U.S. Navy during World War One and Two. The first approach was to use an existing fleet destroyer design and attempt to accelerate production by increasing the number on order and the number of building yards...

  1. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  2. Navy POD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Navy SAPR Navy EEO Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Operations Security (OPSEC) Navy Trademarks Military One Source USA.gov U.S. Office of Special Counsel Social Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System (NSIPS) My Navy Portal Board of

  3. Costs of electronuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

    1978-07-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding 233 U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg 233 U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U 3 O 8 (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound

  4. Navy Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtube US Navy Flickr US Navy Instagram US Navy Snapchat US Navy Pinterest US Navy Periscope NAVY GROUPS Facebook Twitter Instagram EDIT Chief of Naval Operations Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram EDIT Chief of Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram EDIT Chief of Supply Corps Facebook EDIT CNE MPP 413 Twitter EDIT CNIC

  5. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  6. Improving the Signal for U.S. Navy Officer Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    American Economic Review, 93(1), 216–240. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3132169 Mankiw , G., Romer, D., & Weil, D. (1992). A contribution...individual perfonnance appraisal system to optimally signal officer productivity. This paper utilizes the economics literature on individual perfonnance...signal officer productivity. This paper utilizes the economics literature on individual performance appraisals and promotion systems as the lens

  7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  8. Department of the Navy final environmental impact statement for a container system for the management of naval spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) addresses six general alternative systems for the loading, storage, transport, and possible disposal of naval spent nuclear fuel following examination. This EIS describes environmental impacts of (1) producing and implementing the container systems (including those impacts resulting from the addition of the capability to load the containers covered in this EIS in dry fuel handling facilities at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)); (2) loading of naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility or at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant with subsequent storage at INEL; (3) construction of a storage facility (such as a paved area) at alternative locations at INEL; and (4) loading of containers and their shipment to a geologic repository or to a centralized interim storage site outside the State of Idaho once one becomes available. As indicated in the EIS, the systems and facilities might also be used for handling low-level radiological waste categorized as special case waste. The Navy's preferred alternative for a container system for the management of naval spent fuel is a dual-purpose canister system. The primary benefits of a dual-purpose canister system are efficiencies in container manufacturing and fuel reloading operations, and potential reductions in radiation exposure

  9. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 2. Navy and Marine Corps Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    HAS BEEN CALLED THE -RAW NERVE OF INSTANT DEATH-. FLEMINGS CAREFULLY LAID BARREL, A AMERICAN DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY.. PLANS ARE UPSET WHEN HIS DAUGHTER AND...NoTCLEARED UNCL NoT CLEARED CONF SPAGHETTI, NOODLES , BEANS, MEAL, CEREALS. THIS FILM IS CLASSIFIED CONFIDENTIAL REMARKS: AVAILABLE AT NAVY GENERAL...TESTING. SHOWS USE OF ILLUSIGS, THE IMPORTANCE OF RECOGNIZING SATELLITE OPERATIONS IN RELATION TO INSTANT CRITERION REFERENCED TESTS TO MILITARY

  10. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunnar; Martinsen, Arnold Kyrre; Sandberg, Eiliv; Fladset, Per Olav; Kjerschow, Einar; Teslo, Einar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  11. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Fuel production for LWRs - MOX fuel aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deramaix, P.

    2005-01-01

    Plutonium recycling in Light Water Reactors is today an industrial reality. It is recycled in the form of (U, Pu)O 2 fuel pellets (MOX), fabricated to a large extent according to UO 2 technology and pellet design. The similarity of physical, chemical, and neutron properties of both fuels also allows MOX fuel to be burnt in nuclear plants originally designed to burn UO 2 . The industrial processes presently in use or planned are all based on a mechanical blending of UO 2 and PuO 2 powders. To obtain finely dispersed plutonium and to prevent high local concentration of plutonium, the feed materials are micronised. In the BNFL process, the whole (UO 2 , PuO 2 ) blend is micronised by attrition milling. According to the MIMAS process, developed by BELGONUCLEAIRE, a primary blend made of UO 2 containing about 30% PuO 2 is micronised in a ball mill, afterwards this primary blend is mechanically diluted in UO 2 to obtain the specified Pu content. After mixing, the (U, Pu)O 2 powder is pressed and the pellets are sintered. The sintering cover gas contains moisture and 5 v/o H 2 . Moisture increases the sintering process and the U-Pu interdiffusion. After sintering and grinding, the pellets are submitted to severe controls to verify conformity with customer specifications (fissile content, Pu distribution, surface condition, chemical purity, density, microstructure). (author)

  14. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    percentage , (2) Fuel A, (3) Mixed Fuel, (4) Fuel B, (5) Blended properties. 7. FCAST ANOVA screen, showing 1) List of data files; 2) Selected samples for...16. FCAST Hydrocarbon Distribution screen, showing 1) List of data files; 2) Carbon number distributions in area percentages for different classes...Total ion chromatograph UVE-PLS Uninformed variable elimination partial least squares XML Extensible markup language 1 1.0 Introduction The

  16. Aviation fuel and future oil production scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, Emma; Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Most aviation fuels are jet fuels originating from crude oil. Crude oil must be refined to be useful and jet fuel is only one of many products that can be derived from crude oil. Jet fuel is extracted from the middle distillates fraction and competes, for example, with the production of diesel. Crude oil is a limited natural resource subject to depletion and several reports indicate that the world's crude oil production is close to the maximum level and that it will start to decrease after reaching this maximum. A post-Kyoto political agenda to reduce oil consumption will have the same effect on aviation fuel production as a natural decline in the crude oil production. On the other hand, it is predicted by the aviation industry that aviation traffic will keep on increasing. The industry has put ambitious goals on increases in fuel efficiency for the aviation fleet. Traffic is predicted to grow by 5% per year to 2026, fuel demand by about 3% per year. At the same time, aviation fuel production is predicted to decrease by several percent each year after the crude oil production peak is reached resulting in a substantial shortage of jet fuel by 2026. The aviation industry will have a hard time replacing this with fuel from other sources, even if air traffic remains at current levels.

  17. Fuel morphology effects on fission product release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations for the observed differences are offered that relate fuel morphology changes to the releases

  18. Composition and methods for improved fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H.; Tanneru, Sathishkumar; Gajjela, Sanjeev K.

    2015-12-29

    Certain embodiments of the present invention are configured to produce boiler and transportation fuels. A first phase of the method may include oxidation and/or hyper-acidification of bio-oil to produce an intermediate product. A second phase of the method may include catalytic deoxygenation, esterification, or olefination/esterification of the intermediate product under pressurized syngas. The composition of the resulting product--e.g., a boiler fuel--produced by these methods may be used directly or further upgraded to a transportation fuel. Certain embodiments of the present invention also include catalytic compositions configured for use in the method embodiments.

  19. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  20. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  1. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  2. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  3. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  4. A Survey of Alternate Fuels and Their Suitability for Use by the U.S. Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    2005). Some fungi can break down cellulose, and the fungus Trichoderma reesei is used in some processes for this purpose, producing glucose for...feedstocks used to produce ethanol. These include such materials as corn, sugar cane, sugar beets, whey lactose, wheat straw, and various grasses such as...Formanek, Mackie, and Blasckek, 1997). This effort utilized corn products as the biomass. Other workers have investigated the fermentation of wheat

  5. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  6. Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.R.; Meyer, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic uranium alloys are candidate materials for use as the fuel phase in very-high-density LEU dispersion fuels. These ductile alloys cannot be converted to powder form by the processes routinely used for oxides or intermetallics. Three methods of powder production from uranium alloys have been investigated within the US-RERTR program. These processes are grinding, cryogenic milling, and hydride-dehydride. In addition, a gas atomization process was investigated using gold as a surrogate for uranium. (author)

  7. Readability and the Production of Instructional Text in the Royal Navy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    images became blurred. A finding of particular irrpor- tance for the Royal Navy was by Brand et al [6]. They found that the actual movemnt or rotion of a...Organisation 3. Headings 4. Typography 5. Clarity of words 6. Questions 7. Clarity of structure 8. Complex material 9. Illustrations 10. Colour 11...Illustrations, Tables, Graphs and Charts. (Hartley 1978) - 6B - 4. Typography Legibility is the most important factor in the printed page. Before any significance

  8. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  9. Fuel Lubricity Impact on Shipboard Engine and Fuel Systems and Sensitivity of U.S. Navy Diesel Engines to Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    load fuel and operated with a dummy injector to make sure the system was clean. The rig was de -fueled and a fresh charge of 2000-gram fuel was added...the rocker arm on the injector. The rocker arm contact was repositioned when it was noted it was hitting the injector off-center, and it was felt...going up. Figure B6. DD 149 Unit Injector with Diesel Fuel and Centered Rocker Arm Figure B7. Wear Rate Deviation Attributed to Head

  10. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  11. Production costs of liquid fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This project was undertaken to provide a consistent and thorough review of the full range of processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass to compare both alternative technologies and processes within those technologies in order to identify the most promising opportunities that deserve closer attention. Thermochemical conversion includes both indirect liquefaction through gasification, and direct liquefaction through pyrolysis and liquefaction in pressurized solvents. Biochemical conversion is based on a different set of feedstocks. Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis are included followed by fermentation. The liquid products considered include gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons and conventional alcohol fuels of methanol and ethanol. Results are given both as absolute fuel costs and as a comparison of estimated cost to market price. In terms of absolute fuel costs, thermochemical conversion offers the lowest cost products, with the least complex processes generally having an advantage. Biochemical routes are the least attractive. The most attractive processes from comparing production costs to product values are generally the alcohol fuels which enjoy a higher market value. (author)

  12. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy; Kania, John

    2018-01-23

    Methods, reactor systems, and catalysts are provided for converting in a continuous process biomass to fuels and chemicals, including methods of converting the water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  13. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  14. Viability of fuel cells for car production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, J.-P. [Renault, Trappes (France); Lisse, J.-P. [P.S.A., Trappes (France); Bernard, S. [Alten, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    The two French car manufacturers PSA Peugeot Citroen and Renault both sell pure electric cars in an effort to reduce pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, they have each studied fuel cell car prototypes in relation to the FEVER program for Renault and the HYDRO-GEN program for PSA. In 1999, the two manufacturers joined forces in a common program to evaluate the technical, economical and environmental viability of the fuel cell vehicle potential. The joint program has active contributions by Air Liquid, the French Atomic Energy Agency, De Nora Fuel Cells, Elf-Antar-France, Totalfina and Valeo. This paper highlighted many of the components of this program and the suitability of this new technology for industrial production at a cost competitive price. Certain automotive constraints have to be considered to propose vehicles which could provide good performance in varying temperature and operating conditions. Safety is also an important concern given that the vehicles are powered by hydrogen and a high voltage power source. Another challenges is the choice of the fuel and the economic cost of a new refueling infrastructure. Recycling was suggested as a means to recover expensive fuel cell system components such as precious catalysts, bipolar plates, membranes and other main specific parts of the fuel cell vehicle. This paper also discussed issues regarding the thermal management of the fuel cell power plant and air conditioning of the vehicles. figs.

  15. Water for energy and fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Yatish T

    2014-01-01

    Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy-hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water's use as a direct source of energy and fuel-such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways-but also: Describes water's benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water's role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst-as well as steam's role as a reactant-for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feed...

  16. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2003-03-01

    The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

  17. Nuclear fuel particle and method of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner-Loffler, M.

    1975-01-01

    The core consisting of fuel oxide (UO 2 or Th or Pu oxide) of a fuel particle coated with carbon-contained material is enriched with a small addition (max 6 wt.%) of a Ba or Sr compound (atomic ratio for nuclear fuel oxide Ba being 5 - 10 : 1) which is to prevent fission products breaking the protective carbon and/or silicon carbide coating; the Ba or Sr molybdate generated is to reduce the pressure of the carbon dioxide produced. Methods to manufacture such nuclear fuel particles are proposed where 1) an agglomerisation and shaping of the spheres in a fast cycling bowle and 2) a formation of drops from a colloidal solution which are made to congeal in a liquid paraffin column, take place followed by the pyrolytic coating of the particles. (UWI/LH) [de

  18. Navy Mobility Fuels Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-20

    1040 - - - 15 - Carnauba Wax - 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 MT Carbon 15 - - 15 - - Austin Black 325 - 20 20 20 20 20 G-1000 Resin* - 5 5 5 5 - Na Stearate 2...14310-91 -11 -22 -32 -41 -53 -63 73-6 Aflas 100H 100 Nordel 1040 15 Carnauba Wax 1.5 Austin Black 325 30 204 Teflon T-8A 5 10 5 5 10 B-3000 10 20...to Evaluate Effect of Silane Plasticizer in Aflas/EPDM Blend Parts by Weight Aflas lOOH 100 Nordel 1040 15 Carnauba Wax 1.5 Sample 14919-48A* 30 Diak

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  20. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed

  1. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  2. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  3. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-23

    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  5. Navy.mil - Photo Galleries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personnel Command (NPC) Navy SAPR Navy EEO Inclusion And Diversity Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System (OPSEC) Navy Trademarks Military One Source USA.gov U.S. Office of Special Counsel Social Media Directory Links Navy Reserve Navy.mil Underway Navy Personnel Command (NPC) Navy SAPR Navy EEO Inclusion And

  6. Liquefaction of Biorefinery Lignin for Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders

    at higher loadings. The effect of increased reaction time was found to be beneficial for oil yields but also caused an increase in solvent consumption and so there is a trade-off where a compromise has to be found in the event of an up scaled reaction. The reactions that cause solvent consumption during......Lignocellulosic biorefineries can be an important piece of the puzzle in fighting climate change. Present, biorefineries that produce ethanol from lignocellulose are challenged in working on market terms as the two product streams ethanol and lignin are low value products. The aim of this project...... has been to increase the value of the lignin stream. Recent regulations on shipping exhaust gasses in coastal waters dictate lower sulfur emissions which require ships to use low sulfur fuels for propulsion. This opens or expands a very large market for low sulfur fuels because a shift from...

  7. Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marketing Horizons, Inc.

    2001-11-19

    The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

  8. Concepts for fusion fuel production blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1986-06-01

    The fusion blanket surrounds the burning hydrogen core of the fusion reactor. It is in this blanket that most of the energy released by the DT fusion reaction is converted into useable product, and where tritium fuel is produced to enable further operation of the reactor. Blankets will involve new materials, conditions and processes. Several recent fusion blanket concepts are presented to illustrate the range of ideas

  9. Annotated Bibliography of Diversity Research Issues in the Navy and U. S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burress, Landrus; Uriell, Zannette A; Kee, Amanda R; Rosenfeld, Paul; Alderton, David L

    2008-01-01

    ... and parenthood in the Navy. Recently, top Navy leadership has expressed support for an encompassing diversity framework to guide Navy policy in these areas with the goals being to maximize teamwork and productivity so as to...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908.7109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE...

  11. Logistics model for the optimization of class III supplies (fuels, grease and lubricants of the National Navy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giver Mora García

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to propose a more sophisticated tool than the current logistic model provides to the needs of the National Navy, through a methodological analysis of internal and external factors (Eyring, 1970, its simulation in a specialized platform, its schematization and identification of the causes that led to its development; all of the above in order to promote through a restructuring, the basis for a process that satisfies the need for optimum form and constant innovation. The proposed model was developed through the application of public procurement tolos (Colombian Congress, 1993 and institutional management and technological innovation procedures (Presidencia de la Republica, 2015.

  12. Behavior of fission products released from severely damaged fuel during the PBF severe fuel damage tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Broughton, J.M.; Rest, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of fission product release behavior during the first two Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests are presented. Measured fission product release is compared with calculated release using temperature dependent release rate correlations and FASTGRASS analysis. The test results indicate that release from fuel of the high volatility fission products (Xe, Kr, I, Cs, and Te) is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature; namely fuel/fission product morphology, fuel and cladding oxidation state, extent of fuel liquefaction, and quench induced fuel shattering. Fission product transport from the test fuel through the sample system was strongly influenced by chemical effects. Holdup of I and Cs was affected by fission product chemistry, and transport time while Te release was primarily influenced by the extent of zircaloy oxidation. Analysis demonstrates that such integral test data can be used to confirm physical, chemical, and mechanistic models of fission product behavior for severe accident conditions

  13. Solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, F.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), operating in a mixture of fuel and oxidant gases, provides several advantages over the conventional SOFC such as simplified cell structure (no sealing required). SC-SOFC allows using a variety of fuels without carbon deposition by selecting appropriate electrode materials and cell operating conditions. The operating conditions of single chamber SOFC was studied using hydrocarbon-air gas mixtures for a cell composed of NiO-YSZ / YSZ / LSCF-Ag. The cell performance and catalytic activity of the anode was measured at various gas flow rates. The results showed that the open-circuit voltage and the power density increased as the gas flow rate increased. Relatively high power densities up to 660 mW/cm 2 were obtained in a SC-SOFC using porous YSZ electrolytes instead of dense electrolytes required for operation of a double chamber SOFC. In addition to propane- or methane-air mixtures as a fuel source, the cells were also tested in a double chamber configuration using hydrogen-air mixtures by controlling the hydrogen/air ratio at the cathode and the anode. Simulation of single chamber conditions in double chamber configurations allows distinguishing and better understanding of the electrode reactions in the presence of mixed gases. Recent research efforts; the effect of hydrogen-air mixtures as a fuel source on the performance of anode and cathode materials in single-chamber and double-chamber SOFC configurations,will be presented. The presentation will address a review on hydrogen production by utilizing of reversible SOFC systems. (author)

  14. Fuel Pellets Production from Biodiesel Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawalin Chaiyaomporn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research palm fiber and palm shell were used as raw materials to produce pelletised fuel, and waste glycerol were used as adhesive to reduce biodiesel production waste. The aim of this research is to find optimum ratio of raw material (ratio of palm fiber and palm shell, raw material size distribution, adhesive temperature, and ratio of ingredients (ratio of raw material, waste glycerol, and water. The optimum ratio of pelletized fuel made only by palm fiber was 50:10:40; palm fiber, water, and waste glycerol respectively. In the best practice condition; particle size was smaller than 2 mm, adhesive glycerol was heated. From the explained optimum ratio and ingredient, pelletizing ratio was 62.6%, specific density was 982.2 kg/m3, heating value was 22.5 MJ/kg, moisture content was 5.9194%, volatile matter was 88.2573%, fix carbon content was 1.5894%, and ash content was 4.2339% which was higher than the standard. Mixing palm shell into palm fiber raw material reduced ash content of the pellets. The optimum raw material ratio, which minimizes ash content, was 80 to 20 palm fiber and palm shell respectively. Adding palm shell reduced ash content to be 2.5247% which was higher than pelletized fuel standard but followed cubed fuel standard. At this raw material ratio, pelletizing ratio was 70.5%, specific density was 774.8 kg/m3, heating value was 19.71 MJ/kg, moisture content was 9.8137%, volatile matter was 86.2259%, fix carbon content was 1.4356%, and compressive force was 4.83 N. Pelletized fuel cost at optimum condition was 1.14 baht/kg.

  15. Drying characteristics of thorium fuel corrosion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.-E. E-mail: rzl@inel.gov

    2004-07-01

    The open literature and accessible US Department of Energy-sponsored reports were reviewed for the dehydration and rehydration characteristics of potential corrosion products from thorium metal and thorium oxide nuclear fuels. Mixed oxides were not specifically examined unless data were given for performance of mixed thorium-uranium fuels. Thorium metal generally corrodes to thorium oxide. Physisorbed water is readily removed by heating to approximately 200 deg. C. Complete removal of chemisorbed water requires heating above 1000 deg. C. Thorium oxide adsorbs water well in excess of the amount needed to cover the oxide surface by chemisorption. The adsorption of water appears to be a surface phenomenon; it does not lead to bulk conversion of the solid oxide to the hydroxide. Adsorptive capacity depends on both the specific surface area and the porosity of the thorium oxide. Heat treatment by calcination or sintering reduces the adsorption capacity substantially from the thorium oxide produced by metal corrosion.

  16. Traversing the mountaintop: world fossil fuel production to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Richard

    2009-10-27

    During the past century, fossil fuels--petroleum liquids, natural gas and coal--were the dominant source of world energy production. From 1950 to 2005, fossil fuels provided 85-93% of all energy production. All fossil fuels grew substantially during this period, their combined growth exceeding the increase in world population. This growth, however, was irregular, providing for rapidly growing per capita production from 1950 to 1980, stable per capita production from 1980 to 2000 and rising per capita production again after 2000. During the past half century, growth in fossil fuel production was essentially limited by energy demand. During the next half century, fossil fuel production will be limited primarily by the amount and characteristics of remaining fossil fuel resources. Three possible scenarios--low, medium and high--are developed for the production of each of the fossil fuels to 2050. These scenarios differ primarily by the amount of ultimate resources estimated for each fossil fuel. Total fossil fuel production will continue to grow, but only slowly for the next 15-30 years. The subsequent peak plateau will last for 10-15 years. These production peaks are robust; none of the fossil fuels, even with highly optimistic resource estimates, is projected to keep growing beyond 2050. World fossil fuel production per capita will thus begin an irreversible decline between 2020 and 2030.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  19. Panorama 2011: Water in fuel production Oil production and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabzar, L.

    2011-01-01

    Water plays a vital role in the production of fuels. Against a background of extremely high pressure to do with the need to protect the environment, better manage energy use and operate in a socially responsible manner - as well as the need to protect water as a resource and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, water management has become a major issue for the oil industry. These issues have all more or less been factored into the integrated water management programmes which have been introduced both in oil production and oil refining. These programmes have been designed to keep waste and emissions to a minimum, and to reduce the quantities of water required. (author)

  20. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  1. Fuel and fission product release from sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, H.

    1992-01-01

    The NALA program at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe is concerned with the release of fuel and fission products from hot or boiling sodium pools (radiological secondary source term) in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor accident scenario with tank failure. The main concern is to determine retention factors (RF), to uncover the most essential parameters that influence the RF values, and to describe the way they do it. In the framework of the last NALA series, NALA IIIc, the influence of sodium-concrete interaction was investigated, partly with subsequent sodium burning. In our experiments, ∼3 kg of sodium and added pieces of concrete reaching from 4 to 40 g was used. The composition of the concrete was suitable for shielding and construction as used in the SNR-300 reactor. Fuel was simulated by 20-μm particles of depleted UO 2 , and CeO 2 , NaI, and TeO 2 were used as fission products. Most experiments were performed in an inert argon gas atmosphere with monitored hydrogen development. In some cases, the preheated pool was allowed to come into contact with ambient air, which caused an ordinary sodium fire. For the latter case, we used the 220-m 3 FAUNA vessel as an outer containment and collected the fire aerosols by a trap and subsequent filters for analysis

  2. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewable...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  3. Recent advances in fuel product and manufacturing process development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slember, R.J.; Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses advancements in commercial nuclear fuel products and manufacturing made by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation in response to the commercial nuclear fuel industry's demand for high reliability, increased plant availability and improved operating flexibility. The features and benefits of Westinghouse's most advanced fuel products--VANTAGE 5 for PWR plants and QUAD+ for BWR plants--are described, as well as 'high performance' fuel concepts now under development for delivery in the late 1980s. The paper also disusses the importance of in-process quality control throughout manufacturing towards reducing product variability and improving fuel reliability. (author)

  4. Potential for fuel production from crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurduc, N.; Teaci, D.; Serbanescu, E.; Hartia, S.

    1986-07-01

    Studies conducted during the last few years show that the various ecological conditions in Romania determine different pathways of energetic phytomass production and transformation into fuel. There are approximately 22 million ha of land covered by terrestrial vegetation of which 10 million is arable land and one-fifth of this is of poor productivity. Waters cover approximately 0.7 million ha. The technologies used for the production of energetic phytomass from various agricultural, forest and aquatic species tend to yield 20-25 t of dry matter for the terrestrial forms and 20-40 t of dry matter for the aquatic ones; this represents a mean annual output of 2000-2500 l of ethanol per ha. For agricultural lands having a high fertility, the following species were shown to be important from an energy point of view: sugar beet (roots), sweet sorghum at the milk-dough stage, kernel maize, Jerusalem artichoke (tubers and green above-ground parts), potatoes (tubers), and oil rape. Some laticiferous plants are also being studied. On fertile soils in the southern irrigated areas, high yields of energetic phytomass were obtained in stubble crops with maize, sorghum X Sudan grass and grain sorghum. Investigations are being conducted with a view to improving the fertility of poorly productive soils, which cannot be used for agricultural purposes at the present time. 3 figs., 6 tabs., 2 refs.

  5. Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

  6. Production of wood fuels from young forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpilahti, A.

    1998-01-01

    National forest invention data shows that more than 200 000 ha of thinnings should be carried out annually. The stemwood accumulation corresponding to this is about 13 million m 3 . The share of industrial wood is about 5.7 million m 3 , so the energy wood potential is about 7.0 million m 3 . Because the growing stock can use the nutrients liberated from logging residues the topwood mass should not be totally harvested, and at the barren areas it should not be harvested at all. Even the difficult terrain restricts in some extent the harvesting of logging residues. After these reductions the economically harvestible energy wood potential has been estimated to be 5.1 million m 3 corresponding to about 0.9 million toe. The amount of first thinnings has during the last few years been only about one third of the need. The accumulation in the first thinning phase could be about 40-80 m 3 /ha. The annual young stand treatment area has usually been about 200 000 ha, but during the last few years it has remained to a little over 100 000 ha. Harvesting of wood fuels from young stands, based on a lot-chipping method and the traditional production chains, was investigated in the national Bioenergy Research Programme. Equipment of suitable size and price are needed for harvesting of small-diameter trees. The profitability of mechanized harvesting can be improved significantly if the single-tree processing is replaced with multi- tree processing. Multi-tree harvesting can be carried out in all production chains, felling-bunching, in partial and pulpwood harvesting, as well as with bare felling machines and harvesters. About 60 % of the stems were processed with a prototype machine, tested in treatment of young forests. About 70 % of fellings in felling-bunching, already in commercial use, was processed as multi- tree processing, and about 80 % in the partial-tree harvesting. The felling of pulpwood as partial trees was about 25-30 % faster as multi-tree processing than with

  7. Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    ...; and using sail and solar power. Reducing energy use on Navy ships. A 2001 study concluded that fitting a Navy cruiser with more energy-efficient electrical equipment could reduce the ship's fuel use by 10% to 25...

  8. Impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, C.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van den Berghe, S.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains a series of papers presented at SCK-CEN's workshop on the impact of fuel chemistry on fission product behaviour. Contributing authors discuss different processes affecting the behaviour of fission products in different types of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, a number of papers discusses the behaviour of actinides and fission products released from spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste in geological disposal conditions

  9. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis

  10. (Fuel, fission product, and graphite technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, O.M.

    1990-07-25

    Travel to the Forschungszentrum (KFA) -- Juelich described in this report was for the purpose of participating in the annual meeting of subprogram managers for the US/DOE Umbrella Agreement for Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Technology. At this meeting the highlights of the cooperative exchange were reviewed for the time period June 1989 through June 1990. The program continues to contribute technology in an effective way for both countries. Revision 15 of the Subprogram Plan will be issued as a result of the meeting. There was interest expressed by KFA management in the level of support received from the NPR program and in potential participation in the COMEDIE loop experiment being conducted at the CEA.

  11. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  12. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-01-01

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO 2 ) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality

  13. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. LeStrange

    1999-11-15

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

  14. BNFL pushes fuel production into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, Mark.

    1992-01-01

    When the New Oxide Fuels Complex (NOFC) begins commercial production in May 1995, its operators will have one of the world's most advanced fuel production facilities, designed to compete on international markets by using the latest technology and exploiting economies of scale. British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL's) multi-million pound investment in its Springfields fuel operation is a bold move, aimed at gaining a greater share of the oxide fuel business worldwide. The complex is designed to achieve fuel cost savings and increase the site's manufacturing capacity. The building itself will bring all current fuel production operations at Springfields under one roof, merging five plants into one. Automation will ensure further economies through the use of automated guided vehicles (AGVs) for product transfer, walking beam furnaces for pellet sintering and on-line inspection and handling of pellets and pins. The use of a binderless route for AGR (advanced gas-cooled reactor) fuel means much of the manufacturing process for both AGR and PWR (pressurised water reactor) fuels will proceed on a single line, thereby reducing the fixed costs of both fuels. Two other features which contribute to cost savings are production flexibility which allows both non-irradiated and oxide reprocessed materials to follow the same route and longer kilns which increase the throughput. It is estimated that overall NOFC will reduce fuel manufacturing costs by some 40%. (author)

  15. Production of leu high density fuels at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A large number of fuel elements of all types are produced for both international and domestic customers by Nuclear Fuel Division of Babcock and Wilcox. A brief history of the division, included previous and present research reactor fuel element fabrication experience is discussed. The manufacturing facilities are briefly described. The fabrication of LEU fuels and economic analysis of the production are included. (A.J.)

  16. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  17. Liquid fuel production from hemicellulose. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    Hemicellulose was derived from a variety of pretreated wood substrates. A variety of different fungi was screened for the ability of their culture filtrates to hydrolyse hemicellulose to its composite sugars. Three strains of Clostridia were screened to see which could produce higher amounts of solvents from those sugars. C. acetobutylicum proved to produce highest amounts of butanol and conditions for maximum solvent production by this anaerobe were defined. Six strains of facultative anaerobes were screened for their ability to produce power solvents from hemicellulose derived sugars. Klebsiella pneumoniae could efficiently utilize all the major sugars present in wood hemicellulose with 2,3-butanediol being the major end product. The conditions for maximum diol production by K. pneumoniae grown on sugars normally found in hemicellulose hydrolysates were defined. The utilization of wood hemicellulose hydrolyzates by microorganisms for the production of liquid fuels was investigated. Pretreatment of aspen wood by steam-explosion was optimized with respect to maximizing the pentosan yields in the water-soluble fractions of steam-treated substrates. These fractions were then hydrolyzed by dilute sulphuric acid or by the xylanase enzyme(s) present in the culture filtrates of Trichoderma harzianum. The relative efficiencies of hydrolysis were compared with respect to the release of reducing sugars and monosaccharides. The hemicellulose hydrolyzates were then used as substrates for fermentation. Butanediol yields of 0.4-0.5 g per g of sugar consumed were achieved using K. pneumoniae up to 0.16 g butanol could be attained per g of hemicellulose sugar utilized. 102 refs., 50 figs., 169 tabs.

  18. Product Conversion: The Link between Separations and Fuel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, L.K.; Vedder, R.J.; Walker, E.A.; Collins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Several chemical processing flowsheets are under development for the separation and isolation of the actinide, lanthanide, and fission product streams in spent nuclear fuel. The conversion of these product streams to solid forms, typically oxides, is desired for waste disposition and recycle of product fractions back into transmutation fuels or targets. The modified direct denitration (MDD) process developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980's offers significant advantages for the conversion of the spent fuel products to powder form suitable for direct fabrication into recycle fuels. A glove-box-contained MDD system and a fume-hood-contained system have been assembled at ORNL for the purposes of testing the co-conversion of uranium and mixed-actinide products. The current activities are focused on the conversion of the first products from the processing of spent nuclear fuel in the Coupled End-to-End Demonstration currently being conducted at ORNL. (authors)

  19. An Evaluation of a Fission Product Inventory for CANDU Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jong Yeob; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Fission products are released by two processes when a single channel accident occurs. One is a 'prompt release' and the other is a 'delayed release'. Prompt release assumes that the gap inventory of the fuel elements is released by a fuel element failure at the time of an accident. Delayed release assumes that the inventories within the grain or at the grain boundary are released after a accident due to a diffusion through grains, an oxidation of the fuel and an interaction between the fuel and the Zircaloy sheath. Therefore, the calculation of a fission product inventory and its distribution in a fuel during a normal operating is the starting point for the assessment of a fission product release for single channel accidents. In this report, the fission product inventories and their distributions within s fuel under a normal operating condition are evaluated for three types of CANDU fuels such as the 37 element fuel, CANFLEX-NU and CANFLEX-RU fuel bundles in the 'limiting channel'. To accomplish the above mentioned purposes, the basic power histories for each type of CANDU fuel were produced and the fission product inventories were calculated by using the ELESTRES code

  20. On Cherenkov light production by irradiated nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branger, E.; Grape, S.; Svärd, S. Jacobsson; Jansson, P.; Sundén, E. Andersson

    2017-01-01

    Safeguards verification of irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in wet storage is frequently done by measuring the Cherenkov light in the surrounding water produced due to radioactive decays of fission products in the fuel. This paper accounts for the physical processes behind the Cherenkov light production caused by a single fuel rod in wet storage, and simulations are presented that investigate to what extent various properties of the rod affect the Cherenkov light production. The results show that the fuel properties have a noticeable effect on the Cherenkov light production, and thus that the prediction models for Cherenkov light production which are used in the safeguards verifications could potentially be improved by considering these properties. It is concluded that the dominating source of the Cherenkov light is gamma-ray interactions with electrons in the surrounding water. Electrons created from beta decay may also exit the fuel and produce Cherenkov light, and e.g. Y-90 was identified as a possible contributor to significant levels of the measurable Cherenkov light in long-cooled fuel. The results also show that the cylindrical, elongated fuel rod geometry results in a non-isotropic Cherenkov light production, and the light component parallel to the rod's axis exhibits a dependence on gamma-ray energy that differs from the total intensity, which is of importance since the typical safeguards measurement situation observes the vertical light component. It is also concluded that the radial distributions of the radiation sources in a fuel rod will affect the Cherenkov light production.

  1. Radioactive characteristics of spent fuels and reprocessing products in thorium fueled alternative cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Mitsuru

    1978-09-01

    In order to provide one fundamental material for the evaluation of Th cycle, compositions of the spent fuels were calculated with the ORIGEN code on following fuel cycles: (1) PWR fueled with Th- enriched U, (2) PWR fueled with Th-denatured U, (3) CANDU fueled with Th-enriched U and (4) HTGR fueled with Th-enriched U. Using these data, product specifications on radioactivity for their reprocessing were calculated, based on a criterion that radioactivities due to foreign elements do not exceed those inherent in nuclear fuel elements, due to 232 U in bred U or 228 Th in recovered Th, respectively. Conclusions are as the following: (1) Because of very high contents of 232 U and 228 Th in the Th cycle fuels from water moderated reactors, especially from PWR, required decontamination factors for their reprocessing will be smaller by a factor of 10 3 to 10 4 , compared with those from U-Pu fueled LWR cycle. (2) These less stringent product specifications on the radioactivity of bred U and recovered Th will justify introduction of some low decontaminating process, with additional advantage of increased proliferation resistance. (3) Decontamination factors required for HTGR fuel will be 10 to 30 times higher than for the other fuels, because of less 232 U and 228 Th generation, and higher burn-up in the fuel. (author)

  2. Electronuclear fissile fuel production. Linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer LAFR and LAFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1978-04-01

    A linear accelerator fuel generator is proposed to enrich naturally occurring fertile U-238 or thorium 232 with fissile Pu-239 or U-233 for use in LWR power reactors. High energy proton beams in the range of 1 to 3 GeV energy are made to impinge on a centrally located dispersed liquid lead target producing spallation neutrons which are then absorbed by a surrounding assembly of fabricated LWR fuel elements. The accelerator-target design is reviewed and a typical fuel cycle system and economic analysis is presented. One 300 MW beam (300 ma-1 GeV) linear accelerator fuel regenerator can provide fuel for 3 to 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors over its 30-year lifetime. There is a significant saving in natural uranium requirement which is a factor of 4.5 over the present LWR fuel requirement assuming the restraint of no fissile fuel recovery by reprocessing. A modest increase (approximately 10%) in fuel cycle and power production cost is incurred over the present LWR fuel cycle cost. The linear accelerator fuel regenerator and producer assures a long-term supply of fuel for the LWR power economy even with the restraint of the non-proliferation policy of no reprocessing. It can also supply hot-denatured thorium U-233 fuel operating in a secured reprocessing fuel center

  3. Safety assessment for Dragon fuel element production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1963-11-01

    This report shall be the Safety Assessment covering the manufacture of the First Charge of Fuel and Fuel Elements for the Dragon Reactor Experiment. It is issued in two parts, of which Part I is descriptive and Part II gives the Hazards Analysis, the Operating Limitations, the Standing Orders and the Emergency Drill. (author)

  4. Fission product phases in irradiated carbide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Sharpe, B.M.; Taylor, R.G.

    1975-09-01

    Oxide fuels have been widely adopted as 'first charge' fuels for demonstration fast reactors. However, because of the improved breeding characteristics, carbides are being investigated in a number of laboratories as possible advanced fuels. Irradiation experiments on uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium carbides have been widely reported but the instances where segregate phases have been found and subjected to electron probe analysis are relatively few. Several observations of such segregate phases have now been made over a period of time and these are collected together in this document. Some seven fuel pins have been examined. Two of the irradiations were in thermal materials testing reactors (MTR); the remainder were experimental assemblies of carbide gas bonded oxycarbide and sodium bonded oxycarbide in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). All fuel pins completed their irradiation without failure. (author)

  5. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  6. Production process and quality control for the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimuta, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kaneko, M.; Fukuda, K.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the production and inspection technology for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel has been carried out by cooperative work between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd (NFI). The performance and the quality level of the developed fuel are well established to meet the design requirements of the HTTR. For the commercial scale production of the fuel, statistical quality control and quality assurance must be carefully considered in order to assure the safety of the HTTR. It is also important to produce the fuel under well controlled process condition. To meet these requirements in the production of the HTTR fuel, a new production process and quality control system is to be introduced in the new facilities. The main feature of the system is a computer integrated control system. Process control data at each production stage of products and semi-products are all gathered by terminal computers and processed by a host computer. The processed information is effectively used for the production, quality and accountancy control. With the aid of this system, all the products will be easily traceable from starting materials to final stages and the statistical evaluation of the quality of products becomes more reliable. (author). 8 figs

  7. Nuclear fuel pellet production method and nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression-molding UO 2 powders followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition of about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 , a sintering agent at a ratio of 10 to 500 ppm based on the total amount of UO 2 and UO 2 powders are mixed, compression molded and then sintered at a sintering temperature of about 1500 of 1800degC. The UO 2 particles have an average grain size of about 20 to 60μm, most of the crystal grain boundary thereof is coated with a glassy or crystalline alumina silicate phase, and the porosity is about 1 to 4 vol%. With such a constitution, the sintering agent forms a single liquid phase eutectic mixture during sintering, to promote a surface reaction between nuclear fuel powders by a liquid phase sintering mechanism, increase their density and promote the crystal growth. Accordingly, it is possible to lower the softening temperature, improve the creep velocity of the pellets and improve the resistance against pellet-clad interaction. (T.M.)

  8. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  9. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na 3 MO 4 , where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na 3 MO 4 observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig

  10. Fuel cycle related parametric study considering long lived actinide production, decay heat and fuel cycle performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Damian, F.; Lenain, R.; Lecomte, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the very attractive HTGR reactor characteristics is its highly versatile and flexible core that can fulfil a wide range of diverse fuel cycles. Based on a GTMHR-600 MWth reactor, analyses of several fuel cycles were carried out without taking into account common fuel particle performance limits (burnup, fast fluence, temperature). These values are, however, indicated in each case. Fuel derived from uranium, thorium and a wide variety of plutonium grades has been considered. Long-lived actinide production and total residual decay heat were evaluated for the various types of fuel. The results presented in this papers provide a comparison of the potential and limits of each fuel cycle and allow to define specific cycles offering lowest actinide production and residual heat associated with a long life cycle. (author)

  11. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  12. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  13. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike, E-mail: mtk@mail.utexas.edu [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States); Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh [Intitute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively 'new' cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th{sup 232}-U{sup 233} conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO{sub 2} matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U{sup 235} fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  14. Reprocessing free nuclear fuel production via fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion fission hybrids, driven by a copious source of fusion neutrons can open qualitatively “new” cycles for transmuting nuclear fertile material into fissile fuel. A totally reprocessing-free (ReFree) Th 232 –U 233 conversion fuel cycle is presented. Virgin fertile fuel rods are exposed to neutrons in the hybrid, and burned in a traditional light water reactor, without ever violating the integrity of the fuel rods. Throughout this cycle (during breeding in the hybrid, transport, as well as burning of the fissile fuel in a water reactor) the fissile fuel remains a part of a bulky, countable, ThO 2 matrix in cladding, protected by the radiation field of all fission products. This highly proliferation-resistant mode of fuel production, as distinct from a reprocessing dominated path via fast breeder reactors (FBR), can bring great acceptability to the enterprise of nuclear fuel production, and insure that scarcity of naturally available U 235 fuel does not throttle expansion of nuclear energy. It also provides a reprocessing free path to energy security for many countries. Ideas and innovations responsible for the creation of a high intensity neutron source are also presented.

  15. Technology and Navy Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golfin, Peggy

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996, CNA has participated on a Technology Task Force established by the Commander, Navy Recruiting Command, to address several issues concerning the use of technology and Navy recruiting...

  16. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  17. Fission product release by fuel oxidation after water ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of data obtained by a literature search, a computer code has been established for the calculation of the degree of oxidation of the fuel in the damaged fuel particles, and hence of the fission product release as a function of the time period of steam ingress. (orig.) [de

  18. Fission product induced swelling of U–Mo alloy fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured fuel swelling of U–Mo alloy by fission products at temperatures below 250 °C. ► We quantified the swelling portion of U–Mo by fission gas bubbles. ► We developed an empirical model as a function of fission density. - Abstract: Fuel swelling of U–Mo alloy was modeled using the measured data from samples irradiated up to a fission density of ∼7 × 10 27 fissions/m 3 at temperatures below ∼250 °C. The overall fuel swelling was measured from U–Mo foils with as-fabricated thickness of 250 μm. Volume fractions occupied by fission gas bubbles were measured and fuel swelling caused by the fission gas bubbles was quantified. The portion of fuel swelling by solid fission products including solid and liquid fission products as well as fission gas atoms not enclosed in the fission gas bubbles is estimated by subtracting the portion of fuel swelling by gas bubbles from the overall fuel swelling. Empirical correlations for overall fuel swelling, swelling by gas bubbles, and swelling by solid fission products were obtained in terms of fission density.

  19. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10 6 y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (β-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products

  20. Bioenergy Research Programme. Yearbook 1994. Production of wood fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1995-01-01

    BIOENERGIA Research Programme is one of energy technology programmes of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry (in 1995 TEKES, Technology Development Center). The aim of Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels and new equipment and methods for production, handling and using of biofuels. The funding for 1994 was nearly 50 million FIM and projects numbered 60. The main goal of the production of wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m 3 ). There were 27 projects in 1994 for research on wood fuel production. This part of the yearbook 1994 presents the main results of these projects. The wood reserves do not limit the obtainability of the target. Research and development work has, however, directed to development of equipment and research on wood fuels production chains. Many devices, designed for both separate and integrated production of wood fuels became ready or were becoming ready for prototyping, to be used for production tests. Results of the biomass harvesting and properties research were obtained for utilization in 1994. According to the results it is possible to obtain the desired targets both in integrated and separated production of wood fuels. (author)

  1. Low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal for the production of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-01-01

    Properties and uses of low-temperature coke for producing ferrosilicon, CaC/sub 2/ generator gas and water gas, as a fuel for boilers and household use and as a diluent for coking coal, and the properties and uses of low-temperature tar, gasoline, gas, and liquefied gas are described. By using a circulating gas, it is possible to obtain in low-temperature carbonization of bituminous coal a fuel oil for the navy. Aging-test data of such an oil are given. Several plants in Upper Silesia, using the Lurgi circulation process are producing a fuel oil that meets specification.

  2. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  3. Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moncada Botero, J. (Jonathan)

    Key words: Fuel-ethanol, cassava, Tanzania, process modelling. INTRODUCTION ..... mathematical calculations such as Matlab, Octave and Polymath were also ... models. To start the different simulation procedures in ethanol production, a.

  4. Production of Solar Fuels by Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Irtem, Ibrahim Erdem

    2017-01-01

    Growing global emission of carbon dioxide gas (CO2) reflects the world’s energy dependence on fossil fuels. The conversion of CO2 emission into value-added products, like fuels completes a circular CO2 economy which requires a renewable energy conversion and storage system. Amongst a few, photo/electrochemistry has been particularly appealing thanks to its energy efficiency and enormous potential for industrial applications. Formic acid (HCOOH) production from CO2 reduction appears as an al...

  5. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  6. A crop production ecology (CPE) approach to sustainable production of biomass for food, feed and fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Conijn, J.G.; Ruijter, de F.J.

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid increase in demand for agricultural products for food, feed and fuel, concerns are growing about sustainability issues. Can agricultural production meet the needs of increasing numbers of people consuming more animal products and using a larger share of crops as fuel for transport,

  7. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part III. Fission product migration in HTR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabielek, H.; Hick, H.; Wagner-Loffler, M.; Voice, E. H.

    1974-06-15

    A general introduction and literature survey to the physics and mathematics of fission product migration in HTR fuel is given as well as a review of available experimental results and their evaluation in terms of models and materials data.

  8. Selection and development of advanced nuclear fuel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, David L.; Miller, Richard S.; Arnsberger, Peter L.

    2004-01-01

    The highly competitive international marketplace requires a continuing product development commitment, short development cycle times and timely, on-target product development to assure customer satisfaction and continuing business. Westinghouse has maintained its leadership position within the nuclear fuel industry with continuous developments and improvements to fuel assembly materials and design. This paper presents a discussion of the processes used by Westinghouse in the selection and refinement of advanced concepts for deployment in the highly competitive US and international nuclear fuel fabrication marketplace. (author)

  9. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.

    2007-01-01

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO 2 ], nitrous oxide [N 2 O], and methane [CH 4 ]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO x ], sulfur oxide [SO x ], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM 10 ]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most

  10. Fission product release from fuel of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.; Marks, P.; Klisinska, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains a review of theoretical models and experimental works of gaseous and volatile fission products from uranium dioxide fuel. The experimental results of activity release at low burnup and the model of fission gas behaviour at initial stage of fuel operational cycle are presented. Empirical models as well as measured results of transient fission products release rate in the temperature up to UO 2 melting point, with consideration of their chemical reactions with fuel and cladding, are collected. The theoretical and experimental data were used for calculations of gaseous and volatile fission products release, especially iodine and caesium, to the gas volume of WWER-1000 and WWER-440 type fuel rods at low and high burnup and their further release from defected rods at the assumed loss-of-coolant accident. (author)

  11. Fission product release from TRIGA-LEU reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, N.L.; Foushee, F.C.; Greenwood, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Due to present international concerns over nuclear proliferation, TRIGA reactor fuels will utilize only low-enriched uranium (LEU) (enrichment <20%). This requires increased total uranium loading per unit volume of fuel in order to maintain the appropriate fissile loading. Tests were conducted to determine the fractional release of gaseous and metallic fission products from typical uranium-zirconium hydride TRIGA fuels containing up to 45 wt-% uranium. These tests, performed in late 1977 and early 1978, were similar to those conducted earlier on TRIGA fuels with 8.5 wt-% U. Fission gas release measurements were made on prototypic specimens from room temperature to 1100 deg. C in the TRIGA King Furnace Facility. The fuel specimens were irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at a low power level. The fractional releases of the gaseous nuclides of krypton and xenon were measured under steady-state operating conditions. Clean helium was used to sweep the fission gases released during irradiation from the furnace into a standard gas collection trap for gamma counting. The results of these tests on TRIGA-LEU fuel agree well with data from the similar, earlier tests on TRIGA fuel. The correlation used to calculate the release of fission products from 8.5 wt-% U TRIGA fuel applies equally well for U contents up to 45 wt-%. (author)

  12. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  13. Fuel behavior and fission product release under HTGR accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Hayashi, K.; Shiba, K.

    1990-01-01

    In early 1989 a final decision was made over construction of a 30 MWth HTGR called the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR, in Japan in order to utilize it for high temperature gas engineering tests and various nuclear material tests. The HTTR fuel is a pin-in-block type fuel element which is composed of a hexagonal graphite block with dimension of 580 mm in length and 360 mm in face-to-face distance and about 30 of the fuel rods inserted into the coolant channels drilled in the block. The TRISO coated fuel particles for HTTR are incorporated with graphite powder and phenol resin into the fuel compacts, 19 of which are encased into a graphite sleeve as a fuel rod. It is necessary for the HTTR licensing to prove the fuel stability under predicted accidents related to the high temperature events. Therefore, the release of the fission products and the fuel failure have been investigated in the irradiation---and the heating experiments simulating these conditions at JAERI. This report describes the HTTR fuel behavior at extreme temperature, made clear in these experiments

  14. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  15. Three generation production biotechnology of biomass into bio-fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    The great change of climate change, depletion of natural resources, and scarcity of fossil fuel in the whole world nowadays have witnessed a sense of urgency home and abroad among scales of researchers, development practitioners, and industrialists to search for completely brand new sustainable solutions in the area of biomass transforming into bio-fuels attributing to our duty-that is, it is our responsibility to take up this challenge to secure our energy in the near future with the help of sustainable approaches and technological advancements to produce greener fuel from nature organic sources or biomass which comes generally from organic natural matters such as trees, woods, manure, sewage sludge, grass cuttings, and timber waste with a source of huge green energy called bio-fuel. Biomass includes most of the biological materials, livings or dead bodies. This energy source is ripely used industrially, or domestically for rather many years, but the recent trend is on the production of green fuel with different advance processing systems in a greener. More sustainable method. Biomass is becoming a booming industry currently on account of its cheaper cost and abundant resources all around, making it fairly more effective for the sustainable use of the bio-energy. In the past few years, the world has witnessed a remarkable development in the bio-fuel production technology, and three generations of bio-fuel have already existed in our society. The combination of membrane technology with the existing process line can play a vital role for the production of green fuel in a sustainable manner. In this paper, the science and technology for sustainable bio-fuel production will be introduced in detail for a cleaner world.

  16. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  17. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  18. Fuel element production at BWX technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Brett

    1997-01-01

    Effective July 1, 1997, the Government Group portion of the Babcock and Wilcox company was incorporated separately to become BWX Technologies, Inc. (BWXT) a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Babcock and Wilcox Company. The names of the divisions and other business units of the former Babcock and Wilcox Government Group (Advanced Systems Operations, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, and Nuclear Equipment Division) will remain unchanged, but they are now known as divisions or business units of BWXT. The management of all units and their reporting relationships will likewise remain unchanged. (author)

  19. Production of pellets for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    A method for producing nuclear fuel pellets each made up of a central portion and an outer annular portion surrounding the central portion, the two portions differing in composition. Such pellets are termed annular-layered pellets. The method comprises the steps of pressing powdered refractory material which has been granulated to form separately a central portion and an outer annular portion, assembling the portions together, compacting the assembly and sintering the compact. The portions are bonded together during sintering. The difference in composition may include a difference in density or isotopic enrichment as well as a chemical difference. (author)

  20. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  1. Target-fueled nuclear reactor for medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.; Parma, Edward J.

    2017-06-27

    A small, low-enriched, passively safe, low-power nuclear reactor comprises a core of target and fuel pins that can be processed to produce the medical isotope .sup.99Mo and other fission product isotopes. The fuel for the reactor and the targets for the .sup.99Mo production are the same. The fuel can be low enriched uranium oxide, enriched to less than 20% .sup.235U. The reactor power level can be 1 to 2 MW. The reactor is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days.

  2. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de, E-mail: mcostac@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  3. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  4. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  5. Fission product release from HTGR coated microparticles and fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Deryugin, A.I.; Lyutikov, R.A.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of fission products release from microparticles with UO 2 core and five-layer HII PyC- and SiC base protection layers of TRICO type as well as from spherical fuel elements based thereon. It is shown that relative release of short-lived xenon and crypton from microparticles does not exceed (2-3) 10 -7 . The release of gaseous fission products from fuel elements containing no damaged coated microparticles, is primarily determined by the contamination of matrix graphite with fuel. An analytical dependence is derived, the dependence described the relation between structural parameters of coated microparticles, irradiation conditions and fuel burnup at which depressurization of coated microparticles starts

  6. FREVAP-6, Metal Fission Products Release from HTGR Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The FREVAP type of code for estimating the release of longer-lived metallic fission products from HTGR fuel elements has been developed to take into account the combined effects of the retention of metallic fission products by fuel particles and the rather strong absorption of these fission products by the graphite of the fuel elements. Release calculations are made on the basis that the loss of fission product nuclides such as strontium, cesium, and barium is determined by their evaporation from the graphite surfaces and their transpiration induced by the flowing helium coolant. The code is devised so that changes of fission rate (fuel element power), fuel temperature, and graphite temperature may be incorporated into the calculation. Temperature is quite important in determining release because, in general, both release from fuel particles and loss by evaporation (transpiration) vary exponentially with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. NESC0301/02: This version differs from the previous one in the following points: The source and output files were converted from BCD to ASCII coding. 2 - Method of solution: A problem is defined as having a one-dimensional segment made up of three parts - (1) the fission product source (fuel particles) in series with, (2) a non-source and absorption part (element graphite) and (3) a surface for evaporation to the coolant (graphite-helium interface). More than one segment may be connected (possibly segments stacked axially) by way of the coolant. At any given segment, a continuity equation is solved assuming equilibrium between the source term, absorption term, evaporation at coolant interface and the partial pressure of the fission product isotope in the coolant. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5 isotopes; 10 time intervals for time-dependent variable; 49 segments (times number of isotopes); 5 different output print time-steps

  7. Metallic fission product releases from HTR-spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmbold, M.; Amian, W.; Stoever, D.; Hecker, R.

    1978-01-01

    Fission product releases from fuel determines to a large extent the feasibility of a special reactor concept. Basic data describing the diffusion behaviour from coated particle fuel are presented concerning isotopes Cs 137 , Sr 90 and Agsup(110m). Taking into account these data for typical 3000MWth plants release calculations are performed. Sensitive release parameters could be defined and the results show low release figures for all the considered reactor concepts. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  9. Bio-fuels production and the environmental indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de Paula [Mechanical Engineering Department/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, Gavea, CEP 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Muylaert de Araujo, Maria Silvia [Energy and Environment Planning Program/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, sala 211, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The paper evaluates the role of the bio-fuels production in the transportation sector in the world, for programs of greenhouse gases emissions reductions and sustainable environmental performance. Depending on the methodology used to account for the local pollutant emissions and the global greenhouse gases emissions during the production and consumption of both the fossil and bio-fuels, the results can show huge differences. If it is taken into account a life cycle inventory approach to compare the different fuel sources, these results can present controversies. A comparison study involving the American oil diesel and soybean diesel developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presents CO{sub 2} emissions for the bio-diesel which are almost 20% of the emissions for the oil diesel: 136 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the bio-diesel from soybean and 633 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the oil diesel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Besides that, important local environmental impacts can also make a big difference. The water consumption in the soybean production is much larger in comparison with the water consumption for the diesel production [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Brazil has an important role to play in this scenario because of its large experience in bio-fuels production since the seventies, and the country has conditions to produce bio-fuels for attending great part of the world demand in a sustainable pathway. (author)

  10. Economic consequences of QA and QC in fuel and fuel assembly production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The planning of quality control and quality assurance programs for fuel fabrication must balance the cost of the programs, their effectiveness, and the economic consequences of failure to meet the product specifications. The cost of fuel failures can be very high in comparison to the cost of quality control, and this provides considerable economic justification for increasing the level of quality control if its effectiveness in reducing failure potential can be demonstrated. Typical costs and examples are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Process for production of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1947-03-14

    The process comprises continually passing a current of carbonaceous material, finely divided in a vertical zone of reaction, finely divided carbonaceous material raised to a fluidized state dispersed in gas flowing from the bottom to the top carrying into the zone of reaction an oxidizing gas in sufficient quantity to supply the heat for combustion by burning part of the carbonaceous material withdrawing from the zone of reaction the products of the combustible fluids, withdrawing from the zone the solid carbonaceous products of the reaction and reacting a part of the lesser products left in a second zone of reaction by means of steam to produce oxides of carbon and hydrogen.

  12. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    faster development of metabolically engineered strains that can be used for production of fuels and chemicals. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used for production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials. Through metabolic engineering of this yeast a number of novel industrial...... as for metabolic design. In this lecture it will be demonstrated how the Design-Build-Test cycle of metabolic engineering has allowed for development of yeast cell factories for production of a range of different fuels and chemicals. Some examples of different technologies will be presented together with examples......Metabolic engineering relies on the Design-Build-Test cycle. This cycle includes technologies like mathematical modeling of metabolism, genome editing and advanced tools for phenotypic characterization. In recent years there have been advances in several of these technologies, which has enabled...

  13. Fission product released experiment of coated fuel particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijiang, Xu; Bing, Yang; Chunhe, Tang; Junguo, Zhu; Jintao, Huang; Binzhong, Zhang [Inst. of Nucl. Energy Technology, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Jinghan, Luo [Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    1992-01-15

    Four samples of coated fuel particles were irradiated in the Heavy-Water Research Reactor of the Institute of Atomic Energy. Each of them was divided into two groups and irradiated to the burn up of 0.394% fima and 0.788% fima in two static capsules, respectively. After irradiation and cooling, post irradiation annealing experiment was carried out, the release ratios of the fission product {sup 133}Xe and {sup 131}I were measured, they are in the order of 10{sup -6}{approx}10{sup -7}. The fission product release ratio of naked kernel was also measured under the same conditions as for the coated fuel particles, the ratio of the fission product release of the coated fuel particles and of the naked kernel was in the order of 10{sup -5}{approx}10{sup -4}.

  14. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport. Refs, figs, tabs.

  15. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  16. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  17. HOMER Economic Models - US Navy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Jason William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Myers, Kurt Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This LETTER REPORT has been prepared by Idaho National Laboratory for US Navy NAVFAC EXWC to support in testing pre-commercial SIREN (Simulated Integration of Renewable Energy Networks) computer software models. In the logistics mode SIREN software simulates the combination of renewable power sources (solar arrays, wind turbines, and energy storage systems) in supplying an electrical demand. NAVFAC EXWC will create SIREN software logistics models of existing or planned renewable energy projects at five Navy locations (San Nicolas Island, AUTEC, New London, & China Lake), and INL will deliver additional HOMER computer models for comparative analysis. In the transient mode SIREN simulates the short time-scale variation of electrical parameters when a power outage or other destabilizing event occurs. In the HOMER model, a variety of inputs are entered such as location coordinates, Generators, PV arrays, Wind Turbines, Batteries, Converters, Grid costs/usage, Solar resources, Wind resources, Temperatures, Fuels, and Electric Loads. HOMER's optimization and sensitivity analysis algorithms then evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of these technology options and account for variations in technology costs, electric load, and energy resource availability. The Navy can then use HOMER’s optimization and sensitivity results to compare to those of the SIREN model. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) possesses unique expertise and experience in the software, hardware, and systems design for the integration of renewable energy into the electrical grid. NAVFAC EXWC will draw upon this expertise to complete mission requirements.

  18. Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, F.

    1981-01-01

    The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels

  19. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) provides numerical guidance and products in support of a wide range of Navy oceanographic and...

  20. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, J D

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered.

  1. Radiolytic production of chemical fuels in fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, J.D.

    1977-06-01

    Miley's energy flow diagram for fusion reactor systems is extended to include radiolytic production of chemical fuel. Systematic study of the economics and the overall efficiencies of fusion reactor systems leads to a criterion for evaluating the potential of radiolytic production of chemical fuel as a means of enhancing the performance of a fusion reactor system. The ecumenicity of the schema is demonstrated by application to (1) tokamaks, (2) mirror machines, (3) theta-pinch reactors, (4) laser-heated solenoids, and (5) inertially confined, laser-pellet devices. Pure fusion reactors as well as fusion-fission hybrids are considered

  2. Overview of biomass and waste fuel resources for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Burnham, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of issues and opportunities associated with the use of biomass for electric power generation. Important physical characteristics of biomass and waste fuels are summarized, including comparisons with conventional fossil fuels, primarily coal. The paper also provides an overview of the current use of biomass and waste fuels for electric power generation. Biomass and waste fuels are currently used for approximately 9,800 megawatts (MW) of electric generating capacity, including about 6,100 MW of capacity fueled by wood/wood waste and about 2,200 MW of capacity fueled with municipal solid waste. Perspectives on the future availability of biomass fuels (including energy crops) are addressed, as well as projected levels of market penetration for biomass power. By the year 2010, there is a potential for 22,000 MW, to as much as 70,000 MW of biomass-powered electric generating capacity in the U.S. Given the range of benefits offered by biomass, including reduced sulfur emissions, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, job creation, rural revitalization impacts, and new incentives under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the potential use of biomass for power production could significantly expand in the future

  3. Quality control in the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic-Popovic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Djuricis, Lj.

    1977-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel and fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and producers fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work of nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future in the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in out country it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level. (author)

  4. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil

  5. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  6. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  7. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  8. Regional analysis of renewable transportation fuels - production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoshuai

    The transportation sector contributes more than a quarter of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable fuels can be a key solution to mitigate GHG emissions from the transportation sector. Particularly, we have focused on land-based production of renewable fuels from landfills and brownfield in the southeastern region of the United States. These so call marginal lands require no direct land-use change to avoid environmental impact and, furthermore, have rendered opportunities for carbon trading and low-carbon intensity business. The resources potential and production capacity were derived using federal and state energy databases with the aid of GIS techniques. To maximize fuels production and land-use efficiency, a scheme of co-location renewable transportation fuels for production on landfills was conducted as a case study. Results of economic modeling analysis indicate that solar panel installed on landfill sites could generate a positive return within the project duration, but the biofuel production within the landfill facility is relatively uncertain, requiring proper sizing of the onsite processing facility, economic scale of production and available tax credits. From the consumers' perspective, a life-cycle cost analysis has been conducted to determine the economic and environmental implications of different transportation choices by consumers. Without tax credits, only the hybrid electric vehicles have lifetime total costs equivalent to a conventional vehicles differing by about 1 to 7%. With tax credits, electric and hybrid electric vehicles could be affordable and attain similar lifetime total costs as compared to conventional vehicles. The dissertation research has provided policy-makers and consumers a pathway of prioritizing investment on sustainable transportation systems with a balance of environmental benefits and economic feasibility.

  9. Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use - Background for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Rourke, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    ...%. The Navy has installed fuel-saving bulbous bows and stern flaps on many of its ships. Ship fuel use could be reduced by shifting to advanced turbine designs such as an intercooled recuperated (ICR) turbine...

  10. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  11. Harnessing Solar Energy for the Production of Clean Fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandit, A.; Holzwarth, A.; de Groot, H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union and its member states are being urged by leading scientists to make a major multi million Euro commitment to solar driven production of environmentally clean electricity, hydrogen and other fuels, as the only sustainable long-term solution for global energy needs. The most

  12. Sustainable Production of Asphalt using Biomass as Primary Process Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    is the heating and drying of aggregate,where natural gas, fuel oil or LPG is burned in a direct-fired rotary dryer. Replacing this energy source with amore sustainable one presents several technical and economic challenges, as high temperatures, short startuptimes and seasonal production variations are required...

  13. Spatial fuel data products of the LANDFIRE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Reeves; Kevin C. Ryan; Matthew G. Rollins; Thomas G. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE) Project is mapping wildland fuels, vegetation, and fire regime characteristics across the United States. The LANDFIRE project is unique because of its national scope, creating an integrated product suite at 30-m spatial resolution and complete spatial coverage of all lands within the 50...

  14. SOEC pathways for the production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    , and the competitive strengths and possible weaknesses of the SOEC technology in comparison with other competing technologies are evaluated. This resulted in a detailed overview of technologies involved in the production cycle of synthetic fuels, description of the proposed pathways and the architecture of the system....

  15. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  16. Commercial Aspect of Research Reactor Fuel Element Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanto, B.G; Suripto, A

    1998-01-01

    Several aspects affecting the commercialization of the Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (RR FEPI) under a BUMN (state-owned company)have been studied. The break event point (BEP) value based on total production cost used is greatly depending upon the unit selling price of the fuel element. At a selling price of USD 43,500/fuel element, the results of analysis shows that the BEP will be reached at 51% of minimum available capacity. At a selling price of US$ 43.500/fuel element the total income (after tax) for 7 years ahead is US $ 4.620.191,- The net present value in this study has a positive value is equal to US $ 2.827.527,- the internal rate of return will be 18% which is higher than normal the bank interest rare (in US dollar) at this time. It is concluded therefore that the nuclear research reactor fuel element produced by state-owned company BUMN has a good prospect to be sold commercially

  17. H2 PRODUCTION AND FUEL CELLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG, X.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCs and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.

  18. Current developments of fuel fabrication technologies at the plutonium fuel production facility, PFPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, K.; Aono, S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Deguchi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, JNC, designed, constructed and has operated the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility, PFPF, at the JNC Tokai Works to supply MOX fuels to the proto-type Fast Breeder Reactor, FBR, 'MONJU' and the experimental FBR 'JOYO' with 5 tonMOX/year of fabrication capability. Reduction of personal radiation exposure to a large amount of plutonium is one of the most important subjects in the development of MOX fabrication facility on a large scale. As the solution of this issue, the PFPF has introduced automated and/or remote controlled equipment in conjunction with computer controlled operation scheme. The PFPF started its operation in 1988 with JOYO reload fuel fabrication and has demonstrated MOX fuel fabrication on a large scale through JOYO and MONJU fuel fabrication for this decade. Through these operations, it has become obvious that several numbers of equipment initially installed in the PFPF need improvements in their performance and maintenance for commercial utilization of plutonium in the future. Furthermore, fuel fabrication of low density MOX pellets adopted in the MONJU fuel required a complete inspection because of difficulties in pellet fabrication compared with high density pellet for JOYO. This paper describes new pressing equipment with a powder recovery system, and pellet finishing and inspection equipment which has multiple functions, such as grinding measurements of outer diameter and density, and inspection of appearance to improve efficiency in the pellet finishing and inspection steps. Another development of technology concerning an annular pellet and an innovative process for MOX fuel fabrication are also described in this paper. (author)

  19. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3) and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  20. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasel Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3 and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  1. Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    collect light energy and separate charge for developing new types of nanobiodevices to construct ”artificial leaf” from solar to fuel. or Concept of...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0054 Artificial Leaf Based on Artificial Photosynthesis for Solar Fuel Production Mamoru Nango NAGOYA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      30-06-2017 2

  2. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  3. A Possible Solution for the U.S. Navy’s Addiction to Petroleum: A Business Case Analysis for Transitioning the U.S. Navy From Petroleum to Synthetic Fuel Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    was calculated using 60 sequential ( ) ’Y t s . 9 As shown by the shaded boxes in Table 2, the price of crude oil was more volatile than the price of...producing liquid fuels alone. [Bajura] Modern plant designs often include a cogeneration lineup that is designed to resell excess electricity to the

  4. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  5. Actinide production in different HTR-fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Hecker, R.; Mirza, N.; Rueckert, M.

    1978-01-01

    At the 'Institut fuer Reaktorentwicklung der Kernforschungsanlage Juelich' the production of α-activities in the following HTR-OTTO cycle concepts were studied: 1. standard HTR cycle (U-Th); 2. low enriched HTR cycle (U-Pu); 3. near breeder HTR cycle (U-Th); 4. combined system (conventional and near breeder HTR). The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The production of α-activity in HTR Uranium-Thorium fuel cycles has been investigated and compared with the standard LWR cycles. The calculations were performed by the short depletion code KASCO and the well-known ORIGEN program

  6. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The seasonal phytoplankton biomass distribution pattern in stratified temperate marine waters is traditionally depicted as consisting of spring and autumn blooms. The energy source supporting pelagic summer production is believed to be the spring bloom. However, the spring bloom disappears...... relatively quickly from the water column and a large proportion of the material sedimenting to the bottom following the spring bloom is often comprised of intact phytoplankton cells. Thus, it is easy to argue that the spring bloom is fueling the energy demands of the benthos, but more difficult to argue...... convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  7. Design and analysis of fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, J.A.; Cardona, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three configurations for fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol using Escherichia coli were simulated and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus, respectively. These assessments considered raw glycerol (60 wt%) purification to both crude glycerol (88 wt%) and pure glycerol (98 wt%). The highest purification cost (PC) was obtained using pure glycerol due to its higher energy consumption in the distillation stage. In addition, the remaining methanol in the raw glycerol stream was recovered and recycled, decreasing the purification costs. The E. coli strain is able to convert crude glycerol (at 10 g/L or 20 g/L), or pure glycerol (at 10 g/L) to ethanol. Among these three glycerol concentrations, the lowest bioconversion cost was obtained when crude glycerol was diluted at 20 g/L. Purification and global production costs were compared with the commercial prices of glycerol and fuel ethanol from corn and sugarcane. Purification costs of raw glycerol were lower than previously reported values due to the methanol recovery. Global production costs for fuel ethanol from glycerol were lower than the reported values for corn-based production and higher than those for cane-based production. (author)

  8. Production of 15N for nitride type nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nitride nuclear fuel is the choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS, considering its favorable properties as: melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in different nuclear reactors requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADSs of radioactive minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Taking into account that at present the world wide 15 N market is about 20 - 40 Kg 15 N/y, the supply of that isotope for nitride type nuclear fuel, would demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N at 99 at. % 15 N concentration, using present technology of 15 N/ 14 N isotopic exchange in Nitrox system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution at a 600 m 3 /h flow-rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for an industrial plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million m 3 /y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of sulfur dioxide and to diminish the amount of sulfuric acid waste solution. It should be taken into consideration an important price reduction of 15 N in order to make possible its utilization for industrial production of nitride type nuclear fuel. (authors)

  9. Discourse of Dissent: Bernard Acworth, the British Anti-Oil Movement and the Royal Navy's Use of Fuels, 1927--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Ian Fraser

    This thesis investigates the interwar expressions of resistance to the use of oil by the British Royal Navy in the period 1927-1937. In particular, it examines the work of Captain Bernard Acworth and the South Wales Back to Coal Movement. It uses a critical geopolitics approach to analyse the ways in which the anti-oil critique framed the social, political, economic and military consequences of Britain's entry into the age of oil; the methods that were used by Acworth and the Back to Coal Movement to give voice to their dissent, and the reception given to their message by official and popular audiences.

  10. Zymomonas mobilis for fuel ethanol and higher value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jeon, Y J; Lee, K J; Lawford, H G

    2007-01-01

    High oil prices, increasing focus on renewable carbohydrate-based feedstocks for fuels and chemicals, and the recent publication of its genome sequence, have provided continuing stimulus for studies on Zymomonas mobilis. However, despite its apparent advantages of higher yields and faster specific rates when compared to yeasts, no commercial scale fermentations currently exist which use Z. mobilis for the manufacture of fuel ethanol. This may change with the recent announcement of a Dupont/Broin partnership to develop a process for conversion of lignocellulosic residues, such as corn stover, to fuel ethanol using recombinant strains of Z. mobilis. The research leading to the construction of these strains, and their fermentation characteristics, are described in the present review. The review also addresses opportunities offered by Z. mobilis for higher value products through its metabolic engineering and use of specific high activity enzymes.

  11. A model for fission product distribution in CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a model to estimate the distribution of active fission products among the UO 2 grains, grain-boundaries, and the free void spaces in CANDU fuel elements during normal operation. This distribution is required for the calculation of the potential release of activity from failed fuel sheaths during a loss-of-coolant accident. The activity residing in the free spaces (''free'' inventory) is available for release upon sheath rupture, whereas relatively high fuel temperatures and/or thermal shock are required to release the activity in the grain boundaries or grains. A preliminary comparison of the model with the data from in-reactor sweep-gas experiments performed in Canada yields generally good agreement, with overprediction rather than under prediction of radiologically important isotopes, such as I 131 . The model also appears to generally agree with the ''free'' inventory release calculated using ANS-5.4. (author)

  12. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  13. Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities

  14. Improving fuel utilization in open-hearth production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozin, S Ye

    1981-01-01

    According to calculations, open-hearth shops employing oxygen can save from 20-25 kilograms of conventional fuel per ton of steel with O/sub 2/ consumption of 40-50 cubic meters per ton. Research indicates that O/sub 2/ is used most effectively during that melt period which can be shortened to the maximum extent. The use of paired lance oil nozzles with tilted jets which work in sync with reversing of the primary flame made it possible to increase furnace output by 2-3% and reduce fuel consumption by 2-3%. When building new, or rehabilitating existing, KU (expansion not given) and other equipment in the gas removal section, allowance must be made for the prospects of intensification of the process, variation in the resistance of the furnace during a run and other factors. Proper planning of preventive maintenance is essential for fuel conservation. It is well known that the specific fuel consumption increases by 10-20%, and steel production drops, during the final third than open-hearth furnance run. The possible margin for increasing output of open-hearth furnaces amounts to 10-20%, and 5-15% in terms of fuel economy. The primary elements involved in controlling the heat conditions are the study of the furnace operating indicators as a function of the mode parameters and periodic checking of the combustion performance and draft conditions; there must be increased interest in using and fulfilling the most progressive norms.

  15. Irradiated fuel by-product separation research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, M.

    1984-01-01

    Although no decision has been made to reprocess irradiated CANDU fuel, by-product separation research has recently been initiated in Canada because of its potential importance to Canadian research programs in advanced fuel cycles (especially U/Pu cycle development in the near term) and nuclear waste management. In addition, separated by-products could have a significant commercial potential. Demonstrated applications include: heat sources, gamma radiation sources, light sources, new materials for productions of other useful isotopes, etc. For illustrative purposes the calculated market value of by-products currently stored in irradiated CANDU fuel is approximately $210/kgU. Ontario Hydro has initiated a program to study the application of new separation technolgies, such as laser-based techniques and the plasma ion cyclotron resonance separation technique, to either augment and/or supplant the chemical extraction methods. The main goal is to develop new, more economical extraction methods in order to increase the magnitude of the advantages resulting from this approach to reprocessing. (author)

  16. Characterization of Catalyst Materials for Production of Aerospace Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lauren M.; De La Ree, Ana B.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to environmental, economic, and security issues, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to non-petroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. Additionally, efforts are concentrated on reducing costs coupled with fuel production from non-conventional sources. One solution to this issue is Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid technology. Fischer-Tropsch processing of synthesis gas (CO/H2) produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fisher-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur or aromatic compounds. This process is most commonly catalyzed by heterogeneous (in this case, silver and platinum) catalysts composed of cobalt supported on alumina or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Physisorption, chemisorptions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are described to better understand the potential performance of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt on alumina catalysts promoted with silver and platinum. The overall goal is to preferentially produce C8 to C18 paraffin compounds for use as aerospace fuels. Progress towards this goal will eventually be updated and achieved by a more thorough understanding of the characterization of catalyst materials. This work was supported by NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing and In-situ Resource Utilization projects.

  17. Fission Product Release from Spent Nuclear Fuel During Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Zino, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    The Melt-Dilute process consolidates aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel by melting the fuel assemblies and diluting the 235U content with depleted uranium to lower the enrichment. During the process, radioactive fission products whose boiling points are near the proposed 850 degrees C melting temperature can be released. This paper presents a review of fission product release data from uranium-aluminum alloy fuel developed from Severe Accident studies. In addition, scoping calculations using the ORIGEN-S computer code were made to estimate the radioactive inventories in typical research reactor fuel as a function of burnup, initial enrichment, and reactor operating history and shutdown time.Ten elements were identified from the inventory with boiling points below or near the 850 degrees C reference melting temperature. The isotopes 137Cs and 85Kr were considered most important. This review serves as basic data to the design and development of a furnace off-gas system for containment of the volatile species

  18. Behavior of solid fission products in irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ung Sup; Jung, Yang Hong; Kim, Hee Moon; Yoo, Byun Gok; Kim, Do Sik; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2004-01-01

    Many fission products are generated by fission events in UO 2 fuel under irradiation in nuclear reactor. Concentration of each fission product is changed by conditions of neutron energy spectrum, fissile material, critical thermal power, irradiation period and cooling time. Volatile materials such as Cs and I, the fission products, degrade nuclear fuel rod by the decrease of thermal conductivity in pellet and the stress corrosion cracking in cladding. Metal fission products (white inclusion) make pellet be swelled and decrease volume of pellet by densification. It seems that metal fission products are filled in the pore in pellet and placed between UO 2 lattices as interstitial. In addition, metal oxide state may change structural lattice volume. Considering behavior of fission products mentioned above, concentration of them is important. Fission products could be classified as bellows; solid solution in matrix : Sr, Zr, Nb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm - metal precipitates : Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Te - oxide precipitates : Ba, Zr, Nb, Mo, (Rb, Cs, Te) - volatile and gases : Kr, Xe, Br, I, (Rb, Cs, Te)

  19. Measurement of fission product release during LWR fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; King, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    The PBF is a specialized test reactor consisting of an annular core and a central test space 21 cm in diameter and 91 cm high. A test loop circulates coolant through the central experimental section at typical power reactor conditions. Light-water-reactor-type fuel rods are exposed to power bursts simulating reactivity insertion transients, and to power-cooling-mismatch conditions during which the rods are allowed to operate in film boiling. Fission product concentrations in the test loop coolant are continuously monitored during these transients by a Ge(Li) detector based gamma spectrometer. Automatic batch processing of pulse height spectra results in a list of radionuclide concentrations present in the loop coolant as a function of time during the test. Fission product behavior is then correlated to test parameters and posttest examination of the fuel rods. Data are presented from Test PCM-1

  20. Recoil release of fission products from nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical approximation is developed for calculating recoil release from nuclear fuel into gas filled interspaces. This expression is evaluated for a number of interspace geometries and shown to be generally accurate to within about 10% by comparison with numerical calculations. The results are applied to situations of physical interest and it is demonstrated that recoil can be important when modelling fission product release from low temperature CAGR pin failures. Furthermore, recoil can contribute significantly in experiments on low temperature fission product release, particularly where oxidation enhancement of this release is measured by exposing the fuel to CO 2 . The calculations presented here are one way of allowing for this, other methods are suggested. (orig.)

  1. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  2. Product conveying system for 10 MeV electron beam accelerator for electron beam centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.; Lavale, D.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Assadullah, M.; Sabharwal, S.

    2003-01-01

    In industrial radiation processing applications using accelerators, product conveying system plays a vital role in exposing the product to high energy electron beam for imparting specified dose to the product and delivering required through puts. The speed of the conveyor corresponds to a definite time of exposure of the product in the radiation zone. Design of suitable conveyor system for a variety of products with differing dose requirements call for a conveyor with wide speed range. This paper discusses the design features of a suitable under beam conveyor system for 10 MeV, 10 kW accelerator for processing a range of products including medical and food products

  3. Navy Lodge Environmental Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ... only. The Proposed Action would include constructing and operating a 2-story, 50-unit Navy Lodge, with lobby, front desk, offices, housekeeping space, guest laundromat, vending area, utility rooms...

  4. Utilisation of coal for energy production in fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a brief characterization of fuel cell technology and its possible application in sustainable energy development was described. Special attention was paid to direct carbon fuel cell technology. The direct carbon fuel cell is an electrochemical device which directly converts the chemical energy of carbonaceous based fuel into electricity without ‘flame burning’. The electrical efficiency of a DCFC is indeed very high (in practice exceeding 80%, and the product of conversion consists of almost pure CO2, eliminating the most expensive step of sequestration: the separation of carbon from flue gases. In this paper the process of electrochemical oxidation of carbon particles on the surface of oxide electrolytes at 8% mol Y2O3 in ZrO2 (8YSZ as well as cermet anode Ni-8YSZ was analysed. The graphite, carbon black powders were considered as reference solid fuels for coal samples. It was found that the main factors contributing to the electrochemical reactivity of carbon particles is not only the high carbon content in samples but also structural disorder. It was found that structurally disordered carbon-based materials are the most promising solid fuels for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells. Special impact was placed on the consideration of coal as possible solid fuels for DC-SOFC. Statistical and economic analyses show that in the coming decades, in developing countries such as China, India, and some EU countries, coal-fuelled power plants will maintain their strong position in the power sector due to their reliability and low costs as well as the large reserves of coal and lignite in the world. Coal is mined in politically stable areas, which guarantees its easy and safe purchase and transport. The impact of the physiochemical properties of raw and purified coal on the performance of the DC-SOFC was studied. An analysis of the stability of electrical parameters was performed for a DC-SOFC operating under a load over an extended

  5. Organizational Analysis of Energy Manpower Requirements in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Since 1987, the Navy has been producing clean power through the use of geothermal power plants at the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake. Figure 6...traditional petroleum-based fuel. (From Navy, 2011).....................................10  Figure 5.  The Navy 1 geothermal plant near COSO Hot Springs...photovoltaic, nuclear, biomass, geothermal , and intelligent design of facilities in an attempt to move away from traditional energy sources. Geographical

  6. Economic evaluation of fissile fuel production using resistive magnet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.C. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    The application of resistive magnet tokamaks to fissile fuel production has been studied. Resistive magnets offer potential advantages over superconducting magnets in terms of robustness, less technology development required and possibility of demountable joints. Optimization studies within conservatively specified constraints for a compact machine result in a major radius of 3.81 m and 618 MW fusion power and a blanket space envelope of 0.35 m inboard and 0.75 m outboard. This machine is called the Resistive magnet Tokamak Fusion Breeder (RTFB). A computer code was developed to estimate the cost of the resistive magnet tokamak breeder. This code scales from STARFIRE values where appropriate and calculates costs of other systems directly. The estimated cost of the RTFB is $3.01 B in 1984 dollars. The cost of electricity on the same basis as STARFIRE is 42.4 mills/kWhre vs 44.9 mills/kWhre for STARFIRE (this does not include the fuel value or fuel cycle costs for the RTFB). The breakeven cost of U 3 O 8 is $150/lb when compared to a PWR on the once through uranium fuel cycle with no inflation and escalation. On the same basis, the breakeven cost for superconducting tokamak and tandem mirror fusion breeders is $160/lb and $175/lb. Thus, the RTFB appears to be competitive in breakeven U 3 O 8 cost with superconducting magnet fusion breeders and offers the potential advantages of resistive magnet technology

  7. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  8. The production of refined intermediate fuels with high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    Power plants can be divided into conventional steam plants, fueled with hard coal, lignite or liquid fuel, hydroelectric plants and nuclear plants, their chief use was or is the production of electric energy and - in certain cases only - of production of process heat, using steam or hot water for process heat in industry and district heating for residential and commercial purposes. The part played by electricity in the whole energy demand is of the order of 10% to 25% the total demand, the rest is necessary for supplying process heat below 200 0 C or above 200 0 C, up to some 1500 0 C. The present distribution of energy demands is covered chiefly by liquid fuel, coal and lignite, water energy and increasing steps by nuclear fuel. It is well known that the erection of nuclear energy plants is a necessity for today and for the future. There is another necessity, i.e. to utilize the primary energy resources in a complex way i.e. to supply electricity as energy vector and other fuels as process heat as new energy vectors. These manmade fuels - whether in a gaseous or liquid phase - contain hydrogen, and one can believe, the world is entering a new energy civilisation in utilizing hydrogen and its compounds as second energy vector. The author has taken up the task to investigate this new problem of process, heat in the form of hydrogen and its compounds, by evaluating their present and future production, based on the utilization of natural gas, oil coal, water and the nuclear heat of helium, available in a closed circuit as primary coolant in a High - Temeprature Helium cooled reactor, which is symbolized in the paper as HTR. The paper deals in more detail with the following application of Nuclear Heat: hydrogasification, direct reduction of ore, mainly iron ores, ammonia synthesis, methanol synthesis Hydrocracking, long distance transfer of process heat (chemical heat pipe), hydrogenation of coal, Fischer - Tropsch synthesis, oxosynthesis, coal gasification, coal

  9. Production, quality and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes characterization, classification, production, application and quality assurance of Refuse Derived Fuels (RDFs) that are increasingly used in a wide range of co-incineration plants. It is shown in this paper, that the fuel-parameter, i.e. net calorific value [MJ/kg(OS)], particle size d(90) or d(95) [mm], impurities [w%], chlorine content [w%], sulfur content [w%], fluorine content [w%], ash content [w%], moisture [w%] and heavy metals content [mg/kg(DM)], can be preferentially used for the classification of different types of RDF applied for co-incineration and substitution of fossil-fuel in different industial sectors. Describing the external production of RDF by processing and confectioning of wastes as well as internal processing of waste at the incineration plant, a case study is reported on the application of RDF made out of different household waste fractions in a 120,000t/yr Waste to Energy (WtE) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. For that purpose, delivered wastes, as well as incinerator feedstock material (i.e. after internal waste processing) are extensively investigated. Starting with elaboration of sampling plan in accordance with the relevant guidelines and standards, waste from different suppliers was sampled. Moreover, manual sorting analyses and chemical analyses were carried out. Finally, results of investigations are presented and discussed in the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electricity production from microbial fuel cell by using yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorasingha, A.; Souvakon, C.; Boonchom, K.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous search for methods to generate electricity from renewable sources such as water, solar energy, wind, nuclear or chemicals was discussed with particular focus on attaining the full power of the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Under ideal environmental conditions, the only byproducts of a biofuel cell would be water and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The production of energy from renewables such as biomass is important for sustainable development and reducing global emissions of CO 2 . Hydrogen can also be an important component of an energy infrastructure that reduces CO 2 emissions if the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources and used in fuel cells. Hydrogen gas can be biologically produced at high concentration from the fermentation of high sugar substrates such as glucose and sucrose. Some of the issues of MFC design were addressed, including the use of cheap substrates to derive microbial electricity. In the MFC, yeast donates electrons to a chemical electron mediator, which in turn transfers the electrons to an electrode, producing electricity. Experimental results showed that glucose yielded the highest peak voltage, but a semi-processed sugar and molasses were similar to glucose in the electricity production pattern. It was noted that this technology is only at the research stages, and more research is needed before household microbial fuel cells can be made available for producing power for prolonged periods of time. Future research efforts will focus on increasing the efficiency, finding alternatives to hazardous electron mediators and finding new microbes. 12 refs., 6 figs

  11. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  12. Chemical Characterization and Reactivity of Fuel-Oxidizer Reaction Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dennis D.; Dee, Louis A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel-oxidizer reaction product (FORP), the product of incomplete reaction of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants prepared under laboratory conditions and from firings of Shuttle Reaction Control System thrusters, has been characterized by chemical and thermal analysis. The composition of FORP is variable but falls within a limited range of compositions that depend on three factors: the fuel-oxidizer ratio at the time of formation; whether the composition of the post-formation atmosphere is reducing or oxidizing; and the reaction or post-reaction temperature. A typical composition contains methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, methylammonium nitrate, and trace amounts of hydrazinium nitrate and 1,1-dimethylhydrazinium nitrate. Thermal decomposition reactions of the FORP compositions used in this study were unremarkable. Neither the various compositions of FORP, the pure major components of FORP, nor mixtures of FORP with propellant system corrosion products showed any unusual thermal activity when decomposed under laboratory conditions. Off-limit thruster operations were simulated by rapid mixing of liquid monomethylhydrazine and liquid nitrogen tetroxide in a confined space. These tests demonstrated that monomethylhydrazine, methylhydrazinium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, or Inconel corrosion products can induce a mixture of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide to produce component-damaging energies. Damaging events required FORP or metal salts to be present at the initial mixing of monomethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.

  13. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera Frank Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  14. Fission product release from defected nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The release of gaseous (krypton and xenon) and iodine radioactive fission products from defective fuel elements is described with a semi-empirical model. The model assumes precursor-corrected 'Booth diffusional release' in the UO 2 and subsequent holdup in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Transport in the gap is separately modelled with a phenomenological rate constant (assuming release from the gap is a first order rate process), and a diffusivity constant (assuming transport in the gap is dominated by a diffusional process). Measured release data from possessing various states of defection are use in this analysis. One element (irradiated in an earlier experiment by MacDonald) was defected with a small drilled hole. A second element was machined with 23 slits while a third element (fabricated with a porous end plug) displayed through-wall sheath hydriding. Comparison of measured release data with calculated values from the model yields estimates of empirical diffusion coefficients for the radioactive species in the UO 2 (1.56 x 10 -10 to 7.30 x 10 -9 s -1 ), as well as escape rate constants (7.85 x 10 -7 to 3.44 x 10 -5 s -1 ) and diffusion coefficients (3.39 x 10 -5 to 4.88 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s) for these in the fuel-to-sheath gap. Analyses also enable identification of the various rate-controlling processes operative in each element. For the noble gas and iodine species, the rate-determining process in the multi-slit element is 'Booth diffusion'; however, for the hydrided element an additional delay results from diffusional transport in the fuel-to-heath gap. Furthermore, the iodine species exhibit an additional holdup in the drilled element because of significant trapping on the fuel and/or sheath surfaces. Using experimental release data and applying the theoretical results of this work, a systematic procedure is proposed to characterize fuel failures in commercial power reactors (i.e., the number of fuel failures and average leak size)

  15. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  16. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  17. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  18. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  19. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  20. Navy Advertising: Targeting Generation Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT NAVY ADVERTISING : TARGETING GENERATION Z December......study recommends improvements for Navy advertising efficiency by examining characteristics of recruits defined as Generation Z. Data gathered from five

  1. Production and quality control of fuel cladding tubes for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Katsuhiko; Hagi, Shigeki; Anada, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hideaki; Hyodo, Shigetoshi

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent fabrication technology and corrosion resistance study of fuel cladding tubes for LWRs conducted by Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd. started the research on zircaloy in 1957. In 1980, the factory exclusively for the production of cladding tubes was founded, and the mass production system on full scale was established. Thereafter, the various improvement of the production technology, the development of new products, and the heightening of the performance mainly on the corrosion resistance have been tested and studied. Recently, the works in the production processes were almost automated, and the installation of the production lines advanced, and the stabilization of product quality and the rationalization of costs are promoted. Moreover, the development of the zircaloy cladding tubes having high corrosion resistance has been advanced to cope with the long term cycle operation of LWRs hereafter. The features of zircaloy cladding tubes, the manufacturing processes, the improvement of the manufacturing technology, the improvement of the corrosion resistance and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. The standard deviations of some TRISO layer characteristics were diminished while others have become more significant in the larger processing equipment. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products, as equipment was scaled, are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels meeting all fuel quality specifications. (author)

  3. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. This project was sponsored by the USNRC under a broad program of reactor safety studies. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from approx. 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag

  4. Behavior of Nb fission product during nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Investigations on niobium fission product behavior in nitric acid and tributyl phosphate media have been carried out in order to explain the difficulties encountered in separating this element from fissile materials during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The studies have shown that in nitric acid solution, pentavalent niobium has a colloidal hydroxide form. The so-obtained sols were characterized by light scattering, electronic microscopy, electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation methods. In heterogeneous extracting media containing tributyl phosphate and dibutyl phosphoric acid the niobium hydroxide sols could be flocculated by low dibutyl phosphoric acid concentration or extracted into the organic phase containing an excess of dibutyl phosphoric acid [fr

  5. Measurement and characterization of fission products released from LWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.F.; Collins, J.L.; Lorenz, R.A.; Norwood, K.S.; Strain, R.V.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of commercial LWR fuel have been heated under simulated accident conditions to determine the extent and the chemical forms of fission product release. Of the five tests discussed, the fractional releases of Kr, I, and Cs varied from proportional 2% at 1400 0 C to >50% at 2000 0 C; much smaller fractions of Ru, Ag, Sb, and Te were measured in some tests. The major chemical forms in the effluent appeared to include CsI, CsOH, Sb, Te, and Ag. (orig./HP)

  6. Modeling of combustion products composition of hydrogen-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the usage of entropy maximum principal the algorithm and the program of chemical equilibrium calculation concerning hydrogen--containing fuels are devised. The program enables to estimate the composition of combustion products generated in the conditions similar to combustion conditions in heat engines. The program also enables to reveal the way hydrogen fraction in the conditional composition of the hydrocarbon-hydrogen-air mixture influences the harmful components content. It is proven that molecular hydrogen in the mixture is conductive to the decrease of CO, CO 2 and CH x concentration. NO outlet increases due to higher combustion temperature and N, O, OH concentrations in burnt gases. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen production via autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Meissner, J.; Pors, Z.; Cremer, P.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems (IWV 3), D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Palm, C. [BASF Schwarzheide GmbH, Schipkauer Str. 1, Einheit PFO/I, D-01986 Schwarzheide (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Hydrogen, for the operation of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, can be produced by means of autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Experiments, especially with ATR 4, which produces a molar hydrogen stream equivalent to an electrical power in the fuel cell of 3 kW, showed that the process should be preferably run in the temperature range between 700 and 850 . This ensures complete hydrocarbon conversion and avoids the formation of considerable amounts of methane and organic compounds in the product water. Experiments with commercial diesel showed promising results but insufficient long-term stability. Experiments concerning the ignition of the catalytic reaction inside the reformer proved that within 60 s after the addition of water and hydrocarbons the reformer reached 95% of its maximum molar hydrogen flow. Measurements, with respect to reformer start-up, showed that it takes approximately 7 min. to heat up the monolith to a temperature of 340 using an external heating device. Modelling is performed, aimed at the modification of the mixing chamber of ATR Type 5, which will help to amend the homogeneous blending of diesel fuel with air and water in the mixing chamber. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Bioelectricity Production from Microalgae-Microbial Fuel Cell Technology (MMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Costa Carlito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell is an ecological innovative technology producing bioelectricity by utilizing microbes activity. Substituent energy is produced by changing the chemical energy to electrical energy through the catalytic reaction of microorganism. The research aims to find out the potency of bioelectricity produced by microalgae microbial fuel cell technology by utilizing the combination of tapioca wastewater and microalgae cultivation. This research is conducted through the ingredients preparation stage – microalgae culture, wastewater characterization, membrane and graphite activation, and the providing of other supporting equipment. The next stage is the MMFC arrangement, while the last one is bioelectricity measurement. The result of optimal bioelectricity production on the comparison of electrode 2 : 2, the power density is 44,33 mW/m2 on day 6, meanwhile, on that of 1 : 1, 20,18 mW/m2 power density on day 1 is obtained. It shows that bioelectricity can be produced from the combination of tapioca wastewater and microalgae culture through the microalgae-microbial fuel cell (MMFC technology.This research is expected to be a reference for the next research particularly the one that observes the utilizing of microalgae as the part of new and renewable energy sources.

  9. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  10. Commercialization of Navy Advanced Wood Composites (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... This work also demonstrated their useful application in marine structures. These research products solve many problems that the US Navy currently face with repairing and building timber structures on their waterfront...

  11. Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Status, challenges and marketing opportunities for canning navy bean in Kenya. ... improve incomes of smallholder farmers in Kenya; its production and marketing has, however, stagnated. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Aviation Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaRee, Ana B.; Best, Lauren M.; Bradford, Robyn L.; Gonzalez-Arroyo, Richard; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    As the oil supply declines, there is a greater need for cleaner alternative fuels. There will undoubtedly be a shift from crude oil to nonpetroleum sources as a feedstock for aviation (and other transportation) fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process uses a gas mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which is converted into various liquid hydrocarbons; this versatile gas-to-liquid technology produces a complex product stream of paraffins, olefins, and oxygenated compounds such as alcohols and aldehydes. The Fischer-Tropsch process can produce a cleaner diesel oil fraction with a high cetane number (typically above 70) without any sulfur and aromatic compounds. It is most commonly catalyzed by cobalt supported on alumina, silica, or titania or unsupported alloyed iron powders. Cobalt is typically used more often than iron, in that cobalt is a longer-active catalyst, has lower water-gas shift activity, and lower yield of modified products. Promoters are valuable in improving Fischer-Tropsch catalyst as they can increase cobalt oxide dispersion, enhance the reduction of cobalt oxide to the active metal phase, stabilize a high metal surface area, and improve mechanical properties. Our goal is to build up the specificity of the Fischer-Tropsch catalyst while adding less-costly transition metals as promoters; the more common promoters used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are rhenium, platinum, and ruthenium. In this report we will describe our preliminary efforts to design and produce catalyst materials to achieve our goal of preferentially producing C8 to C18 paraffin compounds in the NASA Glenn Research Center Gas-To-Liquid processing plant. Efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center for producing green fuels using non-petroleum feedstocks support both the Sub-sonic Fixed Wing program of Fundamental Aeronautics and the In Situ Resource Utilization program of the Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration program.

  14. High temperature blankets for the production of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of very high temperature blankets to improved efficiency of electric power generation and production of H 2 and H 2 based synthetic fuels is described. The blanket modules have a low temperature (300 to 400 0 C) structure (SS, V, Al, etc.) which serves as the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, and a hot (>1000 0 C) thermally insulated interior. Approximately 50 to 70% of the fusion energy is deposited in the hot interior because of deep penetration by high energy neutrons. Separate coolant circuits are used for the two temperature zones: water for the low temperature structure, and steam or He for the hot interior. Electric generation efficiencies of approximately 60% and H 2 production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70%, depending on design, are projected for fusion reactors using these high temperature blankets

  15. Production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1951-05-16

    A process for the production of gaseous or vaporous fuels from solid carbonaceous materials consists of subjecting the materials in separate zones to at least three successive thermal treatments at least two of which are carried out at different temperature levels. The materials being maintained in zones in the form of beds of finely divided particles fluidized by the passage of gases or vapors upwardly there-through, and recovering product vapors or gases overhead. The total hot gaseous or vaporous effluent and entrained solids from one of the zones is passed directly without separation to another of the zones situated closely adjacent to and vertically above the first named zone in the same vessel, and the heat required in at least one of the thermal treatment zones is supplied at least in part as the sensible heat of residual solids transferred from a thermal treatment zone operated at a higher temperature.

  16. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  18. Characterization of Cassini GPHS fueled clad production girth welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Moyer, M.W.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Placr, A.; Howard, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Fueled clads for radioisotope power systems are produced by encapsulating 238 PuO 2 in iridium alloy cups, which are joined at their equators by gas tungsten arc welding. Cracking problems at the girth weld tie-in area during production of the Galileo/Ulysses GPHS capsules led to the development of a first-generation ultrasonic test for girth weld inspection at the Savannah River Plant. A second-generation test and equipment with significantly improved sensitivity and accuracy were jointly developed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Westinghouse Savannah River Company for use during the production of Cassini GPHS capsules by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The test consisted of Lamb wave ultrasonic scanning of the entire girth weld from each end of the capsule combined with a time-of-flight evaluation to aid in characterizing nonrelevant indications. Tangential radiography was also used as a supplementary test for further evaluation of reflector geometry. Each of the 317 fueled GP HS capsules, which were girth welded for the Cassini Program, was subjected to a series of nondestructive tests that included visual, dimensional, helium leak rate, and ultrasonic testing. Thirty-three capsules were rejected prior to ultrasonic testing. Of the 44 capsules rejected by the standard ultrasonic test, 22 were upgraded to flight quality through supplementary testing for an overall process acceptance rate of 82.6%. No confirmed instances of weld cracking were found

  19. Catalytic production of hydrogen from methanol for mobile, stationary and portable fuel-cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Boris N

    2008-01-01

    Main catalytic processes for hydrogen production from methanol are considered. Various schemes of fuel processors for hydrogen production in stationary, mobile and portable power plants based on fuel cells are analysed. The attention is focussed on the design of catalytic reactors of fuel processors and on the state-of-the-art in the design of catalysts for methanol conversion, carbon monoxide steam conversion and carbon monoxide selective oxidation. Prospects for the use of methanol in on-board fuel processors are discussed.

  20. An Investigation into the Use of 3D Scanning and Printing Technologies in the Navy Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Vinodh, Selvaraj, & Praveen , 2012, p. 380). The use of 3DS and 3DP, according to Vinodh et al. (2012), was particularly useful for implementing an...Selvaraj, T., & praveen , T. (2012). Design and development of agile product development cycle for rotary switches. Journal of Engineering, Design and

  1. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  2. Process for the production of fuel combined articles for addition in block shaped high temperature fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a process for the production of fuel compacts consisting of an isotropic, radiation-resistant graphite matrix of good heat conductivity having embedded therein coated fuel and/or fertile particles for insertion into high temperature fuel elements by providing the coated fuel and/or fertile particles with an overcoat of molding mixture consisting of graphite powder and a thermoplastic resin binder. The particles after the overcoating are provided with hardener and lubricant only on the surface and subsequently are compressed in a die heated to a constant temperature of about 150 0 C, hardened and discharged therefrom as finished compacts

  3. Pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of irradiated MOX fast reactor fuel, testing of the reprocessing process with direct MOX fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormilitzyn, M.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Tselichshev, I.V

    2000-07-01

    One of the advanced technologies for fast reactor fuel recycle is pyro-electrochemical molten salt technology. In 1998 we began to study the next phase of the irradiated oxide fuel reprocessing new process MOX {yields} MOX. This process involves the following steps: - Dissolution of irradiated fuel in molten alkaline metal chlorides, - Purification of melt from fission products that are co-deposited with uranium and plutonium oxides, - Electrochemical co-deposition of uranium and plutonium oxides under the controlled cathode potential, - Production of granulated MOX (crushing,salt separation and sizing), and - Purification of melt from fission products by phosphate precipitation. In 1998 a series of experiments were prepared and carried out in order to validate this process. It was shown that the proposed reprocessing flowsheet of irradiated MOX fuel verified the feasibility of its decontamination from most of its fission products (rare earths, cesium) and minor-actinides (americium, curium)

  4. Pyro-electrochemical reprocessing of irradiated MOX fast reactor fuel, testing of the reprocessing process with direct MOX fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormilitzyn, M.V.; Vavilov, S.K.; Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Chistyakov, V.M.; Tselichshev, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    One of the advanced technologies for fast reactor fuel recycle is pyro-electrochemical molten salt technology. In 1998 we began to study the next phase of the irradiated oxide fuel reprocessing new process MOX → MOX. This process involves the following steps: - Dissolution of irradiated fuel in molten alkaline metal chlorides, - Purification of melt from fission products that are co-deposited with uranium and plutonium oxides, - Electrochemical co-deposition of uranium and plutonium oxides under the controlled cathode potential, - Production of granulated MOX (crushing,salt separation and sizing), and - Purification of melt from fission products by phosphate precipitation. In 1998 a series of experiments were prepared and carried out in order to validate this process. It was shown that the proposed reprocessing flowsheet of irradiated MOX fuel verified the feasibility of its decontamination from most of its fission products (rare earths, cesium) and minor-actinides (americium, curium)

  5. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Institute of Energy, Gebze, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University Faculty of Engineering, Goztepe, 81040 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-03-09

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies. (author)

  6. Reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    PEM fuel cell systems are considered as a sustainable option for the future transport sector in the future. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based transportation fuels into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells on-board of vehicles. In this paper, we compare the results of our simulation studies for 100 kW PEM fuel cell systems utilizing three different major reforming technologies, namely steam reforming (SREF), partial oxidation (POX) and autothermal reforming (ATR). Natural gas, gasoline and diesel are the selected hydrocarbon fuels. It is desired to investigate the effect of the selected fuel reforming options on the overall fuel cell system efficiency, which depends on the fuel processing, PEM fuel cell and auxiliary system efficiencies. The Aspen-HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Process parameters of fuel preparation steps have been determined considering the limitations set by the catalysts and hydrocarbons involved. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel processing system and its operation parameters, and PEM fuel cell characteristics all affect the overall system efficiencies. Steam reforming appears as the most efficient fuel preparation option for all investigated fuels. Natural gas with steam reforming shows the highest fuel cell system efficiency. Good heat integration within the fuel cell system is absolutely necessary to achieve acceptable overall system efficiencies.

  7. Determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the energy production in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakov, M.; Velev, V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach is proposed for the determination of the fuel component in the cost price of the nuclear units production with regards of the difference between the time of the fuel consumption and the energy production. This method gives the opportunity for fuel consumption prognostication, as well as an optimization of both short and long term fueling regimes. This approach permits current update of the economic conditions and the pre-history of the investments. It can be used both for the determination of the fuel component and the full cost price of the energy production in NPPs.(author)

  8. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  9. Storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rita

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. The objective of this work is to develop and test new methods for the storage and production of hydrogen for fuel cells. Six ligand-stabilized hydrides were synthesized and tested as hydrogen storage media for use in portable fuel cells. These novel compounds are more stable than classical hydrides (e.g., NaBH4, LiAlH4) and react to release hydrogen less exothermically upon hydrolysis with water. Three of the compounds produced hydrogen in high yield (88 to 100 percent of the theoretical) and at significantly lower temperatures than those required for the hydrolysis of NaBH4 and LiAlH4. However, a large excess of water and acid were required to completely wet the hydride and keep the pH of the reaction medium neutral. The hydrolysis of the classical hydrides with steam can overcome these limitations. This reaction was studied in a flow reactor and the results indicate that classical hydrides can be hydrolyzed with steam in high yields at low temperatures (110 to 123°C) and in the absence of acid. Although excess steam was required, the pH of the condensed steam was neutral. Consequently, steam could be recycled back to the reactor. Production of hydrogen for large-scale transportation fuel cells is primarily achieved via the steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas or the steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed because the Pt-based electrocatalyst used in the fuel cells is poisoned by its presence. The direct cracking of methane over a Ni/SiO2 catalyst can produce CO-free hydrogen. In addition to hydrogen, filamentous carbon is also produced. This material accumulates on the catalyst and eventually deactivates it. The Ni/SiO2 catalyst

  10. Impact of feedstock quality on clean diesel fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, A.; Stanislaus, A.; Rana, M. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR), Safat (Kuwait)

    2013-06-01

    High sulfur level in diesel fuel has been identified as a major contributor to harmful emissions (sulfur oxides, particulates, etc.) as a result, recent environmental regulations limit the sulfur content of diesel to ultra-low levels in many countries. The diesel fuel specifications are expected to become extremely severe in the coming years. Problem faced by the refiners is the difficulty in meeting the increasing market demand for Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). Global market for middle distillates is increasing steadily and this trend is expected to continue for the next few years. At the same time, the quality of feed streams is declining. The refiners are, thus, required to produce a ULSD from poor feedstocks such as light cycle oil (LCO) and coker gas oil (CGO). The key to achieving deep desulfurization in gas-oil hydrotreater is in understanding the factors that influence the reactivity of the different types of sulfur compounds present in the feed, namely, feedstock quality, catalyst, process parameters, and chemistry of ULSD production. Among those parameters, feedstock quality is most critical. (orig.)

  11. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  12. Bio-fuel co-products in France: perspectives and consequences for cattle food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The development of bio-fuels goes along with that of co-products which can be used to feed animals. After having recalled the political context which promotes the development of renewable energies, this document aims at giving an overview of the impact of bio-fuel co-products on agriculture economy. It discusses the production and price evolution for different crops

  13. Hydrogen production and purification for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Soo Yin

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. Currently, production of hydrogen for fuel cells is primarily achieved via steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas, or steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed due to its adverse effects on the Pt-based electrocatalysts of the PEM fuel cell. Our efforts have focused on production of CO-free hydrogen via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons and purification of H2 via the preferential oxidation of CO. The catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons is an attractive alternative for the production of H2. Previous studies utilizing methane have shown that this approach can indeed produce CO-free hydrogen, with filamentous carbon formed as the by-product and deposited on the catalyst. We have further extended this approach to the decomposition of ethane. In addition to hydrogen and filamentous carbon however, methane is also formed in this case as a by-product. Studies conducted at different temperatures and space velocities suggest that hydrogen is the primary product while methane is formed in a secondary step. Ni/SiO2 catalysts are active for ethane decomposition at temperatures above 500°C. Although the yield of hydrogen increases with temperature, the catalyst deactivation rate also accelerates at higher temperatures. The preferential oxidation of CO is currently used for the purification of CO-contaminated hydrogen streams due to its efficiency and simplicity. Conventional Pt catalysts used for this reaction have been shown to effectively remove CO, but have limited selectivity (i.e., substantial amounts of H 2 also react with O2). Our work focused on alternative catalytic materials, such as Ru and bimetallic Ru-based catalysts (Pt-Ru, Ru

  14. Fast neutron activation analysis of fossil fuels and liquefaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Khalil, S.R.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The problems associated with neutron absorption/thermalization, gamma-ray self-absorption, and variable irradiation and counting geometries associated with the composition, densities and physical states of the samples and standards of fossil fuels are considered. Two sets of liquid organic reagent primary standards and several solid standards are selected and evaluated for use in the determiation of oxygen and nitrogen in coals, coal conversion liquids, and residual solids. Analyses of a number of coals, conversion products and NBS reference standards are presented. Problems associated with selecting a reproducible pre-analysis drying procedure for oxygen determinations in coal and discussed. It is suggested that a brief freeze-drying procedure may result in minimal matrix alternation and yield reproducible values for bulk oxygen contents of coals

  15. Method for the production of nitrogen and hydrogen in a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the production of nitrogen and hydrogen in a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode, comprising the steps of inducing a combustion in a fuel cell, wherein a fuel is supplied to the anode, and air is supplied to the cathode, and with oxygen in the air being

  16. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  17. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Puupolttoaineen tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Center TEKES. The aim of the Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The main goal of the wood fuels research area is to develop new production methods in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels. The total potential of the wood fuel use should be at least 1.0 million toe/a (5.5 million m{sup 3}). During the year 1995 There were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About ten projects was carried out to promote the wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were firewood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. The new machine gives a new logistic solution resulting in high productivity and reasonable operating costs. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 m{sup 3} of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved

  18. A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince-Richard, S.; Whale, M.; Djilali, N.

    2000-01-01

    Fueling is a central issue in the development of fuel cell systems, especially for transportation applications. Which fuels will be used to provide the necessary hydrogen and what kind of production / distribution infrastructure will be required are key questions for the large scale market penetration of fuel cell vehicles. Methanol, gasoline and hydrogen are currently the three most seriously considered fuel options. Primarily because of economic considerations, these energy currencies would all be largely produced from fossil fuel sources in the near future. One problem in using fossil fuel sources as a feedstock is their associated emissions, in particular greenhouse gases. This paper presents some elements of a study currently underway to assess the techno-economic prospects of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

  19. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  20. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  1. Solar fuels production as a sustainable alternative for substituting fossil fuels: COSOLπ project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Romero-Paredes, R.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan José; Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo Alberto; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor Hugo; Villafán-Vidales, Heidi Isabel; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Abanades, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    This article presents, in summary form, the characteristics of COSOLπ development project and some of the results obtained to date. The benefits of the work of this project will include the generation of a not polluting transportable energy feedstock from a free, abundant and available primary energy source, in an efficient method with no greenhouse gas emission. This will help to ensure energy surety to a future transportation/energy infrastructure, without any fuel import. Further technological development of thermochemical production of clean fuels, together with solar reactors and also with the possibility of determining the optical and thermal properties of the materials involved a milestone in the search for new processes for industrialization. With the above in mind, important national academic institutions: UAM, UNAM, CINVESTAV, UACH, UNISON among others, have been promoting research in solar energy technologies. The Goals and objectives are to conduct research and technological development driving high-temperature thermochemical processes using concentrated solar radiation as thermal energy source for the future sustainable development of industrial processes. It focuses on the production of clean fuels such as H2, syngas, biofuels, without excluding the re-value of materials used in the industry. This project conducts theoretical and experimental studies for the identification, characterization, and optimization of the most promising thermochemical cycles, and for the thorough investigation of the reactive chemical systems. It applies material science and nano-engineering to improve chemicals properties and stability upon cycling. The characterization of materials will serve to measure the chemical composition and purity (MOX fraction-1) of each of the samples. The characterizations also focus on the solid particle morphology (shape, size, state of aggregation, homogeneity, specific surface) images obtained from SEM / TEM and BET measurements. Likewise

  2. Technology of the production of breeder fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, P.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the fabrication of oxide and carbide fuels and of the fuel rod for fast breeders (KNK, SNR-300). The advantages of the chosen methods are explained. The main points of development concerning the oxide fuel rod are gone into. The process sequence for plutonium oxide and plutonium carbide processing is presented in a flow chart. (HR) [de

  3. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  4. U.S. Navy: A History of Stagnation and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    nuclear missiles on submarines that the Navy would it reemerge from its funk. The last cycle would be, in part, a product of Vietnam Syndrome and...priorities and austerity, and addresses the way the Navy dealt with the Vietnam Syndrome , the institutional rankness racism and eroded prestige. Chapter...of expensive coal burning ships---a simple fact today easily forgotten as to how the advent of the machine ushered in a very different political and

  5. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meredith C; Doran-Peterson, Joy

    2012-08-01

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes.

  6. Pectin-rich biomass as feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Meredith C.; Doran-Peterson, Joy [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2012-08-15

    The USA has proposed that 30 % of liquid transportation fuel be produced from renewable resources by 2030 (Perlack and Stokes 2011). It will be impossible to reach this goal using corn kernel-based ethanol alone. Pectin-rich biomass, an under-utilized waste product of the sugar and juice industry, can augment US ethanol supplies by capitalizing on this already established feedstock. Currently, pectin-rich biomass is sold (at low value) as animal feed. This review focuses on the three most studied types of pectin-rich biomass: sugar beet pulp, citrus waste and apple pomace. Fermentations of these materials have been conducted with a variety of ethanologens, including yeasts and bacteria. Escherichia coli can ferment a wide range of sugars including galacturonic acid, the primary component of pectin. However, the mixed acid metabolism of E. coli can produce unwanted side products. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally ferment galacturonic acid nor pentose sugars but has a homoethanol pathway. Erwinia chrysanthemi is capable of degrading many of the cell wall components of pectin-rich materials, including pectin. Klebsiella oxytoca can metabolize a diverse array of sugars including cellobiose, one degradation product of cellulose. However, both E. chrysanthemi and K. oxytoca produce side products during fermentation, similar to E. coli. Using pectin-rich residues from industrial processes is beneficial because the material is already collected and partially pretreated to facilitate enzymatic deconstruction of the plant cell walls. Using biomass already produced for other purposes is an attractive practice because fewer greenhouse gases (GHG) will be anticipated from land-use changes. (orig.)

  7. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  8. Completion of UO2 pellets production and fuel rods load for the RA-8 critical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marajofsky, Adolfo; Perez, Lidia E.; Thern, Gerardo G.; Altamirano, Jorge S.; Benitez, Ana M.; Cardenas, Hugo R.; Becerra, Fabian A.; Perez, Aldo E.; Fuente, Mariano de la

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Fuels Division produced fuel pellets of 235 U with 1.8% and 3.6% enrichment and Zry-4 cladding loads for the RA-8 reactor at Pilcaniyeu Technological Unit. For economical and availability reasons, the powder acquired was initially UO 2 with 3.4% enrichment in 235 U, therefore the 235 U powder with 1.8% enrichment was produced by mechanical mixture. The production of fuel pellets for both enrichments was carried out by cold pressing and sintering processes in reducing atmosphere. The load of Zry-4 claddings was performed manually. The production stages can be divided into setup, qualification and production. This production allows not only to fulfill satisfactorily the new fuel rods supply for the RA-8 reactor but also to count with a new equipment and skilled personnel as well as to meet quality and assurance control methods for future pilot-scale production and even new fuel elements production. (author)

  9. Navy Manpower Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    enormously during the past 20 years. Female participation in the workforce has grown dramatically in the past 60 years: women were roughly 27...a Navy that’s about 25 percent women . At that level workplace relationships get normalized. 13 Ref: Stars & Stripes, May 2015 . 77 Progress in...nontraditional roles is now routine. A practical concern regarding women serving on sea duty is ensuring that there is female accommodation. Making

  10. Optimally Reorganizing Navy Shore Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerman, Mitchell

    1997-01-01

    ...), but infrastructure reductions continue to lag force structure reductions. The United States Navy's recent initiatives to reduce its shore infrastructure costs include "regionalization", "outsourcing," and "homebasing...

  11. Minimization of the fission product waste by using thorium based fuel instead of uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galahom, A. Abdelghafar, E-mail: Agalahom@yahoo.com

    2017-04-01

    This research discusses the neutronic characteristics of VVER-1200 assembly fueled with five different fuel types based on thorium. These types of fuel based on mixing thorium as a fertile material with different fissile materials. The neutronic characteristics of these fuels are investigated by comparing their neutronic characteristics with the conventional uranium dioxide fuel using the MCNPX code. The objective of this study is to reduce the production of long-lived actinides, get rid of plutonium component and to improve the fuel cycle economy while maintaining acceptable values of the neutronic safety parameters such as moderator temperature coefficient, Doppler coefficient and effective delayed neutrons (β). The thorium based fuel has a more negative Doppler coefficient than uranium dioxide fuel. The moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) has been calculated for the different proposed fuels. Also, the fissile inventory ratio has been calculated at different burnup step. The use of Th-232 as a fertile material instead of U-238 in a nuclear fuel is the most promising fuel in VVER-1200 as it is the ideal solution to avoid the production of more plutonium components and long-lived minor actinides. The reactor grade plutonium accumulated in light water reactor with burnup can be recycled by mixing it with Th-232 to fuel the VVER-1200 assembly. The concentrations of Xe-135 and Sm-151 have been investigated, due to their high thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  12. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibito...

  13. Quality assurance monitoring during nuclear fuel production in JSC 'TVEL'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, G.; Tchirkov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring during fabrication of nuclear fuel in Russian Federation. Joint Stock Company 'TVEL', natural state monopoly of the type of holding that fabricates and supplies nuclear fuel for the NPPs of Russia, CIS and Europe, incorporates the major enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle including JSC 'Mashinostroitelny zavod', Electrostal (fabrication of fuel pellets, rods and assemblies for different types of reactors), JSC 'Novosibirsky zavod khimconcentratov', Novosibirsk (fabrication of fuel rods and assemblies for WWER-440 and WWER-1000), JSC 'Tchepetsky mechanitchesky zavod', Tchepetsk (fabrication of Zr tubing). Monitoring of QA is an important element of Quality Management System (QMS) developed and implemented at the above-mentioned enterprises of the JSC 'TVEL' and it is performed on three levels including external and internal audits and author's supervision. Paper also describes short- and long-term policies of the JSC 'TVEL' in nuclear fuel quality field. (author)

  14. Fuel element structure - design, production and operational behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Dietz, W.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures held at the meeting of the fuel element section of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft gives a survey of developments in fuel element structure design for PWR-type, BWR-type and fast breeder reactors. For better utilization of the fuel, concepts have been developed for re-usable, removable and thus repairable fuel elements. Furthermore, the manufacturing methods for fuel element structures were refined to achieve better quality and more efficient manufacturing methods. Statements on the dimensional behaviour and on the mechanical stability of fuel element structures in normal and accident operation could be made on the basis of post-irradiation inspections. Finally, the design, manufacture and irradiation behaviour of graphite reflectors in HTGR-type reactors are described. The 12 lectures have been recorded in the data base separately. (RF) [de

  15. Studies on the fission products behavior during dissolution process of BWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Nakai, E.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain basic data on fission products behavior in connection with the head end process of fuel reprocessing, especially to obtain better understanding on undissolved residues, small scale dissolution studies were performed by using BWR spent fuel rods which were irradiated as monitoring fuel rods under the monitoring program for LWR fuel assembly performance entitled PROVING TEST ON RELIABILITY OF FUEL ASSEMBLY . The Zircaloy-2 claddings and the fuel pellets were subjected individually to the following studies on 1) release of fission products during dissolution process, 2) characterization of undissolved residues, and 3) analysis of the claddings. This paper presents comprehensive descriptions of the fission products behavior during dissolution process, based on detailed and through PIE conducted by JNFS under the sponsorship of MITI (Ministry of International Trade and Industry)

  16. Navy Future Fleet Platform Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Corporation and should not be construed as an official government position, policy, or decision, unless designated by other documentation. ©2016 The...MITRE Corporation . All rights reserved. Sponsor: Department of the Navy Department No.: J63A Contract No.: W56KGU-15-C-0010 Project No.: 0716V150...attack against Sony Pictures in retaliation for the production of a movie [13]. Recent investigations into hacking of the Society of Worldwide

  17. Mortality among workers at a nuclear fuels production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragle, D.L.; McLain, R.W.; Qualters, J.R.; Hickey, J.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Lushbaugh, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted in a population of workers employed at a facility with the primary task of production of nuclear fuels and other materials. Data for hourly and salaried employees were analyzed separately by time period of first employment and length of employment. The hourly (N = 6687 with 728 deaths) and salaried (N = 2745 with 294 deaths) employees had a mortality experience comparable to that of the United States and, in fact, exhibited significant fewer deaths in many categories of diseases that are traditionally associated with the healthy worker effect. Specifically, fewer deaths were noted in the categories of all causes, all cancers, cancer of the digestive organs, lung cancer, brain cancer (hourly workers only), diabetes, all diseases of the circulatory system, all respiratory diseases, all digestive system diseases, all diseases of the genitourinary system (hourly only), and all external causes of death. A statistically significant, and as yet unexplained increase in leukemia mortality (6 observed vs. 2.18 expected) appeared among a subset of the hourly employees, first hired before 1955, and employed between 5-15 years

  18. Electricity production and microbial characterization of thermophilic microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Ma, Xi-Wen; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Ting-Jia; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-11-01

    Thermophilic microbial fuel cell (TMFC) offers many benefits, but the investigations on the diversity of exoelectrogenic bacteria are scarce. In this study, a two-chamber TMFC was constructed using ethanol as an electron donor, and the microbial dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and 16S rRNA clone-library sequencing. The open-circuit potential of TMFC was approximately 650mV, while the maximum voltage was around 550mV. The maximum power density was 437mW/m 2 , and the columbic efficiency in this work was 20.5±6.0%. The Firmicutes bacteria, related to the uncultured bacterium clone A55_D21_H_B_C01 with a similarity of 99%, accounted for 90.9% of all bacteria in the TMFC biofilm. This unknown bacterium has the potential to become a new thermophilic exoelectrogenic bacterium that is yet to be cultured. The development of TMFC-involved biotechnologies will be beneficial for the production of valuable chemicals and generation of energy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  20. Optimum nuclear design of target fuel rod for Mo-99 production in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear target design for Mo-99 production in HANARO was performed, KAERI proposed target design was analyzed and its feasibility was shown. Three commercial target designs of Cintichem, ANL and KAERI were tested for the HANARO irradiation an d they all satisfied with design specification. A parametric study was done for target design options and Mo-99 yields ratio and surface heat flux were compared. Tested parameters were target fuel thickness, irradiation location, target axial length, packing density of powder fuel, size of target radius, target geometry, fuel enrichment, fuel composition, and cladding material. Optimized target fuel was designed for both LEU and HEU options. (author). 17 refs., 33 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. Study of production of fuel pellets for a reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Luiz F.F.; Conti, Thadeu N., E-mail: luiz.f.f.mendes@gmail.com, E-mail: tnconti@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays the electrical energy was been used much on society. A method for getting electricity is through nuclear power plants, this power plant uses fission that occurs inside the UO{sub 2} pellets to generate thermal energy that will be transform into electric. The pellets production was made from enriched UF{sub 6} uses some techniques of reprocessing UF{sub 6} gas to UO{sub 2} powder. This reprocessing process done by wet route (Ammonium Diuranate ADU or Ammonium Uranium Carbonate AUC) or by dry route (Fluidized bed or GECO). With getting of UO{sub 2} powder is forwarded to metallurgy where this powder is compacted in cylindrical matrix so that powder take the desired shape, this green pellets are full of the empty spaces (porosity) for this it is sent to the sintering. The sintering consists of a joint of these particles of powders by means of the heating of this green pellets, coming arrive the melting temperature, the UO{sub 2} molecules melting each other so decrease the porosity and increase the density. For the production of fuel pellets the process all most used is wed route by means the AUC ,this process arrive created for replace the ADU because the AUC is a process where less rework for the pore geometry is required compared to DUA. The fluidized bed process is more used in small samples however, for a large amount it becomes unfeasible, moreover the dry route process require more robust materials because of the generation of HF that is highly corrosive and cannot used the UNH (uranyl nitrate hexahydrate) used for recycle materials discarded in manufacturing. (author)

  2. Study of production of fuel pellets for a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Luiz F.F.; Conti, Thadeu N.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the electrical energy was been used much on society. A method for getting electricity is through nuclear power plants, this power plant uses fission that occurs inside the UO 2 pellets to generate thermal energy that will be transform into electric. The pellets production was made from enriched UF 6 uses some techniques of reprocessing UF 6 gas to UO 2 powder. This reprocessing process done by wet route (Ammonium Diuranate ADU or Ammonium Uranium Carbonate AUC) or by dry route (Fluidized bed or GECO). With getting of UO 2 powder is forwarded to metallurgy where this powder is compacted in cylindrical matrix so that powder take the desired shape, this green pellets are full of the empty spaces (porosity) for this it is sent to the sintering. The sintering consists of a joint of these particles of powders by means of the heating of this green pellets, coming arrive the melting temperature, the UO 2 molecules melting each other so decrease the porosity and increase the density. For the production of fuel pellets the process all most used is wed route by means the AUC ,this process arrive created for replace the ADU because the AUC is a process where less rework for the pore geometry is required compared to DUA. The fluidized bed process is more used in small samples however, for a large amount it becomes unfeasible, moreover the dry route process require more robust materials because of the generation of HF that is highly corrosive and cannot used the UNH (uranyl nitrate hexahydrate) used for recycle materials discarded in manufacturing. (author)

  3. Brachypodium distachyon genomics for sustainable food and fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasses are a vital source of food for humanity and are projected to be become an important source of renewable fuel. To provide food, feed and fuel for an ever expanding human population it will be necessary to improve existing grass crops (e.g. wheat, maize, rice) and domesticate perennial grasses...

  4. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  5. Sustainability assessment of bioethanol and petroleum fuel production in Japan based on emergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jin’e; Lin, Bin-Le; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    To promote the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, research and development of bioethanol technologies are encouraged in Japan and a plan to utilize untilled fields to develop rice for bioethanol production as a substitute for petroleum fuel is being devised. This study applies emergy methods to compare the sustainability of petroleum fuel production and two Japanese rice-to-ethanol production scenarios: (a) ethanol from rice grain, while straw and chaff are burned as energy and (b) ethanol from rice+straw+chaff. The major emergy indices, Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR), Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), Emergy Investment Ratio (EIR), Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI), Environmental Impacts Ratio (EVR) and system transformity (Tr), are analyzed to assess the production processes. The results show that (1) petroleum fuel production presents higher ELR, EIR, EVR and lower EYR, ESI, Tr than rice-to-ethanol production, indicating rice-to-ethanol production makes sense for reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG); (2) scenario (a) performs similarly on major indicators (EYR, ESI, ELR, EIR and EVR) to scenario (b), yet the system efficiency indicator (Tr) of scenario (a, 7.572×10 5 semj/J) is much higher than (b, 4.573×10 5 semj/J), and therefore (b) is a better alternative for policy decisions; (3) both petroleum fuel production and rice-to-ethanol processes are mainly driven by purchased resources and are unsustainable and nonrenewable in the long run. - Highlights: ► We compare petrol fuel and rice-to-ethanol production using emergy indices. ► Rice-to-ethanol reduces green house gas emissions as a substitute for petrol fuel. ► Rice-to-ethanol production has better sustainability than that of petrol fuel. ► Neither petrol fuel nor biofuel production are sustainable in the long term. ► Bioethanol is not a renewable fuel.

  6. Forecasting production of fossil fuel sources in Turkey using a comparative regression and ARIMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Akar, Sertac; Ugurlu, Berkin

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at forecasting the most possible curve for domestic fossil fuel production of Turkey to help policy makers to develop policy implications for rapidly growing dependency problem on imported fossil fuels. The fossil fuel dependency problem is international in scope and context and Turkey is a typical example for emerging energy markets of the developing world. We developed a decision support system for forecasting fossil fuel production by applying a regression, ARIMA and SARIMA method to the historical data from 1950 to 2003 in a comparative manner. The method integrates each model by using some decision parameters related to goodness-of-fit and confidence interval, behavior of the curve, and reserves. Different forecasting models are proposed for different fossil fuel types. The best result is obtained for oil since the reserve classifications used it is much better defined them for the others. Our findings show that the fossil fuel production peak has already been reached; indicating the total fossil fuel production of the country will diminish and theoretically will end in 2038. However, production is expected to end in 2019 for hard coal, in 2024 for natural gas, in 2029 for oil and 2031 for asphaltite. The gap between the fossil fuel consumption and production is growing enormously and it reaches in 2030 to approximately twice of what it is in 2000

  7. Ceria-thoria pellet manufacturing in preparation for plutonia-thoria LWR fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drera, Saleem S., E-mail: saleem.drera@scatec.no [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Björk, Klara Insulander [Thor Energy AS, Karenslyst allé 9C, 0278 Oslo (Norway); Sobieska, Matylda [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Nuclear Materials, Os allé 5, NO-1777, Halden (Norway)

    2016-10-15

    Thorium dioxide (thoria) has potential to assist in niche roles as fuel for light water reactors (LWRs). One such application for thoria is its use as the fertile component to burn plutonium in a mixed oxide fuel (MOX). Thor Energy and an international consortium are currently irradiating plutonia-thoria (Th-MOX) fuel in an effort to produce data for its licensing basis. During fuel-manufacturing research and development (R&D), surrogate materials were utilized to highlight procedures and build experience. Cerium dioxide (ceria) provides a good surrogate platform to replicate the chemical nature of plutonium dioxide. The project’s fuel manufacturing R&D focused on powder metallurgical techniques to ensure manufacturability with the current commercial MOX fuel production infrastructure. The following paper highlights basics of the ceria-thoria fuel production including powder milling, pellet pressing and pellet sintering. Green pellets and sintered pellets were manufactured with average densities of 67.0% and 95.5% that of theoretical density respectively. - Highlights: • High quality Ce−Th fuel production can be accomplished by utilizing powder metallurgical procedures. • Powder morphology is key to obtaining high density fuels. • Optimal pellet pressing is obtained when 3.5–4 tons of force is applied by the pellet press for powder compaction. • Pellet sintering is accomplished effectively in an Air oxidizing atmosphere. • Based on this surrogate work, expected (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel density is 95.5% of theoretical density.

  8. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  9. Group Counseling for Navy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchum, Nancy Taylor

    1991-01-01

    Conducted six-session group counseling program for Navy children (n=22) enrolled in public schools whose fathers were on deployment. Pretest and posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory suggest that participation in the group counseling unit positively affected self-esteem of Navy children whose fathers were on deployment. Found…

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  11. Production of biosolid fuels from municipal sewage sludge: Technical and economic optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wzorek, Małgorzata; Tańczuk, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the technical and economic analysis of the production of fuels from municipal sewage sludge. The analysis involved the production of two types of fuel compositions: sewage sludge with sawdust (PBT fuel) and sewage sludge with meat and bone meal (PBM fuel). The technology of the production line of these sewage fuels was proposed and analysed. The main objective of the study is to find the optimal production capacity. The optimisation analysis was performed for the adopted technical and economic parameters under Polish conditions. The objective function was set as a maximum of the net present value index and the optimisation procedure was carried out for the fuel production line input capacity from 0.5 to 3 t h(-1), using the search step 0.5 t h(-1). On the basis of technical and economic assumptions, economic efficiency indexes of the investment were determined for the case of optimal line productivity. The results of the optimisation analysis show that under appropriate conditions, such as prices of components and prices of produced fuels, the production of fuels from sewage sludge can be profitable. In the case of PBT fuel, calculated economic indexes show the best profitability for the capacity of a plant over 1.5 t h(-1) output, while production of PBM fuel is beneficial for a plant with the maximum of searched capacities: 3.0 t h(-1). Sensitivity analyses carried out during the investigation show that influence of both technical and economic assessments on the location of maximum of objective function (net present value) is significant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Thermophysical properties of the products of low-grade fuels thermal recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabakaev Roman B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the work is caused by reorientation of the modern power engineering to use of local low grade fuel resources. Some types of low grade fuels (peat, brown coal, sapropel, wood chips are considered in this work. Thermotechnical characteristics of the investigated fuels and products of their thermal recycling are determined. Thermal recycling process is accompanied by release of fuel dissociation heat (0.33-3.69 MJ/kg. The results of thermal low grade fuel recycling are solid carbonaceous product (semi-coke with a calorific value higher in 1.5-7 times than the value of natural fuels; pyrolysis resin with calorific value 29.4-36.8 MJ/kg; combustible gas with calorific value 15.16-19.06 MJ/m3.

  13. Water Footprint and Land Requirement of Solar Thermochemical Jet-Fuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-11-07

    The production of alternative fuels via the solar thermochemical pathway has the potential to provide supply security and to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. H 2 O and CO 2 are converted to liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar energy mediated by redox reactions of a metal oxide. Because attractive production locations are in arid regions, the water footprint and the land requirement of this fuel production pathway are analyzed. The water footprint consists of 7.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of direct demand on-site and 42.4 liters per liter of jet fuel of indirect demand, where the dominant contributions are the mining of the rare earth oxide ceria, the manufacturing of the solar concentration infrastructure, and the cleaning of the mirrors. The area-specific productivity is found to be 33 362 liters per hectare per year of jet fuel equivalents, where the land coverage is mainly due to the concentration of solar energy for heat and electricity. The water footprint and the land requirement of the solar thermochemical fuel pathway are larger than the best power-to-liquid pathways but an order of magnitude lower than the best biomass-to-liquid pathways. For the production of solar thermochemical fuels arid regions are best-suited, and for biofuels regions of a moderate and humid climate.

  14. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  15. Navy Multiband Terminal (NMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AEHF satellites and MILSTAR satellites in the backwards-compatible mode. Mission requirements specific to Navy operations, including threat levels and...Center for Cost Analysis (NCCA) Component Cost Position (CCP) memo dated December 18, 2015 Confidence Level Confidence Level of cost estimate for... Econ Qty Sch Eng Est Oth Spt Total 6.970 0.082 0.637 0.034 0.000 -1.210 0.000 -0.418 -0.875 6.095 Current SAR Baseline to Current Estimate (TY $M) PAUC

  16. Navy Medicine - World Class Care... Anytime, Anywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Saturday, May 26th, 2018 Home About Disclaimer Search Navy Medicine Navy Medicine World Class Care... Anytime, Anywhere Home Disclaimer Navy Medicine WebSite About Leadership Readiness Health Partnerships Inside Navy Medicine Dental Corps Hospital Corps Medical Corps Medical Service Corps Nurse Corps

  17. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  18. Results of the production of wood derived fuels; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the year 1995 there were over 30 projects concerning the production of wood derived fuels going on. Nearly half of them focused on integrated production of pulp wood and wood fuel. About in ten projects work was carried out to promote wood fuel production from logging residues. Other topics were fire wood production, production logistics and wood fuel resources. For production of fuel chips from logging residues, a new chipper truck, MOHA-SISU, was introduced. Having ability to move on terrain, and equipped with drum chipper, hook technic for interchangeable containers and a trailer, the whole production chain can be carried out by the same machine. In Mikkeli region three years of active work promoted the usage of wood fuel in a district power plant to the level of over 110 000 cubic metres of fuel chips. The production costs tend to be a little high in average, and the production chain still needs to be improved. In the field of integrated production a great stride was taken when the first pilot plant using the MASSAHAKE-method started up. Components of the production line and knowledge to operate the process have increased resulting in good performance of the plant. And even another concept for integrated production was introduced. In order to fully control the debarking of small sized trees, a production line of chain flail equipment and debarking drum followed by a chipper and screening facilities was built up. Equipment and machines for harvesting young stands in a way that increases substantially the yield of energy component are still mostly first prototypes. The development of them into well functioning, efficient tools is the most important task in integrated production

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  20. Testing plutonium fuel assembly production for fast-neutron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougues, B.; Benhamou, A.; Bertothy, G.; Lepetit, H.

    1975-01-01

    The main characteristics of plutonium fuel elements for fast breeder reactors justify specific test procedures and special techniques. The specific tests relating to the Pu content consist of Pu enrichment and distribution tests, determination of the O/M ratio and external contamination tests. The specific tests performed on fuel configuration are: testing of sintered pellet diameter, testing of pin welding and checking of internal assmbly [fr

  1. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  2. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  3. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canakci, M; Sanli, H

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.

  4. Structures of the particles of the condensed dispersed phase in solid fuel combustion products plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaryan, A.A.; Chernyshev, A.V.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Fortov, V.E.; Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mintsev, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of a type of dusty plasma which has been least studied--the plasma of solid fuel combustion products--were presented. Experiments to determine the parameters of the plasma of the combustion products of synthetic solid fuels with various compositions together with simultaneous diagnostics of the degree of ordering of the structures of the particles of the dispersed condensed phase were performed. The measurements showed that the charge composition of the plasma of the solid fuels combustion products depends strongly on the easily ionized alkali-metal impurities which are always present in synthetic fuel in one or another amount. An ordered arrangement of the particles of a condensed dispersed phase in structures that form in a boundary region between the high-temperature and condensation zones was observed for samples of aluminum-coated solid fuels with a low content of alkali-metal impurities

  5. Fission product release as a function of chemistry and fuel morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; Osetek, D.J.; Petti, D.A.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the consequences of severe reactor accidents requires knowledge of the location and chemical form of fission products throughout the accident sequence. Two factors that strongly influence the location and chemical form of fission products are the chemistry within the core and the morphology of the fuel or fuel-bearing debris. This paper reviews the current understanding of the these factors garnered from integral and separate effect experiments and the TMI-2 accident, and provides perspective on the significance of contributing phenomena for the analysis of severe accidents, particularly during the in-vessel phase. Information has been obtained recently on phenomena affecting the release of fission products from fuel and the reactor vessel during the in-vessel melt progression phase of a severe accident. The influence of a number of these phenomena will be reviewed, including fuel chemistry, H 2 /H 2 O ratio, fuel liquefaction, molten pools, and debris beds. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Fission product release measured during fuel damage tests at the Power Burst Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of fission product release behavior observed during four severe fuel damage tests on bundles of UO 2 fuel rods. Transient temperatures up to fuel melting were obtained in the tests that included both rapid quench and slow cooldown, low and high (36 GWd/t) burnup fuel and the addition of Ag-In-Cd control rods. Release fractions of major fission product species and release rates of noble gas species are reported. Significant differences in release behavior are discussed between heatup and cooldown periods, low and high burnup fuel and long- and short-lived fission products. Explanations are offered for the probable reasons for the observed differences and recommendations for further studies are given

  7. Biodiesel as an alternative motor fuel: Production and policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozbas, Kahraman

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate fuel characteristics of biodiesel and its production in European Union. Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. The vegetable oil fuels were not acceptable because they were more expensive than petroleum fuels. Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. With recent increases in petroleum prices and uncertainties concerning petroleum availability, there is renewed interest in vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. In Europe the most important biofuel is biodiesel. In the European Union biodiesel is the by far biggest biofuel and represents 82% of the biofuel production. Biodiesel production for 2003 in EU-25 was 1,504,000 tons. (author)

  8. Preparation results for lifetime test of conversion LEU fuel in plutonium production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatulin, A.; Stetskiy, Yu.; Kukharkin, N.; Kalougin, A.; Gavrilov, P.; Ivanov, A.

    1999-01-01

    The program of converting Russian production reactors for the purpose to stop their plutonium fabrication is currently in progress. The program also provides for operation of these reactors under the conversion mode with using of low-enriched fuel (LEU). LEU fuel elements were developed and activities related to their preparation for reactor tests were carried out. (author)

  9. Catalytic Deoxygenation of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides for Production of Fuels and Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e. coal, gas, oil) currently cover over 80 % of the world’s energy demand. The use of alternative resources for the production of fuels and chemicals has been an important research area over the last decade. This was not only stimulated by the declining fossil feedstock resources and

  10. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  11. Solar fuel production by using PV/PEC junctions based on earth-abundant materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Rodriguez, P.; Digdaya, I.A.; Mangel Raventos, A.; Falkenberg, M.; Vasudevan, R.A.; Zeman, M.; Smith, W.A.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of renewable energies is storage of the energy carrier. For long-term storage, solar fuels seem to be a good option. Direct solar water splitting could play an important role in the production of these solar fuels. One of the main challenges of this process is the charge

  12. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  13. Synthetic fuel production costs by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. When analysing 100% renewable systems...

  14. Use of ELOCA.Mk5 to calculate transient fission product release from CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; de Vaal, J.W.; Arimescu, V.I.; McGrady, T.G.; Wong, C.

    1992-04-01

    A change in fuel element power output, or a change in heat transfer conditions, will result in an immediate change in the temperature distribution in a fuel element. The temperature distribution change will be accompanied by concomitant changes in fuel stress distribution that lead, in turn, to a release of fission products to the fuel-to-sheath gap. It is important to know the inventory of fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap, because this inventory is a major component of the source term for many postulated reactor accidents. ELOCA.Mk5 is a FORTRAN-77 computer code that has been developed to estimate transient releases to the fuel-to-sheath gap in CANDU reactors. ELOCA.Mk5 is an integration of the FREEDOM fission product release model into the ELOCA fuel element thermo-mechanical code. The integration of FREEDOM into ELOCA allows ELOCA.Mk5 to model the feedback mechanisms between the fission product release and the thermo-mechanical response of the fuel element. This paper describes the physical model, gives details of the ELOCA.Mkt code, and describes the validation of the model. We demonstrate that the model gives good agreement with experimental results for both steady state and transient conditions

  15. Uranium production in thorium/denatured uranium fueled PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium-232 buildup in a thorium/denatured uranium fueled pressurized water reactor, PWR(Th), was studied using a modified version of the spectrum-dependent zero dimensional depletion code, LEOPARD. The generic Combustion Engineering System 80 reactor design was selected as the reactor model for the calculations. Reactors fueled with either enriched natural uranium and self-generated recycled uranium or uranium from a thorium breeder and self-generated recycled uranium were considered. For enriched natural uranium, concentrations of 232 U varied from about 135 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) in the zeroth generation to about 260 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at the end of the fifth generation. For the case in which thorium breeder fuel (with its relatively high 232 U concentration) was used as reactor makeup fuel, concentrations of 232 U varied from 441 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at discharge from the first generation to about 512 ppM ( 232 U/U weight basis) at the end of the fifth generation. Concentrations in freshly fabricated fuel for this later case were 20 to 35% higher than the discharge concentration. These concentrations are low when compared to those of other thorium fueled reactor types (HTGR and MSBR) because of the relatively high 238 U concentration added to the fuel as a denaturant. Excellent agreement was found between calculated and existing experimental values. Nevertheless, caution is urged in the use of these values because experimental results are very limited, and the relevant nuclear data, especially for 231 Pa and 232 U, are not of high quality

  16. Grain boundary sweeping and dissolution effects on fission product behaviour under severe fuel damage accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, tellurium, and cesium release from severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho. A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles, gas bubble behavior during fuel liquefaction (destruction of grain boundaries due to formation of a U-rich melt phase), and during U-Zr eutectic melting has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. The grain-boundary-sweeping theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges. The theory of the effects of fuel liquefaction and U-Zr eutectic melting on fission product behaviour considers the migration and coalescence of fission gas bubbles in either molten uranium, or a Zircaloy-Uranium eutectic melt. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during the tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. Whereas fuel liquefaction leads to an enhanced release of fission products in trace-irradiated fuel, the occurrence of fuel liquefaction in normally-irradiated fuel can degrade fission product release. This phenomenon is due in part to reduced gas-bubble mobilities in a viscous medium as compared to vapor transport, and in part to a degradation of grain growth rates and the subsequent decrease in grain-boundary sweeping of intragranular fission products into the liquified lamina. The analysis shows that total UO 2 dissolution due to eutectic melting leads to increased release for both trace-irradiated and normally-irradiated fuel. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in normally

  17. HTGR Fuels and Core Development Program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending August 31, 1977. [Graphite and fuel irradiation; fission product release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The work reported includes studies of reactions between core materials and coolant impurities, basic fission product transport mechanisms, core graphite development and testing, the development and testing of recyclable fuel systems, and physics and fuel management studies. Materials studies include irradiation capsule tests of both fuel and graphite. Experimental procedures and results are discussed and data are presented.

  18. The University of Missouri Research Reactor, its fuel and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Schlapper, G.A.; Alger, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) and presents a summary of contributions to education, research, and service. These efforts have helped offset the impact on the U.S. economy of research from other countries. Special emphasis is placed on fuel design developments that have allowed MuRR to keep the cost megawatt day (MWD) of fuel essentially constant. Also noted is the fact that the United States has missed some research opportunities because of a hold-the-line attitude. The slipping position of U.S. research reactors is compared with the rest of the world. As will be further outlined in the text, the MURR cannot (with available technology) decrease its U-235 enrichment level and maintain present research capabilities and fuel cycle costs. Data is presented to show how MURR, if permitted to use advanced fuel technology, could reduce fuel fabrication costs and onsite U-235 inventory. In addition it is shown that MURR could increase its capabilities provided that arbitrary institutional limits are removed

  19. The University of Missouri Research Reactor, its fuel and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Robert M.; Schlapper, Gerald A.; Alger, Don M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) and presents a summary of contributions to education, research, and service. These efforts have helped offset the impact on the U. S. economy of research from other countries. Special emphasis is placed on fuel design developments that have allowed MURR to keep the cost megawatt day (MWD) of fuel essentially constant. Also noted is the fact that the United States has missed some research opportunities because of a hold-the-line attitude. The slipping position of U.S. research reactors is compared with the rest of the world. As will be further outlined in the text, the MURR cannot (with available technology) decrease its U-235 enrichment level and maintain present research capabilities and fuel cycle costs. Data is presented to show how MURR if permitted to use advanced fuel technology, could reduce fuel fabrication costs and onsite U-235 inventory. In addition it is shown that MURR could increase its capabilities provided that arbitrary institutional limits are removed

  20. Highlights from the IAEA coordinated research programme on fuel performance and fission product data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

    1996-01-01

    Seven countries are cooperating with the objectives (i) to document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel performance and fission product behaviour; (ii) to verify and validate methods in fuel performance and fission product retention prediction. These countries are China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, USA and the UK. Duration of the programme is 1993-96. The technology areas addressed in this IAEA Coordinated Research Programme are: Fuel design and manufacture, Normal operation fuel performance and fission product behaviour, Accident condition fuel performance and fission product behaviour, -core heatup, -fast transients, -oxidising conditions (water and air ingress), Plateout, re-entrainment of plateout, fission product behaviour in the reactor building, and Performance of advanced fuels. Work performed so far has generated a 300-page draft document with important information for normal operations (Germany, Japan, China, Russia) and accident conditions (USA, Japan, Germany, Russia) and, additionally, a special chapter on advanced fuels (Japan). (author)

  1. An integrated approach for safer, productive and reliable PHWR fuel manufacturing at NFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.

    2013-01-01

    India has been pursuing three-stage nuclear power programme and has developed comprehensive capabilities in all aspects of nuclear power and fuel cycle and is now recognized as a country with advanced nuclear technologies in the comity of nations. The first stage of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) based on natural uranium has reached a state of maturity. In view of civilian nuclear safeguards agreement with NSG and IAEA, Nuclear Power Reactors in India and associated fuel manufacturing facilities at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) are grouped into IAEA safeguarded and out-of-safeguarded facilities. The civilian nuclear energy generation has to be accelerated for achieving energy security for the country. NFC has pioneered manufacturing technologies of UO 2 fuel, fuel clad and structural components for the PHWRs 220, 540 and PHWR700. Nearly 20 GWe of nuclear energy generation is being planned through PHWR route. Several technological improvements that were carried out recently in the production lines are the key to achieve higher productivity and safety. NFC has also been pursuing capacity augmentation by adding newer equipment in the existing facility and setting up new plants both for uranium production as well as zirconium production. Flexible manufacturing systems consisting of automatic workstations and robots were introduced in the 19 and 37 element PHWR fuel assembly lines. Various safety measures were introduced right from design stage for improving radiological safety for workmen. State-of-art equipment were designed, developed and commissioned for reduction/elimination of fatigue-oriented operations. In addition to natural uranium oxide fuel, NFC has also successfully manufactured virgin slightly enriched uranium (SEU) fuel and reprocessed depleted uranium fuels which were irradiated in the operating PHWRs. The paper brings out NFC's role in Indian nuclear power program and its manufacturing capabilities for types of PHWR fuel, zircaloy structural

  2. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  4. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  5. Method of production of granulates of ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    To obtain a classified granulate of ceramic nuclear fuels with narrow grain size spectrum, the nuclear fuel powder is made into a slurry in a non-aqueous solvent with a water content as low as possible (e.g. chlorated hydrocarbon), a binder added to it, and spray-dried. The dry granulate desired is already obtained by this working stage. Polybutyl methacrylate in dibutylphthalate is proposed as binder. An example in which uranium dioxide powder is slurried in trichloro-ethylene is described in detail. (UWI/LH) [de

  6. Production of fuels out of lignite and lignocelluloses; Herstellung von Brennstoffen aus Braunkohle und Lignozellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Schroeder, H.W.; Trommer, D. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The acceptance towards solid fuels will increase again if its ease of use is improved, the production costs remain low for extended periods of time, and high thermal efficiencies as well as low pollutant emissions are achieved. These demands can only be met by optimal fuel processing and the use of modern fuel engineering which applies, if possible, continuous and controlled fuel and air feed technology. Two fuels are introduced which are produced out of lignite and lignocelluloses by compaction or by balling granulation. Considering the improvement of combustion properties, remarkable synergy effects occur due to this raw material combination. Lignocelluloses act as an ignition auxillary. Lignite functions as a binding agent, increases the fuels' fire resistance, and guarantees a long, sustained combustion with an excellent combustion rate. (orig.)

  7. Chemical states of fission products in irradiated uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Ken; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    The chemical states of fission products (FPs) in irradiated uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for the light water reactor (LWR) were estimated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations on system of fuel and FPs by using ChemSage program. A stoichiometric MOX containing 6.1 wt. percent PuO 2 was taken as a loading fuel. The variation of chemical states of FPs was calculated as a function of oxygen potential. Some pieces of information obtained by the calculation were compared with the results of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of UO 2 fuel. It was confirmed that the multicomponent and multiphase thermodynamic equilibrium calculation between fuel and FPs system was an effective tool for understanding the behavior of FPs in fuel. (author)

  8. Production and release of the fission gas in (Th U)O2 fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio S.

    1982-06-01

    The volume, composition and release of the fission gas products were caculated for (Th, U)O 2 fuel rods. The theorectical calculations were compared with experimental results available on the literature. In ThO 2 + 5% UO 2 fuel rods it will be produced approximated 5% more fission gas as compared to UO 2 fuel rods. The fission gas composition or Xe to Kr ratio has showed a decreasing fuel brunup dependence, in opposition to that of UO 2 . Under the same fuel rod operational conditions, the (Th, U)O 2 fission gas release will be smaller as compared to UO 2 . This behaviour of (Th, U)O 2 fuel comes from smallest gas atom difusivity and higher activation energies of the processes that increase the fission gas release. (Author) [pt

  9. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies. Se l'agricoltore semina il gasolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabasso, L.

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards.

  10. Fission product release in conditions of a spent fuel pool severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Depending on the residence time, fuel burnup, and fuel rack configuration, there may be sufficient decay heat for the fuel clad to heat up, swell, and burst in case of a loss of pool water. Initiating event categories can be: loss of offsite power from events initiated by severe weather, internal fire, loss of pool cooling, loss of coolant inventory, seismic event, aircraft impact, tornado, missile attack. The breach in the clad releases the radioactive gases present in the gap between the fuel and clad, what is called 'gap release'. If the fuel continues to heat up, the zirconium clad will reach the point of rapid oxidation in air. This reaction of zirconium and air, or zirconium and steam is exothermic. The energy released from the reaction, combined with the fuel's decay energy, can cause the reaction to become self-sustaining and ignite the zirconium. The increase in heat from the oxidation reaction can also raise the temperature in adjacent fuel assemblies and propagate the oxidation reaction. Simultaneously, the sintered UO 2 pellets resulting from pins destroying are oxidized. Due to the self-disintegration of pellets by oxidation, fission gases and low volatile fission products are released. The release rate, the chemical nature and the amount of fission products depend on powder granulation distribution and environmental conditions. The zirconium burning and pellets self-disintegration will result in a significant release of spent fuel fission products that will be dispersed from the reactor site. (author)

  11. Novel catalysts and photoelectrochemical system for solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    Solar fuel production from abundant raw chemicals such as CO2 and water is highly desired as a clean renewable energy solution for the future. Developing photoelectrochemical cells is viewed as a promising approach to realize this energy conversion and storage process. Efficient and robust oxygen evolution catalyst made from non-precious materials remains a major challenge for such a system. This thesis basically consists of three parts of work, including studies on enhancing the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of cobalt-based spinel nanoparticles by manganese3+ substitution, in situ formation of cobalt oxide nanocubanes as highly active catalyst for photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, and development of a photoanode-driven photoelectrochemical cell for CO2 reduction with water. The first part of this thesis work devotes efforts in the development and study on cobalt and other transition metal oxide based oxygen evolution catalyst. Photocatalytic oxygen evolution is a critical step for solar fuel production from abundant sources. It poses a significant challenge because it requires an efficient catalyst to bridge the one-electron photon capture process with the four-electron oxygen reaction. Among all the metal oxides, Co3O4 spinel exhibits a high activity as an oxygen evolution catalyst. The results of this work demonstrate that the photocatalytic oxygen evolution activity of Co3O4 spinel can be further enhanced by substituting Co with Mn in the spinel structure. Using a facile hydrothermal approach, Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles as well as Mn-substituted and Ni-substituted Co3O4 spinel nanoparticles with a typical particle size of 5-7 nm were successfully synthesized. The morphology and crystal structures of the as-synthesized nanoparticle catalysts have been carefully examined using various structural characterization techniques, including powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), gas adsorption, and x-ray absorption

  12. Analysis of the production of U3O8 powder for low enrichment fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, N.L.; Celora, J.; Parodi, C.A.; Ponieman, G.; Kellner, M.; Marajofsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    Description is made of the processes used in the production of U 3 O 8 powder for low enrichment plates for fuel elements for Research Reactors. The analysis of the efficiency of each batch is foccused on the relationship between milling and sieving times and the morphology of the product in each production step. (Author)

  13. Fission product release from high gap-inventory LWR fuel under LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fission product release tests were performed with light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod segments containing large amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space in order to check the validity of the previously published Source Term Model for this type of fuel. The model describes the release of fission product cesium and iodine from LWR fuel rods for controlled loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) transients in the temperature range 500 to 1200 0 C. The basis for the model was test data obtained with simulated fuel rods and commercial fuel irradiated to high burnup but containing relatively small amounts of cesium and iodine in the pellet-to-cladding gap space

  14. Contribution of metallic fission product inclusions to axial fuel motion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, P.; Cronenberg, A.; Stevenson, M.

    1979-01-01

    In the analysis of postulated nuclear reactor accidents, axial fuel motion within the fuel pin prior to cladding failure can have an important mitigating effect. The question of primary importance is whether or not metallic inclusions have the potential to vaporize during an overheating event and thus contribute to fuel motion. To assess this potential, two limiting calculations were made: 1) The inclusion constituent assumed insoluble in one another and 2) The constituents assumed totally miscible in one another. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that the metallic fission products found within inclusions of fuel rods irradiated in a fast neutron spectrum, would form homogeneous solutions. Therefore, it is concluded that the metallic fission products would not enhance fuel swelling during an overheating event. 16 refs

  15. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  16. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Production of wood fuels; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning wood fuels production was 36. The main goals of the research are to develop new production methods for wood fuels in order to decrease the production costs to the level of imported fuels (100 km distance). The second goal is to decrease the small scale production costs by 20 % as compared with the 1992 technology level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the programme. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 in this programme are presented in this publication. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research areas because they seem to be most promising. Most of the projects are focused in the wood fuel production from first thinnings and from final fellings. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. The follow up project of Evaluation-drum chipper was completed with good fuel quality and productivity results. Also the large Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was completed. The project was a significant technology transfer and information dissemination project. (orig.)

  17. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  18. Microprobe study of fission product behavior in high-burnup HTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    Electron microprobe analysis of irradiated coated particles with high burnup (greater than 50 percent fima) gives detailed information on the chemical state and the transport behavior of the fission products in UO 2 and UC 2 kernels and in the coatings. In oxide fuel kernels, metallic inclusions and ceramic precipitations are observed. The solubility behavior of the fission products in the fuel matrix has been investigated. Fission product inclusions could not be detected in carbide fuel kernels; post irradiation annealed UC 2 kernels, however, give information on the element combinations of some fission product phases. Corresponding to the chemical state in the kernel, Cs, Sr, Ba, Pd, Te and the rare earths are released easily and diffuse through the entire pyrocarbon coating. These fission products can be retained by a silicon carbide layer. The initial stage of a corrosive attack of the SiC coating by the fission products is evidenced

  19. Environmental Assessment of Integrated Food and Cooking Fuel Production for a Village in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Bolwig, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale farming in Ghana is typically associated with synthetic fertilizer dependence and soil degradation. The farmers often rely on wood fuel for cooking imported from outside the farmland, a practice that is associated with deforestation. Integration of food and energy production may...... be a holistic approach to solving these issues. We study four approaches to providing food and fuel for cooking in a small-scale farming community. Present practice (PP) of synthetic fertilizer based food production and provision of wood fuel from outside the farming area is compared to three modeled...

  20. Energy System Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis cells for Synthetic Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    When restricting energy production to renewable energy sources, biomass, sun and wind energy are the pillars of 100% renewable energy system after implementing energy savings. Biomass resources are limited and the sustainable use of them needs to be prioritized. Future energy systems will require...... that require high energy density fuels or reused for power generation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production cost for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, and comparable costs of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas....

  1. Understanding metal-organic frameworks for solar fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Santaclara, J.

    2017-01-01

    The fascinating chemical and physical properties of MOFs have recently stimulated exploration of their application for photocatalysis. Despite the intense research effort, the efficiencies of most photocatalytic MOFs for solar fuel generation are still very modest. In this introduction we analyse

  2. Understanding metal–organic frameworks for photocatalytic solar fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Santaclara, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.; van der Veen, M.A.

    The fascinating chemical and physical properties of MOFs have recently stimulated exploration of their application for photocatalysis. Despite the intense research effort, the efficiency of most photocatalytic MOFs for solar fuel generation is still very modest. In this highlight we analyse the

  3. Understanding metal-organic frameworks for photocatalytic solar fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Santaclara, J.

    2017-01-01

    The fascinating chemical and physical properties of MOFs have recently stimulated exploration of their application for photocatalysis. Despite the intense research effort, the efficiencies of most photocatalytic MOFs for solar fuel generation are still very modest. In this introduction we analyse

  4. Sintered nuclear fuel compact and method for its production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Dorr, W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a method of producing a sintered nuclear fuel compact with which reactivity losses in a nuclear reactor having long fuel element cycles are avoided, which comprises, forming a compact of a mixture of powders containing at least one nuclear fuel oxide selected from the group consisting of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, ThO/sub 2/, mixed oxide (U, Pu)O/sub 2/ and mixed oxide (U, Th)O/sub 2/, at least one neutron poison selected from the group consisting of UB/sub x/, where x=2; 4 and/or 12 and B/sub 4/C, and sintering the compact of the mixture of powders so that the neutron piston is embedded in a sintered matrix of the nuclear fuel oxide at a treatment temperature in a range from 1000 0 C to 1400 0 C in an oxidizing sintering atmosphere, and then heat treating the sintered compact in a reducing gas atmosphere

  5. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The depletion of fossil fuels impacts on the increase of petroleum price and has triggered the finding of alternative and renewable energy. Biofuel has attracted the attention of researchers all over the world due to reducing the environmental impacts of elevated carbon monoxide. Abundant of fruits waste can be reused in the ...

  6. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  7. Production of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Agricultural and Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrous agricultural and wood waste materials have been compressed with suitable adhesive into solid fuel briquettes in a compressing machine, which was designed and constructed for this purpose. Nine samples of fibrous waste materials were prepared into different categories:- Category A (100% saw-dust, 100% ...

  8. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke Bogart, S.; Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline ≅ (CH 2 ) n ) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO 2 from the atmosphere or seawater, CO 2 from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H 2 from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO 2 from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO 2 to CO, and the resultant H 2 and CO feeds would be converted to (CH 2 )n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from ∼ $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of

  9. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cornu, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of the commonly proposed alternative transport fuels were ranked according to both the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions and the production costs incurred between the recovery of the prime resource and the fuel's end use by the Australian transport fleet. An examination of the emissions of each greenhouse gas at each production stage confirmed the common presumption that the low levels of secondary greenhouse gas emissions involved contribute little to the overall greenhouse impact of a fuel's production and use. From a greenhouse point of view the transport fuels studied could be reasonable well ranked by considering their carbon dioxide emissions alone. A possible exception may apply in the case of the compressed natural gas option, which may need to separate consideration of the effect of fugitive emissions of methane from gas distribution systems. An assumption involved in reaching this result was that nitrous oxide emissions, on which there was inadequate hard data, would not form more than 1% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions. At such an emission level it could contribute up to 5% of a fuel's total greenhouse impact. It is concluded that apart from some small niche opportunities, there is no Australian alternative transport fuel option whose production cost and greenhouse impact makes it one which policy should favour over other fuels. It is stressed that this is no more than a preliminary scouting study of generic options, which addresses only greenhouse issues. 17 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  11. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgwater, A V; Double, J M [Aston Univ. Birmingham (GB). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels.

  12. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  13. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  14. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  15. Production, characterization and fuel properties of alternative diesel fuel from pyrolysis of waste plastic grocery bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis of HDPE waste grocery bags followed by distillation resulted in a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that consisted of saturated aliphatic paraffins (96.8%), aliphatic olefins (2.6%), and aromatics (0.6%) that corresponded to the boiling range of conventional petroleum diesel fuel (#1 diesel 182–2...

  16. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1982-01-01

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF) [de

  17. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  18. Roadmap for Navy Family Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    09 NAVY FAMIILIES *11* I.- Study *conosical, psychological , and social " rank * duŕ military "areer " employment status . extent of of spouse family...Study ha o. thmfpeect of relocation o familis series with: I I a frequency and t iming of SBANCE *, acconpanied vs. umaccompaiad URE tours alevel of...UNDERSTANDING IMPACT OF RELOCATION ON NAVY FAMILIES AREA 1: STUDY ECONOMICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL , AND SOCIAL IMPACT ON DIFFERENT FAMILY MEMBERS, FOR

  19. Fission product release modelling for application of fuel-failure monitoring and detection - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J., E-mail: lewibre@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Chan, P.K.; El-Jaby, A. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Iglesias, F.C.; Fitchett, A. [Candesco Division of Kinectrics Inc., 26 Wellington Street East, 3rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1S2 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    A review of fission product release theory is presented in support of fuel-failure monitoring analysis for the characterization and location of defective fuel. This work is used to describe: (i) the development of the steady-state Visual-DETECT code for coolant activity analysis to characterize failures in the core and the amount of tramp uranium; (ii) a generalization of this model in the STAR code for prediction of the time-dependent release of iodine and noble gas fission products to the coolant during reactor start-up, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres; (iii) an extension of the model to account for the release of fission products that are delayed-neutron precursors for assessment of fuel-failure location; and (iv) a simplification of the steady-state model to assess the methodology proposed by WANO for a fuel reliability indicator for water-cooled reactors.

  20. Fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose: a challenge for metabolic engineering and process integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2001-01-01

    and with the implementation of environmental protection laws in many countries, demand for this fuel is increasing. Efficient ethanol production processes and cheap substrates are needed. Current ethanol production processes using crops such as sugar cane and corn are well-established; however, utilization of a cheaper...... substrate such as lignocellulose could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuel. The processing and utilization of this substrate is complex, differing, in many aspects from crop-based ethanol production. One important requirement is an efficient microorganism able to ferment a variety of sugars......With industrial development growing rapidly, there is a need for environmentally sustainable energy sources. Bioethanol (ethanol from biomass) is an attractive, sustainable energy source to fuel transportation. Based on the premise that fuel bioethanol can contribute to a cleaner environment...

  1. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  2. Fuel Cell Power Systems for Navy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    DAMES & MOORE LIBRARY LOS ANGELES. CA DRURY COLLEGE Physics Dept. Springfield. MO FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY Boca Raton. FL (McAllister) FOREST... Colin Ramage) Dept of Meteorology Honolulu HI: HONOLULU. HI (SCIENCE AND TECH. DIV.); Natd Energy Inst (DR Neill) Honolulu HI UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS (Hall

  3. Modeling of in-vessel fission product release including fuel morphology effects for severe accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.

    1989-10-01

    A new in-vessel fission product release model has been developed and implemented to perform best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms including fuel morphology effects. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlation determines the product of fission product release and equiaxed grain size as a function of the inverse fuel temperature. The model accounts for the fuel-cladding interaction over the temperature range between 770 K and 3000 K in the steam environment. A separate driver has been developed for the in-vessel thermal hydraulic and fission product behavior models that were developed by the Department of Energy for the Modular Accident Analysis Package (MAAP). Calculational results of these models have been compared to the results of the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests. The code predictions utilizing the mass transfer correlation agreed with the experimentally determined fractional release rates during the course of the heatup, power hold, and cooldown phases of the high temperature transients. Compared to such conventional literature correlations as the steam oxidation model and the NUREG-0956 correlation, the mass transfer correlation resulted in lower and less rapid releases in closer agreement with the on-line and grab sample data from the Severe Fuel Damage tests. The proposed mass transfer correlation can be applied for best-estimate calculations of fission products release from the UO 2 fuel in both nominal and severe accident conditions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Fission product concentration evolution in sodium pool following a fuel subassembly failure in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.; Bhoje, S.

    2003-01-01

    During a fuel element failure in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor, the fission products originating from the failed pins mix into the sodium pool. Delayed Neutron Detectors (DND) are provided in the sodium pool to detect such failures by way of detection of delayed neutrons emitted by the fission products. The transient evolution of fission product concentration is governed by the sodium flow distribution in the pool. Transient hydraulic analysis has been carried out using the CFD code PHOENICS to estimate fission product concentration evolution in hot pool. k- ε turbulence model and zero laminar diffusivity for the fission product concentration have been considered in the analysis. Times at which the failures of various fuel subassemblies (SA) are detected by the DND are obtained. It has been found that in order to effectively detect the failure of every fuel SA, a minimum of 8 DND in hot pool are essential

  5. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  6. Plutonium-enriched thermal fuel production experience in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic aspects of nuclear energy such as availability and sufficiency of resources and independence of energy supply, most countries planning to use plutonium look mainly to its use in fast reactors. However, by recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium in light water reactors, the saving of the uranium that would otherwise be required could already be higher than 35%. Therefore, until fast reactors are introduced, for macro- or microeconomic reasons, the plutonium recycle option seems to be quite valuable for countries having the plutonium technology. In Belgium, Belgonucleaire has been developing the plutonium technology for more than 20 yr and has operated a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant since 1973. The past ten years of plant operation have provided for many improvements and relevant new documented experiences establishing a basis for new modifications that will be beneficial to the intrinsic quality, overall safety, and economy of the fuel

  7. Retention of gaseous fission products in reprocessing LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    The report is devoted to status of the development programme at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on methods for retaining iodine-131 and 129, Krypton-85, Tritium and Carbon-14 in reprocessing LMFBR fuels. The Iodox process, Fluorocarbon absorption process and Voloxidation process are described for retention of iodine, Krypton-85 and Tritium, respectively. Flowsheets for the different processes are given and results of experimental runs in small engineering-scale equipment are reported

  8. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  9. Continuous photocatalytic fuel production over wide-bandgap metal oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis has been proposed as one of the possible solutions to the energetic and chemical-feedstock problems to cope with the anticipated near future depletion of fossil fuel resources. This doctoral thesis deals with the study of promising catalysts and reactor designs to enhance the reaction efficiency and understand the origin of photocatalytic activity. A continuous flow reaction system was designed and constructed to study CO2 photoreduction with H2O and photocatalytic w...

  10. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  11. Environmental and ventilation benefits for underground mining operations using fuel cell powered production equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, C.; Hardcastle, S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells in mine production equipment were discussed. The paper was part of a multi-year feasibility study conducted to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered equipment to replace diesel engine powered equipment in underground mining operations. The feasibility study demonstrated that fuel cells are capable of eliminating the unwanted by-products of combustion engines. However, the use of fuel cells also reduced the amount of ventilation that mines needed to supply, thereby further reducing energy consumption. This study examined the benefits of replacing diesel engines with fuel cells, and discussed the mitigating qualifiers that may limit ventilation energy savings. Solutions to retaining and maintaining additional ventilation in the event of hydrogen leaks from fuel cell stacks were also investigated. The analyses were conducted on 6 operating mines. Current operating costs were compared with future operating conditions using fuel cell powered production vehicles. Operating costs of the primary ventilation system were established with a mine ventilation simulator. The analysis considered exhaust shaft velocities, heating system air velocities, and levels of silica exposure. Canadian mine design criteria were reviewed. It was concluded that appropriate safeguards are needed along hydrogen distribution lines to lower the impacts of hydrogen leaks. Large financial commitments may also be required to ensure a spark-free environment. 20 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Research on in-pile release of fission products from coated particle fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Iwamoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    Coated particle fuels fabricated in accordance with VHTR (Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor) fuel design have been irradiated by both capsules and an in-pile gas loop (OGL-1), and data on the fission products release under irradiation were obtained for loose coated particles, fuel compacts and fuel rods in the temperature range between 800 deg. C and 1600 deg. C. For the fission gases, temperature- and time dependences of the fractional release(R/B) were measured. Relation between release and failure fraction of the coated particles was elucidated on the VHTR reference fuels. Also measured was tritium concentration in the helium coolant of OGL-1. In-pile release behavior of the metallic fission products was studied by measuring the activities of the fission products adsorbed in the graphite sleeves of the OGL-1 fuel rods and the graphite fuel container of the sweep gas capsules in the PIE. Investigation on palladium interaction with SiC coating layer was included. (author)

  13. Effects of burnup on fission product release and implications for severe fuel damage events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelhans, A.D.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Carboneau, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Xe, Kr, and I fission-product release data from (a) Halden tests where release in intact rods was measured during irradiation at burnups to 18,000 MWd/t and fuel temperatures of 800 to 1800 0 K, and (b) Power Burst Facility (PBF) tests where trace-irradiated fuel (approx. = 90 MWd/t) was driven to temperatures of >2400 0 K and fuel liquefaction occurred are discussed and related to fuel morphology. Results from both indicate that the fission-product morphology and fuel restructuring govern release behavior. The Halden tests show low release at beginning of life with a 10-fold increase at burnups in excess of 10,000 MWd/t, due to the development of grain boundary interlinkage at higher burnups. Such dependence of release on morphology characteristics is consistent with findings from the PBF tests, where for trace-irradiated fuel, the absence of interlinkage accounts for the low release rates observed during initial fuel heatup, with subsequent enhanced Xe, Kr, and I release via liquefaction or quench-induced destruction of the grain structure. Morphology is also shown to influence the chemical release form of I and Cs fission products

  14. 25 years of NDE in fabrication of zirconium alloy mill products and nuclear fuel in the Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, R.K.; Laxminarayana, B.; Srivastava, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Failure of nuclear fuel is highly undesirable from both economic and operational aspects. Hence all the components require rigorous QC and inspection checks. NDT plays a major role in assuring the quality of the products both at final and intermediate stages. This paper gives an overall review of NDT methods employed in achieving the integrity of nuclear products. The NDE procedures followed in NFC are visual inspection, radiography, penetrant testing, eddy current testing, ultrasonic testing and helium leak testing. NFC's quality assurance programme is organised to achieve the desired objectives by carrying out in process and final inspection at all critical steps of fabrication. (author)

  15. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: mlnegro@ipen.br, E-mail: saliba@ipen.br, E-mail: mdurazzo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  16. Studies on production planning of IPEN fuel-element plant in order to meet RMB demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Miguel L.M.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The plant of the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) will have to change its current laboratorial production level to an industrial level in order to meet the fuel demand of RMB and of IEA-R1. CCN's production process is based on the hydrolysis of UF6, which is not a frequent production route for nuclear fuel. The optimization of the production capacity of such a production route is a new field of studies. Two different approaches from the area of Operations Research (OR) were used in this paper. The first one was the PERT/CPM technique and the second one was the creation of a mathematical linear model for minimization of the production time. PERT/CPM's results reflect the current situation and disclose which production activities may not be critical. The results of the second approach show a new average time of 3.57 days to produce one Fuel Element and set the need of inventory. The mathematical model is dynamic, so that it issues better results if performed monthly. CCN's management team will therefore have a clearer view of the process times and production and inventory levels. That may help to shape the decisions that need to be taken for the enlargement of the plant's production capacity. (author)

  17. Production of jet fuel precursor monoterpenoids from engineered Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendez-Perez, Daniel; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    ). FPP biosynthesis diverts the carbon flux from monoterpene production to C15 products and quinone biosynthesis. In this study, we tested a chromosomal mutation of Escherichia coli's native FPP synthase (IspA) to improve GPP availability for the production of monoterpenes using a heterologous mevalonate...

  18. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fission products in spent nuclear fuel from RBMK-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlys, G.; Adliene, D.

    2002-01-01

    Well-known empirical models or experimental instruments and methods for the estimation of fission product yields do not allow prediction of the behavior and evaluation of the time-dependent qualitative and quantitative characteristics of all fission products in spent nuclear fuel during long-term storage. Several computer codes were developed in different countries to solve this problem. French codes APOLLO1 and PEPIN were used in this work for modeling the characteristics of spent nuclear fuel in the RBMK reactor. The modeling results of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of long-lived fission products for different cooling periods of spent nuclear fuel, including 50-year cooling period, are presented in this paper. The 50-year cooling period conforms to the foreseen time of storage of spent nuclear fuel in CONSTOR and CASTOR casks at the Ignalina NPP. These results correlate well with evaluated quantities for the well-known yields of the nuclides and could be used for the compilation of the database for long-lived fission products in spent nuclear fuel from the RBMK-type reactor. They allow one to predict and to solve effectively safety problems concerning with long-term spent nuclear fuel storage in casks. (author)

  19. Fuel age impacts on gaseous fission product capture during separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert T.; Soelberg, Nicolas R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Ilas, G.

    2012-09-21

    As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides will be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129 Rosnick 2007 I. The question we attempt to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examine the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012), and they apply to the total radonuclide release and to the dose to a particular organ – the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, several cases are studied. These cases consider for the four analyzed radionuclides inventories produced for three fuel types—pressurized water reactor uranium oxide (PWR UOX), pressurized water reactor mixed oxide (PWR MOX), and advanced high-temperature gascooled reactor (AHTGR)—several burnup values and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. Doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) are calculated with the EPA code CAP-88 ( , 1992). Two dose cases are considered. The first case, perhaps unrealistic, assumes that all of the allowable dose is assigned to the volatile radionuclides. In lieu of this, for the second case a value of 10% of the allowable dose is arbitrarily selected to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. The required decontamination factors (DFs) are calculated for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I are the main contributors. However, for completeness, for one fuel type and burnup, additional cases are provided, allowing 25% and 50% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. Because 3H and 85Kr have

  20. Advances in Automated QA/QC for TRISO Fuel Particle Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Batishko, Charles R.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel in most Generation IV reactor designs typically encompasses billions of the TRISO particles. Present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, cannot economically test a statistically significant fraction of the large number of the individual fuel particles required. Fully automated inspection technologies are essential to economical TRISO fuel particle production. A combination of in-line nondestructive (NDE) measurements employing electromagnetic induction and digital optical imaging analysis is currently under investigation and preliminary data indicate the potential for meeting the demands of this application. To calibrate high-speed NDE methods, surrogate fuel particle samples are being coated with layers containing a wide array of defect types found to degrade fuel performance and these are being characterized via high-resolution CT and digital radiographic images

  1. Hydrogen production with fully integrated fuel cycle gas and vapour core reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Smith, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results of a conceptual design study involving gas and vapour core reactors (G/VCR) with a combined scheme to generate hydrogen and power. The hydrogen production schemes include high temperature electrolysis as well as two dominant thermochemical hydrogen production processes. Thermochemical hydrogen production processes considered in this study included the calcium-bromine process and the sulphur-iodine processes. G/VCR systems are externally reflected and moderated nuclear energy systems fuelled by stable uranium compounds in gaseous or vapour phase that are usually operated at temperatures above 1500 K. A gas core reactor with a condensable fuel such as uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) or a mixture of UF 4 and other metallic fluorides (BeF 2 , LiF, KF, etc.) is commonly known as a vapour core reactor (VCR). The single most relevant and unique feature of gas/vapour core reactors is that the functions of fuel and coolant are combined into one. The reactor outlet temperature is not constrained by solid fuel-cladding temperature limits. The maximum fuel/working fluid temperature in G/VCR is only constrained by the reactor vessel material limits, which is far less restrictive than the fuel clad. Therefore, G/VCRs can potentially provide the highest reactor and cycle temperature among all existing or proposed fission reactor designs. Gas and vapour fuel reactors feature very low fuel inventory and fully integrated fuel cycle that provide for exceptional sustainability and safety characteristics. With respect to fuel utilisation, there is no fuel burn-up limit for gas core reactors due to continuous recycling of the fuel. Owing to the flexibility in nuclear design characteristics of cavity reactors, a wide range of conversion ratio from completely burner to breeder is achievable. The continuous recycling of fuel in G/VCR systems allow for complete burning of actinides without removing and reprocessing of the fuel. The only waste products at the back

  2. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Clement, B.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  3. Innovative microbial fuel cell for electricity production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was developed by immersing an anode electrode and a cathode chamber in an anaerobic reactor. Domestic wastewater was used as the medium and the inoculum in the experiments. The SMFC could successfully generate a stable voltage of 0.428 ± 0.003 V with a fixed......, a large portion of voltage drop was caused by the ohmic (electrolyte) resistance of the medium present between two electrodes, although the two electrodes were closely positioned (about 3 cm distance; internal resistance = 35 ± 2 Ω). The open circuit potential (0.393 V vs. a standard hydrogen electrode...

  4. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshikazu; Kanda, Keiji; Mishima, Kaichiro; Tamai, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Snelgrove, James L.; Stahl, David; Matos, James E.; Travelli, Armando; Case, F. Neil; Posey, John C.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 deg. C was found negligible. The first rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561±1 deg. C on the plates. The next release at 585. C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 deg. C of U-Al x . The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed. (author)

  5. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, T.; Kanda, K.; Mishima, K.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel-cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 0 C was found negligible. The firist rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561 +- 1 0 C on the plates. The next release at 585 0 C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 0 C of U-Al/sub x/. The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......, and outlet gas composition. For methane production, low temperature and high pressure operation could improve the system efficiency, but might lead to a higher capital cost. For DME production, high pressure SOEC operation necessitates higher operating temperature in order to avoid carbon formation at higher...

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. New technologies in the production of motor fuels from renewable materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnađević Borivoj K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents resources of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina available for bioethanol and motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel from sustainable resources: corn-stalks, straw, sweet sorghum, pork fat. The physicochemical basis for novel processes for motor fuel production is coupling microwave pyrolysis of oil shale and catalytic cracking of purified pyrolysis oil, hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and swine manure. The effects of the degree of purification of crude pyrolysis oil and oil shale on the degree of their conversion to gasoline and diesel fuel, as well as the product distribution are investigated. The effects of the duration and temperature of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalga, Botryoccocus braunii, and swine manure on their degrees of conversion into bio-oil and its thermal properties are investigated. The development of novel strategy of biofuel in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is presented.

  9. Linear accelerator fuel enricher regenerator (LAFER) and fission product transmutor (APEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1979-01-01

    In addition to safety, two other major problems face the nuclear industry today; first is the long-term supply of fissle material and second is the disposal of long-lived fission product waste. The higher energy proton linear accelerator can assist in the solution of each of these problems. High energy protons from the linear accelerator interact with a molten lead target to produce spallation and evaporation neutrons. The neutrons are absorbed in a surrounding blanket of light water power reactor (LWR) fuel elements to produce fissile Pu-239 or U-233 fuel from natural fertile U-238 or Th-232 contained in the elements. The fissile enriched fuel element is used in the LWR power reactor until its reactivity is reduced after which the element is regenerated in the linear accelerator target/blanket assembly and then the element is once again burned (fissioned) in the power LWR. In this manner the natural uranium fuel resource can supply an expanding nuclear power reactor economy without the need for fuel reprocessing, thus satisfying the US policy of non-proliferation. In addition, the quantity of spent fuel elements for long-term disposal is reduced in proportion to the number of fuel regeneration cycles through the accelerator. The limiting factor for in-situ regeneration is the burnup damage to the fuel cladding material. A 300 ma-1.5 GeV (450 MW) proton linear accelerator can produce approximately one ton of fissile (Pu-239) material annually which is enough to supply fuel to three 1000 MW(e) LWR power reactors. With two cycles of enriching and regenerating, the nuclear fuel natural resource can be stretched by a factor of 3.6 compared to present fuel cycle practice without the need for reprocessing. Furthermore, the need for isotopic enrichment facilities is drastically reduced

  10. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment

  11. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  12. Transport of volatile fission products in the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective fuel elements during normal and reactor accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Bonin, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment has been used to model the vapour transport of radioactive fission products released into the fuel-to-sheath gap of defective nuclear fuel elements. The model accounts for both diffusive and bulk-convective transport. Convective transport becomes important as a result of a significant release of gaseous fission products into the gap during a high-temperature reactor accident. However, during normal reactor operation, diffusion is shown to be the dominant process of transport. The model is based on an analysis of several in-reactor tests with operating defective fuel elements, and high-temperature annealing experiments with irradiated fuel specimens. ((orig.))

  13. Data sheets of fission product release experiments for light water reactor fuel, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Nasumi; Nagai, Hitoshi; Takeda, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Katsumune; Nakazaki, Chozaburo.

    1979-07-01

    This is the second data sheets of fission products (FP) release experiments for light water reactor fuel. Results of five FP release experiments from the third to the seventh are presented: results of pre-examinations of UO 2 pellets, photographs of parts of fuel rod assemblies for irradiation and the assemblies, operational conditions of JMTR and OWL-1, variations of radioiodine-131 level in the main loop coolant during experimental periods, and representative results of post-irradiation examinations of respective fuel rods. (author)

  14. Innovative automation solutions applied to nuclear fuel production and inspection processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, Ananth

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear industry in India is slated for fast paced growth in the coming years, with a great focus on increasing the capacity for producing, inspecting and finally reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Modern techniques of industrial automation such as robotics, machine vision and laser based systems have been deployed extensively to improve the productivity and output of existing and future installations, particularly for the fuel handling stages mentioned

  15. Method for the gasification of carbonaceous fuels for the production of reduction gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschen, P; Pfeiffer, R; Rao, C

    1977-11-24

    For the gasification of solid, liquid or gaseous fuels to produce reduction gas, the fuel is led beneath the surface of a metallic melting bath together with an oxidating gasification agent. A sulfur-adsorbing slag should be maintained on the melting bath surface, so a desulfurated reduction gas is produced containing mainly CO and H/sub 2/ as used for metallurgical processes (i.e., direct reduction for the production of sponge iron).

  16. Continuous process of powder production for MOX fuel fabrication according to ''granat'' technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkovnikov, V.E.; Raginskiy, L.S.; Pavlinov, A.P.; Chernov, V.A.; Revyakin, V.V.; Varykhanov, V.S.; Revnov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    During last years the problem of commercial MOX fuel fabrication for nuclear reactors in Russia was solved in a number of directions. The paper deals with the solution of the problem of creating a continuous pilot plant for the production of MOX fuel powders on the basis of the home technology 'Granat', that was tested before on a small-scale pilot-commercial batch-operated plant of the same name and confirmed good results. (authors)

  17. Fuel depletion analyses for the HEU core of GHARR-1: Part II: Fission product inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anim-Sampong, S.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Boadu, H.O.; Intsiful, J.D.K.; Osae, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fission product isotopic inventories have been estimated for a 90.2% highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel lattice cell of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) using the WIMSD/4 transport lattice code. The results indicate a gradual decrease in the Xe 135 inventory, and saturation trend for Sm 149 , Cs 134 and Cs 135 inventories as the fuel is depleted to 10,000 MWd/tU. (author)

  18. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  19. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  20. Cost Analysis of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacks for Mass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francesco Sgroi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are very promising technologies for efficient electrical energy generation. The development of enhanced system components and new engineering solutions is fundamental for the large-scale deployment of these devices. Besides automotive and stationary applications, fuel cells can be widely used as auxiliary power units (APUs. The concept of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC is based on the direct feed of a methanol solution to the fuel cell anode, thus simplifying safety, delivery, and fuel distribution issues typical of conventional hydrogen-fed polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs. In order to evaluate the feasibility of concrete application of DMFC devices, a cost analysis study was carried out in the present work. A 200 W-prototype developed in the framework of a European Project (DURAMET was selected as the model system. The DMFC stack had a modular structure allowing for a detailed evaluation of cost characteristics related to the specific components. A scale-down approach, focusing on the model device and projected to a mass production, was used. The data used in this analysis were obtained both from research laboratories and industry suppliers specialising in the manufacturing/production of specific stack components. This study demonstrates that mass production can give a concrete perspective for the large-scale diffusion of DMFCs as APUs. The results show that the cost derived for the DMFC stack is relatively close to that of competing technologies and that the introduction of innovative approaches can result in further cost savings.

  1. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  2. Evaluation of the Navy Master Planning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Navy planning directives, interviews with Navy planning personnel, researc " of applicable literature on planning and program evaluation, and the...master planning has absorbed the additional roles of program management and public relations marketing . The Navy planner is now deeply involved in...master planning 62conducted by NAVFAC headquarters in 1972, various Navy planning directives, a " Market Survey" of NAVFAC services and customer 63

  3. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  4. Production of nuclear ceramic fuel for nuclear power plants at 'Ulba metallurgical plant' OSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadeev, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the flow-sheet of production of uranium dioxide powders and nuclear ceramic fuel pellets of them existing at the facility. 'UMP' OSC applies ADU extraction process of UO2 powders production. An indisputable success of the process is the possibility of use of the wide range of raw materials. Uranium hexafluoride, uranium oxides, uranium metal, uranium tetrafluoride, uranyl salts, uranium ore concentrates, all possible types of uranium-containing materials the processing of which by routine methods is difficult (ashes, scraps, etc.) are used as the raw materials. In addition, a reprocessed nuclear fuel can be used for fuel production. The quality of uranium dioxide powder produced does not depend on the type of uranium raw material used. High selectivity of extraction refining makes possible to obtain material with rather low impurities content that meets practically all specifications for uranium dioxide known to us. Ceramic and process features of uranium dioxide powders, namely, specific surface, bulk density, grain size and sinterability make possible to produce nuclear ceramic fuel with specified features. Quality of uranium dioxide powders produced by 'UMP' OSC was highly rated by General Electric company that is one of the leading companies from fuel manufactures in the USA market . It has certified 'UMP' OSC as its supplier. Currently, our company makes great efforts on establishing production of uranium dioxide powders with natural isotopes content for production of fuel for CANDU reactors. Trial lots of such powders are under tests at some companies manufacturing fuel for this type reactors in Canada, USA and Corea

  5. Evaluation of fission product worth margins in PWR spent nuclear fuel burnup credit calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Finck, P.J.; Jammes, C.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1999-01-01

    Current criticality safety calculations for the transportation of irradiated LWR fuel make the very conservative assumption that the fuel is fresh. This results in a very substantial overprediction of the actual k eff of the transportation casks; in certain cases, this decreases the amount of spent fuel which can be loaded in a cask, and increases the cost of transporting the spent fuel to the repository. Accounting for the change of reactivity due to fuel depletion is usually referred to as ''burnup credit.'' The US DOE is currently funding a program aimed at establishing an actinide only burnup credit methodology (in this case, the calculated reactivity takes into account the buildup or depletion of a limited number of actinides). This work is undergoing NRC review. While this methodology is being validated on a significant experimental basis, it implicitly relies on additional margins: in particular, the absorption of neutrons by certain actinides and by all fission products is not taken into account. This provides an important additional margin and helps guarantee that the methodology is conservative provided these neglected absorption are known with reasonable accuracy. This report establishes the accuracy of fission product absorption rate calculations: (1) the analysis of European fission product worth experiments demonstrates that fission product cross-sections available in the US provide very good predictions of fission product worth; (2) this is confirmed by a direct comparison of European and US cross section evaluations; (3) accuracy of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) fission product content predictions is established in a recent ORNL report where several SNF isotopic assays are analyzed; and (4) these data are then combined to establish in a conservative manner the fraction of the predicted total fission product absorption which can be guaranteed based on available experimental data

  6. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...... various zeolite catalysts is studied in Chapter 4. When 2-propanol or 1-butanol is converted over H-ZSM-5, the total conversion capacities of the catalyst are more than 25 times higher than for conversion of methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for conversion of C3+ alcohols, the selectivity shifts during...

  7. Production method of burnable poison incorporated fuel pellet by coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Naoyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical member is formed with an organic material which is melted, decomposed or evaporated by heating. Such organic materials include polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol, for example. A predetermined amount of burnable poisons are homogeneously incorporated in the cylindrical member by a means, such as melting before fabricating it into a cylindrical shape. UO 2 fuel pellets are inserted to the cylindrical member and heated, to scatter only the organic materials, so that non-volatile burnable poisons are homogeneously left on the surface of the pellets. It is preferred that the cylindrical member having pellets inserted therein is inserted to a cladding tube and applied with a heat treatment. With such procedures, a UO 2 pellet is coated with burnable poisons by a convenient and compact device. In addition, grinding step after the coating is unnecessary. (I.N.)

  8. Production of solar fuels by CO2 plasmolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede Adelbert P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A storage scheme for Renewable Energy (RE based on the plasmolysis of CO2into CO and O2 has been experimentally investigated, demonstrating high energy efficiency (>50% combined with high energy density, rapid start-stop and no use of scarce materials. The key parameter controlling energy efficiency has been identified as the reduced electric field. Basic plasma parameters including density and temperature are derived from a simple particle and energy balance model, allowing parameter specification of an upscale 100 kW reactor. With RE powered plasmolysis as the critical element, a CO2 neutral energy system becomes feasible when complemented by effective capture of CO2 at the input and separation of CO from the output gas stream followed by downstream chemical processing into hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Convective-diffusive transport of fission products in the gap of a failed fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Z.W.; Carlucci, L.N.; Arimescu, V.I.

    1995-03-01

    A model is presented to describe the transport behaviour of gaseous fission products along the axial fuel-to-sheathe gap of a failed fuel element to the coolant system. The model is applicable to an element having failed under normal operating conditions or loss-of coolant-accident conditions. Because of the large differences in operating parameters, the transport characteristics of gaseous fission products in a failed element under these two operating conditions are significantly different. However, in both cases the transport process can be described by convection-diffusion caused by the continuous release of fission products from the fuel to the gap. Under normal operating conditions, the bulk-flow velocity is found to be negligible, due to the low release rate of fission products from fuel. The process can be well approximated by the diffusion of fission products in a stagnant gas-steam mixture. The effect of convection on the fission product transport, however, becomes significant under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions, where the release rates of fission products from fuel can be several orders of magnitude higher that that under normal operating conditions. The convection of the mixture in the gap not only contributes an additional flux to the gas-mixture transport, but also increases the gradient of fission products concentration across the opening, and therefore increases the diffusion flux to the coolant. As a result of the bulk flow, the transport of fission products along the gap is accelerated and the hold-up of short-lived isotopes in the gap is significantly reduced. Steam ingress through the opening into the gap is obstructed by the bulk flow, resulting in low steam concentrations in the gap under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs

  10. Improvement in retention of solid fission products in HTGR fuel particles by ceramic kernel additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerthmann, R.; Groos, E.; Gruebmeier, H.

    1975-08-01

    Increased requirements concerning the retention of long-lived solid fission products in fuel elements for use in advanced High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors led to the development of coated particles with improved fission product retention of the kernel, which represent an alternative to silicon carbide-coated fuel particles. Two irradiation experiments have shown that the release of strontium, barium, and caesium from pyrocarbon-coated particles can be reduced by orders of magnitude if the oxide kernel contains alumina-silica additives. It was detected by electron microprobe analysis that the improved retention of the mentioned fission products in the fuel kernel is caused by formation of the stable aluminosilicates SrAl 2 Si 2 O 8 , BaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 and CsAlSi 2 O 6 in the additional aluminasilica phase of the kernel. (orig.) [de

  11. General description and production lines of the Egyptian fuel manufacturing pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, W.I.; Elseaidy, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Egyptian Fuel Manufacturing Pilot Plant, FMPP, is a new facility, producing an MTR-type fuel elements required for the Egyptian Second Research Reactor, ETRR-2, as well as other plates or elements for an external clients with the same type and enrichment percent or lower, (LEU). General description is presented. The production lines in FMPP, which begin from uranium hexaflouride (UF 6 , 19.7±0.2 % U 235 by wt), aluminum powder, and nuclear grade 6061 aluminium alloy in sheets, bars, and rods with the different heat treatments and dimensions as a raw materials, are processed through a series of the manufacturing, inspection, and quality control plan to produce the final specified MTR-type fuel elements. All these processes and the product control in each step are presented. The specifications of the final product are presented. (author)

  12. GC of catalytic reactions products involved in the promising fuel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheivot, V.; Sazonova, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Boreskov Inst. of Catalysis

    2012-09-15

    Catalytic reactions involved in the synthesis of the promising kinds of novel fuel and products formed in these reactions were systematized according to the resulting fuel type. Generalization of the retention of the substances comprising these products is presented. Chromatograms exhibiting their separation on chromatographic materials with the surface of different chemical properties are summarized. We propose procedures for gas-chromatographic analysis of the catalytic reactions products formed in the synthesis of hydrogen, methanol, dimethyl ether and hydrocarbons as a new generation of fuel alternative to petroleum and coal. For partial oxidation of methane into synthesis gas, on-line determination of the components obtained in the reaction was carried out by gas chromatography and gas analyzer based on different physicochemical methods (IR spectroscopy and electrochemical methods). Similarity of the results obtained using these methods is demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  14. Bioethanol fuel production from rambutan fruit biomass as reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... bioethanol from rotten rambutan was to manage rambutan wastes, cleaning the ... regarding rambutan, mango, banana and pineapple for the ethanol production ... small pieces together with their skin and blended in a Philips.

  15. Fission products detection in irradiated TRIGA fuel by means of gamma spectroscopy and MCNP calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzo, M; Borio di Tigliole, A; Böck, H; Villa, M

    2018-05-01

    Aim of this work was the detection of fission products activity distribution along the axial dimension of irradiated fuel elements (FEs) at the TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the Technische Universität (TU) Wien. The activity distribution was measured by means of a customized fuel gamma scanning device, which includes a vertical lifting system to move the fuel rod along its vertical axis. For each investigated FE, a gamma spectrum measurement was performed along the vertical axis, with steps of 1 cm, in order to determine the axial distribution of the fission products. After the fuel elements underwent a relatively short cooling down period, different fission products were detected. The activity concentration was determined by calibrating the gamma detector with a standard calibration source of known activity and by MCNP6 simulations for the evaluation of self-absorption and geometric effects. Given the specific TRIGA fuel composition, a correction procedure is developed and used in this work for the measurement of the fission product Zr 95 . This measurement campaign is part of a more extended project aiming at the modelling of the TU Wien TRIGA reactor by means of different calculation codes (MCNP6, Serpent): the experimental results presented in this paper will be subsequently used for the benchmark of the models developed with the calculation codes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  17. Fission product release from nuclear fuel I. Physical modelling in the ASTEC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical modeling of FP and SM release in ASTEC is presented. • The release is described as solid state diffusion within fuel for high volatile FP. • The release is described as FP vaporisation for semi volatile FP. • The release is described as fuel vaporisation for low volatile FP. • ASTEC validation is presented in the second paper. - Abstract: This article is the first of a series of two articles dedicated to the mechanisms of fission product release from a degraded core as they are modelled in the ASTEC code. The ASTEC code aims at simulating severe accidents in nuclear reactors from the initiating event up to the radiological consequences on the environment. This code is used for several applications such as nuclear plant safety evaluation including probabilistic studies and emergency preparedness. To cope with the requirements of robustness and low calculation time, the code is based on a semi-empirical approach and only the main limiting phenomena that govern the release from intact rods and from debris beds are considered. For solid fuel, fission products are classified into three groups, depending on their degree of volatility. The kinetics of volatile fission products release depend on the rate-limiting process of solid-state diffusion through fuel grains. For semi-volatile fission products, the release from the open fuel porosities is assumed to be governed by vaporisation and mass transfer processes. The key phenomenon for the release of low volatile fission products is supposed to be fuel volatilisation. A similar approach is used for the release of fission products from a rubble bed. An in-depth validation of the code including both analytical and integral experiments is the subject of the second article

  18. The series production in a standardized fabrication line for silicide fuels and commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, E.L.; Hassel, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    NUKEM has been responsible for the development and fabrication of LEU fuel elements for MTR reactors under the frame of the German AF program since 1979. The AF program is part of the international RERTR efforts, which were initiated by the INFCE Group in 1978. This paper describes the actual status of development and the transition from the prototype to the series production in a standardized manufacturing line for silicide fuels at NUKEM. Technical provisions and a customer oriented standardized product range aim at an economized manufacturing. (Author)

  19. Present condition of survey research on actualization strategy of fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycling. Design research on fuel production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenya

    2001-01-01

    The fuel production system design investigation was performed for construction of fuel production process concept and plant image searching for the targets such as economics, environmental loading reduction, and so on required for practical use of FBR fuel recycling at a premise of safety security. By expectation of economics as a fuel cycling system, enhancement of nuclear proliferation resistance, and so on, it becomes more important to investigate on a fuel cycling system suitable for raw materials with low decontamination and high radiation intensity. In addition, it is also necessary to carry out investigation on fuel production system concept accompanies with MA recycling system for reduction of environmental loading. Therefore, investigation objects on the system were laid their fundamental processes on denitrification conversion/pelletizing process and gelation/vibration filling process for raw material solution from advancing wet reprocessing and on vibration filling process for oxide granules obtained from dry reprocessing system and casting method for metal fuels. As a result, for the pollution removal fuel production system suitable for either of wet/dry reprocessing, a mass-production scale production plant image was elucidated at a premise of production yield, realizability of remote automation system, and so on. On candidate concepts of every fuel production system, no fatal defect was found on results of outline evaluation on features of system such as production facility scale and so on before present stage. (G.K.)

  20. Optimal initial fuel distribution in a thermal reactor for maximum energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran-Lopez, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the fuel burnup as objective function, it is desired to determine the initial distribution of the fuel in a reactor in order to obtain the maximum energy possible, for which, without changing a fixed initial fuel mass, the results for different initial fuel and control poison configurations are analyzed and the corresponding running times compared. One-dimensional, two energy-group theory is applied to a reflected cylindrical reactor using U-235 as fuel and light water as moderator and reflector. Fissions in both fast and thermal groups are considered. The reactor is divided into several annular regions, and the constant flux approximation in each depletion step is then used to solve the fuel and fission-product poisons differential equations in each region. The computer code OPTIME was developed to determine the time variation of core properties during the fuel cycle. At each depletion step, OPTIME calls ODMUG, [12] a criticality search program, from which the spatially-averaged neutron fluxes and control poison cross sections are obtained

  1. Microbial alkane production for jet fuel industry: motivation, state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Caballero, Antonio; Pérez-Hernández, Natalia; Segura, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Bio-jet fuel has attracted a lot of interest in recent years and has become a focus for aircraft and engine manufacturers, oil companies, governments and researchers. Given the global concern about environmental issues and the instability of oil market, bio-jet fuel has been identified as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation industry, while also promoting energy security. Although a number of bio-jet fuel sources have been approved for manufacture, their commercialization and entry into the market is still a far way away. In this review, we provide an overview of the drivers for intensified research into bio-jet fuel technologies, the type of chemical compounds found in bio-jet fuel preparations and the current state of related pre-commercial technologies. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons is one of the most promising approaches for bio-jet fuel production, and thus we provide a detailed analysis of recent advances in the microbial biosynthesis of hydrocarbons (with a focus on alkanes). Finally, we explore the latest developments and their implications for the future of research into bio-jet fuel technologies. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    The fifth in a projected series of six postirradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements is described. The element analyzed received an equivalent of 897 full-power days of irradiation prior to the scheduled termination of Core 2 operation. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 20.3 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.1 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110 m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the beta-emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at four axial locations of the fueled region of the element sleeve and two axial locations of the element spine. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. In addition to fission product distributions, the appearance of the component parts of the element was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  3. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m 2 ) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft 2 hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient

  4. Did the Navy Get Taken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    into a museum , the Navy decided in 2010 that none of the applications to turn it into a public display was up to par. In addition to its pivotal role in...it formerly cost the Navy a bundle to turn around the Constitution. But then the winner of the competition started to advertise that it had won... Museum , which could not do so, but, referred me to the U.S. Navy’s Public Affairs Officer for the USS Constitution. He was unable to verify the

  5. Simultaneous electricity production and antibiotics removal by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Nengwu; Guo, Wenying; Wang, Yun; Huang, Xixian; Wu, Pingxiao; Dang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xian, Jinchan

    2018-04-07

    The removal of antibiotics is crucial for improvement of water quality in animal wastewater treatment. In this paper, the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC) in terms of degradation of typical antibiotics was investigated. Electricity was successfully produced by using sludge supernatant mixtures and synthesized animal wastewater as inoculation in MFC. Results demonstrated that the stable voltage, the maximum power density and internal resistance of anaerobic self-electrolysis (ASE) -112 and ASE-116 without antibiotics addition were 0.574 V, 5.78 W m -3 and 28.06 Ω, and 0.565 V, 5.82 W m -3 and 29.38 Ω, respectively. Moreover, when adding aureomycin, sulfadimidine, roxithromycin and norfloxacin into the reactors, the performance of MFC was inhibited (0.51 V-0.41 V), while the output voltage was improved with the decreased concentration of antibiotics. However, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) were both obviously enhanced. Simultaneously, LC-MS analysis showed that the removal efficiency of aureomycin, roxithromycin and norfloxacin were all 100% and the removal efficiency of sulfadimidine also reached 99.9%. These results indicated that antibiotics displayed significantly inhibitions for electricity performance but improved the quality of water simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of low enrichment technologies for high density fuels and for isotope production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than twenty years ago, CNEA has carried out RERTR activities. Main goals are to convert the RA 6 reactor core from HEU to LEU, to get a comprehensive understanding of U-Mo/Al compounds phase formation in dispersed and monolithic fuels, to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems, and to optimize techniques to recover U from silicide scrap samples. The future plans include: 1) Completion the RA 6 reactor conversion to LEU; 2) Qualification by irradiation of the promising solutions found for the high density fuels; 3) Irradiation of mini plates and full scale fuel assemblies at the RA 3 reactor and at higher flux and temperature reactors; 4) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author) [es

  7. Hydrogen production by steam reforming methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphlett, J.C.; Creber, K.A.M.; Davis, J.M.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Stokes, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methanol has been studied as a means of generating hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. A semi-empirical model of the kinetics of the catalytic steam reforming of methanol over Cu O/Zn O/Al 2 O 3 catalyst has been developed. This model is able to predict the performance of the reformer with respect to the various parameters important in developing an integrated reformer-polymer fuel cell system. A set of sample calculations of reformer temperature and CO production are given. The impact of the performance of the reformer catalyst on the design of the overall fuel cell power system is discussed. The selectivity of the catalyst to minimize CO content in the fuel gas is shown to be more critical than was previously believed. 4 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs

  8. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  9. Achieving higher productivity of UO2 fuel at NUOFP through improved in-plant quality surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, R.; Pramanik, D.; Sairam, S.; Rajkumar, J.V.; Rao, R.V.R.L.V.; Sinha, T.K.; Santra, N.; Rao, G.V.S.H.; Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    At Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), in the production of UO 2 fuel for PHWRs, a standard set of process parameters are monitored regularly for every lot of powder and pellet. Quality of intermediate products in the production process like UNP, ADU(dry), U 3 O 8 , UO 2+x , UO 2 granules, green pellets, sintered pellets are also regularly analysed/monitored apart from the final finished pellet and ensured to be within specified range. This range is decided by final product specifications and sometimes also based on the feed requirement in the next process in the downstream of the flow sheet. Vast experience gained over the years, behavior of various equipment under given set of conditions, feed back from the customer plants etc; have been primary criteria hither to, for defining the process conditions and chemical/physical properties of intermediate products

  10. The safety of operations in the Dragon fuel element production building during the manufacture of thorium fuel for the first charge of the Dragon Reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, H.; Gardham, B.; Holliday, J.

    1965-04-01

    The first charge of fuel and fuel elements for the Dragon Reactor has been completed without significant difficulty. This report covers the safety of operations during the production of the 10 thorium elements together with the final 2 driver elements needed to complete the 37 element charge. (author)

  11. Fuels production by the thermochemical transformation of the biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudet, G.

    2005-01-01

    The biomass is a local and renewable energy source, presenting many advantages. This paper proposes to examine the biomass potential in France, the energy valorization channels (thermochemical chains of thermolysis and gasification) with a special interest for the hydrogen production and the research programs oriented towards the agriculture and the forest. (A.L.B.)

  12. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  13. selectivity engineering in sustainable production of chemicals, fuels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    admin

    Cost. Landfill. –400. Source: Tuck et al., Science, 337 (6095): 695-699 10 August ... libraries for novel enzymes that transform lignocellulosics ... Bio-process engineering for optimal production of ... fine chemicals and petrochemical industries. ..... Mole ratio : Epichlorohydrin to acetone of 1:8 , 100 % atom economy. Sr.No.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moncada Botero, J. (Jonathan)

    Remarks. Complexity. Investment in equipment and strain development. 1 .... 1. Standalone medium feedstock. Production Plant capacity 160,000 L/day increased fresh cassava yield (single plant). 2. Standalone .... Some data on physical properties of the components required during the simulation were obtained from the ...

  15. Design of containment system of nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion with leaking fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete Maturana, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The following report presents the design of an innovative confinement system for the nuclear fuel attacked by corrosion, with leakage of fission products to be used in the RECH-1 nuclear experimental reactor of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, is currently within the framework of the international nuclear waste management program developed by the member countries of the IAEA, including Chile. The main objective of this project is the development of a system that is capable of containing, in the smallest possible volume, the fission products that are released to the reactor coolant medium from the nuclear fuel that are attacked by corrosion. Among the tasks carried out for the development of the project are: the compilation of the necessary bibliography for the selection of the most suitable technology for the retention of the fission products, the calculation of the most important parameters to ensure that the system will operate within ranges that do not compromise the radiological safety, and the design of the hydraulic circuit of the system. The results obtained from the calculations showed that the fuel element confinement system is stable from a thermal point of view since the refrigerant does not under any circumstances reach the saturation temperature and, in addition, from a hydraulic point of view, since the rate at which the refrigerant flows through the hydraulic circuit is low enough so that the deformation of the fuel plates forming the nuclear fuel does not occur. The most appropriate technology for the extraction of fission products according to the literature consulted is by ion exchange. The calculations developed showed that with a very small volume of resins, it is possible to capture all of the non-volatile fission products of a nuclear fuel

  16. Modelling of fission product release behavior from HTR spherical fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Mueller, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer codes for modelling the fission product release behavior of spherical fuel elements for High Temperature Reactors (HTR) have been developed for the purpose of being used in risk analyses for HTRs. An important part of the validation and verification procedure for these calculation models is the theoretical investigation of accident simulation experiments which have been conducted in the KueFA test facility in the Hot Cells at KFA. The paper gives a presentation of the basic modeling and the calculational results of fission product release from modern German HTR fuel elements in the temperature range 1600-1800 deg. C using the TRISO coated particle failure model PANAMA and the diffusion model FRESCO. Measurements of the transient release behavior for cesium and strontium and of their concentration profiles after heating have provided informations about diffusion data in the important retention barriers of the fuel: silicon carbide and matrix graphite. It could be shown that the diffusion coefficients of both cesium and strontium in silicon carbide can significantly be reduced using a factor in the range of 0.02 - 0.15 compared to older HTR fuel. Also in the development of fuel element graphite, a tendency towards lower diffusion coefficients for both nuclides can be derived. Special heating tests focussing on the fission gases and iodine release from the matrix contamination have been evaluated to derive corresponding effective diffusion data for iodine in fuel element graphite which are more realistic than the iodine transport data used so far. Finally, a prediction of krypton and cesium release from spherical fuel elements under heating conditions will be given for fuel elements which at present are irradiated in the FRJ2, Juelich, and which are intended to be heated at 1600/1800 deg. C in the KueFA furnace in near future. (author). 7 refs, 11 figs

  17. Fast accelerator driven subcritical system for energy production: nuclear fuel evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Graiciany de P.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators Driven Systems (ADS) are an innovative type of nuclear system, which is useful for long-lived fission product transmutation and fuel regeneration. The ADS consist of a coupling of a sub-critical nuclear core reactor and a proton beam produced by a particle accelerator. These particles are injected into a target for the neutrons production by spallation reactions. The neutrons are then used to maintain the fission chain in the sub-critical core. The aim of this study is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution of a lead cooled accelerator driven system used for energy production. The fuel studied is a mixture based upon "2"3"2Th and "2"3"3U. Since thorium is an abundant fertile material, there is hope for the thorium-cycle fuels for an accelerator driven sub-critical system. The target is a lead spallation target and the core is filled with a hexagonal lattice. High energy neutrons are used to reduce the negative reactivity caused by the presence of protoactinium, since this effect is most pronounced in the thermal range of the neutron spectrum. For that reason, such material is not added moderator to the system. In this work is used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6.0, that presents the the depletion/ burnup capability. The k_e_f_f evolution, the neutron energy spectrum in the core and the nuclear fuel evolution using ADS source (SDEF) and kcode-mode are evaluated during the burnup. (author)

  18. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  19. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  20. Artificial photosynthesis for production of hydrogen peroxide and its fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    The reducing power released from photosystem I (PSI) via ferredoxin enables the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, which is essential in the Calvin-Benson cycle to make sugars in photosynthesis. Alternatively, PSI can reduce O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide as a fuel. This article describes the artificial version of the photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from water and O2 using solar energy. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a fuel in hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to make electricity. The combination of the photocatalytic H2O2 production from water and O2 using solar energy with one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells provides on-site production and usage of H2O2 as a more useful and promising solar fuel than hydrogen. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--The design and engineering of electronc transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fission product monitoring of TRISO coated fuel for the advanced gas reactor-1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scates, Dawn M.; Hartwell, John K.; Walter, John B.; Drigert, Mark W.; Harp, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has embarked on a series of tests of TRISO coated particle reactor fuel intended for use in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) as part of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program. The AGR-1 TRISO fuel experiment, currently underway, is the first in a series of eight fuel tests planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The AGR-1 experiment reached a peak compact averaged burnup of 9% FIMA with no known TRISO fuel particle failures in March 2008. The burnup goal for the majority of the fuel compacts is to have a compact averaged burnup greater than 18% FIMA and a minimum compact averaged burnup of 14% FIMA. At the INL the TRISO fuel in the AGR-1 experiment is closely monitored while it is being irradiated in the ATR. The effluent monitoring system used for the AGR-1 fuel is the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS). The FPMS is a valuable tool that provides near real-time data indicative of the AGR-1 test fuel performance and incorporates both high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometers and sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector-based gross radiation monitors. To quantify the fuel performance, release-to-birth ratios (R/B's) of radioactive fission gases are computed. The gamma-ray spectra acquired by the AGR-1 FPMS are analyzed and used to determine the released activities of specific fission gases, while a dedicated detector provides near-real time count rate information. Isotopic build up and depletion calculations provide the associated isotopic birth rates. This paper highlights the features of the FPMS, encompassing the equipment, methods and measures that enable the calculation of the release-to-birth ratios. Some preliminary results from the AGR-1 experiment are also presented.

  2. Economics of nuclear energy production systems: reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Proust, E.; Gautrot, J.J.; Tinturier, B.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper relies on the main European economic studies on the comparative costs of electricity generation, published over the last six years, to show that nuclear power meets the challenge and is an economically competitive choice in the European electricity market. Indeed, although these studies were made for different purposes, by different actors and based on different methods, they all converge to show that the total base-load generation cost for new nuclear plants build in Europe is projected to be in the range of 22 to 32 euros/MWh, a total generation cost that may be 20% cheaper than the cost for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units. Moreover, the prospects of internalization of the greenhouse gas emission cost in the total generation cost will boost even further the competitiveness of nuclear against gas-fired plants in Europe. All this is confirmed by the most recent French detailed study (DIDEME 2003), essentially performed from an investor standpoint, which concludes, for base-load generation units starting operation around 2015, that nuclear power, with a levelled generation cost of 28,4 euros/MWh, is more competitive than CCGTs (35 euros/MWh). This study also shows an overnight investment cost for nuclear power, based on the considered scenario (a series of 10 EPR units including a ''demonstrator''), of less than 1300 euros/kWe. The other major challenge, waste management obviously also includes an economic dimension. This issue is addressed in the present paper which provides a synthesis of relevant detailed French and OECD economic studies on the cost assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  3. Production of Fischer–Tropsch fuels and electricity from bituminous coal based on steam hydrogasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaoming; Norbeck, Joseph M.; Park, Chan S.

    2012-01-01

    A new thermochemical process for (Fischer–Tropsch) FT fuels and electricity coproduction based on steam hydrogasification is addressed and evaluated in this study. The core parts include (Steam Hydrogasification Reactor) SHR, (Steam Methane Reformer) SMR and (Fisher–Tropsch Reactor) FTR. A key feature of SHR is the enhanced conversion of carbon into methane at high steam environment with hydrogen and no need for catalyst or the use of oxygen. Facilities utilizing bituminous coal for coproduction of FT fuels and electricity with carbon dioxide sequestration are designed in detail. Cases with design capacity of either 400 or 4000 TPD (Tonne Per Day) (dry basis) are investigated with process modeling and cost estimation. A cash flow analysis is performed to determine the fuels (Production Cost) PC. The analysis shows that the 400 TPD case due to a FT fuels PC of 5.99 $/gallon diesel equivalent results in a plant design that is totally uneconomic. The 4000 TPD plant design is expected to produce 7143 bbl/day FT liquids with PC of 2.02 $/gallon and 2.27 $/gallon diesel equivalent at overall carbon capture ratio of 65% and 90%, respectively. Prospective commercial economics benefits with increasing plant size and improvements from large-scale demonstration efforts on steam hydrogasification. -- Highlights: ► We develop a new thermochemical method for synthetic fuels production. ► Detailed plant design and process modeling for the Coal-to-Liquid facilities are performed. ► Economic analysis has been carried out in determining the fuel production cost and IRR. ► The fuels produced in this study can compete with petroleum when crude oil price is 100 $/bbl. ► Further economic benefit comes with plant scale-up and process commercial demonstration efforts.

  4. Fissile fuel production and usage of thermal reactor waste fueled with UO2 by means of hybrid reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, O.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Fast Breeder Reactors to produce fissile fuel from nuclear waste and the operation of these reactors with a new neutron source are becoming today' topic. In the thermonuclear reactors, it is possible to use 2.45-14.1 MeV - neutrons which can be obtained by D-T, D-D Semicatalyzed (D-D) and other fusion reactions. To be able to do these, Hybrid Reactor System, which still has experimental and theoretical studies, have to be taken into consideration.In this study, neutronic analysis of hybrid blanket with grafit reflector, is performed. D-T driven fusion reaction is surrounded by UO 2 fuel layer and the production of ''2''3''9Pu fissile fuel from waste ''2''3''8U is analyzed. It is also compared to the other possible fusion reactions. The results show that 815.8 kg/year ''2''3''8Pu with D-T reaction and 1431.6 kg/year ''2''3''8Pu with semicatalyzed (D-D) reaction can be produced for 1000 MW fusion power. This means production of 2.8/ year and 4.94/ year LWR respectively. In addition, 1000 MW fusion flower is is multiplicated to 3415 MW and 4274 MW for D-T and semicatalyzed (D-D) reactions respectively. The system works subcritical and these values are 0.4115 and 0.312 in order. The calculations, ANISN-ORNL code, S 16 -P 3 approach and DLC36 data library are used

  5. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  6. Chitin Lengthens Power Production in a Sedimentary Microbial Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon sediments demonstrate that chitin enhances and lengthens power production. Keywords—chitin; MFC; microbiology ; iron-reducing bacteria...levels of organic content available as a food source for bacteria in the sediment. Dependent upon applications, there are scenarios where a SMFC...as ethanol, molasses, or vegetable oils. In the case of underwater marine sediment, options for carbon amendment are limited to solid carbon

  7. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  8. Chemical and fuel products from mixtures of coal and petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A A; Yulin, M K

    1973-01-01

    From a 1:1 coal-petroleum low-pressure (less than 100 atm) hydrogenation product, C/sub 6-8/ phenols comprising 7.4 percent of the product distilling below 240/sup 0/C were extracted with 10 percent aqueous caustic soda and hydrofined at 325/sup 0/C and 20 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst. The combined 240/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/C and less than or equal to 240/sup 0/C neutral fractions were hydrofined at 400/sup 0/C and 50 atm on cobalt molybdenum alumina catalyst, and the gasoline comprising 42.8 percent of the catalyzate hydroreformed at 490/sup 0/C and 50 atm to raise the octane number from 50.4 to 81.8 to 91.3 and increase the aromatics content from 9.0 to 55.6 percent. Gasoline of 78.5 to 90.5 octane number was prepared by hydrocracking the 180 to 320/sup 0/C catalyzate fraction at 380/sup 0/C and 40 atm on a molybdenum hydrogen sodium yttrium zeolite catalyst greatly favoring C/sub 3-4/ hydrocarbons in the gaseous products (9.0 percent).

  9. Farm Deployable Microbial Bioreactor for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict [Auburn Univ., Montgomery AL (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Research was conducted to develop a farm and field deployable microbial bioreactor for bioethanol production from biomass. Experiments were conducted to select the most efficient microorganisms for conversion of plant fiber to sugars for fermentation to ethanol. Mixtures of biomass and surface soil samples were collected from selected sites in Alabama black belt counties (Macon, Sumter, Choctaw, Dallas, Montgomery, Lowndes) and other areas within the state of Alabama. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of culture parameters on key biomass saccharifying enzymes (cellulase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and beta-xylosidase). A wide-scale sampling of locally-grown fruits in Central Alabama was embarked to isolate potential xylose fermenting microorganisms. Yeast isolates were evaluated for xylose fermentation. Selected microorganisms were characterized by DNA based methods. Factors affecting enzyme production and biomass saccharification were examined and optimized in the laboratory. Methods of biomass pretreatment were compared. Co-production of amylolytic enzymes with celluloytic-xylanolytic enzymes was evaluated; and co-saccharification of a combination of biomass, and starch-rich materials was examined. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with and without pre-saccharifcation was studied. Whole culture broth and filtered culture broth simultaneous saccahrifcation and fermentation were compared. A bioreactor system was designed and constructed to employ laboratory results for scale up of biomass saccharification.

  10. Production of fuel ethanol from molasses by thermotolerant yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    A thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxians, isolated from Kenana sugar factory in the Sudan, was used for the production of ethanol from molasses. Fermentations were carried out in a bioreactor with 10-litre working volume at three temperatures and three sugar concentrations in batch and at one temperature and three feeding rates in fed-batch processes. In the batch fermentations, the best results were obtained at 40 o C and 20% sugar, where a maximum of 9.2% (w/v) ethanol concentration was produced in 30 hours with a yield of 90% of the theoretical and a maximum ethanol specific productivity of 0.65 g per gramme yeast and hour. In the fed-batch process at 40 o C , the best results were obtained at 0.5 1/h feeding rate of a substrate with 400 g/1 sugar. Under such conditions, the yeast produced up to 9.34% (w/v) ethanol with 91.6% of the theoretical yield in 14 hours of fermentation and a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.9 g per gramme yeast and hour. (Author)

  11. Method of manufacturing gadolinium oxide-incorporated nuclear fuel sintering products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira; Seki, Makoto; Omori, Sadayuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To manufacture nuclear fuel sintering products excellent in burning property and mechanical property. Constitution: In the manufacturing step for nuclear fuel sintering products, specific metal oxides are added for promoting the growth of crystal grains in the sintering. Those metal oxides melted at a temperature lower than the sintering temperature of a mixture of nuclear fuel oxide powder and oxide power, or those metal oxides causing eutectic reaction are used as the metal oxide. Particularly, those compounds having oxygen atom - metal atom ratio (O/M) of not less than 2 are preferably used. As such metal oxides usable herein transition metal oxides, e.g., Nb 2 O 5 , TiO 2 , MoO 3 and WO 3 are preferred, with Nb 2 O 3 and TiO 2 being preferred particularly. (Seki, T.)

  12. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  13. Hydrogen condensation products of Turkmenistan gas fields as motor fuel components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul-dzhaev, B.A.; Sergienko, S.R.; Tsibrova, E.G.

    1985-07-01

    Technical data are provided in tabular form on the composition of hydrocarbon condensation products obtained from various gas fields in Turkmenia, with an analysis of their usefulness as gasoline and diesel fuels. For example, high-paraffin condensates are characterized by low octane numbers (30-50) of the gasoline fraction (150-180/sup 0/C). However, lowering the temperature at the end of distillation to 120-130/sup 0/C increased the octane number to 73, one point higher than required by State Standards for automobile gasoline A-72. The cetane number of diesel fuels in general exceed the State Standards, especially in the case of fractions 150/sup 0/C and 180/sup 0/C of the high-paraffin condensates obtained from the Shatlyk site. Summarized data are presented on the suitability of the products obtained from the different site for the different types of fuels. 4 references.

  14. Advances in cellulosic conversion to fuels: engineering yeasts for cellulosic bioethanol and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2018-04-01

    Cellulosic fuels are expected to have great potential industrial applications in the near future, but they still face technical challenges to become cost-competitive fuels, thus presenting many opportunities for improvement. The economical production of viable biofuels requires metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert cellulosic biomass into biofuels with high titers and yields. Fortunately, integrating traditional and novel engineering strategies with advanced engineering toolboxes has allowed the development of more robust microbial platforms, thus expanding substrate ranges. This review highlights recent trends in the metabolic engineering of microbial platforms, such as the industrial yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica, for the production of renewable fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated firewood production, ensures fuel security for self sustaining Biomass Power Plants reduces agricultural cost and provides livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Growing concerns on the impact of climate change, constraints on fossil fuel electricity generation and the likelihood of oil depletion is driving unprecedented growth and investment in renewable energy across the world. The consistency of biomass power plants makes them capable of replacing coal and nuclear for base-load. However experience had shown otherwise, climate change reduces yields, uncontrolled approvals for biomass boilers increased demands and at times motivated by greedy farmers have raised price of otherwise a problematic agricultural waste to high secondary income stream forcing disruption to fuel supply to power plants and even their shutting down. The solution is to established secured fuel sources, fortunately in Asia there are several species of trees that are fast growing and have sufficient yields to make their harvesting economically viable for power production. (author)

  16. Small-scale production and use of wood fuels. Report of the year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2005-01-01

    The target areas of the research programme are: Small-scale production and handling of wood fuels, Pellet production, distribution and use, Heating technology and Business and service concepts. Production and processing technology focuses on cost-effectiveness, fuel quality, logistics of production chains and storage, transport and feeding solutions. The quality of pellets in the view of the whole chain: production, storage, distribution and feeding, is under scrutiny. In addition, storage and distribution systems are being developed. The aim is to create functional and comprehensive heat production systems based on the use of wood pellets. Emissions from small-scale use are reduced and efficiency of combustion improved to meet the Central European standard. Modern control, automation and data management systems are applied cost-effectively. The aim is to create comprehensive systems and modular solutions. Business and service concepts relate to all target areas such as heat entrepreneurship and energy service companies (ESCO). The aim is to promote the networking of companies and develop new solutions for fuel and heat production services

  17. Design and production of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the production of brown's gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essuman, Samuel Pamford Kojo

    2017-07-01

    The use of petroleum products (fossil fuels) has raised a lot of environmental concerns over the past years. This is due to the fact that most of the machines and devices manufactured are engineered to use these conventional fuels which include petrol, diesel and natural gas. However, these fuels substances pollute and deteriorate the quality of the environment. Some of these pollutants include sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and ozone. These gases are called greenhouse gases because they contribute to the greenhouse effect. These gases also cause depletion of the ozone layer. In the search for alternative fuels, researchers have used improved technologies such as steam reforming, partial oxidation, and electrolysis among many to produce hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is used in modern times for varied applications in industries and is now been considered as a viable primary fuel for the future. Meanwhile, all these methods produce impure hydrogen except electrolysis of water. Electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen as products gases. A collection of these gases through a common outlet gives rise to a unique type of gas called Brown’s or oxyhydrogen gas. Brown’s gas is a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen bonded magnetically in a ratio of 1:2. In the automobile industry, Brown’s gas is used as a fuel supplement to gasoline in internal combustion engines (ICEs), as well as welding and cutting of iron plates in the fabrication sector. In this project, a fabricated oxyhydrogen generator was used to produce Brown’s gas from distilled water using three selected catalyst namely caustic soda (KOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Parameters that influence the yield of oxyhydrogen gas were further studied. It was observed that increasing in the number of electrodes, catalyst concentration, voltage and time increased the yield of oxyhydrogen gas production. With the rapid increase in consumption of fossil fuels and

  18. Fuel elements and fuel element materials. Experimental facilities for fission products lift-off tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.; Veyrat, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    One of the hypothetical accidents on the HTGR primary cooling circuits is the failure of a circuit resulting in a depressurization in the primary loops of the reactor. There is a risk of release of fission products in relation to the size of the failure. Experimental facilities for HTGR tests were developed: an in pile helium loop Comedie and an out of pile helium loop

  19. Biorefineries to integrate fuel, energy and chemical production processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Bargiacchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The world of renewable energies is in fast evolution and arouses political and public interests, especially as an opportunity to boost environmental sustainability by mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This work aims at examining the possibilities related to the development of biorefineries, where biomass conversion processes to produce biofuels, electricity and biochemicals are integrated. Particular interest is given to the production processes of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, for which present world situation, problems, and perspectives are drawn. Potential areas for agronomic and biotech researches are also discussed. Producing biomass for biorefinery processing will eventually lead to maximize yields, in the non food agriculture.

  20. WHY NOT A SUPERMARKET NAVY?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being called upon to carry out that same role once carried out by the ... World War II tradition of being properly Navy-like and seen to be so. ... preferable for us to build our future warships right .... in the Gulf of Mexico for servicing oil rigs and.

  1. Department of the Navy Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    branding guides; the rope represents the ships' rigging, used for many years; etc.). Manufacturing Cost(s the trophy designer(s). Example submission package can be found here Branding Guide for U.S. Navy can be found here Branding Guide for U.S. Marine Corps can be found here Design(s) may be modified by the

  2. Plasmon-enhanced Solar Fuel Production with Gold-metal Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Law, Matt; Zhang, Jingdong

    , provide new catalytic routes and expands the scope of solar photocatalysis. We prepare metal oxide SNPs, gold PNPs and their hybrids through mild aqueous syntheses to develop efficient photocatalyst for solar fuel production. Focus is placed on the synergetic interplay between SNPs and PNPs, understanding...

  3. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  4. Production of high-energy substances in the process of thorough treatment of hard rocket fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiman, L.N.; Sobolev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The high-energy products taken from hard rocket fuel are explored on the sensitivity to a shock, friction, electrostatic discharge, detonation impulse, vibroloads, and capsule-detonator activity. Their chemical stability, thermal stability, and other physicochemical parameters are studied. The field of a recurring effective utilization of gained octogene, ammonium, and potassium perchlorate is shown.

  5. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  6. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  7. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  8. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  9. Target Cultivation and Financing Parameters for Sustainable Production of Fuel and Feed from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Léda N; Tester, Jefferson W; Beal, Colin M; Huntley, Mark E; Sills, Deborah L

    2016-04-05

    Production of economically competitive and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel faces technical challenges that are subject to high uncertainties. Here we identify target values for algal productivity and financing conditions required to achieve a biocrude selling price of $5 per gallon and beneficial environmental impacts. A modeling framework--combining process design, techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, and uncertainty analysis--was applied to two conversion pathways: (1) "fuel only (HTL)", using hydrothermal liquefaction to produce biocrude, heat and power, and (2) "fuel and feed", using wet extraction to produce biocrude and lipid-extracted algae, which can substitute components of animal and aqua feeds. Our results suggest that with supporting policy incentives, the "fuel and feed" scenario will likely achieve a biocrude selling price of less than $5 per gallon at a productivity of 39 g/m(2)/day, versus 47 g/m(2)/day for the "fuel only (HTL)" scenario. Furthermore, if lipid-extracted algae are used to substitute fishmeal, the process has a 50% probability of reaching $5 per gallon with a base case productivity of 23 g/m(2)/day. Scenarios with improved economics were associated with beneficial environmental impacts for climate change, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion, but not for human health.

  10. Mechanism of 232U production in MTR fuel evolution of activity in reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbonnier, G.; Lelievre, B.; Fanjas, Y.; Naccache, S.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of reprocessed uranium for research reactor fuel fabrication implies to keep operators safe from the hard gamma rays emitted by 232 U daughter products. CERCA has carried out, with the help of French CEA and COGEMA, a detailed study to determine the evolution of the radiation dose rate associated with the use of this material. (author)

  11. The Analysis of the Available Technology of Exploiting and Applying Biohydrocarbons for Fuel Production Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gielo-Klepacz Halina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the current state of knowledge in the area of applying biohydrocarbons for fuel production, especially in aeronautical applications and to power compression-ignition engines. The technologies based on biochemical and thermal/chemical conversion of biomass are described. Technological potential of these technologies is evaluated. The article is based on the literature review.

  12. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.; Daran, J.G.; Pronk, J.T.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical

  13. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve

  14. Characterization of date palm fronds as a fuel for energy production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the characteristics of date palm fronds (DPF) for their use as a feedstock for fuel and energy production. The calorific values and elemental contents of the DPF samples were measured through proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. For proximate analysis ...

  15. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  16. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  17. Yeast selection for fuel ethanol production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Luiz C; de Amorim, Henrique V; de Oliveira, Antonio J; Lopes, Mario L

    2008-11-01

    Brazil is one of the largest ethanol biofuel producers and exporters in the world and its production has increased steadily during the last three decades. The increasing efficiency of Brazilian ethanol plants has been evident due to the many technological contributions. As far as yeast is concerned, few publications are available regarding the industrial fermentation processes in Brazil. The present paper reports on a yeast selection program performed during the last 12 years aimed at selecting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for fermentation of sugar cane substrates (cane juice and molasses) with cell recycle, as it is conducted in Brazilian bioethanol plants. As a result, some evidence is presented showing the positive impact of selected yeast strains in increasing ethanol yield and reducing production costs, due to their higher fermentation performance (high ethanol yield, reduced glycerol and foam formation, maintenance of high viability during recycling and very high implantation capability into industrial fermenters). Results also suggest that the great yeast biodiversity found in distillery environments could be an important source of strains. This is because during yeast cell recycling, selective pressure (an adaptive evolution) is imposed on cells, leading to strains with higher tolerance to the stressful conditions of the industrial fermentation.

  18. Fuel cells for naval aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satzberg, S.; Field, S.; Abu-Ali, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in fuel cell technology have occurred which make fuel cells increasingly attractive for electric power generation on future naval and commercial aircraft applications. These advances include significant increases in power density, the development of compact fuel reformers, and cost reductions due to commercialization efforts. The Navy's interest in aircraft fuel cells stems from their high energy efficiency (up to 40-60% for simple cycle; 60-70% for combined gas turbine/fuel cell hybrid cycles), and their negligible NOx and hydrocarbon emissions compared to conventional generators. While the U.S. Navy has been involved with fuel cell research and development as early as the 1960s, many of the early programs were for special warfare or undersea applications. In 1997, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) initiated a program to marinize commercial fuel cell technology for future Navy shipboard applications. The power density of fuel cell power systems is approaching the levels necessary for serious consideration for aircraft suitability. ONR and Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) are initiating a program to develop a fuel cell power system suitable for future Navy aircraft applications, utilizing as much commercially-available technology as possible. (author)

  19. Feasibility study for a DOE research and production fuel multipurpose canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, D.A.; Abbott, D.G.

    1994-02-01

    This is a report of the feasibility of multipurpose canisters for transporting, storing, and sing of Department of Energy research and production spent nuclear fuel. Six representative Department of Energy fuel assemblies were selected, and preconceptual canister designs were developed to accommodate these assemblies. The study considered physical interface, structural adequacy, criticality safety, shielding capability, thermal performance of the canisters, and fuel storage site infrastructure. The external envelope of the canisters was designed to fit within the overpack casks for commercial canisters being developed for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The budgetary cost of canisters to handle all fuel considered is estimated at $170.8M. One large conceptual boiling water reactor canister design, developed for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, and two new canister designs can accommodate at least 85% of the volume of the Department of Energy fuel considered. Canister use minimizes public radiation exposure and is cost effective compared with bare fuel handling. Results suggest the need for additional study of issues affecting canister use and for conceptual design development of the three canisters

  20. Predicted irradiation behavior of U3O8-Al dispersion fuels for production reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.; Rest, J.

    1990-01-01

    Candidate fuels for the new heavy-water production reactor include uranium/aluminum alloy and U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuels. The U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel would make possible higher uranium loadings and would facilitate uranium recycle. Research efforts on U 3 O 8 -Al fuel include in-pile irradiation studies and development of analytical tools to characterize the behavior of dispersion fuels at high-burnup. In this paper the irradiation performance of U 3 O 8 -Al is assessed using the mechanistic Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) code. Predictions of fuel swelling and alteration of thermal conductivity are presented and compared with experimental data. Calculational results indicate good agreement with available data where the effects of as-fabricated porosity and U 3 O 8 -Al oxygen exchange reactions are shown to exert a controlling influence on irradiation behavior. The DART code is judged to be a useful tool for assessing U 3 O 8 -Al performance over a wide range of irradiation conditions

  1. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  2. A microstructure-dependent model for fission product gas release and swelling in UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notley, M.J.F.; Hastings, I.J.

    1979-06-01

    A model for the release of fission gas from irradiated UO2 fuel is presented. It incorporates fission gas diffusion bubble and grain boundary movement,intergranular bubble formation and interlinkage. In addition, the model allows estimates of the extent of structural change and fuel swelling. In the latter, contributions of thermal expansion, densification, solid fission products, and gas bubbles are considered. When included in the ELESIM fuel performance code, the model yields predictions which are in good agreement with data from UO2 fuel elements irradiated over a range of water-cooled reactor conditions: linear power outputs between 40 and 120 kW/m, burnups between 10 and 300 MW.h/kg U and power histories including constant, high-to-low and low-to-high power periods. The predictions of the model are shown to be most sensitive to fuel power (temperature), the selection of diffusion coefficient for fission gas in UO2 and burnup. The predictions are less sensitive to variables such as fuel restraint, initial grain size and the rate of grain growth. (author)

  3. Large-Scale Production of Fuel and Feed from Marine Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, Mark [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    In summary, this Consortium has demonstrated a fully integrated process for the production of biofuels and high-value nutritional bioproducts at pre-commercial scale. We have achieved unprecedented yields of algal oil, and converted the oil to viable fuels. We have demonstrated the potential value of the residual product as a viable feed ingredient for many important animals in the global food supply.

  4. Storage of non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a program at the Hanford Site for management of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) until final disposition. Currently, the DOE-owned SNF Program is developing and implementing plans to assure existing storage, achieve interim storage, and prepare DOE-owned SNF for final disposition. Program requirements for management of the SNF are delineated in the DOE-owned SNF Program Plan.(DOE 1995a) and the DOE Spent Fuel Program's Requirements Document (DOE 1994a). Major program requirements are driven by the following: commitments established in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan (DOE 1995b); corrective action plans for resolving vulnerabilities identified in the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group's Report on Health, Safety, and Environmental Vulnerabilities for Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Materials (DOE 1993); the settlement agreement between the US Department of Navy, the US Department of Energy, and the State of Idaho on the record of decision (ROD) from the DOE Programmatic SNF Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Programmatic SNF EIS) (Idaho, 1995)

  5. Production Of Bio fuel Starter From Biomass Waste Using Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Zaid Mohamed; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic in 2010, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass of which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. The biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce activated carbon and bio fuel starter. A new type of rotary kiln, called Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) was developed in Nuclear Malaysia to utilize the large amount of the biomass to produce high value added products. This system is capable to process biomass with complete combustion to produce bio fuel starter. With this system, the produced charcoal has calorific value, 33MJ/ kg that is better than bituminous coal with calorific value, 25-30 MJ/ kg. In this research, the charcoals produced were further used to produce the bio fuel starter. This paper will elaborate the experimental set-up of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) for bio fuel starter production and the quality of the produced bio fuel starter. (author)

  6. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  7. Accelerator breeder: a viable option for the production of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the growing pains of the US nuclear power industry, our dependence on nuclear energy for the production of electricity and possibly process heat is likely to increase dramatically over the next few deacades. This statement dismisses fusion as being entirely too speculative to be practical within that time frame. Sometime, between the years 2000 and 2050, fissile material will be in short supply whether it is to fuel existing LWR's or to provide initial fuel inventory for FBR's. The accelerator breeder could produce the fuel shortfall predicted to occur during the first half of the 21st century. The accelerator breeder offers the only practical means today of producing, or breeding, large quantities of fissile fuel from fertile materials, albeit at high cost. Studies performed over the last few years at Chalk River Laboratory and at Brookhaven National Laboratory have demonstrated that the accelerator breeder is practical, technically feasible with state-of-the-art technology, and is economically competitive with any other proposed synthetic means of fissile fuel production. This paper gives the parameters of a nearly optimized accelerator-breeder system, then discusses the development needs, and the economics and institutional problems that this breeding concept faces

  8. Preliminary assessment of Malaysian micro-algae strains for the production of bio jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. T.; Mustafa, E. M.; Vello, V.; Lim, P.; Nik Sulaiman, N. M.; Majid, N. Abdul; Phang, S.; Tahir, P. Md.; Liew, K.

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is the main hub in South-East Asia and has one of the highest air traffic movements in the region. Being rich in biodiversity, Malaysia has long been touted as country rich in biodiversity and therefore, attracts great interests as a place to setup bio-refineries and produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel, bio-petrol, green diesel, and bio-jet fuel Kerosene Jet A-1. Micro-algae is poised to alleviate certain disadvantages seen in first generation and second generation feedstock. In this study, the objective is to seek out potential micro-algae species in Malaysia to determine which are suitable to be used as the feedstock to enable bio-jet fuel production in Malaysia. From 79 samples collected over 30 sites throughout Malaysia, six species were isolated and compared for their biomass productivity and lipid content. Their lipid contents were then used to derived the require amount of micro-algae biomass to yield 1 kg of certifiable jet fuel via the HEFA process, and to meet a scenario where Malaysia implements a 2% alternative (bio-) jet fuel requirement.

  9. Physiological tolerance and stoichiometric potential of cyanobacteria for hydrocarbon fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Jari; Knoop, Henning; Stanford, Natalie J; Guerrero, Fernando; Akhtar, M Kalim; Aro, Eva-Mari; Steuer, Ralf; Jones, Patrik R

    2012-11-30

    Cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into hydrocarbon fuel or precursors thereof. Many biological and non-biological factors will influence the ability of such a production system to become economically sustainable. We evaluated two factors in engineerable cyanobacteria which could potentially limit economic sustainability: (i) tolerance of the host to the intended end-product, and (ii) stoichiometric potential for production. Alcohols, when externally added, inhibited growth the most, followed by aldehydes and acids, whilst alkanes were the least inhibitory. The growth inhibition became progressively greater with increasing chain-length for alcohols, whilst the intermediate C6 alkane caused more inhibition than both C3 and C11 alkane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was more tolerant to some of the tested chemicals than Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, particularly ethanol and undecane. Stoichiometric evaluation of the potential yields suggested that there is no difference in the potential productivity of harvestable energy between any of the studied fuels, with the exception of ethylene, for which maximal stoichiometric yield is considerably lower. In summary, it was concluded that alkanes would constitute the best choice metabolic end-product for fuel production using cyanobacteria if high-yielding strains can be developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  11. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dan; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Haoyu; Ren, Nanqi; Wu, Wei-Min; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs

  12. Holistic analysis of thermochemical processes by using solid biomass for fuel production in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the German act ''Biokraftstoff-Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung'', biofuels must show a CO 2eq -reduction compared to the fossil reference fuel (83.8 g CO 2eq /MJ fuel /Richtlinie 98/70/EG/) of 35 % beginning with 2011. In new plants, which go into operation after the 31.12.2016 the CO 2eq -savings must be higher than 50 % in 2017 and higher than 60 % in 2018 /Biokraft-NachV/. The biofuels (methyl ester of rapeseed, bioethanol and biomethane) considered in this study do not meet these requirements for new plants. To comply with these rules new processes must be deployed. Alternative thermochemical generated fuels could be an option. The aim of this work is to evaluate through a technical, ecological and economic analysis (Well-to-Wheel) whether and under what conditions the thermochemical production of Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline, hydrogen (H 2 ) and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) complies with the targets. Four different processes are considered (fast pyrolysis and torrefaction with entrained flow gasifier, CHOREN Carbo-V registered -gasifier, Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER-) gasifier). Beside residues such as winter wheat straw and residual forest wood, wood from short-rotation plantations is taken into account. The technical analysis showed that at present status (2010) two and in 2050 six plants can be operated energy-self-sufficient. The overall efficiency of the processes is in the range of 41.5 (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline) and 59.4 % (H 2 ). Furthermore, it was found that for 2010, all thermochemical produced fuels except the H 2 -production from wood from short-rotation plantations in decentralised or central fast pyrolysis and in decentralised torrefactions with entrained flow gasifier keep the required CO 2eq -saving of 60 %. In 2050, all thermochemical produced fuels will reach these limits. The CO 2eq -saving is between 72 (H 2 ) and 95 % (Fischer-Tropsch-diesel or -gasoline). When the production costs of the

  13. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2015-04-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  14. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, S; Nabetani, H; Nakajima, M

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non

  15. Release behavior of fission products from irradiated dispersion fuels at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Takashi; Shimizu, Michio; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    1990-02-01

    As a framework of reduced enrichment fuel program of JMTR Project, the measurements of fission products release rates at high temperatures (600degC - 1100degC) were performed in order to take the data to use for safety evaluation of LEU fuel. Three type miniplates of dispersion silicide and aluminide fuel, 20% enrichment LEU fuel with 4.8 gU/cc (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % and U 3 Si 2 50 %, U 3 Si 50 % dispersed in aluminium) and 45 % enrichment MEU fuel with 1.6 gU/cc, were irradiated in JMTR. The burnups attained by one cycle (22 days) irradiation were within 21.6 % - 22.5 % of initial 235 U. The specimens cut down from miniplates were measured on fission products release rates by means of new apparatus specially designed for this experiment. The specimens were heated up within 600degC - 1100degC in dry air. Then fission products such as 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 129m Te were collected at each temperature and measured on release rates. In the results of measurement, the release rates of 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 129m Te from all specimens were slightly less than that of G.W. Parker's data on U-Al alloy fuel. For 137 Cs and 103 Ru from a silicide specimen (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % dispersed in aluminium) and 137 Cs from an aluminide specimen, the release rates were slightly higher than that of G.W. Parker's. (author)

  16. Fast flux fluid fuel reactor: A concept for the next generation of nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Feldman, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has not become the preferred method of electrical energy production largely because of economic, safety, and proliferation concerns and challenges posed by nuclear waste disposal. Economies is the most important factor. To reduce the capital costs, the authors propose a compact configuration with a very high power density and correspondingly reduced reactor component sizes. Enhanced efficiency made possible by higher operating temperatures will also improve the economics of the design, and design simplicity will keep capital, operational, and maintenance costs down. The most direct solution to the nuclear waste problem is to eliminate waste production or, at least, minimize its amount and long-term radiotoxicity. This can be achieved by very high burnups, ideally 100%, and by the eventual transmutation of the long-lived fission products in situ. Very high burnups also improve the economics by optimal exploitation of the fuel. Safety concerns can be addressed by an inherently safe reactor design. Because of the intrinsic nature of nuclear materials, there probably is no definitive answer to proliferation concerns for systems that generate neutrons; however, it is important to minimize proliferation risks. The thorium cycle is a promising option because (a) plutonium is produced only in very small quantities, (b) the presence of 232 U makes handling the fuel very difficult and therefore proliferation resistant, and (c) 233 U is a fissile isotope that is less suitable than 239 Pu for making weapons and can be diluted with other uranium isotopes. An additional benefit of the thorium cycle is that it increases nuclear fuel resources by one order of magnitude. A fast flux fluid fuel reactor is a concept that can satisfy all the foregoing requirements. The fluid fuel systems have a very simple structure. Because integrity of the fuel is not an issue, these systems can operate at very high temperatures, can have high power densities, and can achieve very

  17. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  18. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  19. New generation of monitors for PAH's from synthetic fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R B; Vo-Dinh, T; Hawthorne, A R; Thorngate, J H; Parkinson, W W

    1977-01-01

    A gap exists between the crude techniques available for measuring polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in the workplace, and the sophisticated analytical tools used in the laboratory for a much more complete characterization of pollutants from synfuel operations such as coal, tar sand, and oil shale processing. Real-time or near-real instruments suitable for use by industrial hygienists are urgently needed to measure fugitive emissions. Several new instruments and instrumental techniques are described that could satisfy some of these needs. They include second derivative UV-absorption, synchronous luminescence, room-temperature phosphorescence, photoacoustic spectrometers, a portable mass spectrometer, differential sublimation, and thermoluminescence. Already, studies to evaluate the practicality of these approaches have indicated a suitability for monitoring naphthalene and its alkyl derivatives at parts-per-billion (ppB) concentrations either in the vapor or the solution phase, trace amounts of phenolic compounds, and thiocyanate in by-product water, and suitability for the rapid analysis of samples filtered or spotted on paper adsorbents.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Miscanthus as a Fuel Alternative in District Heat Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi

    2013-01-01

    better than in the boilerfrom the stand point of GWP and savings in fossil fuels, but leads to a higher LU.A comparison between Miscanthus and NG shows that the former in spite of possessing advantage in reducing GWP and NRE use,additional land required for it could be seen as a disadvantage. Key words......This study assesses the environmental performance of district heat production based on Miscanthus as a fuel input and compares it with Natural Gas (NG). As a baseline scenario, we assume that the process of energy conversion from Miscanthus to heat takes place in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP...